from Munich, and at the centre of a network of railways placing it in direct communication with all the principal towns of south Germany.
His lectures and poems had now made him famous, and he was summoned to Munich where, in 1638, he became court chaplain to the elector Maximilian I.
He remained in Munich till 1650, when he went to live at Landshut and afterwards at Amberg.
at Munich, 1729; also a good selection by L.
He took part in the excavations at Olympia in 1878, became an assistant in the Berlin Museum in 1880, and professor at Berlin (1884) and later at Munich.
retained the rest of Bavaria, but made several divisions of their territory, the most important of which was in 1392, when the branches of Ingoldstadt, Munich and Landshut were founded.
Wittmann, Monumenta Wittelsbacensia (Urkundenbuch, Munich, 1857-1861); K.
Heigel, Die Wittelsbacher (Munich, 1880); F.
He fled from Munich, but found a ready welcome elsewhere.
Wissenschaften, Munich, 1891); H.
P. Fallmerayer, Das albanesische Element in Griechenland (Munich, 1864); N.
/ ait and John Lydgates Bearbeitungen von Boccaccios De Casibus, Munich, 1885) has thrown much doubt on this statement as regards Italy, but Lydgate knew France and visited Paris in an official capacity in 1426.
Aventinus, who has been called the "Bavarian Herodotus," wrote other books of minor importance, and a complete edition of his works was published at Munich (188'- 1886).
von Dellinger, Aventin and seine Zeit (Munich, 1877); S.
Riezler, Zum Schutze der neuesten Edition von Aventins Annalen_(Munich, 1886); F.
Hagen; Sitzungsberichte, Munich Acad.
That according to which they were set up at Munich was in the main suggested by Cockerell; in the middle of each pediment was a figure of Athena, set well back, and a fallen warrior at her feet; on each side were standing spearmen, kneeling spearmen and bowmen, all facing towards the centre of the composition; the corners were filled with fallen warriors.
In 1901 Professor Furtwangler began a more systematic excavation of the site, and the new discoveries he then made, together with a fresh and complete study of the figures and fragments in Munich, have led to a rearrangement of the whole, which, if not certain in all details, may be regarded as approaching finality.
Furtwangler and others, Aegina, Heiligtum der Aphaia (Munich, 1906), where earlier authorities are collected and discussed.
On leaving school he determined to adopt the profession of engineering, and in the pursuance of this decision went to study in Munich in 1877.
His boyhood was spent at Munich where his father, who owned electro-technical works, settled in the early 'eighties.
Cyrus (Munich, 1871); Roos, De Theodoreto Clementis et Eusebii Compilatore (Halle, 1883); Nolte in the Tubing.
Rumford was engaged in superintending the boring of cannon in the military arsenal at Munich, and was struck by the amount of heat produced by the action of the boring bar upon the brass castings.
Goetz of Munich in a study entitled Die Quellen zur Geschichte des hl.
from Wiirzburg by the railway to Munich, and at the junction of a line to ROttingen.
Since then it has been discovered in other botanic gardens in various parts of Europe, its two most recent appearances being at Lyons (1901) and Munich (1905), occurring always in tanks in which the Victoria regia is cultivated, a fact which indicates that tropical South America is its original habitat.
Calderini, Die Marcussdule (Munich, 1896), with historical introduction by Th.
See Lehmann, Geschichte des Herzogtums Zweibriicken (Munich, 1867).
Destined by his parents for the Roman Catholic priesthood, he studied theology at Munich, but felt an ever-growing attraction to philosophy.
It was only after open defiance of the bishop of Regensburg that he obtained permission to continue his studies at Munich.
Public opinion was now keenly excited; he received an ovation from the Munich students, and the king, to whom he owed his appointment, supported him warmly.
des deutschen Adels (2nd ed., Waldenburg, 1851); von Maurer, Uber das Wesen des dltesten Adds der deutschen Stdmme (Munich, 1846); Rose, Der Adel Deutschlands and seine Stellung im deutschen Reich (Berlin, 1883); G.
de Harold (Catalogus Coleopterorum, 12 vols., Munich, 1868-1872); T.
In 1879 he was appointed president of the Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften (Academy of Sciences) at Vienna, and in 1896 succeeded von Sybel as chairman of the historical commission at Munich.
Kreuzzugsidee nach den Kreuzziigen (Munich, 1896).
(Munich, 1889); U.
He resigned all his appointments in 1874, and on the 7th of October 1876 died at Munich while attending the sittings of the historical commission.
The institute was in 1819 removed to Munich, and on Fraunhofer's death came under the direction of G.
In 1823 he was appointed conservator of the physical cabinet at Munich, and in the following year he received from the king of Bavaria the civil order of merit.
He died at Munich on the 7th of June 1826, and was buried near Reichenbach, whose decease had taken place eight years previously.
von Fraunhofer (Munich, 1826); and G.
der Zoologie (Munich, 1872), p. 109 seq.; J.
Schiinfelder (Munich, 1862).
KARL PETER WILHELM MAURENBRECHER (1838-1892), German historian, was born at Bonn on the 21st of December, 1838, and studied in Berlin and Munich under Ranke and Von Sybel, being especially influenced by the latter historian.
(Munich, 1861); Ebert's Geschichte der Christlich-Lateinischen Literatur (Leipsic, 1874); Wattenbach's Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter (Berlin, 1877); and the introduction of Mommsen to his edition.
Loserth, Geschichte des spateren Mittelalters (Munich and Berlin, 1903).
Jahrhundert (Munich, 1890); Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1882-1901); Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopeidie (ed.
(Munich, 1899) and Politik and Kriegfiihrung wdhrend des Feldzuges von 1814 (Berlin, 1891); A.
Graber, Die Insekten (Munich, 1877-1879); D.
Andreas Wagner had sent to the Academy of Sciences of Munich (Sitzungsberichte, pp. 146-154; Ann.
After studying at the university of Munich he served in the Bavarian army from 1859 to 1872, when he retired with the rank of captain.
of the Munich Acad.(1875); Sachau, ZDMG.
In 1843 he became doctor of philosophy at Munich Observatory, where he was made professor in 1859.
He was also a member of the Academies of Berlin and Munich.
4 Oberhummer, Die Insel Cypern (Munich, 1903), pp. 108-110.
the name Kathian in a Ramessid list of cities of Cyprus, Oberhummer, Die Inset Cypern (Munich, 1903), p. 4.
He was a strong Lutheran and exercised a powerful influence in that direction as court preacher in Dresden and as president of the Protestant consistory at Munich.
Judeich, Topographie von Athen (Munich, 1905; forming vol.
We may also mention the famous laboratory at Munich designed by A.
King Ludwig of Bavaria was much struck with it, and in 1864 invited Wagner, who was then at Stuttgart, to come to Munich and finish his work there.
On the 10th of June 1865 at Munich, Tristan and Isolde was produced for the first time, with Herr and Frau Schnorr in the principal parts.
Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg, first sketched in 1845, was completed in 1867 and first performed at Munich under the direction of Hans von Billow on the 21st of June 1868.
The scheme for building a new theatre at Munich having been abandoned, there was no opera-house in Germany fit for so colossal a work.
Having obtained the leave of the British government to accept the prince's offer, he received the honour of knighthood from George III., and during eleven years he remained at Munich as minister of war, minister of police, and grand chamberlain to the elector.
In one day he caused no fewer than 2600 of these outcasts and depredators in Munich and its suburbs alone to be arrested by military patrols, and transferred by them to an industrial establishment which he had prepared for their reception.
But he was quickly recalled to Bavaria, Munich being threatened at once by an Austrian and a French army.
Kunstmann's Entdeckung Amerikas (Munich, 1859), K.
Spahn (Munich, 1905), by L.
In 1834 the family moved to Munich, where the parents took leading roles in the classical German drama, until they retired from the stage: the mother in 1865 and the father in 1878.
Felix Dahn studied law and philosophy in Munich and Berlin from 1849 to 1853.
His first works were in jurisprudence, Ober die Wirkung der Klagver- :dhrung bei Obligationen (Munich, 1855), and Studien zur Geschichte der germanischen Gottesurteile (Munich, 1857).
In 1857 he became docent in German law at Munich university, and in 1862 professor-extraordinary, but in 1863 was called to Wiirzburg to a full professorship. In 1872 he removed to the university of Konigsberg, and in 1888 settled at Breslau, becoming rector of the university in 1895.
(Munich and Wiirzburg, 1861-1870), Bande vii.-xi.
3 (Munich, 1874); idem, Gesch.
Fahrer, Forschungen zur Sicilia sotterranea (Munich, 1897); and D.
JOSEPH PERLES (1835-1894), Jewish rabbi, was born in Hungary in 1835, and died at Munich in 1894.
NYMPHENBURG, formerly a village, but since 1899 an incorporated suburb of Munich, in the kingdom of Bavaria.
After a successful course of study at the College Rollin, he proceeded to Munich, where he attended the lectures of Schelling, and took his degree in philosophy in 1836.
1, and his review of "Les Evangiles synoptiques" in Das zwanzigste Jahrhundert (Munich, May 3, 1908) are full of facts and of deep thought; Fr.
von Martius, Reise in Brasilien, 1817-1820 (3 parts, Munich, 1823-1831); F.
Treitschkes Lehrand Wanderjahre, 1836-1866 (Munich, 1896); Gustav Freitag and Heinrich v.
Munich, Erlangen, Coire and Leipzig became for brief successive intervals his home.
With approximate certainty may be ascribed also to Tamas and Balint the original of the still extant transcript, by George Nemeti, of the Four Gospels, the Jciszay or Munich Codex (finished at Tatros in Moldavia in 1466).
These remarkable researches of Fraunhofer, carried out in the years 1817-1823, are republished in his Collected Writings (Munich, 1888).
Friedrich in the Munich Academy Sitzungsberichte (1896), from a lothcentury Escorial codex (Plut.
In 1777 on the extinction of the other branch of the house of Wittelsbach, he became elector of Bavaria, and the Palatinate was henceforward united with Bavaria, the elector's capital being Munich.
Abhandlungen (Munich, 3900), 160 sqq., 214 sqq.
He was elected a full academician in 1888, and an honorary member of the Royal Academy of Munich.
Armee am Kriege 1866 (Munich, 1868); F.
Schmitz, Oesterreichs Scheyern-Wittelsbacher oder die Dynastie der Babenberger (Munich, 1880).
The first clinical laboratory seems to have been that of Von Ziemssen (1829-1902) at Munich, founded in 1885; and, although his example has not yet been followed as it ought to have been, enough has been done in this way, at Johns Hopkins University and elsewhere, to prove the vital importance of the system to the progress of modern medicine.
286-310), on another in the Vereinigte Sammlungen at Munich, and on a third in the Trivulzi collection at Milan, where the cup is white, the inscription green and the network blue.
south of Leipzig, on the railway to Hof and Munich and at the junction of lines to Eger and Gera.
- Konrad Maurer, Ober Angelsachsische Rechtsverhaltnisse, Kritische Ueberschau (Munich, 1853 ff.), still the best account of the history of Anglo-Saxon law; Essays on Anglo-Saxon Law, by H.
Bavaria and Saxony, both Roman Catholic states, have no special spiritual hierarchy; in Bavaria, the archbishop of Munich and Freysing is ex officio bishop of the army.
Professor Friedrich Kunstmann of Munich devoted one of his valuable papers to Odoric's narrative (Histor.-polit.
He remained at Giessen for twenty-eight years, until in 1852 he accepted the invitation of the Bavarian government to the ordinary chair of chemistry at Munich university, and this office he held, although he was offered the chair at Berlin in 1865, until his death, which occurred at Munich on the 10th of April 1873.
The Munich MS., formerly at Bamberg, begins at line 85, and has many lacunae, but continues the history down to the last verse of St Luke's Gospel, ending, however, in the middle of a sentence.
Sievers (1877), in which the texts of the Cotton and Munich MSS.
of Munich by rail.
Stieve, Die Reichsstadt Kaufbeuren and die bayrische Restaurationspolitik (Munich, 1870); and Schroder, Geschichte der Stadt and Katholischen Pfarrei Kaufbeuren (Augsburg, 1903).
Hommel's Siid-arabische Chrestomathie, Munich, 1893), but the archaeological value of these remains has not been so fully treated.
Glaser's Die Abyssinier in Arabien and Afrika, Munich, 1895, and F.
from Munich and 74 S.E.
Muraviev, who already carried his nomination in his pocket, resented this condescension, and relegated Isvolsky to Belgrade and to Munich, where he had the rank of a minister plenipotentiary.
Munich lies at the centre of an important network of railways connecting it directly with Strassburg (for Paris), Cologne, Leipzig, Berlin, Rosenheim (for Vienna) and Innsbruck (for Italy via the Brenner pass), which converge in a central station.
Munich is divided into twenty-four municipal districts, nineteen of which, including the old town, lie on the left bank of the Isar, while the suburban districts of Au, Haidhausen, Giesing, Bogenhausen and Ramersdorf are on the opposite bank.
The old town, containing many narrow and irregular streets, forms a semicircle with its diameter towards the river, while round its periphery has sprung up the greater part of modern Munich, including the handsome Maximilian and Ludwig districts.
The walls with which Munich was formerly surrounded have been pulled down, but some of the gates have been left.
Munich owes its architectural magnificence largely to Louis I.
Most of the modern buildings have been erected after celebrated prototypes of other countries and eras, so that, as has been said by Moriz Carriere, a walk through Munich affords a picture of the architecture and art of two thousand years.
The architectural style which has been principally followed in the later public buildings, among them the law courts, finished in 1897, the German bank, St Martin's hospital, as well as in numerous private dwellings, is the Italian and French Rococo, or Renaissance, adapted to the traditions of Munich architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries.
A large proportion of the most notable buildings in Munich are in two streets, the Ludwigstrasse and the Maximilianstrasse, the creations of the monarchs whose names they bear.
It is imposing from its size, and interesting as one of the few examples of indigenous Munich art.
Among the other churches of Munich the chief place is due to St Boniface's, an admirable copy of an early Christian basilica.
St Peter's is interesting as the oldest church in Munich (12th century), though no trace of the original basilica remains.
In addition to the museum of plaster casts, the Antiquarium (a collection of Egyptian, Greek and Roman antiquities under the roof of the new Pinakothek) and the Maillinger collection, connected with the historical museum, Munich also contains several private galleries.
At the head of the educational institutions of Munich stands the university, founded at Ingolstadt in 1472, removed to Landshut in 1800, and transferred thence to Munich in 1826.
Munich contains several gymnasia or grammar-schools, a military academy, a veterinary college, an agricultural college, a school for architects and builders, and several other technical schools, and a conservatory of music. The general prison in the suburb of Au is considered a model of its kind; and there is also a large military prison.
The population of Munich in 1905 was 538,393.
Munich is the seat of the archbishop of Munich-Freising and of the general Protestant consistory for Bavaria.
Munich has long been celebrated for its artistic handicrafts, such as bronze-founding, glass-staining, silversmith's work, and wood-carving, while the astronomical instruments of Fraunhofer and the mathematical instruments of Traugott Lieberecht von Ertel (1778-1858) are also widely known.
Lithography, which was invented at Munich at the end of the 18th century, is extensively practised here.
Four important markets are held at Munich annually.
The Bavarian dukes of the Wittelsbach house occasionally resided at Munich, and in 1255 Duke Louis made it his capital, having previously surrounded it with walls and a moat.
In 1632 Munich was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, and in 1705, and again in 1742, it was in possession of the Austrians.
Munich's importance in the history of art is entirely of modern growth, and may be dated from the acquisition of the Aeginetan marbles by Louis I., then crown prince, in 1812.
Among the eminent artists of this period whose names are more or less identified with Munich were Leo von Klenze (1784-1864), Joseph Daniel Ohlmiiller (1791-1839), Friedrich von Gartner (1792-1847), and Georg Friedrich Ziebland (1800-1873), the architects; Peter von Cornelius (1783-1867), Wilhelm von Kaulbach (1804-1874), Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794-1872), and Karl Rottmann, the painters; and Ludwig von Schwanthaler, the sculptor.
Munich is still the leading school of painting in Germany, but the romanticism of the earlier masters has been abandoned for drawing and colouring of a realistic character.
i.-v., 1875-1882); Soltl, Munchen mit seinen Umgebungen (1854); Reber, Bautechnischer Fiihrer durch die Stadt Munchen (1876); Daniel, Handbuch der Geographic (new ed., 1895); Prantl, Geschichte der Ludwig-Maximilians Universit¢t (Munich, 1872); Goering, 30 Jahre Munchen (Munich, 1904); von Ammon, Die Gegend von Munchen geologisch geschildert (Munich, 1895); Kronegg, Illustrierte Geschichte der Stadt Munchen (Munich, 1903); the Jahrbuch fur Miinchener Geschichte, edited by Reinhardstottner and Trautmann (Munich, 1887-1894); Aufleger and Trautmann, Alt-Munchen in Bild and Wort (Munich, 1895); Rohmeder, Munchen als Handelsstadt (Munich, 1905); H.
Pecht, Geschichte der munchener Kunst im 19 Jahrhundert (Munich, 1888); and Trautwein, Fuhrer durch Munchen (20th ed., 1906).
There is an English book on Munich by H.
(1895), 28; P. Stengel, Die griechischen Kultusaltertumer (Munich, 1898), p. 124; G.
von Wydenbrugk, Die deutsche Nation and das Kaiserreich (Munich, 1862); J.
in the Historische Zeitschrift (Munich, 1859); G.
Oberhummer, Akarnanien, Ambrakien, &c. ins Altertum (Munich, 1887).
of Nuremberg, on the railway to Ingolstadt and Munich.
Dorner's Geschichte der protestantischen Theologie, pp. 662-667 (Munich, 1867).
Glaser, Die Abessinier in Arabien (Munich, 1895).
Stangl in Tulliana et Mario-Victoriniana, Munich, 1888) is probably by him and not by Boetius, to whom it was formerly attributed.
In south Germany appeared the Wurttembergische Nebenstunden (1718), and the Parnassus boicus, first published at Munich in 1722.
Gersdorf's Repertorium, the Gelehrte Anzeigen of Gottingen and of Munich, Sand the Heidelbergische Jahrbucher were the sole survivors.
I), pp. 127 et seq., 155 et seq., 248 (Munich, 1892); G.
The bishops, in their turn, had to exercise their temporal rights through lay vassals, of whom the most powerful in the course of the 12th century were the lords of Andechs, near Munich.
1 Dollinger, Akademische Vortrcige (Munich, 1891), ix.
Stein, Kulmbach and die Plassenburg in alter and newer Zeit (Kulmbach, 1903); Huther, Kulmbach and Umgebung (Kulmbach, 1886); and C. Meyer, Quellen zur Geschichte der Stadt Kulmbach (Munich, 1895).
Zeitschrift (Munich, 1868); P. S.
von Dollinger, Das Kaiserthum Karls des Grossen and seiner Nachfolger (Munich, 1864); F.
Ketterer, Karl der Grosse and die Kirche (Munich and Leipzig, 1898); and J.
Stephani Frisingenses (15th century), which formerly belonged to the abbey of Weihenstephan, and is now at Munich, the childhood of Charlemagne is practically the same as that of many mythic heroes.
Steinheil (Journal savant de Munich, Feb.
Gsell-Fels, Der Bodensee (Munich, 1893); Bruckmann's illustrierte Reisefi.ihrer; E.
In 1882 he resigned his professorship and utilized his thus increased leisure by travelling in Palestine and Egypt, and showed his interest in the Old Catholic movement by visiting Dellinger at Munich.
Of these there are 8 in the British Museum, two at Vienna, 13 in the great Paris library, 15 at Munich.
from Munich, and 60 m.
Engler, Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas and der Nachbargebiete (Berlin, 1895-1896) and other works by the same author; Stromer von Reichenbach, Die Geologie der deutschen Schutzgebiete in Afrika (Munich and Leipzig, 1896); W.
(Munich, 1892), and by Albert Sorel in his Lectures historiques (pp. 70 -112).
The Epistolae, which for the modern reader greatly exceed his other works in interest, have been edited by Demetriades (Vienna, 1792) and by Glukus (Venice, 1812), the Calvitii encomium by Krabinger (Stuttgart, 1834), the De providentia by Krabinger (Sulzbach, 1835), the De regno by Krabinger (Munich, 1825), and the Hymns by Flach (Tubingen, 1875).
Wecklein, Uber die Tradition der Perserkriege (Munich, 1876); A.
He received his general education at the City of London School, and his scientific education at the Royal College of Science, South Kensington, and at the universities of Wiirzburg and Munich.
During 1883-6 he held the position of Privatdocent in the university of Munich.
Lady Duff-Gordon published in 1861 an English translation of part of this book, to which are added lectures on the crusades delivered in Munich in 1858, under the title History and Literature of the Crusades.
In 1856, on the recommendation of Ranke, Sybel accepted the post of professor at Munich, where King Maximilian II.
(Munich, 1889-1894), a work of great importance, for he was allowed to use the Prussian state papers, and was therefore enabled to write a history of the greatest events of his own time with full access to the most secret sources of information.
Some of Sybel's numerous historical and political essays have been collected in Kleine historische Schriften (3 vols., 1863, 1869, 1881; new ed., 1897); Vortrage and Aufscitze (Berlin, 1874); and Vortrage and Abhandlungen, published after his death with a biographical introduction by C. Varrentrapp (Munich, 1897).
Declining calls to Breslau, Tubingen, and thrice to Bonn, Hug continued at Freiburg for upwards of thirty years, taking an occasional literary tour to Munich, Paris or Italy.
Hommel, Sudarabische Chrestomathie (Munich, 1893); J.
Petersen, Das Deutschtum in Elsass - Lothringen (Munich, 1902).
The course of the journey was first northwards to Plombieres, then by Basel to Augsburg and Munich, then through Tirol to Verona and Padua in Italy.
C. Bluntschli, Allgemeine Staatslehre (Munich, 1852); Otto Gierke, Das deutsche Genossenschaftsrecht (Berlin, 1863-1881); J.
In 1807 he became professor of chemistry and mineralogy at the university of Landshut, and in 1823 conservator of the mineralogical collections at Munich, where he was appointed professor of mineralogy three years later, on the removal thither of the university of Landshut.
He retired in 1852, was ennobled by the king of Bavaria in 1854, and died at Munich on the 5th of March 1856.
His collected works, including Ober den Einfluss der Chemie and Mineralogie (1824), Die Naturgeschichte des Mineralreichs (1842), Ober die Theorien der Erde (1844), were published at Munich in 1856.
In conjunction with other scholars Waitz took a leading part in the publication of the Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte (Munich, 1862 seq.), and in the Nordalbingische Studien, published in the Proceedings of the Schleswig-Holstein Historical Society (Kiel, 1844-1851).
Der Papst and das Concil, Leipzig, 1869, edited by Friedrich, Munich, 1892); idem.
Revolutions broke out in Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Madrid, Rome, Naples, Venice, Munich, Dresden and Budapest.
The controversies excited by his Symbolik (1832) proved so unpleasant that in 1835 he accepted a call to the university of Munich.
Out of nearly 700 current motor meters of various makes tested at Munich in 1902, only 319 had an error of less than 4%, whilst 259 had errors varying from 42 to io%.
When in 1805 the principalities became part of Bavaria, Lang entered the Bavarian service (1806), was ennobled in 1808 and from 1810 to 1817 held the office of archivist in Munich.
Lang's character, as can be gathered especially from a consideration of his behaviour at Munich, is darkened by many shadows.
Maurer, Die Bekehrung des norwegischen Stammes (2 vols., Munich, 1855-1856); Bang, Udsigt over den norske Kirkes historie under Katholicismen (Christiania, 1887); P. Gams, Series episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae (Regensburg, 1873); C. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi (2 vols., Munster, 1898, 1901); P. Hinschius, System des kath.
His eldest Son, William Henry Perkin, who was born at Sudbury, near Harrow, on the 17th of June 1860, and was educated at the City of London School, the Royal College of Science, and the universities of Wiirzburg and Munich, became professor of chemistry at the Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh, in 1887, and professor of organic chemistry at Owens College, Manchester, in 1892.
An edition of this work, which is of considerable value to historical students, was published at Munich in 1869 with notes by F.
Rockinger (Munich, 1856).
Ritter, Quellenbeitrage zur Geschichte des Kaisers Rudolf II (Munich, 1872); and Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Gegenreformation 'und des dreissigjahrigen Krieges (Stuttgart, 1887 fol.); L.
(Munich, 1880); in the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Band xxix.
(Leipzig, 1889); and Der Ursprung des dreissigjeihrigen Krieges (Munich, 1875); F.
and die heilige Liga (Munich, 1886); J.
The design, by August von Kreling (1819-1876), embraces fifteen bronze figures, all cast at the royal bronze foundry in Munich, the chief being a female figure with outstretched arms, from whose fingers the water falls in a fine spray.
He then took his doctor's degree, and in 1826 became professor of theology at Munich, where he spent the rest of his life.
About this time Dbllinger brought upon himself the animadversion of Heine, who was then editor of a Munich paper.
This does not appear to have been altogether the case; for, very early in his professorial career at Munich, the Jesuits attacked his teaching of ecclesiastical history, and the celebrated J.
In 1847, in consequence of the fall from power of the Abel ministry in Bavaria, with which he had been in close relations, he was removed from his professorship at Munich, but in 1849 he was invited to occupy the chair of ecclesiastical history.
In some speeches delivered at Munich in 1861 he outspokenly declared his view that the maintenance of the Roman Catholic Church did not depend on the temporal sovereignty of the pope.
His book on The Church and the Churches (Munich, 1861) dealt to a certain extent with the same question.
It was in connexion with this question that Dollinger published his Past and Present of Catholic Theology (1863) and his Universities Past and Present (Munich, 1867).
They were written by D6llinger in conjunction with Huber and Friedrich, afterwards professor at Munich.
He headed a protest by forty-four professors in the university of Munich, and gathered together a congress at Nuremberg, which met in August 1870 and issued a declaration adverse to theVatican decrees.
Dellinger was almost unanimously elected rector-magnificus of the university of Munich, and Oxford, Edinburgh and Marburg universities conferred upon him the honorary degree of doctor of laws and Vienna that of philosophy.
He died in Munich, on the 14th of January 1890, at the age of ninety-one.
During the dozen or more years he spent in Germany he was entrusted with several honourable and difficult missions, which brought him into contact with the courts of Dresden,Vienna, Munich and Wurttemberg, as well as with Napoleon.
737-892 (Munich, 1897).
Other leading works are - in Munich, the "Virgin" sinking on her knees in adoration of the Divine Infant, who is lying in a garden within a rose trellis; in the Borghese gallery, Rome, a Peter Martyr; in Bologna, the frescoes in the church of St Cecilia, illustrating the life of the saint, all of them from the design of Raibolini, but not all executed by himself.
(Munich, 1904); A.
He studied at Munich, and at an early age joined the Canons Regular at Polling, where, shortly after his ordination in 1717, he taught theology and philosophy.
The most comprehensive and up-to-date reference work on the history of geology and palaeontology is Geschichte der Geologie and Paldontologie, by Karl Alfred von Zittel (Munich and Leipzig, 1899), the final life-work of this great authority, translated into English in part by Maria M.
The succession of life from the earliest times as it was known at the close of the last century was treated by the same author in his Handbuch der Palciontologie (5 vols., Munich and Leipzig, 1876-1893).
Abbreviated editions of this work have appeared from the author, Grundziige der Pal¢ontologie (Palaeozoologie) (Munich and Leipzig, 1895, 2nd ed., 1903), and in English form in Charles R.
His architectural education was carried out successively in Hamburg, where later, upon his return from Greece, he built the Donner Museum, in Berlin, in Dresden, in Paris under Gau and in Munich under Gartner; afterwards he visited Italy and Greece.
In Munich, to which he removed in 1806, he found a quiet residence.
During the long stay at Munich (1806-1841) Schelling's literary activity seemed gradually to come to a standstill.
Braun, 1907); fiber das Verhiiltniss der bildenden Kiinste zu der Natur (Munich, 1807); Uber die Gottheiten von Samothrake (Stuttgart, 1815).
His Munich lectures were published by A.
Wittmann, Die alteste Geschichte der Markomannen (Munich, 1855), and E.
Jansen, Die Herzogsgewalt der Erzbischiife von Kan in Westfalen (Munich, 1895); Holzapfel, Das Konigreich Westfalen (Magdeburg, 1895); G.
His correspondence with Herwart von Hohenburg, unearthed by C. Anschiitz at Munich, was printed at Prague in 1886.
Wolf, Geschichte der Astronomie (Munich, 1877); J.
He was successively on the editorial staff of the orwaerts in Berlin1898-1905and of other socialist newspapers at Nurnberg and Munich.
1918 Kurt Eisner was prosecuted at Munich on a charge of treason for inciting munition workers to strike.
He was released from prison on the ground that he was a candidate for the Reichstag, and recovered his liberty in time to arrange the mass meeting on the Theresienwiese at Munich on Nov.
A red-haired Jew, he possessed a magnetic and artistic temperament, and had various special methods of arousing and restraining the revolutionary masses, including orchestral and vocal concerts of high excellence in the formerly royal theatres and the opera house of Munich.
This crime was speedily followed by the Bolshevist chaos into which Munich was for a brief period plunged in April.
Schwab, Das Schlachtfeld von Canna (Munich, 1898), and authorities under Punic Wars.
- See Dellinger, Papstfabeln des Mittelalters (Munich, 1863; Eng.
Plummer, 1871); "Janus," Der Pabst and das Konzil (Munich, 1869; Eng.
Martens, Die falsche Generalkonzession Konstantins des Grossen (Munich, 1889); P. Scheffer-Boichorst, "Neue This is also W.
JOHANN FRIEDRICH (1836-), German theologian, was born at Poxdorf in Upper Franconia on the 5th of May 1836, and was educated at Bamberg and at Munich, where in 1865 he was appointed professor extraordinary of theology.
He studied pharmacy and medicine at Munich, where he graduated M.D.
in 1843, and after working under Liebig at Giessen was appointed chemist to the Munich mint in 1845.
In 1894 he retired from active work, and on the 10th of February 1901 he shot himself in a fit of depression at his home on the Starnberger See, near Munich.
His attention was drawn to this subject about 1850 by the unhealthy condition of Munich.
(Munich, 1906); O.
(1868); and a paper on Weickum's collection in Sitzungsbericht of the Munich Academy (1875).
The handsome Roman Catholic cathedral for the diocese of Raphoe occupies a commanding site, and cost a large sum, as it contains carving from Rome, glass from Munich and a pulpit of Irish and Carrara marble.
KARL CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH KRAUSE (1781-1832), German philosopher, was born at Eisenberg on the 4th of May 1781, and died at Munich on the 27th of September 1832.
(Munich, 1853-1855); J.
His strong bent for scientific studies was recognized by the head of the monastery, P. Deasson, on whose recommendation he was admitted in 1827 to the then new observatory of Bogenhausen (near Munich), where he worked under J.
In 1852 he became professor of astronomy at the university of Munich, and held both these posts till his death, which took place on the 6th of August 1879.
Zeuss, Die Deutschen and die Nachbarstdmme (Munich, 1837); K.
Germanen (Munich, 1861-1905); G.
Maurer, Die Bekehrung des norwegischen Stammes sum Christentum (Munich, 18 55-5 6); W.
Fresh material having come to light, a new edition of the poems (Die Gedichte des Paulus Diaconus) has been edited by Karl Neff (Munich, 1908).
and die deutsche Kirche wahrend des Thronstreites von 1198-1208 (Strassburg, 1882); Else Gutschow, Innocenz and England (Munich, 1904); and many other detailed monographs.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.