Han, I'm going away for a few to the Northern Virginia Sector.
So did she take the northern route or the southern?
He's been in northern Florida since we cut him loose.
The northern races, such as the Nubian G.
Most stations in the northern hemisphere have a conspicuous maximum at midsummer with little thunder in winter.
It was a cloudless, northern, summer night.
Sofia watched the scenery turn from urban to rural and recognized the roads leading up to Skyline Drive, the scenic route running through the mountains of northern Virginia.
"Rissa has Sirian imprisoned, but his loyal followers have overtaken the northern entrance and threaten to allow our enemies in if he is not released," Hilden said.
It is hard to have a Southern overseer; it is worse to have a Northern one; but worst of all when you are the slave-driver of yourself.
For all I know, he was lying and will take the northern gate!
I was born on June 27, 1880, in Tuscumbia, a little town of northern Alabama.
Every morning, before lesson-time, we all go out to the steep hill on the northern shore of the lake near the house, and coast for an hour or so.
"You two team up to take the northern route," Brady decided.
I'll take the northern one.
We're in northern Europe, so you can't go wrong with sweaters.
She dozed in the car during the forty-five-minute drive into northern Virginia, where her sister's fiancé owned a mansion secreted behind towering shrubbery and a gate that swung open to welcome her.
"The northern is our most likely avenue, more so because we have an ally in the mountains," Hilden replied.
After Oswio's victory over Penda in 654-655 he annexed the northern part of Mercia to his kingdom and acquired a supremacy over the rest of England similar to that held by his predecessors.
Vico founded no school, and though during his lifetime and for a while after his death he had many admirers both in Naples and the northern cities, his fame and name were soon obscured, especially as the Kantian system dominated the world of thought.
"Hilden, we must determine how to take the northern gate immediately," she said.
I have in my mind's eye the western, indented with deep bays, the bolder northern, and the beautifully scalloped southern shore, where successive capes overlap each other and suggest unexplored coves between.
"Whenever you're ready, we'll be in northern California," Damian said.
Natural facilities for transportation, afforded by the Ohio river and its branches, the Monongahela, at the northern end of the state, and the Little Kanawha and the Great Kanawha, are of special value for the shipment of lumber and coal.
They stepped into the cooler house, and her attention was caught by Talal, who froze in mid-stride along her path toward the northern wing.
Much of the natural gas is piped out of the state into Ohio (even into the northern parts), Kentucky, Pennsylvania and Maryland; within the state gas has been utilized as a fuel in carbon black and glass factories.
The tanning, currying and finishing of leather, an industry largely dependent on the plentiful supply of oak and hemlock bark for tanning, is centralized in the northern and eastern parts of the state, near the forests.
Charles II.of England, in 1661, granted to a company of gentlemen the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, commonly known as the " Northern Neck."
The northern slope of this great plateau is drained by the AraguayaTocantins, Xingu, Tapajos and Guapore-Mamore-Madeira, which flow northward, and, except the first, empty into the Amazon; the southern slope drains southward through a multitude of streams flowing into the Parana and Paraguay.
NORFOLK, a city and port of entry of Norfolk county, Virginia, U.S.A., on the northern side of the Elizabeth river (an arm of the Chesapeake Bay) and at the mouth of its eastern branch, and on the Albemarle and Chesapeake and the Dismal Swamp canals, about 90 m.
Shortly after this, however, all the northern princes submitted to Edward the Elder.
This road serves as a carrier for the northern coal producing districts.
There was no trail indicating the extent of Sirian's betrayal, no one to reveal his plans but him and the small army holed up near the northern wall.
The Baltimore & Ohio railway leads in trackage: it enters the state with several lines at its northern end; its main line crosses this portion of the state from east to west, striking the Ohio at Parkersburg, and one of its lines (Ohio River railway) extends nearly the length of the state from Wheeling in the north through Parkersburg to Kenova in the south.
John Van Metre, an Indian trader, penetrated into the northern portion in 1725, and Morgan ap Morgan, a Welshman, built a cabin in the present Berkeley county in 1727.
of Belfast on a branch of the Great Northern railway, standing on an eminence.
In New York state there were 199,923 Presbyterians, of whom 186,278 were members of the Northern Church and 10,115 of the United Presbyterian Church of North America.
In Ohio there were 138,768 Presbyterians, 114,772 being of the Northern and 18,336 of the United Presbyterian Church.
The Northern Church had a total membership of 1,179,566.
The northern part of the city was the village of Lansingburg (pop. 1900, 12,595) until 1901, when with parts of the towns of Brunswick and North Greenbush it was annexed to Troy.
The northern bank is the original site.
Parma, one of the finest cities of northern Italy, lies in a fertile tract of the Lombard plain, within view of the Alps and sheltered by the Apennines, 170 ft.
Francesco, probably the earliest Franciscan church in northern Italy (1230-1298; now a prison), is a Gothic building in brick with a fine rose-window.
CHAD, a lake of northern Central Africa lying between 12° 50' and 14° 10' N.
During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the wall of Antoninus to the shores of Kent.
Between 1130 and his death in 1163, `Abd-el-Mumin not only rooted out the Murabtis, but extended his power over all northern Africa as far as Egypt, becoming amir of Morocco in 1149.
By the death of Harun in 809, Nicephorus was left free to deal with the Bulgarian king, Krum, who was harassing his northern frontiers.
The pope had repeatedly used the rich northern benefices to reward members of the Roman curia, and towards the close of the year 1516 he sent the grasping and impolitic Arcimboldi as papal nuncio to Denmark to collect money for St Peter's.
Because I would've taken the northern.
The scenery is fine, but wild and desolate in most parts, and of a kind that appeals rather to the northern genius than to the Italian, to whom, as a rule, Sardinia is not attractive.
The northern extremity of the Nurra, the Capo del Falcone, is continued to .the N.N.E.
The Trias does not belong, as might have been expected, to the Alpine or Mediterranean type; but resembles that of Germany and northern Europe.
Communication is thus most wanted with the northern and south-eastern extremities of the island, and between Tortoli and Nuoro, and Nuoro and Golfo degli Aranci.
Later on he attempted to influence the Prussian Northern Union in the direction of the national policy, and he took part in the sessions of the Erfurt parliament; but, soon realizing the hopelessness of any good results from the vacillating policy of Prussia, he retired from the contest, and, as a major in the service of the SchleswigHolstein government, took part in the Danish War of 1850.
Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
ARCOLA, a village of northern Italy, 16 m.
His friend Chanut fell dangerously ill; and Descartes, who devoted himself to attend in the sick-room, was obliged to issue from it every morning in the chill northern air of January, and spend an hour in the palace library.
Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, iii.
After 445 Athens was hardly in a position to summon such a congress, and would not have sent to envoys out of 20 to northern and central Greece, where she had just lost all her influence; nor is it likely that the building of the Parthenon (begun not later than 447) was entered on before the congress.
The word itself represents the Mongol Khan-Balik, "the city of the khan," or emperor, the title by which Peking continues, more or less, to be known to the Mongols and other northern Asiatics.
A city occupying approximately the same site had been the capital of one of the principalities into which China was divided some centuries before the Christian era; and during the reigns of the two Tatar dynasties that immediately preceded the Mongols in northern China, viz.
The size of the city was diminished by the retrenchment of nearly one-third at the northern end, which brought the enceinte more nearly to a square form.
The Prytaneum, mentioned by Pausanias, and probably the original centre of the ancient city, was situated somewhere east of the northern cliff of the Acropolis.
The department is served chiefly by the lines of the Northern railway; in addition, the main line of the Eastern railway to Strassburg traverses the extreme south.
The point of concentration for next year's campaign had been fixed at Gordium, a meeting-place of roads in Northern Phrygia.
His passage through Cilicia was marked by a violent fever that arrested him for a while in Tarsus, and meantime a great Persian army was waiting for him in northern Syria under the command of Darius himself.
Another alliterative poem in the northern dialect, of 15th-century origin, is based on the Historia de proeliis, and was edited by Skeat for the E.E.T.S.
BRIDGET, BRIGITTA, BIRGITTA, OF SWEDEN, Saint (c. 13021 373), the most celebrated saint of the northern kingdoms, was the daughter of Birger Persson, governor and lagman (provincial judge) of Uppland, and one of the richest landowners of the country.
north-west from London by the London & North-Western and the Midland railways, and is also served by the Great Northern and North Staffordshire railways.
North-eastern Albania forms part of the Turkish vilayet of Kossovo; the northern highlands are included in the vilayet of Shkodra (Scutari), the eastern portion of central Albania belongs to the vilayet of Monastir, and the southern districts are comprised in the vilayet of Iannina.
- The mountain system is extremely complex, especially that of the northern region.
The country to the west of this natural barrier may be divided geographically into three districts - northern, central and southern Albania.
The river Shkumb separates the northern from the central district, the Viossa the central from the southern.
The highland region of northern Albania is divided into two portions by the lower course of the Drin; the mountains of the northern portion, the Bieska Malziis, extend in a confused and broken series of ridges from Scutari to the valleys of the Ibar and White Drin; they comprise the rocky group of the Prokletia, or Accursed Mountains, with their numerous ramifications, including Mount Velechik, inhabited by the Kastrat and Shkrel tribes, Bukovik by the Hot, Golesh by the Klement, Skulsen (7533 ft.), Baba Vrkh (about 7306 ft.), Maranay near Scutari, and the Bastrik range to the east.
Central Albania differs from the northern and southern regions in the more undulating and less rugged character of its surface; it contains considerable lowland tracts, such as the wide and fertile plain of Musseki, traversed by the river Simen.
the only wealth of the mountaineers of northern Albania; large cattle are found only on the plains.
The trade of the northern and western districts has to some extent been diverted to Salonica since the opening of the railways from that town to Mitrovitza and Monastir.
Of these cognate races, which are described by the Greek writers as barbarous or non-Hellenic, the Illyrians and Epirots, he thinks, were respectively the progenitors of the Ghegs, or northern, and the Tosks, or southern, Albanians.
and in the northern highlands yataghans and firearms are almost invariably carried.
The tribal organization in northern Albania is an interesting survival of the earliest form of social combination; it may be compared in many respects with that which existed in the Scottish highlands in the time of the Stuart kings.
The tribes of northern Albania, or Ghegeria, may be classified in seven groups as follows: - (1) The Mirdites, who inhabit the alpine region around Orosh to the south-east of Scutari - the most important of all in respect of numbers (about 17,000) and political independence.
After the division of the Roman empire, the lands inhabited by the Albanian race became provinces of the Byzantine empire; northern Albania from Scutari to Berat formed the thema or province of Dyrrachium (Durazzo, Albanian Dourtz), southern Albania and Epirus the thema of Nikopolis.
In 640 northern Albania was invaded by the Serbo-Croats; it continued with interruptions under Servian rule till 1360.
The northern portion of the "kingdom of Albania," including Durazzo and Kroia, was ruled by the family of Thopia (1359-1392) and afterwards by that of Kastriota, to which Scanderbeg belonged; the southern portion with Berat, by the Musaki (1368-1476).
As the power of the Balshas declined, the Venetians towards the close of the 14th century established themselves at Scutari, Budua, Antivari and elsewhere in northern Albania.
Leake, Travels in Northern Greece (London, 18 35); J.
26, Economic Resources of the Northern Black Hills, 1904), and of the South Dakota School of Mines (Bulletin No.
The Saskatchewan, though not in the province, empties into Lake Winnipeg less than half a degree from the northern boundary.
This fell into the hands of the Northern Pacific railway, but was purchased by the promoters of the Canadian Northern railway.
The Canadian Northern railway has a remarkable network of railways connecting Winnipeg with every corner of Manitoba.
The Great Northern railway has also three branch lines in Manitoba and one of these has Winnipeg as its terminus.
Tecuci has a large transit trade in grain, timber, cattle and horses, on their way from northern and eastern Moldavia to the Danubian ports.
of York on the Great Northern and North-Eastern railways.
More or less closely connected with the Northern Church are the theological seminaries at Princeton, Auburn, Pittsburg (formerly Allegheny - the Western Seminary), Cincinnati (Lane), New York (Union) and Chicago (McCormick), already named, and San Francisco Seminary (1871) since 1892 at San Anselmo, Cal., a theological seminary (1891) at Omaha, Nebraska, a German theological seminary (1869) at Bloomfield, New Jersey, the German Presbyterian Theological School of the North-west (1852) at Dubuque, Iowa, and the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Kentucky, which is under the control and supervision of the northern and southern churches.
Between 1870 and 1881 three presbyteries of the Reformed Presbyterian General Synod (New School) joined the northern General Assembly.
Presbyterians of different churches in the United States in 1906 numbered 1,830,555; of this total 322,542 were in Pennsylvania, where there were 248,335 members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (the Northern Church), being more than one-fifth of its total membership; 56,587 members of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, being more than two-fifths of its total membership; 2709 members of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, three-tenths of its total membership; the entire membership of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada (440), 3150 members of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, nearly one-fourth of its total membership; and 2065 members of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, general synod, about five-ninths of its total membership. The strength of the Church in Pennsylvania is largely due to the Scotch-Irish settlements in that state.
Philadelphia is the home of the boards of publication and of Sunday schools of the Northern Church; and in Allegheny (Pittsburg) are the principal theological seminary of the United Presbyterian body and its publishing house.
During the Reconstruction the people of the South were divided thus: nearly all native whites (the most prominent of whom were disfranchised) on one side irrespective of former political faith, and on the other side the ex-slaves organized and led by a few native and Northern whites called respectively scalawags and carpet-baggers, who were supported by the United States government and who controlled the Southern state governments.
The northern part of the Gran Chaco is partly wooded and swampy, and as the slope eastward is very gentle and the rivers much obstructed by sand bars, floating trees and vegetation, large areas are regularly flooded during rainy seasons.
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
The largest of the rivers through which Argentina drains into the Plata system are the Pilcomayo, which rises in Bolivia and flows south-east along the Argentine frontier for about 400 m.; the Bermejo, which rises on the northern frontier and flows south-east into the Paraguay; and the Salado del Norte (called Rio del Juramento in its upper course), which rises on the high mountain slopes of western Salta and flows south-east into the Parana.
In the northern part of Corrientes there is a large area of swamps and shallow lagoons which are believed to be slowly drying up.
The temperature and rainfall are governed by conditions different from those in corresponding latitudes of the northern hemisphere..
This section is near the northern border of the arid Patagonian steppes.
The Antarctic beech and Winter's bark (Drimys Winteri) are found at intervals along the Andes to the northern limits of this zone.
In the rural districts of the northern provinces, the increase in population is much less than in the central provinces, the conditions of life being less favourable.
This large influx of Europeans, however, is modifying the population by reducing the Indian and mestizo elements to a minority, although they are still numerous in the mesopotamian, northern and north-western provinces.
In January 1535 he entered the river Plate, where he followed the northern shore to the island of San Gabriel, and then crossing over he landed by a little stream, still called Riachuelo.
But the reactionary boyars, among whom were the near kinsmen of Theodore, proclaimed him tsar and Matvyeev was banished to Pustozersk, in northern Russia, where he remained till Theodore's death (April 27, 1682).
Cherbourg, its chid harbour, lies on the northern shore between the two promontories.
Within the northern circle of the 8 lie the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the Paris basin, dipping inwards; within the southern circle lie the ancient rocks of the Central Plateau, from which the later beds dip outwards.
Outside the northern circle lie on the west the folded Palaeozoic rocks of Brittany.
Towards the end of the period, however, during the deposition of the Portlandian beds, the sea again retreated, and in the early part of the Cretaceous period was limited (in France) to the catchment basins of the Sane and Rhnein the Paris basin the contemporaneous deposits were chiefly estuarine and were confined to the northern and eastern rim.
There was still, however, a well-marked difference between the deoosits of the northern and the southern narts of Franre.
Flax is cultivated chiefly in the northern departments of Nord, Seine- Infrieure, Pas-de-Calais, Ctes-du-Nord, hemp in Sarthe, Morbihan and Maine-ct-Loire.
Included therein are the dairying and horse-raising district of northern Brittany and the dairying regions of Jura and Savoy.
In the industrial regions of northern France cattle are stall-fed with the waste products of the beet-sugar factories, oil-works and distilleries.
The fleet is divided into the Mediterranean squadron, the Northern squadron, the Atlantic division, the Far Eastern division, the Pacific division, the Indian Ocean division, the Cochin China division.
Official statistical works: A nnuaire statistique de la France (a summary of the statistical publications of the government), Slatistique agricole annue,lle, Statislique de lindustrie minerale et des appareils de vapeur, Tableau genera~l dii commerce et de la navigation, Reports on the various colonies issued annually by the British Foreign Office, &c. Guide Books: Karl Baedeker, Northern France, Southern France; P. Joanne, Nord, Champagne et Ardenne; Normandie; and other volumes dealing with every region of the country.
In detail, however, they differ widely from the purer Gothic of northern countries.
from Belfast by the Northern Counties (Midland) railway.
The archaeological interest of Aegina is centred in the well-known temple on the ridge near the northern corner of the island.
Another shorter valley began near the present Jaffa gate and, taking an easterly direction, joined the Tyropoeon; while a third ravine passed across what is now the northern part of the Haram enclosure and fell into the valley of the Kidron.
The exact size of the city is not known, but it probably extended as far as the present north wall of Jerusalem and included the northern part of the western hill.
It is an important military cantonment and sanatorium, being the headquarters of a brigade in the second division of the northern army corps.
While Ferdinand was occupied with the Bohemian rebels, Bethlen led his armies into Hungary (1619), and soon won over the whole of the northern counties, even securing Pressburg and the Holy Crown.
Australia presents a contour wonderfully devoid of inlets from the sea except on its northern shores, where the coast-line is largely indented.
In the Northern Territory are several fine rivers.
The rivers flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria, as well as those in the Northern Territory, drain country which is subject to regular monsoonal rains, and have the general characteristics of sub-tropical rivers.
A narrow Cambrian sea must have extended across central Australia from the Kimberley Goldfield in the north-west, through Tempe Downs and the Macdonnell chain in central Australia, to the South Australian highlands, central Victoria at Mansfield, and northern Tasmania.
They also occur in northern Tasmania.
into the continent, and sweeping sometimes across western and southern Queensland to the northern interior of New South Wales.
rainfall band circles across the continent through the middle of the Northern Territory, embraces the entire centre and south-west of Queensland, with the exception of the extreme south-western angle of the state, and includes the whole of the interior of New South Wales to a line about 200 m.
from the coast, as well as the western and northern portions of Victoria and South Australia south of the Murray.
m., comprising half of Queensland, the Northern Territory, and the northwestern divisions of Western Australia.
In a region so extensive very great varieties of climate are naturally to be expected, but it may be stated as a general law that the climate of Australia is milder than that of corresponding lands in the northern hemisphere.
is the interior of the Northern Territory north of the 10th parallel; and the whole of the country, excepting the seaboard, lying between the meridians of 120° and 140°, and north of the 25th parallel, has a mean temperature in excess of 90° Fahr.
Cooma, with a mean summer temperature of 65.4°, and a mean winter temperature of 41.4°, may be taken as illustrative of the climate of the southern tableland, and Armidale of the northern.
at various points on the northern coast, and at Kiandra in the Monaro district, to 9 in.
In the southern and early-settled parts of the state the mean temperature is about 64°, but in the more northern portions the heat is excessive, though the dryness of the atmosphere makes it preferable to moist tropical climates.
The climate of the Northern Territory is extremely hot, except on the elevated tablelands...
The sea produces three different seals, which often ascend rivers from the coast, and can live in lagoons of fresh water; many cetaceans, besides the " right whale " and sperm whale; and the dugong, found on the northern shores, which yields a valuable medicinal oil.
in length to be met with in the shallow lagoons of the interior of the Northern Territory.
Oysters abound on the eastern coast, and on the shelving banks of a vast extent of the northern coast the pearl oyster is the source of a considerable industry.
In South Australia and the Northern Territory a large number are outside the bounds of settlement, and it is probable that they are as numerous there as in Queensland.
Chinese, numbering about 30,000, are chiefly found in New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, and the Northern Territory.
The only source of maritime wealth that is now being sufficiently exploited to be regarded as an industry is the gathering of pearl-oysters from the beds off the northern and north-western coasts of the continent.
In northern Queensland copper is found throughout the Cloncurry district, in the upper basin of the Star river, and the Herberton district.
The wealth of Queensland and the Northern Territory Tia.
The rare element tellurium has been discovered in New South Wales at Bingara and other parts of the northern districts, as well as at Tarana, on the western line, though at present in such minute quantities as would not repay the cost of working.
In New South Wales chromium is found in the northern portion of the state, in the Clarence and Tamworth districts and also near Gundagai.
The coal-fields of New South Wales are situated in three distinct regions - the northern, southern and western districts.
Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia (1899) The Northern Tribes of Central Australia (London, 1904); E.
A military station having been fixed by the British government at Port Victoria, on the coast of Arnheim Land, for the protection of shipwrecked mariners on the north coast, it was thought desirable to find an overland route between this settlement and Moreton Bay, in what then was the northern portion of New South Wales, now called Queensland.
Kennedy explored the northern tributaries of the Darling, and a river in S.
Here, without actually standing on the sea-beach of the northern shore, they met the tidal waters of the sea.
The Barcoo or Cooper's Creek and its tributary streams were traced from the Queensland mountains, holding a south-westerly course to Lake Eyre in South Australia; the Flinders, the Gilbert, the Gregory, and other northern rivers watering the country towards the Gulf of Carpentaria were also explored.
That line of more than 1800 m., having its southern extremity at the head of Spencer Gulf, its northern at Port Darwin, in Arnheim Land, passes Central Mount Stuart, in the middle of the continent, S.
In northern Queensland, also, there were several explorations about this period, with results of some interest.
John (afterwards Sir John) Forrest was despatched by the Perth government with general instructions to obtain information regarding the immense tract of country out of which flow the rivers falling into the sea on the northern and western shores of Western Australia.
It may be said that exploration on a large scale is now at an end; there remain only the spaces, nowhere very extensive, between the tracks of the old explorers yet to be examined, and these are chiefly in the Northern Territory and in Western Australia north of the tropic of Capricorn.
The separation of the northern part of eastern Australia, Discovery of gold.
received the northern part of his father's domain, known as Lotharii or Hlutharii Regnum, corrupted later into Lotharingia or Lorraine.
But the growth and development of the northern communal movement, though strong and instinct with life, was slower and less tempestuous than the Flemish.
In the northern Netherlands generally up to the end of the 14th century the towns had no great political weight; their importance depended upon their river commerce and their markets.
The primatial see was placed at Malines (Mechlin), having under it Antwerp, Hertogenbosch, Roermond, Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres constituting the Flemish province; the second archbishopric was at Cambray, with Tournay, Arras, St Omer, and Namur, - the Walloon province; the third at Utrecht, with Haarlem, Middleburg, Leeuwarden, Groningen and Deventer, - the northern (Dutch) province.
This revolt of the northern provinces was facilitated by the fact that Alva had withdrawn many of the garrisons, and was moving to oppose an invasion from the south.
By it the northern provinces bound themselves together " as if they were one province " to maintain their rights and liberties " with life-blood and goods " against foreign tyranny, and to grant complete freedom of worship and of religious opinion throughout the confederacy.
The die was cast, which decreed that from 1579 onwards the northern and southern Netherlands were to pursue separate destinies.
ULSTER, a province of Ireland occupying the northern part of the island.
By a treaty made between Great Britain and Siam in 1902 the northern Malay states of the peninsula were admitted to lie within the Siamese sphere of influence, but by a treaty of 1909 Siam ceded her suzerain rights over the states of Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis to Britain.
The mean annual precipitation for the entire state is about 38.5 in.; more rain falls in summer than in any other season, and more falls in the southern section than in the northern.
The principal railways are: the lines operated by the Boston & Maine system, extending along the eastern border from Brattleboro through Bellows Falls, and St Johnsbury to the Canada boundary (Vermont Valley, Sullivan County, and Connecticut & Passumpsic Rivers railways), with a line, the St Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railway, extending across the northern part of the state from Lunenburg to Maguam Bay; the Central Vermont railway (Grand Trunk system) which crosses the state diagonally from S.E.
to N.E., connecting Burlington, Montpelier and St Albans and affording connexion to the north with Montreal and to the south over trackage shared with the Boston & Maine, with the New London Northern which is leased by this road, and the Rutland railway (New York Central system) extending along the western edge of the state and connecting Rutland with Burlington to the north and with Bellows Falls and Bennington to the south.
The whole residency is mountainous, but there are two main parallel ranges of peaks along the northern boundary and through the middle.
The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.
There are two harbours, both artificial - the old or northern harbour and the southern or Agha harbour.
The northern harbour covers an area of 235 acres.
Work on the northern harbour was begun in 1836, on the southern in 1904.
The Sligo, Leitrim & Northern Counties railway connects with the Great Northern at Enniskillen, and the Clogher Valley light railway connects southern county Tyrone with the Great Northern at Maguiresbridge.
Its northern limit nearly coincides with that of successful wheat cultivation.
The British oak grows well in the northern and middle states of America; and, from the superiority of the wood to that of Q.
Common throughout the northern and middle states and Canada, the red oak attains a large size only on good soils; the wood is of little value, being coarse and porous, but it is largely used for cask-staves; the bark is a valuable tanning material.
European geographers have been accustomed to divide the islands into three groups for purposes of nomenclature, calling the northern group the Parry Islands, the central the Beechey Islands and the southern the Coffin or Bailey Islands.
of Leeds, on the Great Northern railway.
Towards its northern end the ridge widens and rises to the plateau of the Azores, and in about 50° N.
In describing the mean distribution of temperature in the waters of the Atlantic it is necessary to treat the northern and southern divisions separately.
The second branch proceeds north-westwards towards the West Indies, where it mingles with the waters of the northern equatorial; and the two drifts, blocked by the
The movements of the northern branch of the Gulf Stream drift have been the object of more careful and more extended study than all the other currents of the ocean put together, except, perhaps, the Gulf Stream itself.
Its basin forms the province of Kabul, which includes all northern Afghanistan between the Hindu Kush and the Safed Koh ranges.
At Bonn he took an important part in preparing the Durchmusterung of the northern heavens.
The experience gained on the northern survey under Argelander's direction enabled Schdnfeld to introduce some improvements in the methods employed, which increased the accuracy of this work, which was practically accomplished in March 1881, some revision only remaining to be done.
It contracts again at its northern boundary to about 30 m.
The northern frontier is a line drawn between the northernmost points of the eastern and western frontiers.
It was the most northern of the Ionian cities, and was situated on the coast of the peninsula which separates the gulf of Cyme, occupied by Aeolian settlers, from the Hermaean Gulf, on which stood Smyrna and Clazomenae.
1584), discoverer of the northern passage to Archangel in Russia (1553) St Bartholomew's chapel, originally attached to the hospital for lepers (one of the first in England), founded by Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, in 1070, is in part Norman.
In 387 Magnus Maximus, who had commanded a Roman army in Britain, and had in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) made himself master of the northern provinces, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.
Thence its northern and northeastern frontier marches with the Punjab and the United Provinces until it touches the river Chambal, where it turns south-eastward for about 200 m., dividing the states of Dholpur, Karauli, Jaipur and Kotah from Gwalior.
The whole number of this race is 620,229, and nowhere do they form a majority of the whole population in a state; but they are strongest, numerically, in the northern states and in Udaipur.
It rises in the northern slopes of the Koh-i-Baba to the west of Kabul, and finally loses itself in the Tejend oasis north of the Trans-Caspian railway and west of Merv.
It is served by the Southern Pacific, the Franklin and Abbeville, and the New Iberia & Northern railways.
The following are the chief islands: - Thasos, in the extreme north, off the Macedonian coast; Samothrace, fronting the Gulf of Saros; Imbros and Lemnos, in prolongation of the peninsula of Gallipoli (Thracian Chersonese); Euboea, the largest of all, lying close along the east coast of Greece; the Northern Sporades, including Sciathos, Scopelos and Halonesos, running out from the southern extremity of the Thessalian coast, and Scyros, with its satellites, north-east of Euboea; Lesbos and Chios; Samos and Nikaria; Cos, with Calymnos to the north; all off Asia Minor, with the many other islands of the Sporades; and, finally, the great group of the Cyclades, of which the largest are Andros and Tenos, Naxos and Paros.
The Aegean itself is naturally divided by the island-chains and the ridges from which they rise into a series of basins or troughs, the deepest of which is that in the north, extending from the coast of Thessaly to the Gulf of Saros, and demarcated southward by the Northern Sporades, Lemnos, Imbros and the peninsula of Gallipoli.
The Cyclades and Northern Sporades, with Euboea and small islands under the Greek shore, belong to Greece; the other islands to Turkey.
The Czech mercenaries under Giszkra held the northern counties and from thence plundered those in the centre.
On returning home he was crowned with the holy crown on the 29th of March 1464, and, after driving the Czechs out of his northern counties, turned southwards again, this time recovering all the parts of Bosnia which still remained in Turkish hands.
Northern Italy 1.2 2.
The northern portion, measured from the Alps at the Monte Viso to the mouth of the Po, has a breadth of about 270 m., while the maximum breadth, from the Rocca Chiardonnet near Susa to a peak in the valley of the Isonzo, is 354 m.
Though the Alps form throughout the northern boundary of Italy, the exact limits at the extremities of the Alpine chain are not clearly marked.
The only other part of the northern frontier of Italy where the boundary is not clearly marked by nature is Tirol or the valley of the Adige.
One chief result of the manner in which the Apennines traverse Italy from the Mediterranean to the Adriatic is the marked division between Northern Italy, including the region north of the Apennines and extending thence to the foot of the Alps, and the central and more southerly portions of the peninsula.
By far the larger portion of Northern Italy is occupied by the basin of the Po, which comprises the whole of the broad plain extending from the foot of the Apennines to that of the Alps, together with the valleys and slopes on both sides of it.
The geography of Northern Italy is described in several popular guide books.
from the northern outlet of the greater stream.
The river Marecchia, which enters the sea immediately north of Rimini, may be considered as the natural limit of Northern Italy.
The Magra (Macra), in ancient times the boundary between Liguria and Etruria, may be considered as constituting on this side the limit of Northern Italy.
The Apennines (q.v.), as has been already mentioned, here traverse the whole breadth of Italy, cutting off the peninsula properly so termed from the broader mass of Northern Italy by a continuous barrier of considerable breadth, though of far inferior elevation to that of the Alps The Ligurian Apennines may be considered as taking their rise in the neighborhood of Savona, where a pass of very moderate elevation connects them with the Maritime Alps, of which they are in fact only a continuation.
This is the highest point in the northern Apennines, and belongs to a group of summits of nearly equal altitude; the range which is continued thence between Tuscany and what are now known as the Emilian provinces presents a continuous ridge from the mountains at the head of the Val di Mugello (due north of Florence) to the point where they are traversed by the celebrated Furlo Pass.
Few towns of any importance are found either on their northern or southern declivity, and the former region especially, though occupying a tract of from 30 to 40 m.
But the Apennines of Central Italy, instead of presenting, like the Alps and the northern Apennines, a definite central ridge, with transverse valleys leading down from it on both sides, in reality constitute a mountain mass of very considerable breadth, composed of a number of minor ranges and groups of mountains, which preserve a generally parallel direction, and are separated by upland valleys, some of them of considerable extent as well as considerable elevation above the sea.
The district west of the Apennines, a region of great beauty and fertility, though inferior in productiveness to Northern Italy, coincides in a general way with the countries familiar to all students of ancient history as Etruria and Latium.
The northern part of Tuscany is indeed occupied to a considerable extent by the underfalls and offshoots of the Apennines, which, besides the slopes and spurs of the main range that constitutes its northern frontier towards the plain of the Po, throw off several outlying ranges or groups.
Of these Ischia and Procida, close to the northern headland of the Bay of Naples, are of volcanic origin, as is the case also with the more distant group of the Ponza Islands.
Great differences also exist with regard to climate between northern and southern Italy, due in great part to other circumstances as well as to differences of latitude.
Thus the great plain of northern Italy is chilled by the cold winds from the Alps, while the damp warm winds from the Mediterranean are to a great extent intercepted by the Ligurian Apennines.
Southern Italy indeed has in general a very different climate from the northern portion of the kingdom; and, though large tracts are still occupied by rugged mountains of sufficient elevation to retain the snow for a considerable part of the year, the districts adjoining the sea enjoy a climate similar to that of Greece and the southern provinces of Spain.
Some of the other edible fish, such as the palombo, are not found in northern waters.
(4) The region of chestnuts extends from the valleys to the high plateaus of the Alps, along the northern slopes of the Apennines in Liguria, Modena, Tuscany, Romagna, Umbria, the Marches and along the southern Apennines to the Calabrian and Sicilian ranges, as well as to the mountains of Sardinia.
The vine is cultivated throughout the length and breadth of Italy, but while in some of the districts of the south and centre it occupies from 10 to 20% of the cultivated area, in some of the northern provinces, such as Sondrio, Belluno, Grosseto, &c., the average is only about I or 2% The methods of cultivation are varied; but the planting of the vines by themselves in long rows of insignificant bushes is the exception.
In northern and central Italy, except in the province of Brescia, the agrumi are almost non-existent.
The greatest proportion of strikes takes place in northern Italy, especially Lombardy and Piedmont, where manufacturing industries are most developed.
Co-operation in general is most widely diffused, in proportion to population, in central Italy; less so in northern Italy, and much less so in the south and the islands.
The northern frontier is crossed by the railway from Turin to Ventimiglia by the Col di Tenda, the Mont Cenis line from Turin to Modane (the tunnel is 7 m.
These lines exist principally in Lombardy (especially in the province of Milan), in Piedmont, especially in the province of Turin, and in other regions of northern and central Italy.
The army is organized in 12 army corps (each of 2 divisions), 6 of which are quartered on the plain of Lombardy and Venetia and on the frontiers, and 2 more in northern Central Italy.
Taking the term Italy to comprise the whole peninsula with the northern region as far as the Alps, we must first distinguish the tribe or tribes which spoke Indo-European languages from those who did not.
It would follow, on the other hand, that what is called Oscan represented the language of the invading Sabines (more correctly Safines), whose racial affinities would seem to be of a distinctly more northern cast, and to mark them, like the Dorians or Achaeans in Greece, as an early wave of the invaders who more than once in later history havevitally influenced the fortunes of the tempting southern land into which they forced their way.
Cisalpine Gaul, including the whole of northern Italy, still constituted a province, an appellation never applied to Italy itself.
Venice, which since the days of Attila had offered an asylum to Roman refugees from the northern cities, was left untouched.
Among the many miseries .nflicted upon Italy by the frequent changes of her northern rulers, this at least may be reckoned a blessing.
in fact, upon a grand scale what was being slowly and quietly effected in the northern cities.
There is not a burgh of northern Italy but can trace the rise of a dynastic house to the vicissitudes of this period.
The destinies of Italy were decided in the cabinets and on the battlefields of northern Europe.
Montferrat and Alessandria were added to his northern provinces, and his state was recognized as independent.
was fain to sign terms of peace with Bonaparte at Tolentino, practically ceding the northern part of his states, known as the Legations.
While the French directory saw in that province little more than a district which might be plundered and bargained for, Bonaparte, though by no means remiss in the exaction of gold and of artistic treasures, was laying the foundation of a friendly republic. During his sojourn at the castle of Montebello or Mombello, near I\Iilan, he commissioned several of the leading men of northern Italy to draw up a project of constitution and list of reforms for that province.
of an Austro-Russian army, led by that strange but magnetic being, Suvarov, decided the campaign in northern Italy.
fatal to that body and to popular institutions in France After the coup detat of Brumaire (November 1799) he as First Con~uI, began to~ organize an expedition against th~ Atistrians (Russia having now retired from the coalition), ii northern Italy.
The hard but salutary training which they had undergone at his hands had taught them that they were the equals of the northern races both in the council chamber and on the field of battle.
Confalonieri, who was in favor of an Italian federation composed lEngelsm of northern Italy under the house of Savoy, central bardy.
Ever since Venetia had been ceded by ~ Austria to the emperor Napoleon, and by him to Italy, ~ after the war of 1866, secret revolutionary committees had been formed in the northern Italian provinces to prepare for the redemption of Trent and Trieste.
cif Italian influence to a part of northern Somaliland and to the Benadir coast, had, with the support of France and Russia, completed his preparations for asserting his authority as independent ruler of Ethiopia.
Eritrea has now approximately the same extent as before the revolt of Bath-Agos, except in regard (I) to Kassala, which was transferred to the Anglo-Egyptian authorities on the 25th of December 1897, lfl pursuance of the above-mentioned Anglo-Italian convention; and (2) to slight rectifications of its northern and eastern boundaries by conventions concluded between the Eritrean and the Anglo-Egyptian authorities.
The movement was confined chiefly to the northern and central provinces.
The strikes and other economic agitations at this time may be divided roughly into three groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, shorter hours and better labor conditions generally; strikes of agricultural laborers in northern Italy for better contracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in Apulia), and the claims of the laborers to public land occupied illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the struggle for power of the various influential families.
In October 1907 there was again a general strike at Milan, which was rendered more serious on account of the action of the railway servants, and extended to other cities; traffic was disorganized over a large part of northern Italy, until the government, being now owner of the railways, dismissed the ringleaders from the service.
ARGENTEUIL, a town of northern France in the department of Seine-et-Oise, on the Seine, 5 m.
In order to provide employment for his soldiers, Corbulo made them cut a canal from the Mosa (Meuse) to the northern branch of the Rhine, which still forms one of the chief drains between Leiden and Sluys, and before the introduction of railways was the ordinary traffic road between Leiden and Rotterdam.
of London, served by the main line and branches of the Great Northern railway.
from the northern extremity of Sumatra.
Trier contains more important Roman remains than any other place in northern Europe.
The northern horn of the bay is formed by Filey Brigg, a narrow and abrupt promontory, continued seaward by dangerous reefs.
During his operations in northern Romagna, Vitelli, Oliverotto, Paolo Orsini, and the duke of Gravina, to show their repentance, seized Senigallia, which still held for the duke of Urbino, in his name.
It is mentioned so early as the 7th century and in 868 Baldwin of the Iron Arm, first count of Flanders, who had been entrusted by Charles the Bald with the defence of the northern marches, built a castle here against the Normans raiding up the Scheldt.
The railway system belongs to the northern section of the State railways, and affords communication with Germany via Winschoten.
James Prinsep was then devoting his rare genius to the decipherment of the early inscriptions of northern India, especially those of Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. He derived the greatest assistance from Tumour's work not only in historical information, but also as regards the forms of words and grammatical inflexions.
He shows that in the 3rd century B.C. the language used throughout northern India was practically one, and that it was derived directly from the speech of the Vedic Aryans, retaining many Vedic forms lost in the later classical Sanskrit.
Of classical Pali in northern India subsequent to the canon there is but little evidence.
The Leeward Islands are Tubai or Motuiti, a small uninhabited lagoon island, the most northern of the group; Marua or Maupiti - "Double Mountain," the most western; BolaBola or Bora-Bora; Huaheine; Raiatea or Ulietea (Spanish Princessa), the largest island of this cluster, and Tahaa, which approach each other very closely, and are encircled by one reef.
Amber has indeed a very wide distribution, extending over a large part of northern Europe and occurring as far east as the Urals.
It has even been supposed that amber passed from Sicily to northern Europe in early times - a supposition said to receive some support from the fact that much of the amber dug up in Denmark is red; but it must not be forgotten that reddish amber is found also on the Baltic, though not being fashionable it is used rather for varnish-making than for ornaments.
The poplars are almost entirely confined to the north temperate zone, but a few approach or even pass its northern limit, and they are widely distributed within that area; they show, like the willows, a partiality for moist ground and often line the river-sides in otherwise treeless districts.
The true balsam poplar, or tacamahac, P. balsamifera, abundant in most parts of Canada and the northern States, is a tree of rather large growth, often of somewhat fastigiate habit, with round shoots and oblong-ovate sharp-pointed leaves, the base never cordate, the petioles round, and the disk deep glossy green above but somewhat downy below.
In these northern habitats it attains a large size; the wood is very soft; the buds yield a gum-like balsam, from which the common name is derived; considered valuable as an.
south-west of Lucknow, and formed from early times a frontier outpost of the people of Oudh and Bengal against their northern neighbours.
FREYIA, the sister of Frey, and the most prominent goddess in Northern mythology.
In the northern half of the district the Tatar element predominates (40,000) and there are a number of villages occupied by Russian Raskolniks (Nonconformists).
The Glossopteris flora gradually spread to the northern hemisphere and intermingled with the later Palaeozoic flora which still persisted.
The field of evolution has now been transferred to the northern hemisphere.
The tertiary era opens with a climate in which during the Eocene period something like existing tropical conditions must have obtained in the northern hemisphere.
They point to cooler conditions in the northern hemisphere: palms and tropical types diminish; deciduous trees increase.
At the close of the Pliocene the European flora was apparently little different from that now existing, though some warmer types such as the waterchestnut (Trapa natans) had a more northern extension.
The evidence which has thus been briefly summarized, points unmistakably to the conclusion that existing vegetation originated in the northern hemisphere and under climatic conditions corresponding to what would now be termed sub-tropical.
In the mountains of Peru we find such characteristic northern genera as Draba, Alchemilla, Saxifraga, Valeriana, Gentiana and Bartsia.
The British Phanerogamic flora, it may be remarked, does not contain a single endemic species, and 38% of the total number are common to the three northern continents.
Such plants perhaps extend to the most northern lands at present known.
Beyond the arctic circle some 200, or more than a quarter, are confined to the mountains of the northern hemisphere and of ~still more southern regions.
He traces the original home of the bulk of existing alpine plants to northern Asia.
On the west coast Cupressus Lawsoniana replaces the northern Thuya gigantea, and a laurel (Umbellularia of isolated affinity) forms forests.
Perhaps even more striking is the absence 01 Cupuliferae; Quercus, in particular, which from Tertiary times ha~ been a conspicuous northern type and in Malavan tropical condition~ has developed others which are widely divergent.
Tnx SouTh TEMPERATE REGION contrasts remarkably with the northern.
The resemblances consist, in fact, not so much in the existence of one general facies running through the regions, as is the case with the northern flora, but in the presence of peculiar types, such ai those belonging to the families Restiaceae, Proteaceae, Ericaceae Mutisiaceac and Rutaceae.
This is the most northern representative of the Rutaceous Diosmeae, which are replaced in Australia by the Boronieae.
Little confidence can, however, be placed in the identification of Proteaceous or, indeed, of any distinctively Australian plants in Tertiary deposits in the northern hemisphere.
There has bsen an interchange between it and the Mexico-American sub-region, but as usual the northern has been orenonderant.
On the whole, it consists of local species of some widely distributed northern genera, such as Carex, Poa, Ranunculus, &c., with alpine types of strictly south temperate genera, characteristic of the separate localities.
The monotypic Pringlea antiscorbutica, the Kerguelen Island cabbage, has no near ally in the southern hemisphere, but is closely related to the northern Cochlearia.
Fagus, starting from the northern hemisphere, has more than held its own in Europe and Asia, but has all but died out in North America, finding conditions favorable for a fresh start in Australasia.
The whole story points to a general distribution of flowering plants from the northern hemisphere southwards.
The Northern Temperate region was denuded of its floral wealth, of which it only retains a comparatively scanty wreck.
The northern Quercus, arrested at the tropic in the new world, expanded in that of the old into new and striking races.
Darwin attributes this to the fact that the northern forms were the more powerful (Origin of Species, 5th ed., p.458).
While the central provinces, Media and northern Babylonia, were conquered by the Parthians, Mesene, Elymais and Persis made themselves independent.
Aristotle had himself shown that in the southern temperate zone winds similar to those of the northern temperate zone should blow, but from the opposite direction.
Reaching the Pacific through the Strait of Magellan, Drake proceeded northward along the west coast of America, resolved to attempt the discovery of a northern passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The coast from the southern extremity of the Californian peninsula to Cape Mendocino had been discovered by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and Francisco de Ulloa in 1539.
There were several early indications of the existence of the great Australian continent, and the Dutch endeavoured to obtain further knowledge concerning the country and its extent; but only its northern and western coasts had been visited before the time of Governor van Diemen.
to the northern extremity.
During the remarkable voyage he then made to Timor, Bligh passed amongst the northern islands of the New Hebrides, which he named the Banks Group, and made several running surveys.
The most important Arctic work in the 18th century was performed by the Russians, for they succeeded in delineating the whole of the northern coast of Siberia.
The land from Taimyr to Cape Chelyuskin, the most northern extremity of Siberia, was mapped in many years of patient exploration by Chelyuskin, who reached the extreme point (77° 34' N.) in May 1742.
In the form known as Ferrell's Law this runs: " If a body moves in any direction on the earth's surface, there is a deflecting force which arises from the earth's rotation which tends to deflect it to the right in the northern hemisphere but to the left in the southern hemisphere."
second great series of crust waves from north to south, giving rise by their interference to six great elevated masses (the continents), arranged in three groups, each consisting of a northern and a southern member separated by a minor depression.
Excellent examples of the indecisive drainage of a new land surface, on which the river system has not had time to impress itself, are to be seen in northern Canada and in Finland, where rivers are separated by scarcely perceptible divides, and the numerous lakes frequently belong to more than one river system.
In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.
In February 1679, when the country was agitated by real or fancied dangers to the Protestant religion, the earl entered political life as secretary of state for the northern department and became at once a member of the small clique responsible for the government of the country.
Early in 1683, however, through the influence of the king's mistress, the duchess of Portsmouth, Sunderland regained his place as secretary for the northern department, the chief feature of his term of office being his rivalry with his brotherin-law, George Savile, marquess of Halifax.
Then the tyrants (Tyrannidae), with more than seventy genera (ten of which range into the northern region), and over 300 species.
Alcidae, auks, northern half of periarctic region.
Eveleth is served by the Duluth, Missabe & Northern and the Duluth & Iron Range railways.
All round the northern, western and southern sides of the quadrangle ran, at some 10 ft.
At Kanwaha, on the 10th of March 1527, he won a great victory and made himself absolute master of northern India.
Both these documents are considered to have originated in the Northern kingdom, Israel, where also in the 8th century appeared the prophets Amos and Hosea.
To the same period belong the book of Micah, the earlier parts of the books of Samuel, of Isaiah and of Proverbs, and perhaps some Psalms. In 722 B.C. Samaria was taken and the Northern kingdom ceased to exist.
The mountain forms the northern end of a range of hills which terminates southward in the Cape of Good Hope.
The northern face of the mountain, overlooking Table Bay, extends like a great wall some two miles in length, and rises precipitously to a height of over 3500 ft.
The Kasteel-Berg (Castle Mount), a northern buttress of the mountain, has its own peculiar flora.
The summit of the mountain is then covered by a whitish-grey cloud, which is being constantly forced down the northern face towards Cape Town, but never reaches the lower slopes.
This compares with an average of 54.63 inches at Bishop's Court, Newlands, at the foot of the mountain on the east and with 2 5.43 inches at Cape Town at the northern foot of the mountain.
The northern or western and shorter arm, called by the Turks Kara Su, " black water," or Frat Su (Armenian, Ephrat or Yephrat; Arab.
Nalzr Arsanas), rises south-west of Diadin, in the northern flank of the Ala Dagh (11,50o ft.), and flows west to the Alashgerd plain.
FREY (Old Norse, Freyr) son of Njord, one of the chief deities in the northern pantheon and the national god of the Swedes.
The work contains nothing that cannot be learned from Ptolemy, whom he follows in calling the promontory of the Novantae (Mull of Galloway) the most northern point of Britain.
The northern one was the valley of the Meuse and that of the Rhine to a point just south of Bonn: the southern was the rest of the Rhine valley to Switzerland_ Each district was garrisoned at first by four, later by fewer legions, which were disposed at various times in some of the following fortresses: Vetera (Xanten), Novaesium (Neuss), Bonne (Bonn), Moguntiacum (Mainz), Argentorate (Strassburg) and Vindonissa (Windisch in Switzerland).
SANTA CRUZ, a city and the county-seat of Santa Cruz county, California, U.S.A., on the northern headland of the Bay of Monterey, about 75 m.
From northern Italy, as it would seem, they adopted a style of architecture which grew in their hands, both in Normandy and in England, into a marked and living form of art.
The coming of the Norman ruled that these lands should be neither Saracen nor Greek, nor yet Italian in the same sense as northern Italy, but that they should politically belong to the same group of states as the kingdoms and principalities of feudal Europe.
This Norman form of Romanesque most likely had its origin in the Lombard buildings of northern Italy.
But it took firm root on Norman soil; it made its way to England at an early stage of its growth, and from that time it went on developing and improving on both sides of the Channel till the artistic revolution came by which, throughout northern Europe, the Romanesque styles gave way to the Gothic. Thus the history of architecture in England during the 11th and 12th centuries is a very different story from the history of the art in Sicily during the same time.
BETHUNE, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Pas-de-Calais, 24 m.
of Arras, on the Northern railway between that town and St Omer.
In the central square stands one of the finest belfries of northern France, a square structure surmounted by a wooden campanile, dating from the 14th century.
The extent of the northern frontier is 450 m.
The northern section is more broken and rugged; barren ridges and low rocky mountain-ranges, interspersed with fertile valleys, being its characteristic features.
Minerals are known to exist in the northern section of the republic, and gold-mining is carried on to a small extent.
Gorchakov's defence of Sevastopol, and final retreat to the northern part of the town, which he continued to defend till peace was signed in Paris, were conducted with skill and energy.
Although the northern and southern extremities of Goyaz lie within two great river systems - the Tocantins and Parana - the upper courses of which are navigable, both of them are obstructed by falls.
The capital of the state is GoYAz, or Villa-Boa de Goyaz, a mining town on the Rio Vermelho, a tributary of the Araguaya rising on the northern slopes of the Serra de Santa Rita.
But after deliberation and as the result of certain "frontier incidents" France modified her counter-proposals in 1907, and the actual definition of the northern and eastern frontiers of Liberia is as follows: Starting from the point on the frontier of the British colony of Sierra Leone where the river Moa or Makona crosses that frontier, the Franco-Liberian frontier shall follow the left bank of the river Makona up stream to a point 5 kilometres to the south of the town of Bofosso.
Cape Mount (on the northern side of which is a large lagoon - Fisherman Lake) at its highest point is 1050 ft.
The northern part, where the two Niles approach nearer one another, is also known as El Gezira, i.e.
The plain, sandy in its northern part, is in the south a deep bed of argillaceous marl, scattered over with great granite boulders and fragments of greenstone.
About 1259 these fraternities were distributed over the greater part of northern Italy.
In 673 Archbishop Theodore divided the East Anglian diocese into two, Elmham being the seat of the northern, Dunwich that of the southern bishop. A long blank follows in the history of this kingdom, until in 792 we find Offa of Mercia slaying iEthelberht, king of East Anglia, who is said to have been his son-in-law.
But while some large families, such as the Staphylinidae (rove-beetles) are especially abundant on the great northern continents, becoming scarcer in the tropics, others, the Cicindelidae (tiger-beetles), for example, are most strongly represented in the warmer regions of the earth, and become scarce as the collector journeys far to south or north.
On the other hand, there are Arctic species like the ground-beetle, Pelophila borealis, and south-western species like the boring weevil, Mesites Tardyi, common in Ireland, and represented in northern or western Britain, but unknown in eastern Britain or in Central Europe.
The White, Barents and Kara Seas of the Arctic bound it on the N., and the northern Pacific - that is, the Seas of Bering, Okhotsk and Japan - bounds it on the E.
Sweden, and the northern mountains of Finland a continuation of Kjolen (the Keel) which separate Sweden from Norway, while the other great line of upheaval of the old continent, which runs N.W.
- separates the " northern soils " from the " southern soils."
The " northern soils," which are glacial deposits more or less redistributed by water, are much less fertile as a rule, and consist of all possible varieties from a tough boulder clay to loose sand.
Among the principalities of that northern region the first place was long held by Novgorod.
The nucleus of the invading horde was a small pastoral tribe in Mongolia, the chief of which, known subsequently to Europe as Jenghiz Khan, became a mighty conqueror and created a vast empire stretching from China, across northern and central Asia, to the shores of the Baltic and the valley of the Danube - a heterogeneous state containing many nationalities held together by purely administrative ties and by an enormous military force.
A ship of an English squadron which was trying First to reach China by the North-East passage, entered the relations northern Dvina, and her captain, Richard Chancellor, with journeyed to Moscow in quest of opportunities for trade.
Thus began the so-called Northern War, which lasted intermittently for more than twenty years, and was terminated by the treaty of Nystad (Sept.
In the midst of the Northern War, shortly after the great Russian victory of Poltava (1709), the sultan, at the instigation of Swedish and French agents, determined to recover Azov, and made great military preparations for that purpose.
His dreams of freeing the Christians from the yoke of the infidel had to be abandoned, and the conquest of the northern shores of the Black Sea was postponed till the reign of Catherine II.
It was intended that Russia should take what remained of the northern coast of the Black Sea, Austria should annex the Turkish provinces contiguous to her territory, the Danubian principalities and Bessarabia should be formed into an independent kingdom called Dacia, the Turks should be expelled from Europe, the Byzantine empire should be resuscitated, and the grand-duke Constantine, second son of the Russian heir-apparent, should be placed on the throne of the Palaeologi.
In Asia, after the accession of Nicholas II., the expansion of Russia, following the line of least resistance and stimulated by the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway, took the direction of northern China and the effete little kingdom of Korea.
FARS (the name Farsistan is not used), one of the five mam- likats (great provinces) of Persia, extending along the northern shore of the Persian Gulf and bounded on the west by Arabistan, on the north by Isfahan and on the east by Kerman.
and the sardsir comprises the remaining and northern districts of the province.
Within the boundaries of the United States the northernmost of the transcontinental lines was the Great Northern railway, extending from a point opposite Vancouver, B.C., and from Seattle, Wash., to Duluth, on Lake Superior, and to St Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., where connexion through to Chicago was made over an allied line,.
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, owned jointly by the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific.
Next, south of the Great Northern, lay the Northern Pacific railway, starting on the west from Portland, Ore., and from Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., and extending east to Duluth, St Paul and Minneapolis by way of Helena, Mont.
The high and heavy cars, the high speeds, the severe weather in the northern states in winter, the fluctuating nature of the business, resulting often in the employment of poorly qualified men and in other irregularities, are among the causes of this state of things.
p. 1275), by Barbier, for some experiments made on the Northern railway of France with a train of 157 tons mean weight; they are valid between 37 and 77 m.
The first dining car in England was run experimentally by the Great Northern railway between London and Leeds in 1879, and now such vehicles form a common feature on express trains, being available for all classes of passengers without extra charge beyond the amount payable for food.
of the Colorado river; the northern edge being formed by the divide of the drainage basin of the Columbia river, the eastern by that of the Colorado, the western by the central part of the Sierra Nevada crest, and by other high mountains.
East Falkland is almost bisected by two deep fjords, Choiseul and Brenton Sounds, which leave the northern and southern portions connected only by an isthmus a mile and a half wide.
The northern portion is hilly, and is crossed by a rugged range, the Wickham Heights, running east and west, and rising in some places to a height of nearly 2000 ft.
The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe: cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the common crowberry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called by the Falklanders the " diddle-dee " berry; of Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis and Bostkovia grandif ora.
In 1218 he set sail for Esthonia with one of the largest fleets ever seen in northern waters, including a Wendish contingent led by Prince Vitsla y.
This victory was followed by the foundation of Reval and the occupation of Harrien and Wirland, the northern districts of Esthonia, by the Danes.
in length, and from 25 to 45 in breadth, though the greatest distance between its northern and southern arms is about 180 m.
Lastly it should be recollected that the entire body of the fragments of tradition and literature belonging to northern Israel has come down to us through the channel of Judaean recensions.
Lastly it was the fiery counsels of the dying prophet, accompanied by the acted magic of the arrow shot through the open window, and also of the thrice smitten floor, that gave nerve and courage to Joash, king of Israel, when the armies of Syria pressed heavily on the northern kingdom (2 Kings xiii.
It is highly significant that Elijah, when driven from the northern kingdom by the threats of the Tyrian Jezebel, retreats to the old sanctuary at Horeb, whence Moses derived his inspiration and his TOrah.
This was precisely what was happening among the northern states, and Amos foresaw that this might eventually be Israel's doom.
The latter half of the 8th century, which witnessed a rapid succession of reigns in the northern kingdom accompanied by dismemberment of its territory and final overthrow, witnessed also the humiliating vassalage and religious decline of the kingdom of Judah.
The strange contrast between the succession of dynasties and kings cut off by assassination in the northern kingdom, ending in the tragic overthrow of 721 B.C., and the persistent succession through three centuries of the seed of David on the throne of Jerusalem, as well as the marvellous escape of Jerusalem in 701 B.C. from the fate of Samaria, must have invested the seed of David in the eyes of all thoughtful observers with a mysterious and divine significance.
In northern countries the fur is longer and thicker, and the animal generally larger and more powerful than in the southern portion of its range.
of the town of Kharkov, on the right bank of the northern Donets.
and 116° 29' E., on the northern extremity of the great alluvial delta which extends southward from its walls for 700 m.
Under the Kin dynasty the walls extended to the south-west of the Tatar portion of the present city, and the foundations of the northern ramparts of the Khan-balik of Kublai Khan are still to be traced at a distance of about 2 m.
These names are somewhat misleading, as the inner city is not enclosed within the outer city, but adjoins its northern wall, which, being longer than the nei ch'eng is wide, outflanks it considerably at both ends.
above the sea, which receives the drainage of the eastern slopes of the Sierra and what little drainage there is in the northern half of Nevada.
Owing to their great height these three ranges receive heavier rainfall than the surrounding country and are feeders to the northern valleys, which constitute the chief agricultural region of the state.
That conditions are favourable to the animal industry is shown by the fact that in 1897 the valleys of northern Nevada were so overrun with wild horses, to the detriment of the grazing grounds for cattle, that the legislature authorized the killing of such animals.
The state is crossed from east and west by three main lines of railway, parts of the great transcontinental systems, the Southern Pacific and the Western Pacific in the northern part of the state and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake in the southern.
It is met at several points by lines which serve the rich mining districts to the south; at Cobre by the Nevada Northern from Ely in White Pine county in the Robinson copper mining district; at Palisade by the Eureka & Palisade, a narrow-gauge railway, connecting with the lead and silver mines of the Eureka District; at Battle Mountain by the Nevada Central, also of narrow gauge, from Austin; at Hazen by the Nevada & California (controlled by the Southern Pacific) which runs to the California line, connecting in that state with other parts of the Southern Pacific system, and at Mina, Nevada, with the Tonopah & Goldfield, which runs to Tonopah and thence to Goldfield, thus giving these mining regions access to the Southern Pacific's transcontinental service; and at Reno, close to the western boundary, by the Virginia & Truckee, connecting with Carson City, Minden, in the Carson Valley, and Virginia City, in the Comstock District, and by the Nevada-California-Oregon, projected to run through north-eastern California into Oregon, in 1910, in operation to Alturas, California.
It is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cincinnati Northern (New York Central system), and a branch of the Cincinnati, Lebanon & Northern (Pennsylvania system) railways.
According to this view, the prototypes of Demeter and Persephone are the corn-mother and harvest maiden of northern Europe, the corn-fetishes of the field (Frazer, Golden Bough, 2nd ed., ii.
to the east are the twin masses of Ben a Bourd, the northern top of which is 3924 ft.
The national monument to the Forefathers, designed by Hammatt Billings, and dedicated on the 1st of August 1889, thirty years after its corner-stone was laid, stands in the northern part of the town.
The Sao Francisco forms its northern boundary, and the drainage of the northern part of the state is northward and eastward to that river.
ASNIÃˆRES, a town of northern France, in the department of Seine, on the left bank of the Seine, about 1½ m.
The descendants of Niall spread over Ireland and became divided into two main branches, the northern and the southern Hy Neill, to one or other of which nearly all the high-kings (ard-ri) of Ireland from the 5th to the 12th century belonged; the descendants of Eoghan being the chief of the northern Hy Neill.'
Phelim resigned the northern command in his favour, and escorted him from Lough Swilly to Charlemont.
Panin was the inventor of the famous "Northern Accord," which aimed at opposing a combination of Russia, Prussia, Poland, Sweden, and perhaps Great Britain, against the Bourbon-Habsburg League.
Yet the idea of the "Northern Accord," though never quite realized, had important political consequences and influenced the policy of Russia for many years.
It was only when the impossibility of realizing the "Northern Accord" became patent that his influence began to wane, and Russia sacrificed millions of roubles fruitlessly in the endeavour to carry out his pet scheme.
The highest point in the Julian Alps is formed by the three sugar-loaf peaks of the Triglav or Terglou (9394 ft.), which offers one of the finest views in the whole of the Alps, and which bears on its northern declivity the only glacier in the province.
The southern part of Carniola is occupied by the following divisions of the northern ramifications of the Karst Mountains: the Birnbaumer Wald with the highest peak, the Nanos (4275 ft.), and the Krainer Schneeberg (5890 ft.); the Hornwald with the highest peak, the Hornbiichl (3608 ft.), and the Uskokengebirge (3 8 74 ft.).
(Norse Sudr-eyjar, Sudreys, or southern isles, in distinction from Nordr-eyjar, the northern isles of Orkney and Shetland) and the Isle of Man.
SHERBORNE, a market town in the northern parliamentary division of Dorsetshire, England, 118 m.
The course leads naturally into either Palestine or Babylonia, and, following the Euphrates, northern Syria is eventually reached.
Subdivided into a number of little local principalities, Palestine was suffering both from internal intrigues and from the designs of this northern power.
The growing prominence of the new northern group of " Hittite " states continued to occupy the energies of Egypt, and when again we have more external light upon Palestinian history, the Hittites are found strongly entrenched in the land.
(a) The first, that of the two rival kingdoms: Israel (Ephraim or Samaria) in the northern half of Palestine, and Judah in the south.
The best historical narratives belong to Israel and Gilead; Judah scarcely appears, and in a relatively old poetical account of a great fight of the united tribes against a northern adversary lies outside the writer's horizon or interest (Judg.
When the narratives describe the life of the young David at the court of the first king of the northern kingdom, when the scenes cover the district which he took with the sword, and when the brave Saul is represented in an unfavourable light, one must allow for the popular tendency to idealize great figures, and for the Judaean origin of the compilation.
The northern kingdom cherished the institution of a monarchy, and in this, as in all great political events, the prophets took part.
In the former a separate history of the northern kingdom has been combined with Judaean history by means of synchronisms in accordance with a definite scheme.
Although little is preserved of Omri's history, the fact that the northern kingdom long continued to be called by the Assyrians after his name is a significant indication of his great reputation.
6, 7, 19-22), and the days before the great overthrow of the northern power as described in Judges v.
The result was the route of Judah, the capture of Amaziah, the destruction of the northern wall of Jerusalem, the sacking of the temple and palace, and the removal of hostages to Samaria (2 Kings xiv.
Israel was punished by the ravaging of the northern districts, and the king claims to have carried away the people of " the house of Omri."
the history of the northern monarchy), it is obvious that, apart from indigenous Judaean tradition, the southern groups which were ultimately enrolled in Judah would possess their own stock of oral and written lore.
historical criticism is faced with the established literary conclusions which, it should be noticed, place the Deuteronomic and priestly compilations posterior to the great changes at and after the fall of the northern monarchy, and, to some extent, contemporary with the equally serious changes in Judah.
This ordinance may be regarded as the beginning of the Synodal government of Judaism, which was a marked feature of medieval life in the synagogues of northern and central Europe from the 12th century.
Vavau, in the northern group, is 55 sq.
It is along the western side of the northern half of the chain that the line of volcanic action is apparent; the islands here (of which some are active volcanoes) are lofty.
The line of volcanic action extends along the western side of the northern half of the chain.
The northern coast-line is much indented.
Three small islands on the northern coast - Grabusa at the N.W.
The three principal towns are on the northern coast and possess small harbours suitable for vessels of light draught.