On the 15th of June the pope addressed to Cardinal Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of state, a letter reiterating in uncompromising terms the papal claim to the temporal power, and at the end of July Cardinal Rampolla reformulated the same claim in a circular to the papal nuncios abroad.
The Roman Catholic Church, in all countries, has become more and more dependent on the Curia: the bishops have lost their autonomous standing, and their position is little more than that of papal delegates, while all important questions are referred to Rome or settled by the nuncios.
For Poland, unlike Scotland, was fortunately, in those days of difficult inter-communication, not too far off, and it is indisputable that in the first instance it was the papal nuncios, men like Berard of Camerino and Giovanni Commendone, who reorganized the scattered and faint-hearted battalions of the Church militant in Poland and led them back to victory.
The nuncios are of lower rank than the legati a latere, but have practically superseded them as ambassadors of the papacy.
Nuncios were permanently established at various courts and ecclesiastical centres during the 16th century.
At the age of twenty-five he held several rich livings, had been notary and protonotary to the Curia, and was first secretary to the pope, in which capacity he conducted the correspondence with the nuncios (among them Pier Paolo Bergerio in Germany) and a host of other duties.
There are Old-Irish Catholics, under pope's nuncios, under Abba O'Teague of the excommunications, and Owen Roe O'Neill, demanding not religious freedom only, but what we now call ` repeal of the union,' and unable to agree with Catholics of the English Pale.
A ferocious letter from the pope to the papal nuncios, on the 19th of March 1423, denounced the proceeding as calculated " to ensnare simple souls and extort from them a profane reward, thereby setting up themselves against the apostolic see and the Roman pontiff, to whom alone so great a faculty has been granted by God " (Cal.
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