"Boss, you can send her to behavior modification training," Pierre suggested.
Today, genetic modification efforts are much more directed.
Davy on the decomposition of the solutions of salts by the voltaic current were turned to account in the water voltameter telegraph of Sdmmering and the modification of it proposed by Schweigger, and in a similar method proposed by Coxe, in which a solution of salts was substituted for water.
A modification of the ordinary pressure-plate has recently been designed.
The wall of the tube is very thin and delicate, and does not seem to be composed of cellulose or any modification of it.
A very interesting modification was also proposed in the same letter, viz.
In any case, there are other ways to use genetic modification to get energy.
Another method of genetic modification, called mutagenesis, dates to the early part of the twentieth century.
Cuvier on anatomical, and Von Baer on embryological grounds, made the further step of proving that, even in this limited sense, animals cannot be arranged in a single series, but that there are several distinct plans of organization to be observed among them, no one of which, in its highest and most complicated modification, leads to any of the others.
Environmentalists should be the first people onboard the genetic modification bandwagon.
It should be added that the modern theory of vortex-atoms (Lord Kelvin's) to explain the constitution of matter has but slight analogy with Cartesian doctrine, and finds a parellel, if anywhere, in a modification of that doctrine by Malebranche.
"Pierre, if you let her do that again, you'll go straight to behavior modification," he warned her assigned bodyguard.
In a subsequent modification introduced in 1875 an electromotor was applied to drive the printing mechanism.
If the first order of genetic modification is deliberately keeping desirable mutations, then this is the second order: creating conditions for such genetic modifications to occur more rapidly.
A very refined modification of the Cape machine is described by A.
This conception of the Sabbath, however, necessarily underwent an important modification when the local sanctuaries were abolished under the "Deuteronomic" reform, and those sacrificial rites and feasts which in Hosea's time formed the essence of every act of religion were limited to the central altar, which most men could visit only at rare intervals.
Sainte-Claire Deville obtained a grey product, from which, on dissolving out the aluminium with sodium hydroxide, they obtained a crystalline product, which they thought to be a modification of boron, but which was shown later to be a mixture of aluminium borides with more or less carbon.
By a modification of the bridge method, applied with excellent results by Dr Muirhead to submarine work, condensers are substituted for a and b, one being also placed in the circuit between P and Q.
The day kiri grows tired of him, he's going to my behavior modification training, Dusty assured him.
It is suggested that even in the absence of modification produced by any possible Darwinian or Lamarckian factors, that even in a neutral environment, divergent evolution of some kind would have occurred.
Wheatstone also described and to some extent worked out an interesting modification of his step-by-step instrument, the object of which was to produce a letter-printing telegraph.
A modification of his views is the starting-point of W.
The large and heavy crop has caused a unique modification of the sternal apparatus.
Buffon (1753-1778), at first a partisan of the absolute immutability of species, subsequently appears to have believed that larger or smaller groups of species have been produced by the modification of a primitive stock; but he contributed nothing to the general doctrine of evolution.
From an area corresponding to what is now South America there entered a fauna and flora, which, after undergoing modification, passed by way of Tasmania to Australia.
A modification (known as the cable code) of the ordinary single needle alphabet is used; that is to say, currents in one direction indicate dots and in the other direction dashes.
With characteristic foresight, Visconti Venosta promoted an exchange of views between Italy and France in regard to the Tripolitan hinterland, which the Anglo-French convention of 1899 had placed within the French sphere of influencea modification of the status quo ante considered highly detrimental to Italian aspirations in Tripoli.
The Hertwigs when they discovered the endoderm-lamella showed on morphological grounds that polyp and medusa are independent types, each produced by modification in different directions of a more primitive type represented in development by the actinulastage.
At the new years reception of deputies King Humbert aroused enthusiasm by a significant remark that Italy intended to remain mistress in her own house; while Mancirfi addressed to Count de Launay, Italian ambassador in Berlin, a haughty despatch, repudiating the supposition that the pope might (as Bismarckian emissaries had suggested to the Vatican) obtain abroad greater spiritual liberty than in Rome, or that closer relations between Italy and Germany, such as were required by the interests and aspirations of the two countries, could be made in any way contingent upon a modification of Italian freedom of action in regard to home affairs.
During the period between 1540 and 1543 the archbishop was engaged at the head of a commission in the revision of the " Bishop's Book " (1537) or Institutions of a Christian Man, and the preparation of the Necessary Erudition (1543) known as the " King's Book," which was a modification of the former work in the direction of Roman Catholic doctrine.
With the thought of God, accordingly, there is correlated a modification in thoughts upon all other subjects; and a full system of theism must discourse " Of God, of the world, of the Soul, " like Matthew Arnold's Moses.
The heavier cores, with the consequent advance in speed of working attainable, have necessitated the introduction of automatic sending, the instruments adopted being in general a modification of the Wheatstone transmitter adapted to the form of cable signals, while the regularity of transmission thus secured has caused its introduction even on circuits where the speed cannot exceed that of the ordinary operator's hand signalling.
The procedure underwent great modification in 1686; but public penance was not taken away till 1855, and then confession to and absolution by the priest in the presence of witnesses was still required.
An important modification of this method enables not only audible signals but articulated words to be transmitted, and gives thus a system of wireless telephony.
of the cosmological proof; but Martineau follows a side modification of intuitionalism (Maine de Biran, &c.) in identifying cause with will.
The whole wing is a unique modification, deeply affecting the skeletal, muscular and tegumentary structures, but fluttering, skimming, sailing, soaring are motions much more akin to one another than climbing and grasping, running, scratching, paddling and wading.
The syrinx is a modification of the lower part of the trachea and of the adjoining bronchi.
de Candolle as probably a modification of A.
By a simple modification, the open pit becomes a solid ectodermal ingrowth, just as in Teleostean fishes the hollow medullary tube, or the auditory pit of other vertebrate embryos, is formed at first as a solid cord of cells, which acquires a cavity secondarily.
Balfour put forward the view that the polyp was the more primitive type, and that the medusa is a special modification of the polyp for reproductive purposes, the result of division of labour in a polypcolony, whereby special reproductive persons become detached and acquire organs of locomotion for spreading the species.
With reference to any particular group of forms such a new centre of modification may be termed a metacentre, and it is plain that the archecentre of the whole group is a metacentre of the larger group cf which the group under consideration is a branch.
Lamarck introduced the conception of the action of an animal on itself as a factor in producing modification.
It is also probable that the various forms of the angiospermous flower, with its many specialized mechanisms for pollination, may be the result of insect-visits, the flowers becoming adapted to certain kinds of insects, and the insects having undergone corresponding modification.
A comparison of Norman buildings in England and in Normandy will show that the Norman style in England really was affected by the earlier style of England; but the modification was very slight, and it in no way affected the general character of the style.
Thus, while the institutions of England in the 12th century were English with very considerable Norman modifications, the architecture of England in that century was Norman with a very slight English modification.
It seems rather doubtful whether the unstable monoclinic modification of sulphur (0 - sulphur) is ever found in a native state.
rend., 188 4, 9 8, p. 1 44) obtained a form which he termed nacre (or pearly) sulphur; the same modification was obtained by Sabatier (ibid., 1885, 100, p. 1346) on shaking hydrogen persulphide with alcohol or ether.
For modification in light of recent scholarship of argument from prophecy, to Riehm's Messianic Prophecy, Stanton's Jewish and Christian Messiah, and Woods's Hope of Israel.
Any modification of the design which will reduce the resistance to the flow of steam through the steam passages at high speeds will increase the piston speed for which the indicated horse-power is a maximum.
Again, the conception of Yahweh suffered modification.
After the modification of the Pelloux cabinet (May 1899) he became leader of the ministerial majority, and bore the brunt of the struggle against Socialist obstruction in connexion with the Public Safety Bill.
Certain extremely aberrant Diptera, which, in consequence of the adoption of a parasitic mode of life, have undergone great structural modification, are further remarkable for their peculiar mode of reproduction, on account of which the families composing the group are often termed Pupipara.
In the above instance the sulphur is supposed to be in the solid rhombic modification, the oxygen and sulphur dioxide being in the gaseous state, and the initial and final systems being at the ordinary temperature.
Ostwald has proposed a modification of Berthelot's method which has many advantages, and is now commonly in use.
Tribes, chiefly of pastoral habits, settled down among others who were so nearly of their own type that a complete amalgamation could be effected, and this without any marked modification of the general characteristics of the earlier inhabitants.
Even before authentic history begins, the elements of religion and society had already crystallized into a solid coherent structure which was to persist without essential modification.
This centralization involved the removal of the local priests and a modification of ritual and legal observance.
There is also an unmistakable development in the laws; and the priestly legislation, though ahead of both Ezekiel and Deuteronomy, not to mention still earlier usage, not only continues to undergo continual internal modification, but finds a further distinct development, in the way of definition and interpretation, outside the Old Testament - in the Talmud.
Precepts such as these could hardly fail to effect some modification of the reckless zeal of the Galileans in the pupils of the synagogue.
The authority thus conferred was confided exclusively to the prince, and was declared liable to modification by law in the case of his successor.
The well-known Syllid, discovered during the voyage of the "Challenger," shows a modification of this form of budding.
o, Mouth; other letters as in a totally distinct series of functional gills, which are not derived from the modification of the typical molluscan ctenidium.
Three steps of this modification may be FIG.
Where the modification is carried to its extreme degree, not only the shell but the pallial cavity, ctenidium and visceral hump disappear, and the body acquires a simple elongated form and a secondary external symmetry, as in Pterotrachaea and in Doris, Eolis, and other Nudibranchia.
This is the modification found in Cavolinia longirostris among the Bullomorpha, and in all the Auriculidae except Pythia.
A further degree of modification occurs when the male duct takes its origin from the hermaphrodite duct above the external opening, so that there are two distinct apertures, one male and one female, the latter being the original opening.
The chief modification of internal organization presented by these forms, as compared with Aplysia, is found in the condition of the alimentary canal.
A precisely similar modification Fm.
The adaptation of the Pulmonata to terrestrial life has entailed little modification of the internal organization.
In Clausilia a peculiar modification of this lid exists permanently in the adult, attached by an elastic stalk to the mouth of the shell, and known as the " clausilium."
In both Oncidiidae and Pecten the pallial eyes have probably been developed by the modification of tentacles, such as coexist in an unmodified form with the eyes.
Its obligations to other contemporary arts are many and obvious, especially in its later stages; but every borrowed form and motive undergoes an essential modification at the hands of the Aegean craftsman, and the product is stamped with a new character.
That system thenceforward prevailed exclusively, suffering a slight modification again in III.
Some change seems to have come from the north; and there are those who go so far as to say that the centre henceforward was the Argolid, and especially "golden" Mycenae, whose lords imposed a new type of palace and a modification of Aegean art on all other Aegean lands.
The long sucking " tongue " of bees is probably a modification of the ligula.
A marked modification of the hinder abdominal segments may be noticed in most insects, achynematus).
This latter, as well as the heart and the walls of the blood spaces, arises by the modification of mesodermal cells, and the body cavity is formed by the enlargement and coalescence of the blood channels and by the splitting of the fat body.
It is probable that many of these Carboniferous insects might be referred to the Isoptera, while others would fall into the existing orders to which they are allied, with some modification of our present diagnoses.
In the following year Vigors returned to the subject in some papers published in the recently established Zoological Journal, and found an energetic condisciple and coadjutor in Swainson, who, for more than a dozen years - to the end, in fact, of his career as an ornithological writer was instant in season and out of season in pressing on all his readers the views he had, through Vigors, adopted from Macleay, though not without some modification of detail if not of principle.
Indeed it is, as the latter says, that of Linnaeus, improved by Cuvier, with an additional modification of Illiger'sall these three authors having totally ignored any but external characters.
3 In reply to some critical remarks (Ibis, 1868, pp. 8 5-9 6), chiefly aimed at showing the inexpediency of relying solely on one set of characters, especially when those afforded by the palatal bones were not, even within the limits of families, wholly diagnostic, the author (Ibis, 1868, pp. 357-362) announced a slight modification of his original scheme, by introducing three more groups into it, and concluded by indicating how its bearings upon the great question of " genetic classification" might be represented so far as the different groups of Carinatae are concerned: - 1 These names are compounded respectively of Dromaeus, the generic name applied to the emeu, 7xQ-a, a split or cleft, SEVµa, a bond or tying, a finch, and, in each case, yvaBos, a jaw.
In Mauritius, the provisions of the Code Civil are in force without modification.
Wallace (both at one time active entomological collectors) contain much evidence drawn from insects in favour of descent with modification.
The rotary system of drilling which is in general use in the oilfields of the coastal plain of Texas is a modification of that invented Rotary by Fauvelle in 1845, and used in the early years of the R .
The system usually adopted is a modification of the Canadian system already described, the boring rods being, however, of iron instead of wood, but the cable system has also to some extent been used.
It is still customary to determine the open flash-point and firetest of lubricating oils, but the close flash-point is also usually ascertained, a modification of the Abel or Abel-Pensky apparatus, known as the Pensky-Martens, having been devised for the purpose.
Another form of hot-wire ammeter is a modification of the electric thermometer originally invented by Sir W.
During Pippin's reign Frankish institutions underwent some modification.
N"Ecv, to smell) observed in 1785 by Martin van Marum to be formed by the action of a silent electric discharge on the oxygen of the air; he showed it to be an allotropic modification of oxygen, a view subsequently confirmed by Marignac, Andrews and Soret.
A modification known as " black sulphur," soluble in water, was announced by F.
Knapp in 1848, and a colloidal modification was described by H.
These values, however, require modification in certain cases, for discrepancies occur which can be reconciled in some cases by assuming that the atomic value of a polyvalent element varies according to the distribution of its valencies.
While polysymmetry is solely conditioned by the manner in which the mimetic twin is built up from the single crystals, there being no change in the scalar properties, and the vector properties being calculable from the nature of the twinning, in the case of polymorphism entirely different structures present themselves, both scalar and vector properties being altered; and, in the present state of our knowledge, it is impossible to foretell the characters of a polymorphous modification.
Monoclinic sulphur, obtained by crystallizing fused sulphur, melts at I 19.5°, and admits of undercooling even to ordinary temperatures, but contact with a fragment of the rhombic modification spontaneously brings about the transformation.
25, p. 613), but both modifications may exist in metastable forms at higher and lower temperatures respectively; the rhombic form may be cooled down to ordinary temperature without changing, the transformation, however, being readily induced by a trace of the red modification, or by friction.
The reverse series of transformations occurs when this final modification is heated.
As a general rule the modification stable at higher temperatures possesses a lower density; but this is by no means always the case, since the converse is true for antimonious and arsenious oxides, silver iodide and some other substances.
It is manufactured by Kolbe's process or by some modification of the same.
At the close of 1907 the Negus Menelik, in return for a pecuniary indemnity (£r20,000), agreed to a modification of the 1897 line, whereby the Italian protectorate was extended north of Lugh to Dolo.
We have reason to believe that some organisms profit by experience and show that they do so by the modification of their behaviour in accordance with circumstances.
Such modification is said to be individually acquired.
The instincts of nest-building, incubation and the rearing of young, though they occur later in life than those concerned in locomotion and the obtaining of food, are none the less founded on a hereditary basis, and in some respects are less rather than more liable to modification by the experience gained by the carrying out of hereditarily definite modes of procedure.
The habit results mainly from the modification of the higher nerve-centres through individual and intelligent use.
Benzophenone oxime, CeHSC (:NOH)C 6 H 5, exists only in one modification which melts at 140° C.; whereas the unsymmetrical benzophenones each yield two oximes.
Since then the import duties have been collected at the rate of 11% ad valorem under the supervision of the Public Debt Administration, the bondholders having certain rights, under the decree of Muharem, described below, over any increase of revenue arising from modification of the commercial treaties.
Proposals made by the council for the modification and improvement of the existing laws and regulations which concerned it were to receive an answer from the government within six months; this provision has remained a dead letter.
A further modification was introduced by the end of 1804.
As to the origin of the peach two views are held, that of Alphonse de Candolle, who attributes all cultivated varieties to a distinct species, probably of Chinese origin, and that adopted by many naturalists, but more especially by Darwin, who looks upon the peach as a modification of the almond.
From serving primitively as the essential organ of the cleft the tongue-bar may have undergone reduction and modification, becoming a secondary bar in Amphioxus, subordinate to the primary bars in size, vascularity and development; finally, in the craniate vertebrates it would then have completed its involution, the suggestion having been made that the tongue-bars are represented by the thymusprimordia.
America and in Mexico for incising the trees and obtaining the rubber are exceedingly primitive, but survive with little modification at the present day.
A yellow and red modification have been described (Zeit.
The inactive mixture may be resolved into its active components by fractional crystallization of the cinchonine salt, when the salt of the dextro modification separates first; or the ammonium salt may be fermented by Penicillium glaucum, when the laevo form is destroyed and the dextro form remains untouched; on the other' hand, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus destroys the dextro form, but does not touch the laevo form.
Trans., 1885, 176, 455) introduced a modification of the usual ballistic arrangement which presents the following advantages: (I) very considerable magnetizing forces can be applied with ordinary means; (2) the samples to be tested, having the form of cylindrical bars, are more easily prepared than rings or wires; (3) the actual induction at any time can be measured, and not only changes of induction.
The explanation given of the last described phenomenon will with the necessary modification apply also to this; it is a consequence ' Phil.
Further, it was shown that the thermo-electric curves were modified both by tensile stress and by annealing in the same manner as were the change-of-length curves, the modification being sometimes of a complex nature.
The principle of Weber's theory, with the modification necessitated by lately acquired knowledge, is the basis of the best modern explanation of diamagnetic phenomena.
2 His well-known modification 3 of Weber's molecular theory, published in 1890, presented for the first time a simple and sufficient explanation of hysteresis and many other complexities of magnetic quality.
The bi-ramose structure of the post-oral limbs, demonstrated by Beecher in the trilobite Triarthrus, is no more inconsistent with its claim to be a primitive Arachnid than is the foliaceous modification of the limbs in Phyllopods inconsistent with their relationship to the Arthrostracous Crustaceans such as Gammarus and Oniscus.
These tactics soon rendered legislation impossible, and a modification of the rule of procedure became absolutely necessary if any business at all was to be done.
The Modification of the Standing-orders Bill was accordingly introduced by the deputy Gabor Daniel (Nov.
As however Trumbic rallied the Yugoslav delegation to refuse the Franco-British project, Clemenceau the very next day introduced the important modification that Fiume should be an independent state under the League.
In consequence of this excess of births there is a struggle for existence and a survival of the fittest, and consequently an ever-present necessarily acting selection, which either maintains accurately the form of the species from generation to generation or leads to its modification in correspondence with changes in the surrounding circumstances which have relation to its fitness for success in the struggle for life.
Analogous structures in any two animals compared were by Owen defined as structures performing similar functions, but not necessarily derived from the modification of one and the same part in the " plan " or " archetype " according to which the two animals compared were supposed to be constructed.
It is impossible to enumerate or to give due consideration to all the names in the army of anatomical and embryological students of the middle third of the 19th century whose labours bore fruit in the modification of zoological theories and in the building up of a true classification of animals.
In its turn, being operated upon by the conditions of life, it would acquire a greater development of the same modification, which it would in turn transmit to its offspring.
An interesting modification of the experiment may be made by using light of various wave-lengths.
DSrpfeld and others to believe that the plan, as we now have it, is a modification or abridgment of the original design, due to the same conservative influences as led to the curtailment of the plan of the Propylaea.
The metal is dimorphous: by cooling molten tin at ordinary air temperature tetragonal crystals are obtained, while by cooling at a temperature just below the melting point rhombic forms are produced, When exposed for a sufficient time to very low temperatures (to - 39° C. for 14 hours), tin becomes so brittle that it falls into a grey powder, termed the grey modification, under a pestle; it indeed sometimes crumbles into powder spontaneously.
The surface of the llanos is almost a dead level, the general elevation 1 The name means " little Venice," and is a modification of the name of Venecia (Venice), originally bestowed by Alonzo de Ojeda in 1499 on an Indian village, composed of pile dwellings on the shores of the Gulf of Maracaibo, which was called by him the Gulf of Venecia.
A curious and interesting modification of the indirect method, known as " asymmetrical division," occurs frequently in epitheliomata, sarcomata, &c. (Hansemann).
By the modification of physical conditions on a national scale a prodigious advance was made in the art of preventing disease.
Coincidently therewith, the hope of neutralizing infections by fortifying individual immunity has grown brighter, for it appears that immunity is not a very radical character, but one which, as in the case of vaccination, admits of modification and accurate adjustment in the individual, in no long time and by no very tedious methods.
Mr Gomme's contention is to some extent a modification of Mr Coote's view, but it is original in the illustrations that give it force.
But a modification of the first-named process was in use in the 4th and succeeding centuries, showing great ingenuity and manual dexterity, - that, namely, in which the added portions of glass are united to the body of the cup, not throughout, but only at points, and then shaped either by the wheel or by the hand (Plate I.
ZI /t = - (a - s) M'Q 2 sine cos ° - EQ sin() =[ - (a - (3)M'U+E]V (8) Now suppose the cylinder is free; the additional forces acting on the body are the components of kinetic reaction of the liquid - aM' (Ç_vR), - (3M' (-- E -FUR), - EC' dR, (9) so that its equations of motion are M (Ç - vR) _ - aM' (_vR) - (a - $) M'VR, (io) M (Ç+uR) = - OM' (dV+U R) - (a - ()M'UR - R, '(II) C dR = dR + (a - Q)M'UV+0V; (12) and putting as before M+aM'=ci, M+13M' = c2, C+EC'=C3, ci dU - c2VR=o, dV +(c1U+E)R=o, c 3 dR - (c 1 U+ - c 2 U)V =o; showing the modification of the equations of plane motion, due to the component E of the circulation.
Niebuhr's system was a modification of Hommel's second theory, for, instead of entirely ignoring Dynasty II., he reduced its independent existence to 143 years, making it overlap Dynasty I.
These formulae, however, require modification in accordance with the views of Lowry and E.
A modification of the system of double-bottom defecators has lately been introduced with considerable success in San Domingo and in Cuba, by which a continuous and steady discharge of clear defecated juice is obtained on the one hand, and on the other a comparatively hard dry cake of scum or cachaza, and without the use of filter presses.
A peculiar modification of this type of scolex occurs in the Echinobothridae, in which the axial part of the organ (the rostellum) is elongated and provided with several rows of hooks, whilst the phyllidia have partially fused.
Scolex with two " bothria," or modification thereof, usually devoid of hooks.
with slight powers of progression on the ground; the patagium or "flying-membrane" of some squirrels and of Galeopithecus probably indicates the way in which the modification was effected.
In a modification of this method, known as the Kentucky cure, large barns are used, the temperature is not raised above 100° F., and the process occupies from four to six weeks.
When sulphuric or sulphurous acid is to be collected, it is important to keep the fuel gas from admixture with the sulphur gases, and kilns for this purpose require some modification.
This change did not occur, however, without some modification of the Roman customs. The comitatus made contributions of its own to future feudalism, to some extent to its institutional side, largely to the ideas and spirit which ruled in it.
Apparently no modification of the royal rights was intended by this arrangement, but the beginning of a great change had really been made.
The chief of these are the following: the relation of vassal and lord; the principle that every holder of land is a tenant and not an owner, until the highest rank is reached, sometimes even the conception rules in that rank; that the tenure by which a thing of value is held is one of honourable service, not intended to be economic, but moral and political in character; the principle of mutual obligations of loyalty, protection and service binding together all the ranks of this society from the highest to the lowest; and the principle of contract between lord and tenant, as determining all rights, controlling their modification, and forming the foundation of all law.
- with a slight modification suggested by Sir W.
In these processes the electric current is used solely to generate heat, either to induce chemical reactions between admixed substances, or to produce a physical (allotropic) modification of a given substance.
It has since been proposed to treat the Culicimorphae as a distinct family under the title Corethridae, and it is probable that with this modification Lutz's scheme will meet with general acceptance.
But the most careful researches have failed to show any apparent modification produced in this way except what might be attributed to the surrounding conditions.
But not the slightest modification due to this cause is shown.
On the other hand the enigmatical motion of the perihelion of Mercury has not yet found any plausible explanation except on the hypothesis that the gravitation of the sun diminishes at a rate slightly greater than that of the inverse square - the most simple modification being to suppose that instead of the exponent of the distance being exactly - 2, it is - 2.000 000 161 2.
The most plausible explanation of this is that one or more masses of matter move around the sun, whose action, whether they are inside or outside the orbit of Mercury, would produce the required modification in the force.
In the case of the motion of the moon around the earth, assuming the gravitation of the latter to be subject to the modification in question, the annual motion of the moon's perigee should be greater by I 5" than the theoretical motion.
Another reform brought about by Pierola was a measure introduced and sanctioned in 1897 for a modification of the marriage laws.
Much of his work was concerned with specific volumes, the conception of which he set forth in a paper published when he was only twenty-two years of age; and the principles he established have formed the basis of subsequent investigations in that subject, although his results have in some cases undergone modification.
If the Phylactolaemata were evolved from the type of structure represented by Phoronis or the Pterobranchia, the Gymnolaen ata should be a further modification of this type, and the comparative study of the embryology of the.two orders would appear to be meaningless.
There is a nexus between each leading group of social phenomena and other leading groups; if there is a change in one of them, that change is accompanied by a corresponding modification of all the rest.
This form of mansion underwent little modification until the 12th century, when the introduction of the Zen sect of Buddhism with its contemplative practice called for greater privacy.
During the course of the 19th century in Scottish Presbyterianism the affirmation of Christ's atoning death for all men, the denial of eternal punishment, the modification of the doctrine of the inspiration of the Scriptures by acceptance of the results of the Higher Criticism, were all censured as perilous errors.
For some reason never yet made clear, but perhaps in order to produce a modification of terms which threatened the balance of power, William attacked the French army at Mons four days after the signature of peace.
In the true poisonous snakes the maxillary dentition has undergone a special modification.
Notwithstanding this permission there have been many agitations on the part of chemical manufacturers to obtain a less restricted use of absolute alcohol, and in 1905 an Industrial Alcohol Committee was appointed to receive evidence and report as to whether any modification of the present law was advisable.
But this was a modification of the Deuteronomic law naturally called for under the circumstances of the return from Babylon, and Neh.
C. Hore, published in 1882, received considerable modification, about 1899-1900, from the work of Fergusson, Lemaire, Kohlschiitter and others, who showed that while the general outline of the coasts had been drawn fairly correctly, the whole central portion, and to a lesser degree the northern, must be shifted a considerable distance to the west.
This was an essential modification of Charles's Baltic policy; but the alliance of the elector had now become indispensable on almost any terms. So serious, indeed, were the difficulties of Charles X.
This method is a modification of the one just described.
23, p. 311.) We may here notice a modification of Meyer's process in which the increase of pressure due to the volatilization of the substance, and not the volume of the expelled air, is measured.
On account of the reduction and modification of the jaws in the Corixidae, C. Borner has lately suggested that they should form a special sub-order of Hemipterathe Sandaliorrhyncha.
Enderlein has recently shown that the jaws of the Hemiptera can be recognized in a reduced condition in connexion with the louse's proboscis, the modification is so excessive that the group certainly deserves ordinal separation.
He appears to have taken over with but slight modification xx.
6 is sub stantially a modification of this kind of long-wall work.
A modification of this method, which originated in Silesia, is now becoming of importance in many European coalfields.
The arrangement is, in fact, a modification of the plug and feather system used in stone quarrying for obtaining large blocks, but with the substitution of the powerful rending force of the hydraulic press for handpower in driving up the wedges.
Further, there is the modification of the latter from a short-crowned, or brachyodont type, to one in which the columns are tall, constituting the hypsodont, or hypsiselenodont, type.
It is noteworthy, however, that in some instances there appears to have been a retrograde modification from the selenodont towards the bunodont type, the hippopotamus being a case in point.
Modification of placenta from simple diffused to cotyledonary form.
The ground of the modification, further, has been sought and apparently found in quite external influences, principally that of Schelling's Naturphilosophie, to some extent that of Schleiermacher.
The constitution, dating from 1852, is a reactionary modification of one carried in 1849, which had been a considerable advance upon one granted in 1816.
TARDIGRADA, apparently Arthropodous animals whose relationship to the great classes of this sub-kingdom is masked by degenerative modification.
The introduction of rifling necessitated an improvement in sights and an important modification in them.
But the retention of the story without modification may imply a continuous recognition through some centuries of the idea that Yahweh revealed his will to nations other than Israel.
Zirconia can be obtained crystalline, in a form isomorphous with cassiterite and rutile, by fusing the amorphous modification with borax, and dissolving out with sulphuric acid.
With some modification in detail, the system then inaugurated has been since maintained.
In the latter year the operations were placed for the first time under central administration, and thelike procedure wasadoptedin 1891 and 1901,with such modification of detail as was suggested by the experience of the preceding census.
These limitations worked unsatisfactorily, and their removal or modification and the extension of the franchise were the principal changes effected in 1821.
Dove (1803-1879)1879) produced a modification of the siren by which the relations of different musical notes may be more Dove's readily ascertained.
I have here stated my purpose according to my views of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free."
This led to proposals for a slight modification in the franchise for the Saxon diet (1904), which were not accepted.
Even the reform of taxation carried out in the autumn of 1915 (modification of the inheritance and donations duty and the taxation on insurance policies and legal charges) cannot be regarded strictly as war taxes, as they had been planned a considerable time before the outbreak of the war and had only been delayed by the inability of Parliament to continue its work.
A modification of the above meter with some mechanical improvements has been devised by S.
Neither of these processes admitted of commercial application, but by a modification of Ruff and Plato's process, W.
The Mephostophiles of the Faust-books and the puppet plays passed with little or no modification into literature as the Mephistophilis of Marlowe's Faustus.
Volterra preserves its medieval character, having suffered little modification since the 16th century.
The system followed by de Candolle is a modification of that of Jussieu.
In 1830 John Lindley published the first edition of his Introduction to the Natural System, embodying a slight modification of de Candolle's system.
The arrangement is a modification of that adopted by the de Candolles.
These three deeds or enactments constituted the early constitution of the South Netherlands, which, with one important modification in the time of Charles V., remained intact till the Brabant revolution in the reign of Joseph II.
The other course is to consider matter as formed of ultimate atoms, each the nucleus or core of an intrinsic modification impressed on the surrounding region of the aether; this might conceivably be of the nature of vortical motion of a liquid round a ring-core, thus giving a vortex atom, or of an intrinsic strain of some sort radiating from a core, which would give an electric atom.
The modification of the spectrum of a radiating gas by a magnetic field, such as would result from the hypothesis that the radiators are the system of revolving or oscillating electrons in the molecule, was detected by P. Zeeman in 1896, and worked up, in conjunction with H.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to body care and body modification.
In 1832 Lamennais, with his friends Lacordaire and Montalembert, visited Germany, and obtained considerable sympathy in their attempts to bring about a modification of the Roman Catholic attitude to modern problems. Dbllinger seems to have regarded favourably the removal, by the Bavarian government, in 1841, of Professor Kaiser from his chair, because he had taught the infallibility of the pope.
Knuth suggests the following, which is a modification of the systems proposed by Delpino and Muller.
Muller also suggested a modification of the Knight-Darwin law, which had left unexplained the numerous instances of continued successful self-pollination, and restated it on these terms: "Whenever offspring resulting from crossing comes into serious conflict with offspring resulting from selffertilization, the former is victorious.
The line of sight Ox, considered horizontal in range table results, may be inclined slightly to the horizon, as in shooting up or down a moderate slope, without appreciable modification of (28) and (29), and y or PM is still drawn vertically to meet OB in M.
Probably his cherubim are a modification of older ones, which may well have been of a more sober type.
In a modification of the H form devised by F.
The time has not yet come when any final attempt can be made to bring all these separate studies together and estimate exactly how far they necessitate serious modification of the views of West - cott and Hort; but a tentative and provisional judgment would probably have to be on somewhat the following lines.
It was ended by the Convenio de Vergara (August 31st, 1839) in which the concession and modification of the fueros was demanded.
Then a further modification took place, to avoid the inconvenience of dividing the foot in 16+(2/3) digits, and a new digit was formed -- longer than any value of the old digit -- of 1/16 of the foot, or 0.760, so that the series ran --
There he had been informed in confidence of the renewal by the Allies of their treaty binding them to interfere in case of a renewal of revolutionary trouble in France; and it was partly owing to this knowledge that he resigned office in December of the same year, on the refusal of his colleagues to support a reactionary modification of the electoral law.
In his Institutes of Theology, no material modification is attempted on the doctrines of Calvinism,which he received with all simplicity of faith as revealed in the Divine word, and defended as in harmony with the most profound philosophy of human nature and of the Divine providence.
The Anglican catechism with occasional modification, especially in the sacramental section, is used not only in the Church of England but in the Episcopal churches of Ireland, Scotland, the British dominions and the United States of America.
This was due to the much greater completeness and abundance of material afforded among invertebrate fossils, and it was manifested in the demonstration of two great principles or laws: first, the law of recapitulation, which is found in its most ideal expression in the shells of invertebrates; second, in the law of direct genetic succession through very gradual modification.
Each of these alternate life phases may leave some profound modification, which is partially obscured but seldom wholly lost; thus the tracing of the evidences of former adaptations is of great importance in phylogenetic study.
A year later, after an exile of over twenty years, he received a summons to Dresden, on the rebuilding of the first opera-house, which had been destroyed by fire in 1869; his second design was a modification of the first.
Although Mexico is usually described as a nonmanufacturing country, its industrial development under President Porfirio Diaz will warrant some modification of this characterization.
The following classification of rotifers is our modification of that of Hudson and Gosse, further altered through considerations put From H.
A very interesting modification of the life-cycle of a Trypanosome which must be mentioned has been made known by Minchin, in his account of T.
Its obvious inconvenience for celebrating the holy mysteries, however, caused its gradual modification.
There is some difference of opinion as to the derivation of the vestment in the latter case; the Five Bishops (Report to Convocation, 1908) deriving it, like the cope, from the birrus, while Father Braun considers it, as well as the cope, to be a modification of the paenula.'
Examination will, however, show that a modification similar to that which has transformed the comparatively simple molar tooth of the mastodon into the extremely complex grinder of the Indian elephant has served to change the tooth of the common pig into that of Phacochoerus.
The reformation of abuses generally took the form of the establishment of new monastic orders, with new and more stringent rules, requiring a modification of the architectural arrangements.
The new system was laid before parliament in 1879 by the finance minister, Sir Leonard Tilley; and the tariff then agreed upon, although it received considerable modification from time to time, remained, under both Conservative and Liberal administrations, the basis of Canadian finance, and, as Canadians generally believed, the bulwark of their industry.
In some Lamellibranchs (Pecten, Spondylus, Pholas, Mactra, Tellina, Pectunculus, Galeomma, &c.), although cephalic eyes are generally absent, special eyes are developed on the free margin of the mantle-skirt, apparently by the modification of tentacles commonly found there.
Other points in the modification of the typical ctenidium must be noted in order to understand the ctenidium of Anodonta.
- Vertical Section through there is least modification by concrescence of the primary an Anodonta, about the mid-region filamentous elements of the of the Foot.
modification of the epidermis - myelonic as opposed to epidermic. The structure of the reputed eyes of several of the above-named genera has not been carefully examined.
The next stage of modification is seen in Ostraea, Cyclas and some Lucinidae, in which the generative and renal ducts FIG.
No ciliated An extraordinary modification of the veliger occurs in the development of Nucula and Yoldia and probably other members of the same families.
A similar modification of the velum occurs in Dentalium and in Myzomenia among the Amphineura.
The four orders now retained exhibit successive stages in the modification of the ctenidia by reflection and concrescence of the filament, but other organs, such as the heart, adductors, renal organs, may not show corresponding stages.
He gradually became a logician out of his previous studies: out of metaphysics, for with him being is always the basis of thinking, and common principles, such as that of contradiction, are axioms of things before axioms of thought, while categories are primarily things signified by names; out of the mathematics of the Pythagoreans and the Platonists, which taught him the nature of demonstration; out of the physics, of which he imbibed the first draughts from his father, which taught him induction from sense and the modification of strict demonstration to suit facts; out of the dialectic between man and man which provided him with beautiful examples of inference in the Socratic dialogues of Xenophon and Plato; out of the rhetoric addressed to large audiences, which with dialectic called his attention to probable inferences; out of the grammar taught with rhetoric and poetics which led him to the logic of the proposition.
In these last Mayer sought to explain the magnetic action of the earth by a modification of Euler's hypothesis, and made the first really definite attempt to establish a mathematical theory of magnetic action (C. Hansteen, Magnetismus der Erde, i.
Charles's balance areometer is similar to Nicholson's hydrometer, except that the lower basin admits of inversion, thus enabling the instrument to be employed for solids lighter than water, the inverted basin serving the same purpose as the pointed screw in Atkins's modification of the instrument.
Ferdinand had good taste for art and music. Some modification of the tight-handed rule of his father was made by the Staatsconferenz during his reign.
A variety of methods to render gases luminous should be at the command of the investigator, for nearly all, show some distinctive peculiarity and any new modification generally results in fresh facts being brought to light.
found for Wolsey, More was raised to the chancellorship. The selection was justified by More's high reputation, but it was also significant of the modification which the policy of the court was then undergoing.
This modification was the beginning of a gradual lessening of the antithesis of a priori to a posteriori, until at last the a priori forms of Kant have been transmuted into " auxiliary conceptions," or " postulates of experience."
But this modification made no difference to the Kantian and Neo-Kantian deduction from the epistemological to the metaphysical.
Our knowledge is relative," said he, " first, because existence is not cognizable absolutely and in itself, but only in special modes; second, because these modes thus relative to our faculties are presented to and known by the mind, only under modification, determined by these faculties themselves."
This modification was known as the Leipzig Interim; its advocates were stigmatized as Adiaphorists.
Though these writings are mostly the same in origin as are known from the older lists of apocryphal books, they underwent in this case a certain modification at the hands of their Bogomil editors, so as to be used for the propagation of their own specific doctrines.
Price's main point of difference with Cudworth is that while Cudworth regards the moral criterion as a v6nma or modification of the mind, existing in germ and developed by circumstances, Price regards it as acquired from the contemplation of actions, but acquired necessarily, immediatel",, intuitively.
Strong foreign influence, first Aegean and later Etruscan, can be distinguished; but the types introduced from the south have generally undergone considerable modification and expansion.
with France suffered a significant modification.
And it must be admitted that there are also many cases, some of them caused by irregularities of writing, modification of spelling by decay, and by a probable use of prefixes still unascertained, which also resist explanation, though the account just given stands good whatever solution the question of prefixes may receive in future.
When the solution ceases to be dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the word, that is, when the spheres of influence of the solute particles intersect each other, this reasoning ceases to apply, and the resulting modification of the gas laws as applied to solutions becomes a matter for further investigation, theoretical or experimental.
use the modification of the Monier system, consisting of a horizontal network of crossed steel rods buried in the concrete.
Similar modification of the antennae in the Longicorn Estigmenida variabilis brings about the resemblance between this beetle and a beetle, Estigmena chinensis, one of the Phytophaga of the family Hispidae.
Microscopical examination of the wings, moreover, has shown that the transparency of the wings, common to all, has been acquired by a different modification of the scales in each of the genera exhibiting the Ithomiine type of coloration.
Up to this time the chief results were that (r) Christianity had gained a footing, (2) it had continued the monotheistic modification of Indian thought begun by Mahommedanism, and (3) the futility of sporadic and fanatical proselytism had been shown.
The necessity for this modification arises from the fact that such plants are subjected to conditions more or less unnatural to them, and that they are grown for special purposes which are at variance, in degree at any rate, with their natural requirements.
For the propagation by grafts of stove and greenhouse plants the process adopted is whip-grafting or a modification of it.
Slate pots or tubs, usually square, are sometimes adopted, and are durable and otherwise unobjectionable, only, their sides being less porous, the earth does not dry so rapidly, and some modification of treatment as to watering is necessary.
A modification of the fan shape (fig.
of free iron of the /3 allotropic modification, which surrounds the kernels or grains of the residual still undecomposed part of the austenite.
Indeed, no limit has yet been found to the temperature which can be reached, if matters are so arranged that not only the carbon and silicon of the pig iron, but also a considerable part of the metallic iron which is the iron itself, are oxidized by the blast; or if, as in the Walrand-Legenisel modification, after the combustion of the initial carbon and silicon of the pig iron has already raised the charge to a very high temperature, a still further rise of temperature is brought about by adding more silicon in the form of ferro-silicon, and oxidizing it by further blowing.
Satricum, on the other hand, was certainly south of the Alban Hills, between Velitrae and Antium; while Cora, Norba and Setia (all of which retain their ancient names with little modification) crowned the rocky heights which form advanced posts from the Volscian mountains towards the Pontine Marshes.
In 1817, after the modification of the constitution by the ordonnance of the 5th of September, he was returned to the chamber of deputies, where he attached himself to the left centre and supported the moderate policy of Richelieu and Decazes.
In the divalent oxygen we meet with the modification called ozone, which, although unstable, changes but slowly into oxygen.
Similarly the trivalent phosphorus in the ordinary white form shows such resistance as if it were practically stable; on the other hand the red modification is in reality also stable, being formed, for instance, under the influence of light.
The substance investigated was acetaldehyde, C 2 H 4 O, in its relation to paraldehyde, a polymeric modification.
Both bort and carbonado seem to be really aggregates of crystallized diamond, but the carbonado is so nearly structureless that it was till recently regarded as an amorphous modification of carbon.
The Curies showed that oxygen was convertible into ozone, and Sudborough that yellow phosphorus gave the red modification when submitted to their influence.
In Utricularia bladder-like sacs are formed by a modification of leaflets on the submerged leaves.
In 1370 an insurrection of the weavers was suppressed; but in 1396, the rule of the patricians, having been weakened by internal dissensions, a bloodless revolution led to the establishment of a comparatively democratic constitution, based on the organization of the trade and craft gilds, which lasted with but slight modification till the French Revolution.
VALERIC ACID, or [[Valerianic Acid, C4h9 C02h]], an organic acid belonging to the fatty acid series, which exists in four isomeric forms, one of which contains an asymmetric carbon atom and consequently occurs in two optically active modifications and one optically inactive modification.
The acid has been synthesized, as has also the inactive form of methylethylacetic acid; this modification is split into its optical antipodes by crystallization of its brucine salt.
Thus, the creation of a new series of forts extending from Thionville (Diedenhofen) to Metz and thence south-eastward was coupled with the construction of twelve strategic railway stations between Cologne and the Belgian frontier, and laterthe so-called fundamental plan of operations against France having apparently undergone modification in consequence of changes in the foreign relations of the German governmentan immense strategic railway station was undertaken at Saarburg, on the right rear of Thionville and well away from the French frontier, and many important new works both of fortification and of railway construction were begun in Upper Alsace, between Colmar and Basel.
To avoid any possible modification of a situation so satisfactory, Count Buol, the Austrian president of the diet, was instructed to announce that the constitution as fixed by the Final Act, and guaranteed by Europe, must be regarded as final; that it might be interpreted, but not altered.
So far from enlarging the powers of the diet, it reaffirmed the doctrine of non-intervention; and, above all, it renewed the clause forbidding any fundamental modification of the constitution without a unanimous vote.
But Frederick was unwilling to break with Russia, with whom he was negotiating the partition of Poland; Austria in these circumstances dared not take the offensive; and Maria Theresa was compelled to purchase the modification of the extreme claims of Russia in Turkey by agreeing to, and sharing in, the spoliation of Poland.
the control of the church; the universities were remodelled and modernized by the introduction of new faculties, the study of ecclesiastical law being transferred from that of theology to that of jurisprudence, and the elaborate system of elementary and secondary education was established, which survived with slight modification till 1869.
The police service, which has been subject to frequent modification, was in 1895 put under the orders of the ministry of the interior, to which a British adviser and British inspectors are attached.
The terms agreed upon in this instrument, known as the London Convention, were embodied in a khedivial decree, which, with some modification in detail, remained for twenty years the organic law under which the finances of Egypt were administered.
It was the natural result of the practice of cremation, however, that it should induce a modification of the barrow structure.
Such units frequently occur in pairs, one member of the pair being characterized by the presence, the other by the absence of a problematical body at least comparable with a ferment, the result of the presence or absence being a notable modification of the whole organism or of parts of it.
Obviously variations depend on the constitution of the varying organism; a modification, whether it be large or small, is a modification of an already definite and limited structure.
The architectural details are in some cases unmistakably copied, without intentional modification, from the architecture of Greek temples; others point perhaps to Persian influence, while several - which are perhaps among the early works of this period - show the old freedom and power of employing in new and original ways details partly learned from abroad.
The two carried out some of the earliest thermochemical investigations, devised apparatus for measuring linear and cubical expansions, and employed a modification of Joseph Black's ice calorimeter in a series of determinations of specific heats.
The violence of the Societe republicaine centrale, which was founded by Blanqui to demand a modification of the government, brought him into conflict with the more moderate Republicans, and in 1849 he was condemned, to ten years' imprisonment.
But with this modification on the system another necessarily followed; a mere logical series could not create nature.
In 1865 appeared his papers on a modification of Watt's governor, upon which he had for some time been experimenting with a view to making its period of revolution constant, and on a new apparatus for regulating the electric light; and in the following year (Compt.
The modification of the terms of clerical subscription (1865), the new lectionary (1871), the Burials Act (1880) were largely owing to him; for all of them, and especially the last, he incurred much obloquy at the time.
By suitable modification in the proportions of the components, a series of alloys can be made which melt at various temperatures above the boiling point of water; for example, with 8 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead and 3 of tin the melting point is 123°, and with 8 of bismuth, 30 of lead and 24 of tin it is 172°.
This assessment holds good, without any possibility of modification, for a term of thirty years.
A modification of Loewy's equatorial coude has been suggested by Lindemann (Asir.
And thus, although we are not responsible for the ideas that present themselves to our consciousness, we are absolutely and without any modification responsible for the way in which we use them.
It appears probable that the solutions contain a quinonoid modification (ssee Gomberg and Cone, Ann., 1909, 37 0, p. 142).
Assoc. Report, 1899, with a slight modification Specific Heat Of Water In Terms Of Unit At 20° C. 4.180 Joules to allow for the increase in the specific heat below 20° C. This was estimated in 1899 as being equivalent to the addition of the constant quantity 0.020 to the values of the total heat h of the liquid as reckoned by the parabolic formula (5).
Apart from these considerations, the chief modification in the classification introduced by more recent investigators has been to separate Secchi's Type I.
While in England the generals sought, unavailingly, a modification of the terms of peace concluded at Pretoria.
To those who maintain that Cadorna should have sacrificed everything in order to improve his defensive position in the Trentino sector, it may be answered that the line on which he stopped (or rather the modification of it necessitated by the retreat after Caporetto), properly prepared, backed by other lines in sufficient depth, and adequately served by new roads, was maintained until the end of the war.
The popular cult is, however, the propitiation of demons, a modification of the Shamanism of northern Asia.
On the other we have a stage at which the rational but as yet not reasoned concepts developed in the medium of the psychological mechanism are subjected to processes of reflective comparison and analysis, and, with some modification, maintained against challenge, till at length the ultimate universals emerge, which rational insight can posit as certain, and the whole hierarchy of concepts from the " first " universals to Ta apEA are intuited in a coherent system.
This too can be met by a modification of form.
Starting from the obvious antithesis of thought and that of which it is the thought, it is possible to view the ultimate relation of its term as that of mutual indifference or, secondly, as that of a correspondence such that while they retain their distinct character modification of the one implies modification of the other, or thirdly and lastly, as that of a mergence of one in the other of such a nature that the merged term, whichever it be, is fully accounted for in a complete theory of that in which it is merged.
The Aristotelian formula is " merely the expression, formally expanded and complete, of the truth already embodied in disjunctive judgment, namely, that every S which is a specific form of M possesses as its predicate a particular:modification of each of the universal predicates of M to the exclusion of the rest."
1908) that, if the accurate formulae for the vapour-pressure given below are employed, the results for strong solutions are consistent with a very slight, but important, modification of Raoult's law.
The doctrine of Karma is with modification common to both Buddhism and Brahminism, and in their expositions theosophists have apparently drawn from both sources.
2 There we find, not indeed living serpents, but deities with serpent-symbolism, indicating a composition of various strata of religious belief, analogous to the evidence for serpent-symbolism from Babylonia, Crete, Greece or Peru; for the higher religions have almost invariably retained in their ritual and belief, sometimes with only slight modification, cruder conceptions which can still be studied in less elevated form among the lower races of India, Africa or America.
In this it underwent another modification of far-reaching consequence.
Very mild cases occurring in the course of an outbreak of typical plague may be explained by greater power of resistance in individuals, but the epidemic prevalence of a mild illness preceding the appearance of undoubted plague suggests some difference or modification of the exciting cause.
Army was still aligned for an offensive, and though a complete modification was impossible, certain changes might have been made.
Exact equality of the two observed periods (Ti, T2, say) cannot of course be secured in practice, and a modification is necessary.
These statements require \ some modification when two or more of the roots urn of the equation (6) are equal.
But in studying or treating of, the theory of machines, the order of simplicity is the best; and in this order the first branch of the subject is the modification of motion and force by the train of mechanism; the next is the effect or purpose of the machine; and the last, or most complex, is the action of the prime mover.
The modification of motion and the modification of force take place together, and are connected by certain laws; but in the study of the theory of machines, as well as in that of pure mechanics, much advantage has been gained in point of clearness and simplicity by first considering alone the principles of the modification of motion, which are founded upon what is now known as Kinematics, and afterwards considering the principles of the combined modification 01 motion and force, which are founded both on geometry and on the laws of dynamics.
This is the principle of the modification of motion by the lever, which consists of a rigid body turning about a fixed axis called a fulcrum, and having two points at the same or different distances from that axis, and in the same or different directions, one of which receives motion and the other transmits motion, modified in direction and velocity according to the above law.
The only modification required in the formulae is, that in equation (26) the difference of the angular velocities should be substituted for their sum.
The modification of Gothic architecture by pseudo-Roman elements of style was incomplete.
An ingenious modification has of modern times been introduced, which consists in freezing part of the contents of the neck of the bottle.
In 1872 he suggested the use of caustic lime to prevent the corrosion of iron ships by the bilge water, which he noticed was acid, and in 1878 he began a determination of the velocity of white and coloured light by a modification of H.
(3) In medicine, it stands for the hypothesis that disease is only an accidental modification of the healthy condition, and can, therefore, be avoided by modifying external conditions.
possessed opposite electricities, so that in charging the jar as much positive electricity is added to one side as negative to the other, led Franklin about 1750 to suggest a modification called the single fluid theory, in which the two states of electrification were regarded as not the results of two entirely different fluids but of the addition or subtraction of one electric fluid from matter, so that positive electrification was to be looked upon as the result of increase or addition of something to ordinary matter and negative as a subtraction.
A modification of this single fluid theory was put forward by F.
In the elucidation of electrical phenomena, however, towards the end of the 18th century, a modification of the two-fluid theory seems to have been generally preferred.
The only modification of water-retting which has hitherto endured the test of prolonged experiment, and taken a firm position as a distinct improvement, is the warm-water retting patented in England in 1846 by an American, Robert B.
modern research the value of this and of the other old Rabbinical writings is being re-estimated, and criticism has forced a modification of many old views.'
In the White-Howell revolving furnace with lifters - a modification of the Oxland - the ore is fed and discharged in a continuous stream.
In the United States the cupola has undergone a radical modification in being built of water-jacketed sections.
A modification of the method was designed to remedy these defects.
He also sought to secure a modification of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, and in an extended correspondence with the British government strongly asserted the policy of an exclusive American control of any isthmian canal which might be built to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
There was no modification of doctrine, for the general resolution that God's Word should be preached plainly and purely was not contrary to the teaching of the ante-Tridentine Church.
In the .consonantal system we col 1 struck by the abundance of sibilants (s and sh, in three forms modification, z and zh) and nasals (five in number), and by the rer mplete absence of 1.
These theorems are too absolutely stated, and require much modification to adapt them to real life.
By virtue of the passive principle the thing is susceptible of motion and modification; it is matter which determines substance (obvia).
That Zeno and Cleanthes crudely compared this presentation to the impression which a seal bears upon wax, with protuberances and indentations, while Chrysippus more prudently determined it vaguely as an occult modification or " mode " of mind, is an interesting but not intrinsically important detail But the mind is no mere passive recipient of impressions from without, in the view of the Stoics.
An interesting modification of this method of cultivation has been introduced into Denmark.
The nature of the subjects with which they deal is one that naturally appealed to the priestly schools, and owing to this fact the laws were especially liable to modification and expansion at the hands of later legislators who wished to bring them into conformity with later usage.
10 20' S., and designated a straight line to the source of the Javary as the frontier, which gave to Brazil a large area of territory; but when the valuable rubber forests of the upper Purus became known the Brazilians invaded them and demanded another modification of the boundary line.
A simple modification of the experiment suffices, however, to clear up the difficulty.
the cell-wall of the higher plants, it gives usually no react i ons of cellulose, nor is chitin present as in the fungi, but it consists of a proteid substance and is apparently a modification of the general protoplasm.
Thus paralysis following diphtheria is in all probability due to a different toxin from that which causes the acute symptoms of poisoning or possibly to a modification of it sometimes formed in specially large amount.
It may also be mentioned that many toxins have now been obtained by growing the particular organism in a proteid-free medium, a fact which shows that if the toxin is a proteid it may be formed synthetically by the bacterium as well as by modification of proteid already present.
There are three chief possibilities: (a) that the antitoxin is a modification of the toxin; (b) that it is a substance normally present, but produced in excess under stimulation of the toxin; (c) that it is an entirely new product.
decided on a modification of the franchise; the Dessolle ministry resigned; and the first act of Decazes, the new premier, was to carry a vote in the chamber annulling the election of Gregoire.
Among the legislative measures of his administration may be mentioned the attempted modification of the slavery clause of the ordinance of 1787 by means of an indenture law - a policy which Harrison favoured; more effective land laws; and legislation for the more equitable treatment of the Indians and for preventing the sale of liquor to them.
1874), then a Republican member of the Assembly and in1906-1908a state senator, began in 1904; it did much to secure the passage of acts limiting public service franchises to 20 years (unless extended to 40 years by the voters of the municipality concerned), the increase of taxes on railways, the increase of franchise tax rates by 12% each year up to 5%, the adoption of direct primary elections, and the modification of the existing promoters' liability law.
The most peculiar modification, perhaps, is that found in the Cirripedia (Thyrostraca), in the larvae of which the antennules develop into organs of attachment, bearing the openings of the cement-glands, and becoming, in the adult, involved in the attachment of the animal to its support.
These limbs undergo great modification in the different groups.
Another modification of sensory setae is supposed to be associated with the sense of smell.
These may be formed by the modification of almost any of the appendages, often the antennules or antennae or some of the thoracic limbs, or even the mandibular palps (some Ostracoda).
In some Phyllopoda (A pus) egg-sacs are formed by modification of certain of the thoracic feet.
Another very common modification of the primitive method of development is found in the accelerated appearance of certain somites or appendages, disturbing the regular order of development.
This modification is especially found in the Malacostraca.
The Zoea was formerly regarded as a recapitulation of an ancestral form, but there can be no doubt that its peculiarities are the result of secondary modification.
In those Copepods in which the palps of the mandibles as well as the antennae are biramous and natatory, the first three pairs of appendages retain throughout life, with little modification, the shape and function which they have in the nauplius stage, and must, in all likelihood, be regarded as approximating to those of the primitive Crustacea.
In registering the movements of the wings the tips and margins of the pinions were, by an ingenious modification, employed as the styles or pens.
Further, the establishment of a protectorate does not necessarily rescind treaties made between the protected state and other states, at all events when it is not in reality conquest or cession, or when any modification would be to the injury of third parties (Pail.
He had a vast influence upon theology in America, an influence:not so much, possibly, in the direction of the modification of specific doctrines as in "the impulse and tendency and general spirit which he imparted to theological thought."
But although the reality of some such modification is not disputed, especially as to stature and constitution, its amount is not enough to upset the counter-proposition of the remarkable permanence of type displayed by races ages after they have been transported to climates extremely different from that of their former home.
Thus the mitre over an English bishop's coat-of-arms is a survival which indicates him as the successor of bishops who actually wore mitres, while armorial bearings themselves, and the whole craft of heraldry, are survivals bearing record of a state of warfare and social order whence our present state was by vast modification evolved.
26) the success of the expedition he dated his letter from Fort Duquesne "or now Pitts-Bourgh," and this name, with its subsequent modification " Pittsburgh," was thereafter more commonly used than that of Fort Pitt, which, as designating the fortification proper appears to have been first applied by General John Stanwix to the enlarged fort built (at a cost, it was estimated, of £60,000) chiefly under his direction during 1759-1760.
Generally speaking they do not share in the special modifications of the flowering glumes, and rarely themselves undergo modification, chiefly in hardening of portions (Sclerachne, Manisuris, Anthe- phora, Peltophorum), so as to afford greater protection to the flowers or fruit.
The Dissertation on the Nature of True Virtue, posthumously published, is justly regarded as one of the most original works on ethics of the 18th century, and is the more remarkable as reproducing, with no essential modification, ideas on the subject written in the author's youth in the notes on the Mind.
Neither Leonardo's genius nor his noble manners could soften the rude and taunting temper of the younger man, whose style as an artist, nevertheless, in subjects both of tenderness and terror, underwent at this time a profound modification from Leonardo's example.
Accordingly, a modification of the character, even of the true Edentata, as given in the earlier article, is rendered necessary.
It phosphoresces in ozone, but not in air, and is nonpoisonous; from its solution in alcoholic potash acids precipitate the hydride P 12 H 6, and when heated it is transformed into the red modification.
It should be noticed in passing that the idea of a priesthood with mystical powers is altogether repugnant to Buddhism; every one's salvation is entirely dependent on the modification or growth of his own inner nature, resulting from his own exertions.
He sat at first on the Extreme Left; but his philosophic and critical temperament was not in harmony with the recklessness of French radicalism, and his attitude towards political questions underwent a steady modification, till the close of his life saw him the foremost representative of moderate republicanism.
Commander Whitehouse's work led to considerable modification of the previously accepted maps.
18, B), but the presence of the canal system in the perforate theca leads to a modification of the process.
The curve BPC is generally used with the abscissae spaced more conveniently for practical applications, and a modification of the diagram by J.
The number r is usually included amongst the primes; but, if this is done, the last paragraph requires modification, since 144 could be expressed as 1.2 4.32, or as 1 2.2 4.3 2, or as IP. 2 4.32, where p might be anything.
A modification of the method, corresponding with D of § ioi, is shown in G; the fact that the partial product 08546 is followed by two blank spaces shows that the figure 2 represents a partial quotient 200.
For the measurement of low resistances a modification of the Wheatstone's bridge devised by Lord Kelvin is employed.
There are five state penal and correctional institutions: the Indiana Boys' School (1868-1883, the House of Refuge; 1883-1903, the Reform School for Boys), at Plainfield; the Indiana Girls' School, established at Indianapolis (1873), and removed to Clermont in 1907; a woman's prison (the first in the United States, authorized in 1869 and opened in 1873 at Indianapolis), which is entirely under the control of women (as is also the Indiana Girls' School) and has a correctional department (1908), in reality a state workhouse for women, formed with a view to removing as far as possible sentenced women from the county jails; a reformatory (1897), at Jeffersonville, conducted upon a modification of the " Elmira plan," formerly the State Prison (1822), later (1860) the State Prison South, so called to distinguish it from the State Prison North (1860) at Michigan City; and the prison at Michigan City, which became the Indiana State Prison in 1897.
Roman Catholics and Puritans alike wished for a modification of the laws which bore hardly on them.
It is not without significance that this modification of the policy of the Tory government at home coincided with a modification of its relations with the European powers.
The term of office of the latter was marked by the first tentative efforts to modify the high protective system by which British trade was hampered, especially by the Reciprocity of Duties Act (1823), a modification of the Navigation Acts, by which British and foreign shipping were placed on an equal footing, while the right to impose restrictive duties on ships of powers refusing to reciprocate was retained.
The Liberal party generally in the House of Commons was in favor of such a modification of the oaths as would enable the Jews so elected to take their seats.
But at the prince consorts sugges~!on its language was considerably modified, and the responsibility for the outrage was thrown on the officer who committed it, arid not on the government of the Republic. It ought not to-be forgotten that this important modification was the last service rendered to his adopted country by the prince consort before hisfatal illness He died before the answer to the despatch was received; and his death deprived the queen of an adviser who had stood by her side since the earlier daysof her reign, and who, by his prudence and conduct, had done much to raise the tone of the court and the influence of the crown.
At first the navigation was principally confined to the main river; and even in 1857 a modification of the government contract only obliged the company to a monthly service between Path and Manaos, with steamers of 200 tons cargo capacity, a second line to make six round voyages a year between Manaos and Tabatinga, and a third, two trips a month between Path and Cameta.
The fish-eating, or piscivorous, type of dentition is exemplified under two phases in the dolphins and in the seals (being in the latter instance a kind of retrograde modification from the carnivorous type).
In the herbivorous modification, as seen in three distinct phases in the horse, the kangaroo, and in ruminants, the incisors are generally well developed in one or both jaws, and have a nipping action, either against one another or against a toothless hard pad in the upper jaw; while the canines are usually small or absent, at least in the upper jaw, but in the lower jaw may be approximated and assimilated to the incisors.
In 1896 Karl Dellwik introduced a modification in the process of making water gas which entirely altered the whole aspect of the industry.
This modification is rapidly oxidized by the air with such an elevation of temperature that the mass may become incandescent.
But no art of discovery, such as Bacon anticipated, follows, for "invention, sagacity, genius" are needed at each step. He analyses induction into three steps: - (I) the selection of the (fundamental) idea, such as space, number, cause or likeness; (2) the formation of the conception, or more special modification of those ideas, as a circle, a uniform force, &c.; and (3) the determination of magnitudes.
A less threatening yet important possibility of modification arises out of the scientific study of the New Testament.
Esther is a modification of Ishtar, the name of the Babylonian goddess of fertility and of the planet Venus, whose myth must have been partially known to the Israelites even in pre-exilic times,' and after the fall of the state must have acquired a still stronger hold on Jewish exiles.
Since the theory of geological cataclysms was abandoned, and that of slow modifications of the crust of the earth accepted, new data have been obtained in the Aral-Caspian region to show that the rate of modification after the close of the Glacial period, although still very slow, was faster than had been supposed from the evidence of similar changes now going on in Europe and America.
A name of a deity on an Assyrian inscription of the 12th century B.C. has been read as Baal-zabubi, but this reading has now been abandoned in favour of Baal-sapunu (Baal-Zephon).5 Cheyne considers that Baalzebub is a " contemptuous uneuphonic Jewish modification of the true name Baalzebul."
The spore-bearing generation may throughout its phylogenetic history have been independent at one part of its life, and have been derived by modification of individuals homologous with those of the sexual generation, and not by the progressive sterilization of a structure the whole of which was originally devoted to asexual reproduction.
There are other remarkable and distinctive features of structure which hold the Arthropoda together, and render it impossible to conceive of them as having a polyphyletic origin, that is to say, as having originated separately by two or three distinct lines of descent from lower animals; and, on the contrary, establish the view that they have been developed from a single line of primitive Gnathopods which arose by modification of parapodiate annulate worms not very unlike some of the existing Chaetopods.
A common modification of the chief ramus of the Arthropod parapodium is the chela or nipper formed by the elongation of the penultimate joint of the ramus, so that the last joint works on it FIG.
The range of modification of which the rami or limb-branches of the limbs of Arthropoda are capable is very large, and in allied orders or even families or genera we often find d z what is certainly the palp of the same appendage (as determined by numerical position of the segments) - in one case antenniform, in another chelate, in another pediform, and in another reduced to a mere stump or absent altogether.
It varies as to the presence or absence of the jawprocess and as to the stoutness of the segments of the ramus, their number (frequently six, plus the basal corm), and the modification of the free end.
(io) The forms assumed by special modification of the elements of the parapodium in the maxillae, labium, &c., of Hexapods, Chilopods, Diplopods, and of various Crustacea, deserve special enumeration, but cannot be dealt with without ample space and illustration.
They appear, in fact, to be an air-holding modification of the vasifactive connective tissue.
With rare exceptions, branchial plates are developed either by modification of a ramus of the limbs or as processes on a ramus, or upon the sides of the body.
But a serious objection to the comparison is that the development of Phylactolaemata can be explained by supposing it to be a modification of what occurs in other Polyzoa, while it appears to have no relation whatever to that of Phoronis.
It is only by a later modification of Stoicism that cheerfulness or peace of mind is taken as the real ultimate end, to which the exercise of virtue is merely a means.
The principal modification is that,up to the present time, stellar astronomy has not advanced so far that a computation of the perturbations in each case of a system of stars is either necessary or possible, except in exceptional cases.
In this case the two bodies really revolve round their common centre of gravity; but a very slight modification of the equations of motion reduces them to the relative motion of the planet round the sun, regarding the moving centre of the latter as the origin of co-ordinates.
The rigorous relation is expressed by a slight modification of the law.
C. Vogel published a modification of Secchi's scheme of stellar diversities, and gave it organic meaning by connecting spectral differences with advance in " age."
LLAMA, the Spanish modification of the Peruvian name of the larger of the two domesticated members of the cameltribe indigenous to South America.
The chief differences between Burnet's original draft as represented by the Bodleian MS. and the printed history consist in a more lenient view generally of individuals, a modification of the censure levelled at the Anglican clergy, changes obviously dictated by a general variation in his point of view, and a more cautious account of personal matters such as his early relations with Lauderdale.
With a modification to be mentioned presently, we may regard them as intensely hot bodies, probably at a temperature higher than any we can produce by artificial means, of which the superficial portions have cooled off by radiation into space.
A modification in this proposition which may hereafter be accepted involves an extension of our ideas of temperature, and leads us to regard the interior heat of the heavenly bodies as due to a form of molecular activity similar to that of which radium affords so remarkable an instance.
This modification certainly avoids many difficulties connected with the question of the interior heat of the earth, sun, Jupiter and probably all the larger heavenly bodies.
till the 24th of April 1904), after which its existence was to continue by tacit prolongation for successive terms of three years unless one of the high contracting powers should propose any modification in its constitution or attributes.
Logic does not come in contact with things, except as they are subject to modification by intellectual forms. In other words, universality, individuality and speciality are all equally modes of our comprehension or notion; their meaning consists in their setting forth the relations attaching to any object of our conception.