They desired equal rights for all citizens, the abolition of monopolies and abuses, together with the maintenance of the state's independence.
Monopolies form Section IV.
monopolies and sailed up the St Lawrence in 1603.
The abandonment of the trading monopolies of the old Congo Free State, and the taking over of its loans put a severe strain on the resources of the colony.
It is the evident policy of the Mexican government to prevent the absorption of its railways by private monopolies, and this is effected by state ownership of a controlling share in most of the trunk lines.
Matters of a local or special nature, such as bills for chartering and incorporating gas, water, canal, tramway, railway or telephone companies, or for conferring franchises in the nature of monopolies or special privileges upon such companies, or for altering their constitutions, as also for incorporating cities or minor communities and regulating their affairs.
The conclusion in 1838 of a commercial treaty with Turkey, negotiated by Sir Henry Bulwer (Lord Dalling), struck a deathblow to the system of monopolies, though the application of the treaty to Egypt was delayed for some years.
Most of the trade monopolies held by Leopold II.
The government monopolies of opium and salt were then for the first time placed upon a remunerative basis.
Despite these monopolies, three-fourths of the shipping in French ports is foreign, and France is without shipping companies comparable in importance to those of other great maritime nations.
The state therefore draws its principal revenues from the imposts, the taxes and the monopolies.
The monopolies are those of salt, tobacco and the lottery.
Since 1880, while income from the salt and lotto monopolies hai remained almost stationary, and that from land tax and octroi har - diminished, revenue derived from all other sources has notabl)
The annual surpluses are largely accounted for by the heavy taxation on almost everything imported into the country, i and by the monopolies on tobacco and on salt; and are as a rule spent, and well spent, in other ways.
Important monopolies in the 18th maritime- century, and prohibitive import duties, as well as large tares and money bounties, in the 19th, contributed towards the pe t t y - In accumulation of immense private fortunes, but manu- pastries.
At the Restoration he received many marks of favour from the king, including grants of land and lucrative monopolies.
It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
The royal domains, again, and royal monopolies, such as salt-mines, were a source of revenue.
Spain paid increasing attention to the island, and in harmony with the policy of the Laws of the Indies many decrees intended to stimulate agriculture and commerce were issued by the crown, first in the form of monopolies, then with increased freedom and with bounties.
of the budget, and include in the first place the salt revenue (£T1, 227,750), which is assigned to the Public Debt Administration, and tobacco revenues of which the larger part, £ T86 5,737, is assigned to the same administration, the total (including share of Tumbeki profit) producing £T965,754; the remaining monopolies are: fixed payment from the Tumbeki Company, £T40,000; explosives, £T106,323; seignorage (Mint), £T10,466; and posts and telegraphs, £T912,129.
The " Monopolies " thus render a total revenue of £T3,262,424.
Before leaving Bahia, Dom John took the first step to emancipate Brazil, opening its ports to foreign commerce, and permitting the export of all Brazilian produce under any flag, the royal monopolies of diamonds and Brazil-wood excepted.
57, 8 9 6, 8 45 57,894,923 The ordinary revenue of the state is derived from direct and indirect taxation, monopolies, stamp dues, &c. In 1904 direct taxes amounted to £9,048,000, and the chief heads of direct taxes yielded as follows: ground tax, £2,317,000; trade tax, £1,879,000; income tax, £1,400,000; house tax, £1,000,000.
The principal monopolies yielded as follows: salt monopoly, £1 0,000; tobacco monopoly, £2,850,000; lottery monopoly, £105,000.
Among the first monopolies which were granted in 1882 was one for the manufacture of spirituous liquor.
In 1890 a feeling of considerable irritation had grown up among the Uitlanders at the various monopolies, but particularly at the dynamite monopoly, which pressed solely and with peculiar severity upon gold miners.
The public revenues are derived from customs taxes and charges on imports and exports, transit taxes, cattle taxes, profits on coinage, receipts from state monopolies, receipts from various public services such as the post office, telegraph, Caracas waterworks, &c., and sundr y taxes, fines and other sources.
Tobacco is an important crop in Turkey, where its cultivation and manufacture are monopolies.
The principal sources of revenue are direct taxation, stamp and death duties, customs, port and lighthouse dues, octroi and tithes, tobacco, salt and gunpowder monopolies, postal and telegraph receipts, and revenue from the state domains (lands, fisheries, forests, mines).
The public revenues are derived from customs, taxes, various inland and consumption taxes, state monopolies, the government wharves, posts and telegraphs, &c. The customs taxes include import and export duties, surcharges, harbour dues, warehouse charges, &c.; the inland taxes comprise consumption taxes on alcohol, tobacco, sugar and matches, stamps and stamped paper, capital and mining properties, licences, transfers of property, &c.; and the state monopolies cover opium and salt.
Mr Roosevelt not only attacked dishonesty in public affairs but in private business as welt, asserting that "malefactors of great wealth" endeavour to control legislation so as to increase the profits of monopolies or "trusts," and that to prevent such control it is necessary to extend the powers of the federal government.
He strengthened the interstate commission for the regulation of railroads, inaugurated successful suits against monopolies - notably the Standard Oil Company and the so-called Sugar Trust, - and achieved distinct practical results in favour of a system of "industrial democracy" where all men shall have equal rights under the law and where there shall be no privileged interests exempt from the operation of the law.
Much was also done to promote trade and industry, notably by the revival of the Kammer Kollegium, or board of trade, and the abolition of some of the most harmful monopolies.
The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from monopolies - opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests, and from agricultural and other concessions.
In 1803 a commission met to consider the state of the Dutch colonies, and advocated drastic administrative and commercial reforms, notably freedom' of trade in all commodities except firearms, opium, rice and wood - with coffee, pepper and spices, which were state monopolies.
During his absence de Chastes had died, and his privileges and fur trade monopolies were conferred upon Pierre de Guast, sieur de Monts (1560-1611).
==Finance== Revenue is derived chiefly from direct taxation, customs and monopolies.
About one-half of the national revenue is derived from customs, the remainder being principally furnished by railways, stamps, and the salt and tobacco monopolies.
He is perhaps scarcely consistent in ap proving the concession of temporary monopolies to joint-stock companies undertaking risky enterprises "of which the public is afterwards to reap the benefit."
To protect these adventurers and to secure for itself the largest possible share in these new sources of wealth, the Spanish crown forbade the admission of foreigners into these colonies, and then harassed them with commercial and industrial restrictions, burdened them with taxes, strangled them with monopolies and even refused to permit the free emigration thither of Spaniards..
Few, if any, monopolies exist.
From that period until the establishment of monopolies prices have gradually increased; but the great increase has chiefly taken place since 1824, when the pasha established his regular army, navy and factories.
were not long in revealing themselves- Scarcely a year from the signing of the convention of Kutaya the application by Ibrahim of Egyptian methods of government, notably of the monopolies and conscription, had driven Syrians, Druses and Arabs, who had welcomed him as a deliverer, into revolt.
The possession of the Sound enabled her to close the Baltic against the Western powers; the possession of Norway carried along with it the control of the rich fisheries which were Danish monopolies, and therefore a source of irritation to England and Holland.
They suffered, not only from the regular taxes, which were seldom remitted even after bad seasons, but also from monopolies; and Procopius goes so far as to allege that the emperor made a practice of further recruiting his treasury by confiscating on slight or fictitious pretexts the property of persons who had displeased Theodora or himself.
The economic importance of salt is further indicated by the almost universal prevalence in ancient and medieval times, and indeed in most countries down to the present day, of salt taxes or of government monopolies, which have not often been directed, as they were in ancient Rome, to enable every one to procure so necessary a condiment at a moderate price.
In 1889 Dr. Leyds, a young Hollander, was appointed state secretary, and the system of state monopolies around which so much corruption grew up was soon in full course of development.
In the latter connexion he enlarged on several points in which England had done less than many continental states for the abolition of monopolies and abuses.
The right to manufacture and the right to retail are both monopolies of government permitted to private individuals only upon terms. Distillation of country spirits is allowed according to two systems - either to the highest bidder under strict supervision, or only upon certain spots set apart for the purpose.
was the first king of France to take the bourgeoisie into partnership. He favoured the great merchants, granting them trade privileges and monopolies.
To obtain these money had been necessary; and to raise money the pasha had instituted those internal "reforms" - the bizarre system of state monopolies and the showy experiments in new native industries which are described in the article Egypt (q.v.).
So early as 1834 it seemed as though the struggle would be renewed; for Mehemet Ali had extended to his new pashaliks his system of monopolies and conscription, and the Syrians, finding that they had exchanged Turkish whips for Egyptian scorpions, rose in a passion of revolt.
16), which applied equally to all the territories under his rule, threatened to destroy at a blow the lucrative monopolies which supplied him with the sinews of war.
But he was believed to be planning the conquest of other Central American states, and his policy of granting monopolies and commercial concessions to his own supporters aroused widespread discontent.
Neither the state monopolies nor the public land in Italy afforded any appreciable revenue.
Viewed broadly, the financial resources of the earlier Empire were obtained from (1) the public land alike of the state and the Princeps; (2) the monopolies, principally of minerals; (3) the land tax; (4) the customs; (5) the taxes on inheritances, on sales and on the purchase of slaves (vectigalia).
Closely akin are the payments demanded for privileges to industrial undertakings given as " franchises," very often in connexion with monopolies, e.g.
We know indeed that he sympathized cordially with the home policy of the government; he had no objection to such monopolies or patents as seemed advantageous to the country, and for this he is certainly not to be blamed.'
This proposal, though pressed by Coke, was allowed to drop; while the king and Buckingham, acting under the advice of Williams, afterwards lord keeper, agreed to give up the monopolies.
But on the r4th of March one 1 For a full discussion of Bacon's connexion with the monopolies, see Gardiner, Prince Charles, &c. ii.
For his opinion of monopolies in general, see Letters and Life, vi.
Shortly after his accession (March 4, 1844) he laid several projects of reform before the Riksdag; but the estates would do little more than abolish the obsolete marriage and inheritance laws and a few commercial monopolies.
Finance.The fixed revenues of Persia are derived from (I) regular taxation (snaliat) composed of taxes on lands, flocks, herds shopkeepers, artisans and trade; (2) revenues from Crown lands~ (3) customs; (4) rents and leases of state monopolies.
The revenues from rents and leases of state monopolies are derived from posts, telegraphs, mines, mint, forests, banks, fisheries, factories, &c., and amount to about 110,000 per annum.
Out of the actual total revenue 500,000 is represented by customs and 110,000 by rents and leases of state monopolies, leaving 990,000 for maliat and revenues of Crown lands.
Among the rights surrendered by the sultan of Ternate to the Dutch were those of granting monopolies and mining concessions, now vested in the Dutch resident.
A system of oppressive trade monopolies was also introduced.
In theory the most lucrative branches of commerce, such as the pepper trade, were monopolies vested in the Crown; the chartered companies and associations of merchant Policy.
But the Crown frequently farmed out its monopolies to individual merchants, or granted trading-licences by way of pension or reward.
Tithes, many hereditary privileges and all monopolies were abolished; every convent was closed and its property nationalized; the Jesuits, who had returned after the death of Pombal, were again expelled; the charter of 1826 was restored.
Among other things he abolished trade monopolies, closed factories and schools, and reduced the strength of the army to 9000 men.
The Delaware & Raritan Canal Company and the Camden & Amboy Railroad Company, both chartered in 1830 and both monopolies,' had been practically consolidated in 1831; in 1836 these joint companies gained control of the Philadelphia & Trenton railway; in 1867 these " United New Jersey Railroad & Canal Companies " consolidated with the New Jersey Railroad & Transportation Company (which was opened in 1836 and controlled the important railway link between New Brunswick and Jersey City), and profits were to be divided equally between the four companies; and in 1871 these entire properties were leased for 999 years to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company.
Trade monopolies were prohibited, and provision made for civilizing the natives, the suppression of the slave trade, and the protection of missionaries, scientists and explorers.
In accordance with this request the 5th marquess of Lansdowne, then secretary of state for foreign affairs, issued a despatch on the 8th of August 1903 to the British representatives at the courts of the powers which signed the Berlin Act, drawing attention to the alleged cases of ill-treatment of natives and to the existence of trade monopolies in the Congo Free State, and in conclusion stating that His Majesty's government would This concession was asserted by traders who had previously dealt direct with the natives, and by traders who hoped so to do, to contravene the provision of the Act of Berlin prohibiting any commercial monopoly in the Congo basin.
The local authorities derive a large income from private property, and from monopolies such as water, gas, electric light, telephones and tramway service, which they carry on, and on which the same observations may be made as on the post office and telegraph services; but in addition there is a large amount of taxation.
The state revenue is derived from customs; from public works and public land; from indirect taxes in the shape of stamp, inheritance, beer, spirit, petroleum and other duties; from direct taxes on land and buildings, with road-tolls, licences for the sale of alcohol and traders' registration fees; from the tobacco, salt, match, playing-card and cigarette-paper monopolies; and from the postal, telegraphic and telephonic services.
Along its coast there were several isolated establishments presided over by Spaniards, who were deprived of a convenient market for the produce of the soil by the monopolies imposed by the mother country.
Spanish monopolies filled the seamen who sailed the Caribbean with a natural hate of everything Spanish.
The abolition of monopolies in 1904 (see below History) gave an impetus to trade.
£49,000 in 1909) have been spent by the administration on the expropriation of monopolies.
General control of the media of commerce, economic co-operation, tax reform, banking reforms, legislation against monopolies, disposal of state lands, legislation in aid of the farmer and labourer, have been issues of one party or another.
Parliament was beginning tO quarrel with the royal prerogative, particularly when expressed in the grant of monopolies, and even Mountjoys success in Ireland (1602-1603) failed to revive popular enthusiasm for the dying queen.
Further, a system of granting monopolies and other privileges had again sprung up. Many of these grants embodied some scheme which was intended to serve the interests of the public, and many actions which appear startling to us were covered by the extreme protectionist theories then in vogue.
James was driven by the outcry raised to abandon these monopolies, and an att of Parliament in 1624 placed the future grant of proteotions to new inventions under the safeguard of the judges.
The attack on the monopolies was followed by charges brought by the Commons before the Lords against persons implicated in carrying them into execution, and subsequently Fail of ~gainst Lord Chancellor Bacon as guilty of corruption.
Tobacco and salt manufactures are government monopolies.
But at the same time he devoted his energies to the improvement of the administration of the empire; he reformed the standard of coinage, fixed the price of provisions and other necessaries of daily life, remitted the tax upon inheritances and manumissions, abolished various monopolies, repressed corruption and encouraged trade.
£21,572,000 The chief sources of revenue are customs duties, the state monopolies of salt, sugar, tobacco, matches and petroleum; national property, e.g.
Deficits appeared, which had to be covered temporarily by new loans, and which forced the government to establish monopolies on salt, tobacco, matches, mineral oils, &c. Every such step increased the unpopularity of the government and strengthened the opposition.
To an outsider it also appears that the staff of officials is very largely in excess of any real needs of administration; several monopolies, which interfere with the habits of the people, tend to produce discontent; and the taking of their land and houses for public works, roads, &c., while but a mere fraction of their real value is allowed as compensation, does not help to increase their acquiescence in foreign control.
who had supplanted or swamped the old landed and military aristocracy, had insensibly reconstructed the interior of the ancient social edifice with the gilded and incongruous materials of wealth, and in order to consolidate or increase their monopolies, needed to secure themselves against the arbitrary action of royalty and the bureaucracy.
In England historic protests were made against such monopolies, but the chartered companies were less exclusive in England than in either France or Holland, the governors of provinces almost always allowing strangers to trade on receiving some pecuniary inducement.
They were monopolies, and therefore, of course, obnoxious; and it is undoubted that the colonies they founded only became prosperous when they had escaped from their yoke.
In the case of England and Holland, the enterprise of the companies saved them from suffering from the monopolies of Spain and Portugal, and the wars of the English, and those of the Dutch in the Indies with Spain and Portugal, were paid for by the companies.
Old monopolies and cozy cartels have no place in this new market.
cash crops for export and the removal of government monopolies on the purchase of produce.
inefficient monopolies pass on their price increases to the consumer.
labourfight against sweatshop labor around the world, especially that employed by transnational monopolies.
Support for the continuation of milk marque in the current inquiry by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission.
monopolys aim is the bring choice and value to all gas and electricity customers by promoting competition and regulating monopolies.
monopolynefits of competition have to be weighed against the problems of private interests, regulated monopolies and market distortion.
monopolyts to put money into saving jobs in Britain often fall foul of the EU's policy of freedom for the capitalist monopolies.
Were they attracted by the long-dead NSDAP's broken or unfulfilled promises to break up capitalist monopolies?
Meanwhile, televised glove puppetry remains an oligopoly, with only a few troupes in business and the monopolies usually run by family members.
Other main sources of revenue are: the domains and forests managed by the state; government monopolies, comprising tobacco, matches, gunpowder; posts, telegraphs, telephones; and state f The tax on land (pro prils non Mties) and that on buildings (pro prietes bhties) are included under the head of contribution foncihre.
The railways showed an increase of 351,685; registration transfer and succession, 295,560; direct taxation, 42,136 (mainly from income tax, which more than made up for the remission of the house tax in the districts of Calabria visited by the earthquake of 1906); customs and excise, 1,036,742; government monopolies, 291,027; posts, 4I,3fo; telegraphs, 23,364; telephones, 65,771.
Revenue from taxation had risen in a decade from 7,000,000 to 20,200,000; profit on state monopolies had increased from 7,000,000 to 9,400,000; exports had grown to exceed imports; income from the working of telegraphs had tripled itself; railways had been extended from 2200 to 6200 kilometres, and the annual travelling public had augmented from 15,000,000 to 25,000,000 persons.
There is also this further disadvantage, that in the gradual progress of consolidation railway companies take upon themselves the aspect of large monopolies, of whose apparently unrestricted power the public is jealous.
These concessions in so far as the y prejudiced the commerce and general interests of the inhabitants, consisted chiefly in the granting of monopolies.
He was astute enough to take advantage of the offence given to the powers by Mehemet Ali's system of monopolies, and in 1838 signed with Great Britain, and afterwards with others, a commercial treaty which cut at the root of the pasha's system.
But attempts have been made, and have been largely successful, to make the revenue dependent to a less extent on monopolies and the products (especially agricultural) of the land; and to abolish licences and substitute direct taxes.
gatherers employed by Mehemet Ali to enforce his system of taxation, monopolies, corve and conscription.
Nominally, the import duties are moderate, so much so that Bolivia is sometimes called a " free-trade country," but this is a misnomer, for in addition to the schedule rates of io to 40% ad valorem on imports, there are a consular fee of i-% for the registration of invoices exceeding 200 bolivianos, a consumption tax of 10 centavos per quintal (46 kilogrammes), fees for viseing certificates to accompany merchandise in transit, special " octroi " taxes on certain kinds of merchandise controlled by monopolies (spirits, tobacco, &c.), and the import and consumption taxes levied by the departments and municipalities.
Technical workarounds will prevent technical monopolies in the future.
The unprecedented rise of competition between the monopolies is leading to the ruination of the economy at home.
The highest margins are typically enjoyed by companies that are unregulated monopolies, or nearly so.
The Burmese court, in contravention of the express terms of the treaty of 1869, created monopolies to the detriment of the trade of both England and Burma; and while the Indian government was unrepresented at Mandalay, representatives of Italy and France were welcomed, and two separate embassies were sent to Europe for the purpose of contracting new and, if possible, close alliances with sundry European powers.
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