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morphology

morphology

morphology Sentence Examples

  • P. Hill, "Contributions to the Morphology of the Female Urino-genital Organs in Marsupialia," Proc. Linn.

  • - Morphology of Pitchers.

  • Organization and Morphology of the Hydromedusae.

  • The morphology of the group thus falls naturally into four sections - (I) the hydropolyp, (2) the polyp-colony, (3) the hydromedusa, (4) the medusa-colonies.

  • Since, however, medusa-colonies occur only in one group, the Siphonophora, and divergent views are held with regard to the morphological interpretation of the members of a siphonophore, only the first three of the above sub-divisions of hydromedusa morphology will be dealt with here in a general way, and the morphology of the Siphonophora will be considered under the heading of the group itself.

  • Hence it is convenient to consider the morphology of the medusa from these two aspects.

  • Brooks, Journal of Morphology, x., by permission of Ginn & Co.

  • The theory that the medusa is an independent individual, fully equivalent to the polyp in this respect, is now universally accepted as being supported by all the facts of comparative morphology and development.

  • The general theories of Siphonophoran morphology are discussed below, but in enumerating the various types of appendages it is convenient to discuss their morphological interpretation, at the same time.

  • Morphology, x.

  • Those who were unwilling to accept evolution, without better grounds than such as are offered by Lamarck, and who therefore preferred to suspend their judgment on the question, found in the principle of selective breeding, pursued in all its applications with marvellous knowledge and skill by Darwin, a valid explanation of the occurrence of varieties and races; and they saw clearly that, if the explanation would apply to species, it would not only solve the problem of their evolution, but that it would account for the facts of teleology, as well as for those of morphology; and for the persistence of some forms of life unchanged through long epochs of time, while others undergo comparatively rapid metamorphosis.

  • by Moor; Darwin and Acton, Practical Physiology of Plants; Davenport, C.B., Experimental Morphology, vols.

  • MORPHOLOGY OF PLANTS

  • The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.

  • It is this last department of morphology that was the first to be pursued.

  • To this it may be replied that pure morphology and organography are not alternatives, but are two complementary and equally necessary modes of considering the composition of the plant-body.

  • From the nature of the case, this view is not, and could not be, based upon actual observation, nor is it universally accepted; however, it seems to correspond more closely than any other to the facts of comparative morphology.

  • Di,fferentiation.Any account of the general morphology of living organisms is incomplete if it does not include some attempt at an explanation of its causation; though such an attempt cannot be carried far at the present time.

  • LITERATURE.AS the scope of this article limits it to the general principles of the morphology of plants, comparatively few facts have been adduced.

  • P. Pycraft, " On the Morphology and Phylogeny of the Palaeognathae (Ratitae and Crypturi) and Neognathae," Trans.

  • " Some points in the morphology of the Palate of the Neognathae," T.

  • Amongst his published works are Knowledge and Reality (q85); Logic, or the Morphology of Knowledge (1888); Essentials of Logic (1895); Psychology of.

  • The morphology of the abdomen, ovipositor and genital armature is dealt with by K.

  • A The ganglia of the nervous _ Tre system offer some important evidence as to the morphology of the head, and are alluded to below.

  • - Morphology of an Insect: the embryo of Gryllotalpa, somewhat diagrammatic. The longitudinal segmented band along the middle line represents the early segmentation of the nervous system and the subsequent median field of each sternite; the lateral transverse unshaded bands are the lateral fields of each segment; the shaded areas indicate the more internally placed mesoderm layer.

  • the Apterygogenea of Brauer and others, though we prefer the shorter term Apterygota) - is rendered improbable from the fact that existing Apterygota are related to Exopterygota, not to Endopterygota, and by the knowledge that has been gained as to the morphology and development of wings, which suggest that - if we may so phrase it - were an apterygotous insect gradually to develop wings, it would be on the exopterygotous system.

  • Lowne, The Anatomy, Physiology, Morphology and Development of the Blow fly (2 vols., London, 1890-1895); G.

  • 1 Indeed, the study of this memoir, limited though it be in scope, could not fail to convince any one that it proceeded from the mind of one who taught with the authority derived directly from original knowledge, and not from association with the scribes - a conviction that has become strengthened as, in a series of successive memoirs, the stores of more than twenty years' silent observation and unremitting research were unfolded, and, more than that, the hidden forces of the science of morphology were gradually brought to bear upon almost each subject that came under discussion.

  • For the morphology and classification of snails, see Gastropoda.

  • Morphology becomes a farce when such assumptions are made.

  • Watase, " On the Morphology of the Compound Eyes of Arthropods," Studies from the Biolog.

  • Morphology, vols.

  • This division of the Vertebrata into hot and cold blooded is a curiously retrograde step, only intelligible when we reflect that the excellent entomologist had no real comprehension of vertebrate morphology; but he makes some atonement for the blunder by steadily upholding the class distinctness of the Amphibia.

  • A subdivision of zoology which was at one time in favour is simply into morphology and physiology, the study of form and structure on the one hand, and the study of Scope the activities and functions of the forms and structures of zoo- on the other.

  • No such distinction of mental activities as that involved in the division of the study of animal life into morphology and physiology has ever really existed: the investigator of animal forms has never entirely ignored the functions of the forms studied by him, and the experimental inquirer into the functions and properties of animal tissues and organs has always taken very careful account of the forms of those tissues and organs.

  • The tracing out of this identity in diversity, whether regarded as evidence of blood-relationship or as a remarkable display of skill on the part of the Creator in varying the details whilst retaining the essential, became at this period a special pursuit, to which Goethe, the poet, who himself contributed importantly to it, gave the name " morphology."

  • Cuvier's morphological doctikne received its fullest development in the principle of the " correlation of parts," which he applied to palaeontological investigation, namely, that every animal is a definite whole, and that no part can be varied without entailing correlated and law-abiding variations in other parts, so that from a fragment it should be possible, had we a full knowledge of the laws of animal structure or morphology, to reconstruct the whole.

  • And, though the conceptions of " archetypal morphology," to which it had reference, are now abandoned in favour of a genetic morphology.

  • Morphology; II.

  • Details of the morphology of plants will be found in the articles relating to the chief groups of plants, those of animals in the corresponding articles on groups of animals, while the classification of animals adopted in this work will be found in the article ZOOLOGY.

  • Morphology of the Cestodes.

  • A recent standard work on the morphology of the Hemiptera by R.

  • 204) terms political "collectivites secondaires"; that the attributes summed up in sovereignty may be separated and divided in many ways; that there may be new forms of combinations between states or parts of states; and that their morphology is subject to no hard and fast rules.

  • One of the early supporters of this natural method was Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841), who in 1813 published his Theorie elementaire de la botanique, in which he showed that the affinities of plants are to be sought by the comparative study of the form and development of organs (morphology), not of their functions (physiology).

  • The study of form and development has advanced under the name "morphology," with the progress of which are associated the names of K.

  • The morphology of the Hydrozoa reduces itself, therefore, to a consideration of the morphology of the polyp, of the medusa and of the colony.

  • As remarked in the section on morphology, the Trypanosomes as a whole are preferably regarded as including tion.

  • The most interesting point about the morphology is the fact that two chromatic bodies, of very unequal size, are almost invariably to be recognized.

  • In England, Owen's anatomy of the pearly nautilus,14 Huxley's discussion of the general morphology of the Mollusca,17 and Lankester's embryological investigations, 19 have aided in advancing our knowledge of the group. Two remarkable works of a systematic character dealing with the Mollusca deserve mention here - the Manual of the Mollusca, by Dr S.

  • Morphology.

  • Huxley, " On the Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca," Phil.

  • But it is a widely recognized principle of morphology that a much modified animal is by no means modified to the same degree in all its organs.

  • Teil (1892 onwards); Zopf, Die Pilze (Breslau, 1890); De Bary, Comparative Morphology of Fungi, &c. (Oxford, 1887); von Tafel, Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze (Jena, 1892); Brefeld, Ureters.

  • Chamberlain of Chicago University have given a valuable general account of the morphology of Angiosperms as far as concerns the flower, and the series of events which ends in the formation of the seed (Morphology of Angiosperms, Chicago, 1903).

  • (Oxford, 1890); Solereder, Systematische Anatomie der Dicotyledonen (Stuttgart, 1899); van Tieghem, Elements de botanique; Coulter and Chamberlain, Morphology of Angiosperms (New York, 1903).

  • external morphology as that of cormophytes has been reached by a It is not easy in all cases to draw a distinction between a colony totally different internal structure.

  • There is thus a Protococcales, and in the bulk of the Confervales, the thallus consists close approach to the external morphology of the higher plants.

  • Like the Fungi, therefore, the Red Algae consist for the most part of branched filaments, even where the thallus appears massive to the eye, and, as in the case of Fungi, this fact is not inconsistent with a great variety of external morphology.

  • In 1790 he published his important Versuch, die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erkleiren, which was an even more fundamental achievement for the new science of comparative morphology than his discovery some six years earlier of the existence of a formation in the human jaw-bone analogous to the intermaxillary bone in apes; and in 1791 and 1792 appeared two parts of his Beitrage zur Optik.

  • Of far-reaching importance was, on the other hand, his foreshadowing of the Darwinian theory in his works on the metamorphosis of plants and on animal morphology.

  • Morphology >>

  • The detail, too, of the whole discussion is rich in suggestion, and subsequent logiciansUeberweg himself perhaps, Lotze certainly in his genetic scale of types of judgment and inference, Professor Bosanquet notably in his systematic development of " the morphology of knowledge," and others - have with reason exploited it.

  • Logic, or The Morphology of Thought (2 vols., 1888).

  • In comparative morphology it provides many illustrations of important biological principles (such, for example, as substitution and change of function of organs), and throws new light upon, or at least points the way to new ideas of, the primitive relations of different organic systems in respect of their function and topography.

  • In this article religions are treated from the point of view of morphology, and no attempt can be made in the allotted limits to connect them with the phases of ritual, sociological or ethical development.

  • In the meantime, while various observers were building up our knowledge of the morphology of bacteria, others were laying the foundation of what is known of the relations of these organisms to fermentation and disease - that ancient will-o'-the-wisp " spontaneous generation " being revived by the way.

  • General Morphology of Appendages.

  • As Sachs says in his history of botany, " no more important discovery was ever made in the domain of comparative morphology and systematic botany."

  • The morphology of the female flowers has been variously interpreted by botanists; the peduncle bearing the ovules has been described as homologous with the petiole of a foliage-leaf and as a shoot-structure, the collar-like envelope at the base of the ovules being referred to as a second integument or arillus, or as the representative of a carpel.

  • In the conifers proper the female reproductive organs have the form of cones, which may be styled flowers or inflorescences according to different interpretations of their morphology.

  • Robert Brown was the first to give a clear description of the morphology of the Abietineous cone in which carpels bear naked ovules; he recognized gymnospermy as an important distinguishing feature in conifers as well as in cycads.

  • In 1869 van Tieghem laid stress on anatomical evidence as a key to the morphology of the cone-scales; he drew attention to the fact that the collateral vascular bundles of the seminiferous scale are inversely orientated as compared with those of the carpellary scale; in the latter the xylem of each bundle is next the upper surface, while in the seminiferous scale the phloem occupies that position.

  • Without expressing any decided opinion as to the morphology of the double cone-scale of the Abietineae, preference may be felt in favour of regarding the cone-scale of the Araucarieae as a simple carpellary leaf bearing a single ovule.

  • Cordaites is an extinct type which in certain respects resembles Ginkgo, cycads and the Araucarieae, but its agreement with true conifers is probably too remote to justify our attri buting much weight to the bearing of the morphology of its female flowers on the interpretation of that of the Coniferae.

  • (1897); Lang, " Studies in the Development and Morphology of Cycadean Sporangia, No.

  • (1892); Beissner, Handbuch der Nadelholzkunde (Berlin, 1891); Masters, " Comparative Morphology of the Coniferae," Journ.

  • Duerden, "Some Results on the Morphology and Development of Recent and Fossil Corals," Rep. Brit.

  • Association, 1903, pp. 684-685; "The Morphology of the Madreporaria," Biol.

  • Carpenter, "Notes on Echinoderm Morphology," Quart.

  • It is the task of the morphology of speech to distinguish the various ways in which languages differ from each other as regards their inner form, and to classify and arrange them accordingly.

  • Such a scheme may be placed here in a tabular form before entering on the consideration of the life-history, natural history, morphology, and classification of the several groups: Pteridophyta.

  • Though the high specialization of this ancient group of plants renders the determination of their natural affinities difficult, indications are afforded by anatomy and the morphology of the strobilus.

  • The general morphology of the cones, on the other hand, suggests some affinity with the Equisetales.

  • Recent work both on their anatomy and on the morphology and structure of their sporeproducing organs has however tended to show that their peculiarities can be best understood in the light of our knowledge of the Sphenophyllales.

  • The morphology of the fertile spike is a disputed question, upon the answer to which the systematic position of the Ophioglossaceae largely rests.

  • Two diverse views of the morphology of the fertile spike in these plants have been entertained.

  • This group, which contains the remaining ferns, includes a number of distinct lines of descent and will doubtless require subdivision as our knowledge of the morphology of the genera classed in it becomes extended.

  • An erroneous view of the fundamental morphology of the Crustacean limb, and consequently of that of other Arthropoda, came into favour owing to the acceptance of the highly modified limbs of Astacus as typical.

  • Watase, " On the Morphology of the Compound Eyes of Arthropods," Studies from the Biol.

  • These are with few exceptions foliar structures, known in comparative morphology as sporophylls, because they bear the spores, namely, the microspores or pollen-grains which are developed in the microsporangia or pollen-sacs, and the megaspore, which is contained in the ovule or megasporangium.

  • As for the Coniferae great discussion has arisen regarding the morphology of parts in many genera.

  • His investigations must embrace not only the comparative morphology and anatomy of fossil plants, but also their distribution over the earth's surface at different periods - a part of the subject which, besides its direct biological interest, has obvious bearings on ancient climatology and geography.

  • The morphology of Stigmaria has been much discussed; possibly the main axes, which do not agree perfectly either with rhizomes or roots, may best be regarded as comparable with the rhizophores of Selaginellae; they have also been compared with the embryonic stem, or protocorm, of certain species of Lycopodium; the homologies of the appendages with the roots of recent Lycopods appear manifest.

  • The class, though clearly allied to the typical Gymnosperms, may be kept distinct for the present on account of the relatively primitive characters shown in the anatomy and morphology, and may be provisionally defined as follows: plants resembling Ferns in habit and in many anatomical characters, but bearing seeds of a Cycadean type; seeds and microsporangia borne on fronds only slightly modified as compared with the vegetative leaves.

  • In any case the morphology of the male Cordaitean fructification is clearly very remote from that of any of the Cycads or P P (All after Renault.) Fin.

  • The morphology of the female inflorescence of Cordaiteae has not yet been cleared up, but Taxus and Ginkgo among recent plants appear to offer the nearest analogies.

  • This investigator has already published a well-illustrated account of his discoveries, which give valuable information as to the morphology of the male organs, and lead us to expect additional results in the future of the greatest importance and interest.

  • aberrant growth, metabolism, and morphology.

  • MORPHOLOGY is a powerfully atmospheric virtual instrument featuring.. .

  • blocky morphology.

  • churchyard morphology point to an early medieval origin.

  • crystallites formed during these processes often have a unique chemistry and morphology as a result of the controls imposed by the organisms.

  • crystallite growth rates and hence both crystal morphology and polymorphic form (Catlow ).

  • Their present morphology was shaped principally during the last glacial cycle (the Midlandian ), with subsequent modification throughout the post-glacial Holocene period.

  • ergative case marker ne is required by perfect verb morphology.

  • exhumed faults has tended to focus on the fault morphology.

  • flabellate morphology and locomotory habit.

  • The morphology and location of helminth eggs are a valuable aid to the diagnosis of specific helminth eggs are a valuable aid to the diagnosis of specific helminth diseases.

  • The morphology and location of helminth eggs are a valuable aid to the diagnosis of specific helminth diseases.

  • He specializes in the field of sediment transport in rivers, including river morphology and environmental hydraulics.

  • inflection class morphology (see below) indicates that lexical words were employed with elements of their original Greek morphology.

  • inflectional morphology.

  • We have examined the morphology and longitudinal axon projections of a population of spinal commissural interneurons, in young Xenopus tadpoles.

  • large-scale coastal morphology: a study of Winterton Ness, UK Information on this project will be online shortly.

  • manganese sulfide inclusions from an elongated to globular morphology.

  • The changes in crystal morphology observed under the different monolayers were attributed to changes in the monolayer structure as a function of chain length.

  • Morphology is the study of the way words are formed from smaller units called morphemes.

  • morphology of the churchyard are clear indicators of an early medieval origin.

  • morphology of the verb in Basque.

  • morphology of the crystal was clearly dictated by the template.

  • In order to determine the surface morphology and orientation texture of the films, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, was performed.

  • Fact sheets describe the morphology of each tree in text and in photographs of bark, twigs, fruits and leaves.

  • Overexpression rather than absence of MyoM strongly affected the morphology of D. discoideum.

  • Changes in a number of other factors can also influence island morphology (Figure 1 ).

  • understanding large-scale coastal morphology: a study of Winterton Ness, UK Information on this project will be online shortly.

  • These results provide constraining data for models of inflectional morphology.

  • One of them tested in this study is derivational morphology.

  • It is well known that dendritic morphology plays an important role in neuronal function.

  • Low sperm count, poor motility, or abnormal morphology of sperm can make it very difficult to conceive using your partners sperm.

  • Chapter Eight presents an analysis of the extensive verbal morphology.

  • Certainly both the dedication and the churchyard morphology point to an early medieval origin.

  • The section on verb morphology accounts for one third of the book.

  • In men, smoking levels affect spermatogenesis (sperm development ), sperm morphology (abnormality) and sperm mobility.

  • The thickening process has not left any indication of the initial crystal morphology.

  • They are divided into the following three groups on the basis of their colony morphology on blood agar plates.

  • cliff morphology may follow a cyclic pattern of response to marine undercutting of the toe that results in cliff failure.

  • The advantage of this model system stems from the distinctive morphology of WPB allowing them to be distinguished from other intracellular organelles.

  • ovipositor morphology.

  • phenology of this species is as varied as its morphology.

  • These include sign language phonology, morphology, and syntax.

  • phylogeny based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences and morphology.

  • ploidy pattern and tumor histologic and cytologic morphology was also examined.

  • projection neurons based on dendritic morphology and soma size.

  • add apostrophe strophe s to the owner's name, and so on... Word form is technically referred to as morphology.

  • Add apostrophe span>Add apostrophe s to the owner's name, and so on... Word form is technically referred to as morphology.

  • sea urchin plate exhibits a bicontinuous morphology with pores of diameter 10-15 micron.

  • spa resorts in Latium are linked to the volcanic activity which has shaped the morphology of much of the region.

  • In men, smoking levels affect spermatogenesis (sperm development ), sperm morphology (abnormality) and sperm mobility.

  • storm surge - namely the morphology of the shingle beach.

  • subglacial diamict of rogen moraine morphology in the lowlands.

  • Additionally, the digital echo sounder will be used with a side-looking sonar transducer that will enable quantification of dune planform morphology.

  • The morphology of the carboniferous uplands is largely controlled by the presence of a series of gritstone caprocks.

  • urchin plate exhibits a bicontinuous morphology with pores of diameter 10-15 micron.

  • P. Hill, "Contributions to the Morphology of the Female Urino-genital Organs in Marsupialia," Proc. Linn.

  • Save for the consequences of these phonetic changes, Umbrian morphology and syntax exhibit no divergence from Oscan that need be mentioned here, save perhaps two peculiar perfect-formations with -1- and -nci-; as in ampelust, fut.

  • - Morphology of Pitchers.

  • Organization and Morphology of the Hydromedusae.

  • The morphology of the group thus falls naturally into four sections - (I) the hydropolyp, (2) the polyp-colony, (3) the hydromedusa, (4) the medusa-colonies.

  • Since, however, medusa-colonies occur only in one group, the Siphonophora, and divergent views are held with regard to the morphological interpretation of the members of a siphonophore, only the first three of the above sub-divisions of hydromedusa morphology will be dealt with here in a general way, and the morphology of the Siphonophora will be considered under the heading of the group itself.

  • Hence it is convenient to consider the morphology of the medusa from these two aspects.

  • Brooks, Journal of Morphology, x., by permission of Ginn & Co.

  • The theory that the medusa is an independent individual, fully equivalent to the polyp in this respect, is now universally accepted as being supported by all the facts of comparative morphology and development.

  • The general theories of Siphonophoran morphology are discussed below, but in enumerating the various types of appendages it is convenient to discuss their morphological interpretation, at the same time.

  • Morphology, x.

  • That branch of biology which is termed morphology is a commentary upon, and expansion of, the proposition that widely different animals or plants, and widely different parts of animals or plants, are constructed upon the same plan.

  • Wolff, to the present elaborate analysis of the floral organs, morphology exhibits a continual advance towards the demonstration of a fundamental unity among the seeming diversities of living structures.

  • Those who were unwilling to accept evolution, without better grounds than such as are offered by Lamarck, and who therefore preferred to suspend their judgment on the question, found in the principle of selective breeding, pursued in all its applications with marvellous knowledge and skill by Darwin, a valid explanation of the occurrence of varieties and races; and they saw clearly that, if the explanation would apply to species, it would not only solve the problem of their evolution, but that it would account for the facts of teleology, as well as for those of morphology; and for the persistence of some forms of life unchanged through long epochs of time, while others undergo comparatively rapid metamorphosis.

  • The subjects included are systematic botany, vegetable morphology and physiology, chemistry, physics, materia medica, pharmacy, dispensing, posology, the reading of prescriptions, and a knowledge of poisons and their antidotes.

  • Since about 1895 this branch has been most actively pursued in England, where the work of Boodle and of Gwynne-Vaughan especially on Ferns) has been the most important, leading to a coherent theory of the evolution of the vascular system in these plants (Tansley, Evolution of the Filicinean Vascular System, Cambridge, 1908); and in America, where Jeffrey has published important papers on the morphology of the vascular tissues of the various groups of Pteridophytes and Phanerogams and has sought to express his conclusions in a general morphological theory with appropriate terminology.

  • by Moor; Darwin and Acton, Practical Physiology of Plants; Davenport, C.B., Experimental Morphology, vols.

  • xxxviii.; Meyer, Untersuchungen fiber die Starke-Kdrner (J ena, 1895); Montgomery, Comparative Cytological Studies, with especial regard to the Morphology of the Nucleolus, Journ.

  • of Morphology, vol.

  • MORPHOLOGY OF PLANTS

  • The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.

  • It is this last department of morphology that was the first to be pursued.

  • To this it may be replied that pure morphology and organography are not alternatives, but are two complementary and equally necessary modes of considering the composition of the plant-body.

  • The introduction of the phylogenetic factor has very much increased the difficulty of determining homologies; for the data necessary for tracing phylogeny can only be obtained by the study of a series of allied, presumably ancestral, forms. One of the chief difficulties met with in this line of research, which is one of the more striking developments of modern morphology, is that of distinguishing between organs which are reduced, and those which are really primitive.

  • From the nature of the case, this view is not, and could not be, based upon actual observation, nor is it universally accepted; however, it seems to correspond more closely than any other to the facts of comparative morphology.

  • Di,fferentiation.Any account of the general morphology of living organisms is incomplete if it does not include some attempt at an explanation of its causation; though such an attempt cannot be carried far at the present time.

  • With the transition from water to land came the progressive development of the sporophyte which is the characteristic feature of the morphology of the Bryophyta and of all plants above them in the scale of life (see Bower, Origin of a Land-Flora).

  • LITERATURE.AS the scope of this article limits it to the general principles of the morphology of plants, comparatively few facts have been adduced.

  • P. Pycraft, " On the Morphology and Phylogeny of the Palaeognathae (Ratitae and Crypturi) and Neognathae," Trans.

  • " Some points in the morphology of the Palate of the Neognathae," T.

  • Amongst his published works are Knowledge and Reality (q85); Logic, or the Morphology of Knowledge (1888); Essentials of Logic (1895); Psychology of.

  • The morphology of the abdomen, ovipositor and genital armature is dealt with by K.

  • The development of Aplysia from the egg presents many points of interest from the point of view of comparative embryology, but in relation to the morphology of the Opisthobranchia it is sufficient to point to the occurrence of a trochosphere and a veliger stage (fig.

  • A The ganglia of the nervous _ Tre system offer some important evidence as to the morphology of the head, and are alluded to below.

  • - Morphology of an Insect: the embryo of Gryllotalpa, somewhat diagrammatic. The longitudinal segmented band along the middle line represents the early segmentation of the nervous system and the subsequent median field of each sternite; the lateral transverse unshaded bands are the lateral fields of each segment; the shaded areas indicate the more internally placed mesoderm layer.

  • the Apterygogenea of Brauer and others, though we prefer the shorter term Apterygota) - is rendered improbable from the fact that existing Apterygota are related to Exopterygota, not to Endopterygota, and by the knowledge that has been gained as to the morphology and development of wings, which suggest that - if we may so phrase it - were an apterygotous insect gradually to develop wings, it would be on the exopterygotous system.

  • Lowne, The Anatomy, Physiology, Morphology and Development of the Blow fly (2 vols., London, 1890-1895); G.

  • 1 Indeed, the study of this memoir, limited though it be in scope, could not fail to convince any one that it proceeded from the mind of one who taught with the authority derived directly from original knowledge, and not from association with the scribes - a conviction that has become strengthened as, in a series of successive memoirs, the stores of more than twenty years' silent observation and unremitting research were unfolded, and, more than that, the hidden forces of the science of morphology were gradually brought to bear upon almost each subject that came under discussion.

  • For the morphology and classification of snails, see Gastropoda.

  • same leg (see for some sug epc, The articulated movable gestions on the morphology outgrowth of the coxa, called of this leg, Pocock in Quart.

  • Morphology becomes a farce when such assumptions are made.

  • Watase, " On the Morphology of the Compound Eyes of Arthropods," Studies from the Biolog.

  • Morphology, vols.

  • This division of the Vertebrata into hot and cold blooded is a curiously retrograde step, only intelligible when we reflect that the excellent entomologist had no real comprehension of vertebrate morphology; but he makes some atonement for the blunder by steadily upholding the class distinctness of the Amphibia.

  • A subdivision of zoology which was at one time in favour is simply into morphology and physiology, the study of form and structure on the one hand, and the study of Scope the activities and functions of the forms and structures of zoo- on the other.

  • No such distinction of mental activities as that involved in the division of the study of animal life into morphology and physiology has ever really existed: the investigator of animal forms has never entirely ignored the functions of the forms studied by him, and the experimental inquirer into the functions and properties of animal tissues and organs has always taken very careful account of the forms of those tissues and organs.

  • The tracing out of this identity in diversity, whether regarded as evidence of blood-relationship or as a remarkable display of skill on the part of the Creator in varying the details whilst retaining the essential, became at this period a special pursuit, to which Goethe, the poet, who himself contributed importantly to it, gave the name " morphology."

  • Cuvier's morphological doctikne received its fullest development in the principle of the " correlation of parts," which he applied to palaeontological investigation, namely, that every animal is a definite whole, and that no part can be varied without entailing correlated and law-abiding variations in other parts, so that from a fragment it should be possible, had we a full knowledge of the laws of animal structure or morphology, to reconstruct the whole.

  • And, though the conceptions of " archetypal morphology," to which it had reference, are now abandoned in favour of a genetic morphology.

  • Darwinian morphology has further rendered necessary the introduction of the terms " homoplasy " and " homoplastic " (E.

  • Morphology; II.

  • Details of the morphology of plants will be found in the articles relating to the chief groups of plants, those of animals in the corresponding articles on groups of animals, while the classification of animals adopted in this work will be found in the article ZOOLOGY.

  • Morphology of the Cestodes.

  • A recent standard work on the morphology of the Hemiptera by R.

  • 204) terms political "collectivites secondaires"; that the attributes summed up in sovereignty may be separated and divided in many ways; that there may be new forms of combinations between states or parts of states; and that their morphology is subject to no hard and fast rules.

  • One of the early supporters of this natural method was Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841), who in 1813 published his Theorie elementaire de la botanique, in which he showed that the affinities of plants are to be sought by the comparative study of the form and development of organs (morphology), not of their functions (physiology).

  • The study of form and development has advanced under the name "morphology," with the progress of which are associated the names of K.

  • Structural, having reference to the form and structure of the various parts, including (a) Morphology, the study of the general form of the organs and their development - this will be treated in a series of articles dealing with the great subdivisions of plants (see Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Algae, Lichens, Fungi and Bacteriology) and the more important organs (see Stem, Leaf, RooT, Flower, Fruit); (b) Anatomy, the study of internal structure, including minute anatomy or histology (see Plants: Anatomy).

  • The morphology of the Hydrozoa reduces itself, therefore, to a consideration of the morphology of the polyp, of the medusa and of the colony.

  • Oesophagus, stomach, radial canals, ring-canal and tentacle-canals, constitute together the gastrovascular system and are lined throughout by endoderm, which forms also a flat sheet of cells connecting the radial canals and ring canal together like a web; this is the so-called endoderm-lamella (e.l.), a most important feature of medusan morphology, the nature of which will be apparent when the development is described.

  • As remarked in the section on morphology, the Trypanosomes as a whole are preferably regarded as including tion.

  • The most interesting point about the morphology is the fact that two chromatic bodies, of very unequal size, are almost invariably to be recognized.

  • Duckworth (Morphology and Anthro- FIG.

  • In England, Owen's anatomy of the pearly nautilus,14 Huxley's discussion of the general morphology of the Mollusca,17 and Lankester's embryological investigations, 19 have aided in advancing our knowledge of the group. Two remarkable works of a systematic character dealing with the Mollusca deserve mention here - the Manual of the Mollusca, by Dr S.

  • Huxley, " On the Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca," Phil.

  • But it is a widely recognized principle of morphology that a much modified animal is by no means modified to the same degree in all its organs.

  • Teil (1892 onwards); Zopf, Die Pilze (Breslau, 1890); De Bary, Comparative Morphology of Fungi, &c. (Oxford, 1887); von Tafel, Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze (Jena, 1892); Brefeld, Ureters.

  • Chamberlain of Chicago University have given a valuable general account of the morphology of Angiosperms as far as concerns the flower, and the series of events which ends in the formation of the seed (Morphology of Angiosperms, Chicago, 1903).

  • (Oxford, 1890); Solereder, Systematische Anatomie der Dicotyledonen (Stuttgart, 1899); van Tieghem, Elements de botanique; Coulter and Chamberlain, Morphology of Angiosperms (New York, 1903).

  • external morphology as that of cormophytes has been reached by a It is not easy in all cases to draw a distinction between a colony totally different internal structure.

  • There is thus a Protococcales, and in the bulk of the Confervales, the thallus consists close approach to the external morphology of the higher plants.

  • Like the Fungi, therefore, the Red Algae consist for the most part of branched filaments, even where the thallus appears massive to the eye, and, as in the case of Fungi, this fact is not inconsistent with a great variety of external morphology.

  • Scott, "On the Osteology of Poebrotherium," Journal of Morphology (1891), vol.

  • In 1790 he published his important Versuch, die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erkleiren, which was an even more fundamental achievement for the new science of comparative morphology than his discovery some six years earlier of the existence of a formation in the human jaw-bone analogous to the intermaxillary bone in apes; and in 1791 and 1792 appeared two parts of his Beitrage zur Optik.

  • Of far-reaching importance was, on the other hand, his foreshadowing of the Darwinian theory in his works on the metamorphosis of plants and on animal morphology.

  • The detail, too, of the whole discussion is rich in suggestion, and subsequent logiciansUeberweg himself perhaps, Lotze certainly in his genetic scale of types of judgment and inference, Professor Bosanquet notably in his systematic development of " the morphology of knowledge," and others - have with reason exploited it.

  • Logic, or The Morphology of Thought (2 vols., 1888).

  • In comparative morphology it provides many illustrations of important biological principles (such, for example, as substitution and change of function of organs), and throws new light upon, or at least points the way to new ideas of, the primitive relations of different organic systems in respect of their function and topography.

  • In this article religions are treated from the point of view of morphology, and no attempt can be made in the allotted limits to connect them with the phases of ritual, sociological or ethical development.

  • In the meantime, while various observers were building up our knowledge of the morphology of bacteria, others were laying the foundation of what is known of the relations of these organisms to fermentation and disease - that ancient will-o'-the-wisp " spontaneous generation " being revived by the way.

  • General Morphology of Appendages.

  • As Sachs says in his history of botany, " no more important discovery was ever made in the domain of comparative morphology and systematic botany."

  • The morphology of the female flowers has been variously interpreted by botanists; the peduncle bearing the ovules has been described as homologous with the petiole of a foliage-leaf and as a shoot-structure, the collar-like envelope at the base of the ovules being referred to as a second integument or arillus, or as the representative of a carpel.

  • In the conifers proper the female reproductive organs have the form of cones, which may be styled flowers or inflorescences according to different interpretations of their morphology.

  • Robert Brown was the first to give a clear description of the morphology of the Abietineous cone in which carpels bear naked ovules; he recognized gymnospermy as an important distinguishing feature in conifers as well as in cycads.

  • In 1869 van Tieghem laid stress on anatomical evidence as a key to the morphology of the cone-scales; he drew attention to the fact that the collateral vascular bundles of the seminiferous scale are inversely orientated as compared with those of the carpellary scale; in the latter the xylem of each bundle is next the upper surface, while in the seminiferous scale the phloem occupies that position.

  • Without expressing any decided opinion as to the morphology of the double cone-scale of the Abietineae, preference may be felt in favour of regarding the cone-scale of the Araucarieae as a simple carpellary leaf bearing a single ovule.

  • Cordaites is an extinct type which in certain respects resembles Ginkgo, cycads and the Araucarieae, but its agreement with true conifers is probably too remote to justify our attri buting much weight to the bearing of the morphology of its female flowers on the interpretation of that of the Coniferae.

  • (Jena, 1892); Coulter and Chamberlain, Morphology of Spermatophytes (New York, 1901); Rendle, The Classification of Flowering Plants, vol.

  • (1897); Lang, " Studies in the Development and Morphology of Cycadean Sporangia, No.

  • (1892); Beissner, Handbuch der Nadelholzkunde (Berlin, 1891); Masters, " Comparative Morphology of the Coniferae," Journ.

  • Duerden, "Some Results on the Morphology and Development of Recent and Fossil Corals," Rep. Brit.

  • Association, 1903, pp. 684-685; "The Morphology of the Madreporaria," Biol.

  • Carpenter, "Notes on Echinoderm Morphology," Quart.

  • It is the task of the morphology of speech to distinguish the various ways in which languages differ from each other as regards their inner form, and to classify and arrange them accordingly.

  • Such a scheme may be placed here in a tabular form before entering on the consideration of the life-history, natural history, morphology, and classification of the several groups: Pteridophyta.

  • Though the high specialization of this ancient group of plants renders the determination of their natural affinities difficult, indications are afforded by anatomy and the morphology of the strobilus.

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