Messina fell on the 10th of July, but Garibaldi, instead of crossing to Calabria, secretly departed for Aranci Bay in Sardinia, where Bertani was fitting out an expedition against the papal states.
Returning to Messina, Garibaldi found a letter from Victor Emmanuel II.
Rattazzi, frightened at the prospect of an attack upon Rome, proclaimed a state of siege in Sicily, sent the fleet to Messina, and instructed Cialdini to oppose Garibaldi.
The allied fleet was collected slowly at Messina, from whence it advanced by the passage between Ithaca and Cephalonia to Cape Marathia near Dragonera.
Extraction is extensively carried on in the provinces of Messina and Palermo.
A characteristic Italian industry is that of straw-plaiting for hat-making, which is carried on principally in Tuscany, in the district of Fermo, in the Alpine villages of the province of Vicenza, and in some communes of the province of Messina.
The most important Italian ports are (in order): Genoa, Naples, Palermo, Leghorn, Messina, Venice, Catania..
There are 21 universitiesBologna, Cagliari, Camerino, Catania, Ferrara,Genoa,Macerata, Messina, Modena, Naples, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Pavia, Perugia, Pisa, Rome, Sassari, Siena, Turin, Urbino, of which Camerino, Ferrara, Perugia and Urbino are not state institutions; university courses are also given at Aquila, Ban and Catanzaro.
Messina Lipari; Nicosia, Patti.
The fortresses in the basin of the Po chiefly belong to the era of divided Italy and are now out of date; the chief coast fortresses are Vado, Genoa, Spezia, Monte Argentaro, Gacta, Straits of Messina, Taranto, Maddalena.
The revolt of Masaniello in Naples (1647), followed by rebellions at Palermo and Messina, which placed Sicily for a while in the hands of Louis XIV.
His troops had captured Messina after a bombardment which earned him the sobriquet of King Bomba; Catania and Syracuse fell soon after, hideous atrocities being everywhere committed with his sanction.
By the end of July, after the hard-won victory of Milazzo, the whole island, with the exception of the citadel of Messina and a few unimportant ports, was in his hands.
The citadel of Messina.
Giolitti removed the prefect of Rome for not having prevented an expression of popular anger, and presented formal excuses to the French consul at Messina for a demonstration against that consulate.
of Reggio and Messina, the smaller towns of Canitello, quake of Scilla, Villa San Giovanni, Bagnara, Palmi, Melito, December Porto Salvo and Santa Eufemia, as well as a large number of villages.
In the case of Messina the horror of the situation was heightened by a tidal wave.
of the Norman kings at Palermo and Monreale and Cefalu and Messina are in style simply Saracenic; they were most likely the work of Saracen builders; they were beyond doubt built after Saracenic models.
Such train ferries arc common in America, especially on the Great Lakes, and exist at several places in Europe, as in the Baltic between Denmark and Sweden and Denmark and Germany, and across the Straits of Messina.
Charles determined to subjugate the island and sailed with his fleet for Messina.
On the revolt of Messina from Spain, he was sent to support the insurgents, and had to encounter the united fleets of Spain and Holland under the command of the celebrated Admiral de Ruyter.
He was appointed professor of mathematics at Messina in 1649 and at Pisa in 1656.
In 1667 he returned to Messina, but in 1674 was obliged to retire to Rome, where he lived under the protection of Christina, queen of Sweden, and died on the 31st of December 1679.
Antonello Da Messina >>
In consequence of a fatal duel he was sent back to Naples; there he served under Joachim Murat with the rank of general, and fought against the AngloSicilian forces in Calabria and at Messina.
On the 3rd of September he landed near Messina, and after very severe fighting captured the city.
REGGIO CALABRIA (anc. Regium, q.v.), a town and archiepiscopal see of Calabria, Italy, capital of the province of Reggio, on the Strait of Messina, 248 m.
wide, and the distance to Messina nearly io m.
The ferryboats to Messina therefore cross by preference from Villa S.
(See further MESSINA.)
About the same time Francesco Maurolico, or Maurolycus, the eminent mathematician of Messina, in his Theore y nata de Lumine et Umbra, written in 1521, fully investigated the optical problems connected with vision and the passage of rays of light through small apertures with and without lenses, and made great advances in this direction over his predecessors.
Leaving Messina in March 11 9 1, he interrupted his voyage to conquer Cyprus, and only joined the Christian besiegers of Acre in June.
MESSINA, a city of Sicily, 7 m.
of the promontory of Faro (anc. Promontorium Pelorum), which forms the northeastern angle of the island, the capital of the province of Messina and the seat of an archbishop. Pop. (1850), 97,074; (1881), 126,497; (1901), 1 49,77 8; (1905), 158,812.
The earthquake occurred early in the morning of December 28, and so far as Messina was concerned the damage was done chiefly by the shock and by the fires which broke out afterwards; the seismic wave which followed was comparatively innocuous.
The rest of the edifice was in the baroque style; the high altar (containing the supposed letter of the Virgin Mary to the people of Messina), richly decorated with marbles, lapis lazuli, &c., was begun in 1628 and completed in 1726.
The importance of Messina was almost entirely due to its ' See S.
Messina fell into the hands of the Carthaginians during their wars with Dionysius the elder of Syracuse (397 B.C.).
During the next fifty years Messina changed masters several times, till Timoleon finally expelled the Carthaginians in 343 B.C. In the wars between Agathocles of Syracuse and Carthage, Messina took the side of the Carthaginians.
Messina was almost at once taken by Rome.
At the close of the war, in 241 B.C., Messina became a free and allied city (civitas foederata), and obtained Roman citizenship before the rest of Sicily, probably from Caesar himself.
During the civil wars which followed the death of Caesar, Messina held with Sextus Pompeius; and in 35 B.C. it was sacked by Octavian's troops.
After Octavian's proclamation as emperor he founded a colony here; and Messina continued to flourish as a trading port.
of England, with his crusaders, passed six months in Messina.
At the time of the Sicilian Vespers (1282), which drove the French out of Sicily, Messina bravely defended itself against Charles of Anjou, and repulsed his attack.
Peter I., through his commander Ruggiero di Loria, defeated the French off the Faro; and from 1282 to 1713 Messina remained a possession of the Spanish royal house.
In 1571 the fleet fitted out by the Holy League against the Turk assembled at Messina, and in the same year its commander, Don John of Austria, celebrated a triumph in the city for his victory at Lepanto.
the concessions of Charles V., Messina enjoyed great prosperity.
In 1676 the French admiral, Abraham Duquesne, defeated the combined fleet of Spain and Holland; but, notwithstanding this victory, the French suddenly abandoned Messina in 1678, and the Spanish occupied the town once more.
The senate was suppressed, and Messina lost its privileges.
During the revolution of 1848 against the Bourbons of Naples, Messina was bombarded for three consecutive days.
Garibaldi landed in Sicily in 1860, and Messina was the last city in the island taken from the Bourbons and made a part of united Italy under Victor Emmanuel.
Messina was the birthplace of Dicaearchus, the historian (c. 322 B.C.); Aristocles, the Peripatetic; Euhemerus, the rationalist (c. 316 B.C.); Stefano Protonotario, Mazzeo di Ricco and Tommaso di Sasso, poets of the court of Frederick II.
1250); and Antonello da Messina, the painter (1447-1499), of whose works one is preserved in the museum.
During the 15th century the grammarian, Constantine Lascaris, taught in Messina; and Bessarion was for a time archimandrite there.
He cruised off Messina to intercept the supplies which were being brought to the French garrison by a fleet of 20 sail under the command of Abraham Duquesne.
Duquesne was able to reach Messina and join the French ships at anchor there.
In 1676 the naval successes of France in the Mediterranean enabled the corps under Marshal Vivonne in Sicily to make considerable progress, and he won an important victory at Messina on the 25th of March.
But he was ill-supported in his task of maintaining the Norman kingdom, faced with general apathy, and threatened by a baronial revolt, and, in addition, Richard Coeur-de-Lion, at Messina, 1190, threatened him with war.
Its publication was followed by that of the tradegy Eufemio da Messina, but the representation of the latter was forbidden.
In May 1061 the brothers crossed from Reggio and captured Messina.
After Palermo had been taken in January 1072 Robert Guiscard, as suzerain, invested Roger as count of Sicily, but retained Palermo, half of Messina and the north-east portion (the Val Demone).
The mean annual temperature is 57.3° F., corresponding to that of Washington in the United States, and to Lisbon and Messina in Europe.
In February 1798, at the approach of the invading French forces, Henry was forced to fly from Frascati to Naples, whence at the close of the same year he sailed to Messina.
From Messina he proceeded by sea in order to be present at the expected conclave at Venice, where he arrived in the spring of 1799, aged, ill and almost penniless.
Having completed his studies, which included two years' devotion to Greek under Lascaris at Messina, he chose the ecclesiastical profession.
In the upper rooms is placed a large collection of Milanese and central Italian ceramics, stuffs, furniture, bronzes, ivories, enamels, glass and historical relics; together with a picture gallery containing works by Vincenzo Foppa, Gianpietrino, Boltraffio, Crivelli, Pordenone, Morone, Cariani, Correggio, Antonello da Messina, Tiepolo, Guardi, Potter, Van Dyck and Ribeira.
In 1676 a Dutch squadron fought two hard but indecisive battles with a superior French force, off Stromboli (8th of January) and off Messina (22nd of April).
In the next battle Spartacus was worsted and retreated towards the straits of Messina, intending to cross into Sicily, where he would have been welcomed by fresh hordes of slaves; but the pirates who had agreed to transport his army proved faithless.
Sicilia), an island of the Mediterranean Sea belonging to the kingdom of Italy, and separated from the nearest point of the mainland of Italy only by the Straits of Messina, which at their narrowest part are about 2 m.
The channel between Cape Bon in Tunis and the south-west of Sicily (a distance of 80 m.) is, on the whole, shallower than the Straits of Messina, being for the most part under 100 fathoms in depth, and exceeding 200 fathoms only for a very short interval, while the Straits of Messina, have almost everywhere a depth exceeding 150 fathoms. The geological structure in the neighbourhood of this strait shows that the island must originally have been formed by a rupture between it and the mainland, but that this rupture must have taken place at a period long antecedent to the advent of man, so that the name Rhegium cannot be based even on the tradition of any such catastrophe.
The archiepiscopal sees (the suffragan sees, if any, being placed after each in brackets) are Catania (Acireale), Messina (Lipari, Nicosia, Patti), Monreale (Caltanissetta, Girgenti), Palermo (Cefalu, Mazara, Trapani), Syracuse (Caltagirone, Noto, Piazza Armerina).
west of Palermo, running parallel to the northern coast almost as far as Messina, and of which many peaks reach nearly 6000 ft.
Such, for instance, is the preparation of the elements of citric acid, which is manufactured at an establishment at Messina.
There are several glass works at Palermo, a cotton dyeing works at Messina, and a large metal foundry at Palermo.
There are dry docks both at Palermo and Messina.
Messina is connected with the railway system of the mainland by ferry-boats from Villa S.
From Messina lines run along the northern coast to Palermo, and along the east coast via Catania to Syracuse: the latter line is prolonged along the south of the island (sometimes approaching, sometimes leaving the coast) via Canicatti as far as Aragona Caldare, Girgenti and Porto Empedocle.
Caterina Xirbi (with a branch to Canicatti) to Roccapalumba (with a branch to Aragona Caldare) and thence northwards to Termini, on the line between Messina and Palermo.
A steam tramway runs from Messina to the Faro at the north-east extremity of the island, and thence along the north coast to Barcelona, and another along the east coast from Messina to Giampilieri: while the island is fairly well provided with high roads, but is very backward in rural communications, there being only 244 yds.
A steamer leaves Naples every night for Palermo, and vice versa, the journey (208 m.) being done in I I hours, while the journey by rail (438 m.), including the crossing of the Straits of Messina takes 191 hours; and the weekly steamer from Naples to Messina (216 m.) takes 12 hours, while the journey by rail and ferry boat (292 m.) takes 14 hours.
Palermo, Messina and Catania are the most important harbours, the former being one of the two headquarters (the other, and the main one, is Genoa) of the Navigazione Generale Italiana, and a port of call for the steamers from Italy to New York.
Emigrants to the number of 37,638 left Palermo direct for New York in 1906, and no less than 46,770 in 1905, while others embarked at Messina and Naples.
The movement of trade in these three ports may be shown by the following table: - 1 The high proportion of shipping entering Messina is due to its position in the Straits.
At the north-east corner, opposite to Italy, and commanding the strait, arose Zancle, a city of uncertain date (first quarter of the 7th century B.C.) and mixed origin, better known as Messana (Messene, Messina).
Henna had been the chief centre of Christian resistance a generation earlier; its place was now taken by the small fort of Rametta not far from Messina.
Messina was taken in 1060, and became for a while the Norman capital.
On the other hand, at Messina there were few or none, and we hear of both Saracen and Greek villeins, the latter doubtless abiding as they were in Saracen times.
But Greek worship went on; at Messina it lingered till the 15th century (Pirro, Sicilia sacra, i.
Thus at Messina, where we hear nothing of Saracens, we hear much of the disputes between Greeks and Lombards.
Messina laid waste the lands of Taormina, because Taormina would not obey the bidding of Messina.
Charles was now besieging Messina; Sicily seems to have put on some approach to the form of a federal commonwealth.
In fact, after Peter had helped the Sicilians to relieve Messina, he was very little in Sicily; he had to defend his kingdom of Aragon, which Pope Martin had granted to another French Charles.
The war, chiefly marked by another great siege of Messina, went on till 1302, when both sides were thoroughly weakened and eager for peace.
The strict distinction was between Sicily on this side the Pharos (of Messina) and Sicily beyond it.
In Sicily there has been continuous work on Greek sites at Camarina, Catania, Messina, and Syracuse; the most important results were obtained at Syracuse.
Between this drama and its successor, Die Brazil von Messina, Schiller translated and adapted to his classic ideals Shakespeare's Macbeth (1801) and Gozzi's Turandot (1802).
With Die Braut von Messina (1803) he experimented with a tragedy on purely Greek lines, this drama being as close an approximation to ancient tragedy as its medieval and Christian milieu permitted of.
of Messina, and 151 m.
Messina), the title of " King of Naples " having only actually been borne by Philip II.
Peter reached Palermo in September, and by the following month had captured Messina, the last French stronghold.
In 1670 disorders broke out at Messina.
British troops to occupy Messina and Agosta, so that they might operate against the French on the mainland.
On the 12th of January 1848 a revolution under the leadership of Ruggiero Settimo broke out at Palermo to the cry of " independence or the 1812 constitution," and by the end of February the whole island, with the exception of Messina, i was in the hands of the revolutionists.
The troops landed at Messina, of which the citadel had been held by the royalists throughout, and after three days' desperate fighting the city itself was captured and sacked.
Most of the island had now been evacuated by the Bourbonists, but Messina and a few other points still held out, and when the Garibaldians advanced eastward they encountered a force of 4000 of the enemy under Colonel Bosco at Milazzo; on the 20th of July a desperate battle took place resulting in a hard-won Garibaldian victory.
The Neapolitan government then decided on the evacuation of the whole of Sicily except the citadel of Messina, which did not surrender until the following year.
Sicily being lost, the king directed all his efforts to save Naples; he appealed to Great Britain and France to prevent Garibaldi from crossing the Straits of Messina, and only just failed (for this episode see under Lacaita, G.).
An outbreak of plague at Messina in 1743 is important, not only for its fatality, but as one of the strongest cases in favour of the theory of imported contagion.
Messina had been free from plague since 1624, and the Sicilians prided themselves on the rigour of the quarantine laws which were thought to have preserved them.
- Independent of the episodes of Marseilles and Messina, the spread of plague from the East continued to exhibit the above-mentioned law of limitation.
When the adventures of Odysseus were localized on the Italian and Sicilian coasts, the Sirens were transferred to the neighbourhood of Neapolis and Surrentum, the promontory of Pelorum at the entrance to the Straits of Messina, or elsewhere.
He speaks as an eye-witness of the king's doings at Messina, in Cyprus, at the siege of Acre, and in the abortive campaign which followed the capture of that city.
coast of Sicily, in the province of Messina, from which town it is 30 m.
It is highly mineralized, next to gold, copper, found near the Limpopo (where is the Messina mine) being the chief metal worked.
The Bandieras began to make propaganda among the officers and men of the Austrian navy, nearly all Italians, and actually planned to seize a warship and bombard Messina.
He carried on his propaganda at Majorca, Paris, Montpellier and Messina, and in 1314 crossed over once more to Bougie.
The Fata Morgana, frequently seen in the Straits of Messina, consists of an apparent vertical elongation of an object situated on the opposite shore.
Invading Sicily with Roger, the brothers captured Messina (T06r) and Palermo (1072).
Werner was followed by Franciscus Maurolycus of Messina, who adopted the same method, and added considerably to the discoveries of Apollonius.
second mid awarded posthumously for gallantry and undaunted devotion to duty in clearing Messina harbor of enemy demolition charges Aug 43.
The isothermal of 65Ã‚° runs from Gibraltar to the north of Sardinia, and thence by the Strait of Messina to the Gulf of Corinth.
Melbourne, which stands in latitude 37Ã‚° 50' S., has a mean temperature of 57'3Ã‚°, and therefore corresponds with Washington in the United States, Madrid, Lisbon and Messina.
(See also Earthquake.) The facades of buildings at Messina in great part withstood the earthquake, but even when they did so the remainder of the buildings was destroyed.
those of Chartres, Namur, Ghent, Messina, Venice, etc.), separate volumes were devoted to the Latin MSS.
The mean annual temperature is 57.3Ã‚° F., corresponding to that of Washington in the United States, and to Lisbon and Messina in Europe.
The chief towns in each of these provinces, with their communal populations in 1901, are as follow: Caltanissetta (43,023), Castrogiovanni (26,081), Piazza Armerina (24,119), Terranova (22,019), San Cataldo (18,090); Catania (146,504), Caltagirone (44,527), Acireale (35,203), Giarre (26,194), Patera) (22,857), Leonforte (21,236), Bronte (20,166), Vizzini (18,013), Agira (17,634), Nicosia (15,811),(15,811), Grammichele (15,017); Girgenti (24,872), Canicatti (24,687), Sciacca 4 (24,6 5), Licata (22,993), Favara (20,403); Messina (147,106), Racalmuto (16,028), Palma (14,384), Barcellona (24,133), Milazzo (16,214), Mistretta (14,041); Palermo (305,716), Partinico (23,668), Monreale (23,556), Termini Imerese (20,633), Bagheria (18,329), Corleone (16,350), Cefalu (14,518); Syracuse (31,807),(31,807), Modica (49,951), Ragusa (32,453), Vittoria (32,219), Comiso (25,837), Noto (22,284), Lentini (17,100), Avola (16,301), Scicli (16,220), Palazzolo Acreide (15,106) Trapani (61,448), Marsala (57,824), Alcamo (51,798), Monte S.
(See Francis King of the Two Sicilies.) The citadel of Messina.
At Active Musician, you can order tab books that feature 1970s classics from singer/songwriters such as Simon and Garfunkel, John Denver and Loggins and Messina.
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