He married in 1852 Marie Caroline, daughter of the Archduke Charles, the victor of Aspern.
The driver's name is John – he's the father, and the mother's name is Marie.
Marie and Frederick consumed two vials each, leaving the majority, which Sarah and Jackson greedily consumed.
Jackson felt awed by the love Marie and Frederick shared.
Jackson noticed a woman dressed as Marie Antoinette, staring at him.
Louis Marie De La Haye, Vicomte De Cormenin >>
Marie Henri d'Arbois de Jubainville >>
of France and Marie Touchet, was born on the 28th of April 1573, at the castle of Fayet in Dauphine.
The words were constantly altered and added to during the Terror and later; thus the well-known lines, "Madame Veto avait promis De faire egorger tout Paris On lui coupa la tete," &c., were added after the execution of Marie Antoinette.
Having borne the title of duke of Montpensier until his grandfather's death in 1752, he became duke of Chartres, and in 1769 married Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon-Penthievre, daughter and heiress of the duke of Penthievre, grand admiral of France, and the richest heiress of the time.
came to the throne in 1774 Chartres still found himself looked on coldly at court; Marie Antoinette hated him, and envied him for his wealth, wit and freedom from etiquette, and he was not slow to return her hatred with scorn.
In 1676 the duke of Crequy seized it in the name of Louis XIV., who in 1678 gave it to Godefroy Marie de La Tour d'Auvergne, whose descendants continued in possession till 1795.
[[Roland (disambiguation)|ROLAND [[[Roland]] De La Platiere], Jean Marie]] (1734-1793), French statesman, was born at Thizy on the 18th of February 1734.
Charles Marie Widor >>
Virchow (Berlin, 1903); and Briefe Virchows an seine Eltern 1839-1864, by Marie Rabl (Leipzig, 1907).
At the congress of Vienna, Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were assigned to Marie Louise (daughter of Francis I.
(son of Louis of Etruria and Marie Louise, daughter of Charles IV., king of Spain).
in 1854, his widow, Marie Louise (daughter of Ferdinand, prince of Artois and duke of Berry), became regent for her son Robert.
ELME MARIE CARO (1826-1887), French philosopher, was born on the 4th of March 1826 at Poitiers.
In the public gardens there is a statue of General Jean Marie Valhubert, killed at Austerlitz.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
Through their grand-daughter Marie, the countship of Eu passed by marriage to the house of Brienne, two members of which, both named Raoul, were constables of France.
His great-grandson, Charles, son of Philip of Artois, count of Eu, and Marie of Berry, played a conspicuous part in the Hundred Years' War.
of Lorraine, duke of Guise, sold it to "Mademoiselle," Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans, duchesse de Montpensier, who made it over (1682) to the duke of Maine, bastard son of Louis XIV., as part of the price of the release of her lover Lauzun.
Marie Tussaud >>
Auguste Jean Marie Vermorel >>
MARIE CHAMPMESLE (1642-1698), French actress, was born in Rouen of a good family.
He, however, protected the royal family against the violence of the mob and, on the 7th of August, even attempted to bring about a reconciliation, but his efforts were frustrated by Marie Antoinette.
of Nanteuil-Aci and Marie of Dammartin.
Fouillee's wife, who by a previous marriage was the mother of the poet and philosopher Jean Marie Guyau (1854-1888), is well known, under the pseudonym of "G.
He was successively councillor of the parlement of Grenoble, secretary to the king, almoner to Marie de' Medici, abbot of Aulnay and finally, in 1606, bishop of Sees.
Parma and Piacenza were assigned to Marie Louise, daughter of the Austrian emperor and wife of Napoleon, on behalf of her son, the little Napoleon, but by subsequent arrangements (1816-1817) the duchy was to revert at her death to the Bourbons of Parma, then reigning at Lucca.
The duchy of Lucca was given to Marie Louise of BourbonParma, who, at the death of Marie Louise of Austria, would return to Parma, when Lucca would be handed over to Tuscany.
In February 1831 these provinces rose, raised the red, white and green tricolor (which henceforth took the place of the Carbonarist colors as the Italian flag), and shook off the papal yoke with surprising ease.1 At Parma too there was an outbreak and a demand for the constitution; Marie Louise could not grant it because of her engagements with Austria, and, therefore, abandoned her dominions.
The duke of Modena and Charles Louis of Parma (Marie Louise was now dead) abandoned their capitals; in both cities provisional governments were set up which subsequently proclaimed annexation to Piedmont.
a drunken libertine and a cruel tyrant ~ (May 1849); the latter was assassinated in 1854, and a regency under his widow, Marie Louise, was insti tuted during which the government became somewhat more tolerable, although by no means free from political persecution; in 1857 the Austrian troops evacuated the duchy.
Charles Guillaume Marie Apollinaire Antoine Cousin-Montauban, comte de Palikao >>
Pseudis was first described by Marie Sibylle de Merlon (1647-1717), in her work on the fauna of Surinam (published first in 1705 at Amsterdam, republished in Latin in 1719), as a frog changing into a fish.
A commission left Paris in 1735, consisting of Charles Marie de la Condamine, Pierre Bouguer, Louis Godin and Joseph de Jussieu the naturalist.
Berachiah, 2 the compiler of the "Fox Fables" (which have much in common with the "Ysopet" of Marie de France), is generally thought to have lived in Provence in the 13th century, but according to others in England in the 12th century.
Marie Antoinette, ihr Briefwechsel (ib.
1866); Marie Antoinette, Joseph II.
and Leopold von Toskana, ihr Briefwechsel (2 vols., 1872); Briefe der Kaiserin Maria Theresa an ihre Kinder and Freunde (4 vols., 1881); Marie Antoinette: Correspondance secrete entre Marie-Therese et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau (3 vols., Paris, 1875), in collaboration with Auguste Geffroy; Graf Philipp Cobenzl and seine Memoiren (1885); Correspondance secrete du comte de Mercy-Argenteau avec l'empereur Joseph II.
Other exceptions are the " Institutions of the Empress Marie," which absorb, inter alia, the duties on playing-cards and the taxes on places of public entertainment; the imperial civil list, so far as this does not exceed the sum fixed in 1906 (16,359,595 roubles!); the expenses of the two imperial chanceries, 10,000,000 roubles per annum, which constitute in effect a secret service fund.
to her in the hope that she might counterbalance the influence exercised over him by Marie de Hautefort.
Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert La Fayette >>
The violent personalities of a pamphlet entitled Marie Joseph Chenier et le prince des critiques (1844), in reply to Jules Janin, brought him a six months' sojourn in La Pelagic, in the cell just quitted by Lamennais.
His grandfather, Antoine Louis Marie, duc de Gramont (1755-1836), had emigrated during the Revolution, and his father, Antoine Heraclius Genevieve Agenor (1789-1855), duc de Gramont and de Guiche, fought under the British flag in the Peninsular War, became a lieutenantgeneral in the French army in 1823, and in 1830 accompanied Charles X.
and Marie Antoinette, was born at Versailles on the 27th of March 1785, was christened the same day Louis Charles, and given the title of duke of Normandy.
The royal party included, beside the king and queen, their daughter Marie Therese Charlotte (Madame Royale), the king's sister Madame Elisabeth, the valet Clery and others.
Marie Jeanne, in fact, took great care of the child's person, and there is documentary evidence to prove that he had air and food.
On the 6th of October Pache, Chaumette, Hebert and others visited him and secured from him admissions of infamous accusations against his mother, with his signature to a list of her alleged crimes since her entry in the Temple, and next day he was confronted with his'sister Marie Therese for the last time.
Barbey, A Friend of Marie Antoinette (Eng.
4 Antoine Simon (1736-1794) married Marie Jeanne Aladame, and belonged to the section of the Cordeliers.
Simon was sent to the guillotine with Robespierre in 1794, and two years later Marie Jeanne entered a hospital for incurables in the rue de Sevres, where she constantly affirmed the dauphin's escape.
Robespierre visited Marie Therese on the 11th of May, but no one, according to the legend, entered the dauphin's room for six months until Barras visited the prison after the 9th Thermidor (July 2 7, 1794).
The weak parts of this story are the sudden and unexplained departure of the Simons; the subsequent useless cruelty of treating the child like a wild beast and keeping him in a dark room practically out of sight (unless any doubt of his identity was possible), while his sister was in comparative comfort; the cause of death, declared to be of long standing, but in fact developed with such rapidity; the insufficient excuse provided for the child's muteness under Gomin's regime (he had answered Barras) and the irregularities in the formalities in attending the death and the funeral, when a simple identification of the body by Marie Therese would have prevented any question of resuscitated dauphins.
Lenotre, La Fille de Louis XVI., Marie Therese Charlotte de France, duchesse d'Angouleme, le Temple, l'echange, l'exil (1907).
There are two collections of writings on the subject: Marie Therese de France, compiled (1852) by the marquis de Pastoret, and comprising beside the memoir written by Marie Therese herself, articles by M.
Lemoine, La Gueronniere and extracts from Joseph Weber's memoirs; and Memoires de Marie Therese duchesse d'Angouleme, comprising extracts from the narratives of Charles Goret (Mon Temoignage, 1852), of C. F.
ANDRE MARIE AMPERE (1775-1836), French physicist, was born at Polemieux, near Lyons, on the 22nd of January 1 775.
Chretien states that he composed the poem (which he left to be completed by Godefroi de Leigni) at the request of the countess Marie of Champagne, who provided him with matiere et san.
Marie was the daughter of Louis VII.
Did it spring from the fertile brain of some court lady, Marie, or another?
After his return, he tried to keep on good terms with his father, and in 1772 he married a rich heiress, Marie Emilie, daughter of the marquess de Marignane, an alliance procured for him by his father.
Here he met Marie Therese de Monnier, his Sophie as he called her.
Auguste Marie Raymond, prince d'Arenberg, known as the Comte de la Marck, was a Flemish nobleman who had been proprietary colonel of a German regiment in the service of France; he was a close friend of the queen, and had been elected a member of the states-general.
Leloir, Mirabeau a Pontarlier (1886); Ferdinand Schwartz, Mirabeau and Marie Antoinette (Basel, 1891); and Alfred Mezieres, Vie de Mirabeau (1892).
Louis Marie Fontan >>
ELIZABETH [Elisabeth Philippine Marie Helene of] (1764-1794), commonly called Madame Elizabeth, daughter of Louis the Dauphin and Marie Josephine of Saxony, and sister of Louis XVI., was born at Versailles on the 3rd of May 1764.
By the execution of the king and the removal of Marie Antoinette to the Conciergerie, Madame Elizabeth was deprived of her companions in the Temple prison, and on the 9th of May 1 794 she was herself transferred to the Conciergerie, and haled before the revolutionary tribunal.
The father, Carlo Mariada Buonaparte (Charles Marie de Bonaparte), had resolved to call his three first sons by the names given by his great-grandfather to his sons, namely Joseph, Napoleon and Lucien.
It is time now to notice two important events in the life of the emperor, namely his divorce of Josephine and his union with Marie Louise of Austria.
Opinions were divided in the emperor's circle between a Russian and an Austrian princess; but the marked coolness with which overtures for the hand of the tsar's sister were received at St Petersburg, and the skill with which Count Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, let it be known that a union with the archduchess, Marie Louise, would be welcomed at Schonbrunn, helped to decide the matter.
Napoleon, though he never again worked as he had done, soon freed himself from complete dependence on Marie Louise; and he never allowed her to intrude into political affairs, for which, indeed, she had not the least aptitude.
At Dresden he held court for a few days in May 1812 with Marie Louise: the emperor Francis, the king of Prussia and a host of lesser dignitaries were present - a sign of the power of the modern Charlemagne.
The emperor Francis made a last effort to influence his son-in-law through Marie Louise.
Marie Louise was to have the duchy of Parma for herself and her son.
de Meneval, Napoleon et Marie Louise (3 vols., Paris, 1843-1845); Baron A.
Of the fifteen guillotined together, including among them Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, Francois Joseph Westermann and Pierre Philippeaux, Desmoulins died third; Danton, the greatest, died last.
The whole of this crop was Sea Island cotton, with the exception of the " Marie galante " grown in Carriacou.
Marie galante is a harsh cotton of the Peruvian or Brazilian type.
Alphonse Marie Marcellin Thomas Berenger >>
For Tartaglia's discovery of the solution of cubic equations, and his contests with Antonio Marie Floridas, see Algebra (History).
But Henry and Marguerite still continued friends; she still bore the title of queen; she visited Marie de' Medici on equal terms; and the king frequently consulted her on important affairs, though his somewhat parsimonious spirit was grieved by her extravagance.
MARIE LOUISE (1791-1847), second wife of Napoleon I., was the daughter of Francis I., emperor of Austria, and of the princess Theresa of Naples, and was born on the 12th of December 1791.
Under Marie Louise the etiquette of the court of France became more stately and the ritual of religious ceremonies more elaborate.
During the popular movements of 1831 Marie Louise had to take refuge with the Austrian garrison at Piacenza; on the restoration of her rule by the Austrians its character deteriorated, Parma becoming an outwork of the Austrian empire.
See Correspondance de Marie Louise 1799-1847 (Vienna, 1887); J.
Baron von Helfert, Marie Louise (Vienna, 1873); E.
Wertheimer, Die Heirath der Erzherzogin Marie Louise mit Napoleon I.
See also the Memoirs of Bausset, Mme Durand Meneval and Metternich; and Max Billard, The Marriage Ventures of Marie Louise, English version by Evelyn duchess of Wellington (1910).
He derived his surname from the fact that his ancestors were burgraves or chatelains of the town; his parents, who belonged to illustrious Flemish families, were probably the Jean Chastellain and his wife Marie de Masmines mentioned in the town records in 1425 and 1432.
This last-named John was the son of Philippe Thoreau and his wife Marie le Gallais, persons of pure French blood, settled at St Helier, in Jersey.
At Sault Sainte Marie in 1671, before representatives of fourteen Indian nations, the Sieur de St Lusson read a proclamation asserting the French claim to all the territory in the region of the 'Great Lakes.
(1754-1793), king of France, was the son of Louis, dauphin of France, the son of Louis XV., and of Marie Joseph of Saxony, and was born at Versailles on the 23rd of August 1754, being baptized as Louis Augustus.
His father's death in 1765 made him heir to the throne, and in 1770 he was married to Marie Antoinette, daughter of the empress Maria Theresa.
Marie Antoinette then obtained that ascendancy over her husband which was partly responsible for the extravagance of the ministry of Calonne, and brought on the Revolution by the resulting financial embarrassment.'
The declaration of war against the emperor Francis II., nephew of Marie Antoinette, was forced upon the king by those who wished to discredit him by failure, or to compel him to declare himself openly an enemy to the Revolution.
Having lost his elder son in 1789 Louis left two children, Louis Charles, usually known as Louis XVII., and Marie Therese Charlotte (1778-1851), who married her cousin, Louis, duke of Angouleme, son of Charles X., in 1799.
The "orphan of the Temple," as the princess was called, was in prison for three years, ' The responsibility of Marie Antoinette for the policy of the king before and during the Revolution has been the subject of much controversy.
See the articles French Revolution and Marie Antoinette.
Towards the close of his life, he had to fight against his own son, Thomas de Marie, who in 1115 succeeded him, subsequently becoming notorious for his deeds of violence in the struggles between the communes of Laon and Amiens.
His daughter Marie sold the fief of Coucy to Louis, duke of Orleans, in 1400.
Marie Geoffrin >>
The director, Schmalfuss, encouraged him in his mathematical studies by lending him books (among them Leonhard Euler's works and Adrien Marie Legendre's Theory of Numbers), which Riemann read, mastered and returned within a few days.
After the reconciliation of Louis with his mother, Marie de' Medici, through his agency, he was appointed a councillor of state, but had to resign this office, owing to his Austrian policy, which was opposed by Richelieu.
C. Clairault, d'Alembert, Condorcet and the Abbe Marie.
Marie Antoinette warmly patronized him.
Maret accompanied Napoleon through most of his campaigns, including that of 1809; and at its close he expressed himself in favour of the marriage alliance with the archduchess Marie Louise of Austria, which took place in 181o.
p. 306; Max Marie, Hist.
In this he attracted the favourable attention of Marie de' Medici, the queen-mother, and was chosen at its close to present the address of the clergy embodying its petitions and resolutions.
Then, as he had incurred too much of the odium of a creature of Concini to hope for royal favour, he resigned himself to the post of chief adviser to Marie de' Medici in her exile at Blois.
Here he sought to ingratiate himself with Luynes and the king by reporting minutely the actions of Marie and by protestations of loyalty.
By this treaty Marie was given liberty to live wherever she wished, and the government of Anjou and of Normandy with several castles was entrusted to her.
His rank in the church was due to his skill in intrigue with Marie de' Medici.
He furnished Marie de' Medici with political ideas and acute criticisms of the king's ministry, especially of the Brularts.
Marie zealously pushed her favourite towards office, and had gone so far as to absent herself from court for three months on account of the king's persistent refusal, when Charles, duc de La Vieuville, then head of the council, in need of her aid in his negotiations with reference to the marriage of her daughter Henriette Marie, finally agreed to force Richelieu's appointment to office upon the king, Louis XIII.
Marie de' Medici had turned against her "ungrateful" minister with a hatred intensified, it is said, by unrequited passion.
was very ill at Lyons, the two queens, Marie and Anne of Austria, reconciled for the time, won the king's promise to dismiss Richelieu.
When the news came of the truce of Regensburg Marie claimed the fulfilment of the promise.
The king gave a sign of yielding, appointing the brother of Marillac, Marie's counsellor, to the command of the army in Italy.
of Marie de Medici and Louis XIII.), sometimes attributed to Mezeray, published at Amsterdam in 1730 and, under the title Histoire de la regence de reine Marie de Medicis, femme de Henry IV., at the Hague in 1743 Memoires sur la regne de Louis XIII., extending from 1610 to 1638, and of which the earlier portion is a reprint of the Histoire de la mere et du fils, published in Petitot's collection (Paris, 1823 seq.); Testament politique d'Armand du Plessis, cardinal de Richelieu (Amsterdam, 1687 seq.); Journal de 1630-31 (Paris, 1645); "Lettres, instructions diplomatiques, et papiers d'etat," published by G.
Of his discovery we know nothing except that he declared it to his pupil Antonio Marie Floridas.
of France, which involved the queen Marie Antoinette.
The Parisian jewellers Boehmer and Bassenge had spent some years collecting stones for a necklace which they hoped to sell to Madame Du Barry, the favourite of Louis XV., and after his death to Marie Antoinette.
After having vainly tried to place the necklace outside of France, the jewellers attempted again in 1781 to sell it to Marie Antoinette after the birth of the dauphin.
At that time there was a personage at the court whom Marie Antoinette particularly detested.
It was the cardinal Louis de Rohan, formerly ambassador at Vienna, whence he had been recalled in 1774, having incurred the queen's displeasure by revealing to the empress Maria Theresa the frivolous actions of her daughter, a disclosure which brought a maternal reprimand, and for having spoken lightly of Maria Theresa in a letter of which Marie Antoinette learned the contents.
The comtesse de Lamotte assured the cardinal that she was making efforts on his behalf, and soon announced to him that he might send his justification to Marie Antoinette.
The tone of the letters became very warm, and the cardinal, convinced that Marie Antoinette was in love with him, became ardently enamoured of her.
Later a certain Marie Lejay (renamed by the comtesse "Baronne Gay d'Oliva," the last word being apparently an anagram of Valoi), who resembled Marie Antoinette, stated that she had been engaged to play the role of queen in this comedy.
Enriched by these, the countess was able to take an honourable place in society, and many persons believed her relations with Marie Antoinette, of which she boasted openly and unreservedly, to be genuine.
He said that he was authorized by the queen, and showed the jewellers the conditions of the bargain approved in the handwriting of Marie Antoinette.
Madame de Lamotte had told the cardinal that Marie Antoinette would make him a sign to indicate her thanks, and Rohan believed that she did make him a sign.
But it is certain that the cardinal, convinced that he was acting for the queen, had engaged the jewellers to thank her; that Boehmer and Bassenge, before the sale, in order to be doubly sure, had sent word to the queen of the negotiations in her name; that Marie Antoinette had allowed the bargain to be concluded, and that after she had received a letter of thanks from Boehmer, she had burned it.
It is generally believed that Marie Antoinette was stainless in the matter, that Rohan was an innocent dupe, and that the Lamottes deceived both for their own ends.
Tourneux, Marie Antoinette devant lhistoire: Essai bibliographique (2nd ed., Paris, 1901); Emile Campardon, MarieAntoinette et le procks du collier (Paris, 1863); P. Audebert, L'A$aire du collier de la reine, d'apres la correspondance inedite du chevalier de Pujol (Rouen, 1901); F.
d'Albini, Marie Antoinette and the Diamond Necklace from another Point of View (London, 1900); Funck-Brentano, L'Affaire du collier (1903); A.
The duc de Dalberg had inherited the family property of Herrnsheim from his uncle the arch-chancellor Karl von Dalberg, and this estate passed, through his daughter and heiress, Marie Louise Pelline de Dalberg, by her marriage with Sir (Ferdinand) Richard Edward Acton, 7th baronet (who assumed the additional name of Dalberg), to her son the historian, John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton.
Jean Marie Claude Alexandre Goujon >>
Map was, as we have seen, frequently in France; Chretien had for patroness Marie, countess of Champagne, step-daughter to Henry II., Map's patron; Map's position was distinctly superior to that of Chretien.
ALPHONSE MARIE LOUIS DE PRAT DE LAMARTINE (1790-1869), French poet, historian and statesman, was born at Macon on the 21st of October 1790.
The reform of medicine in France must be dated from the great intellectual awakening caused by the Revolution, but more definitely starts with the researches in anatomy and physiology of Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802).
GIRY (JEAN MARIE JOSEPH), Arthur (1848-1899), French historian, was born at Trevoux (Ain) on the 29th of February 1848.
Andre Marie Jean Jacques Dupin >>
FRANCOIS MARIE AROUET DE VOLTAIRE (1694-1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and man of letters, whose real name was Francois Marie Arouet simply, was born on the 21st of November 1694 at Paris, and was baptized the next day.
His father was Francois Arouet, a notary; his mother was Marie Marguerite Daumart or D'Aumard.
Marie Louise Victoire de Donnissan, born at Versailles on the 25th of October 1772, belonged to a court family and was the god-daughter of Mme Victoire, daughter of Louis XV.
His son and successor, Julien Marie Gaston, born at Chartres on the 27th of March 1833, was an active legitimist deputy in the Assembly chosen at the close of the German War of 1870-1871.
The queen, Marie Antoinette, was especially attracted by the grace and wit of le beau Fersen, who had inherited his full share of the striking handsomeness which was hereditary in the family.
Denys Marie Pierre Augustin Cochin >>
Linguet received the support of Marie Antoinette; his fame at the time surpassed that of his rival Beaumarchais, and almost excelled that of Voltaire.
WILLIAM PRYNNE (1600-1669), English parliamentarian, son of Thomas Prynne by Marie Sherston, was born at Swainswick near Bath in 1600.
Among its most celebrated victims may be mentioned Marie Antoinette, the Hebertists, the Dantonists and several of the Girondists.
She left two daughters, Marie Louise, wife of Charles II.
According to legitimist principles, the descendants of Henrietta, through her daughter Marie of Savoy, are entitled to wear the British crown.
Jean Joseph Marie Amiot >>
Tarentum was first settled in 1796, was laid out in 1829 at the direction of Henry Marie Brackenridge (1786-187,), 2 who by marriage had come into possession of the site, and it was incorporated as a borough in 1842.
Von Tschudi, Reisen durch Seidamerika (5 vols., Leipzig, 1866-1868); idem, Travels in Peru (London, 1847); Charles Wiener, Perou et Bolivie (Paris, 1880); Frank Vincent, Around and about South America (New York, 1890); Marie Robinson Wright, The Old and New Peru (Philadelphia, 1909); the Consular and Diplomatic Reports of Great Britain and the United States; Handbook of Peru and Bulletins of the Bureau of American Republics; and the departmental publications of the Peruvian Government.
In addition to the dukes of Orleans the most important members of this family are: Anne Marie Louise, duchess of Montpensier;.
Astronomy, p. 377; Marie, Hist.
They call themselves Anishinabeg (" spontaneous men"), and the French called them Saulteurs ("People of the Falls"), from the first group of them being met at Sault Ste Marie.
AUGUSTE [ISIDORE AUGUSTE MARIE FRANpOIS] COMTE (1798-1857), French Positive philosopher, was born on the 19th of January 1798 at Montpellier, where his father was a receiver-general of taxes for the district.
SE.) [[Chenier, Marie - Joseph Blaise De]] (1764-1811), French poet, dramatist and politician, younger brother of Andre de Chenier, was born at Constantinople on the 11th of February 1764.1 He was brought up at Carcassonne, and educated in Paris at the College de Navarre.
The same year he formed a liaison with Marie Claire Deschamps de Marcilly, widow of the marquis de Villette, whom he married in 1720 after the death in 1718 of Lady Bolingbroke, whom he had treated with cruel neglect.
Marie de France, who wrote at the court of Henry II., and Chretien de Troyes, her French contemporary, were the earliest of the avowed romancers to take up the theme.
CHARLES MARIE DE LA CONDAMINE (1701-1774), French geographer and mathematician, was born at Paris on the 28th of January 1701.
Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux >>
SA.) [[Villele, Jean Baptiste Guillaume Marie Anne Seraphin, Comte De]] (1773-1854), French statesman, was born at Toulouse on the 14th of April 1773 and educated for the navy.
The French troops in Ste Marie were only an outpost of the 6th corps, and seeing themselves outnumbered, they withdrew about 2.30, the Prussians rushing the village immediately afterwards.
It had to wheel half-right in mass to bring it in the required direction, and then to advance till its rear was clear of the obstruction formed by the gardens of St Marie.
But emerging from the hollow running north from St Marie, they came under a heavy fire not only from St Privat but also from Roncourt, which latter village they now saw for the first time.
1858) was married to Marie d'Orleans, daughter of Robert, duc de Chartres.
of Great Britain; Dagmar (Marie), the tsar Alexander III.; and Thyra, Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland.
ADRIEN ALBERT MARIE DE MUN, Count (1841-), French politician, was born at Lumigny, in the department of Seine-et-Marne, on the 28th of February 1841.
Marie Anne de Vichy, marquise du Deffand-Chamrond >>
MARIE ANTOINETTE (1755-1793), queen of France, ninth child of Maria Theresa and the emperor Francis I., was born at Vienna, on the 2nd of November 1755.
Hence arose the famous secret correspondence of Mercy-Argenteau, an invaluable record of all the details of Marie Antoinette's life from her marriage in 1770 till the death of Maria Theresa in 1780.
Marie Antoinette soon won the affection and confidence of the dauphin and endeared herself to the king, but her position was precarious, and both Mercy and Maria Theresa had continually to urge her to conquer her violent dislike for the favourite and try to conciliate her.
But her first steps brought Marie Antoinette into open hostility with the anti-Austrian party.
For a time the emperor's remonstrances had some effect, and after the birth of her daughter, Marie Therese Charlotte (afterwards duchesse d'Angouleme) in December 1778, the queen lived a more quiet life.
was bound to increase the dislike of the Austrian alliance and cause embarrassment to Marie.
In1785-1786the affair of the Diamond Necklace 1 See Arneth, Marie Antoinette, Joseph II.
the Instructions donnees a la marquise de Tourzel, governess of the children of France, dated the 24th of July, 1789, in la Rocheterie and Beaucourt, Lettres de Marie Antoinette, ii.
The year 1789 was one of disaster for Marie Antoinette; on the 10th of March her brother Joseph II.
Marie Antoinette's actions were now directed entirely by Fersen, for she suspected Mercy and the emperor of sacrificing her to the interests of Austria (Fersen, i.
During all these events and the captivity in the Temple Marie Antoinette showed an unvarying courage and dignity, in spite of her failing health and the illness of her son.
(2) Is Marie Antoinette of Austria, the widow Capet, convicted of having co-operated in these manoeuvres and maintained these communications ?
(4) Is Marie Antoinette, the widow Capet, convicted of having participated in this plot and conspiracy ?
The jury decided unanimously in the affirmative, and on the 16th of October 1793 Marie Antoinette was led to the guillotine, leaving behind her a touching letter to Madame Elizabeth, known as her "Testament."
Belloc,Marie-Antoinette, pp. 311-312, states that clause of Brunswick's manifesto was "drafted" by Marie Antoinette, i.e.
Tourneux, Marie Antoinette devant l'histoire.
The most important material for her life is to be found in her letters and in the correspondence of Mercy-Argenteau, but a large number of forgeries have found their way into certain of the collections, such as those of Paul Vogt d'Hunolstein (Correspondance inedite de Marie Antoinette, (3rd ed., Paris, 1864), and F.
Feuillet des Conches Louis X VI., Marie Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth, lettres et documents inedits (6 vols., Paris, 1864-1873), while most of the works on Marie Antoinette published before the appearance of Arneth's publications (1865, &c.) are based partly on these forgeries.
For a detailed examination of the question of the authenticity of the letters see the introduction to Lettres de Marie Antoinette.
von Arneth, Maria Theresia and Marie Antoinette, ihr Briefwechsel 1770-1780(Paris and Vienna, 1865); id., Marie Antoinette, Joseph II.
et le prince de Kaunitz (2 vols., Paris, 1889-1891); for further letters see Comte de Reiset, Lettres de la reine Marie Antoinette a la landgrave Louise de Hesse-Darmstadt (1865); id.
Lettres inedites de Marie Antoinette et de Marie-Clotilde, reine de Sardaigne (1877).
Tourneux (op. cit.) discusses the authenticity of the memoirs of Tilly, Clery, Lauzun, &c. The chief of these memoirs are: Mme Campan, Memoires sur la vie privee de Marie Antoinette (5th ed., 2 vols., Paris, 1823, Eng.
Weber, Memoires concernant Marie Antoinette (3 vols., London, 1804-1809; Eng.
passim) contains a good estimate of Marie Antoinette.
de Goncourt, Histoire de Marie Antoinette (Paris, 1859); P. de Nolhac, Marie Antoinette, dauphine (Paris, 1897); id.
La Reine Marie Antoinette (8th ed., 1898), which gives good descriptions of Versailles, Trianon, &c.; M.
de la Rocheterie, Histoire de Marie Antoinette (2 vols., Paris, 1890); A.
Bicknell, The Story of Marie Antoinette; R.
Prolss, Konigin Marie Antoinette, Bader aus ihrem Leben (Leipzig, 1894); G.
Campardon, Marie Antoinette a la Conciergerie (1863).
Belloc's Marie Antoinette (London, 1909) is very biassed and sometimes misleading.
Marie De France >>
By her marriage with Claude of Lorraine, duke of Chevreuse, Marie de Rohan, the widow of the first duke of Luynes, acquired in 1655 the duchy of Chevreuse, which she gave in 1663 to Louis Charles d'Albert, her son by her first husband; and from that time the title of duke of Chevreuse and duke of Luynes was borne by the eldest sons of the family of Luynes, which also inherited the title of duke of Chaulnes on the extinction of the descendants of Honore d'Albert in 1698.
He used his influence over the king in the court intrigues against the queen-mother Marie de Medici and her favourite Concini.
In the same year he was appointed captain of the Bastille and lieutenant-general of Normandy, and married Marie de Rohan, daughter of the duke of Montbazon.
In 1619 he negotiated the treaty of Angouleme by which Marie de Medici was accorded complete liberty.
Louis Charles d'Albert (1620-1690), duke of Luynes, son of the constable, was an ascetic writer and friend of the Jansenists; Paul d'Albert de Luynes (1703-1788), cardinal and archbishop of Sens, an astronomer; Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly (1714-1769), duke of Chaulnes, a writer on mathematical instruments, and his son Marie Joseph Louis (1741-1793), a chemist; and Honore Theodore Paul Joseph (1802-1867), duke of Luynes, a writer on archaeology.
et Marie de Medicis (Paris, 1899); Lavisse, Histoire de France, vi.
Amongst the collections partly derived from Romulus the most famous is probably that in French verse by Marie de France.
Pierre Marie Waldeck-Rousseau >>
The town has been embellished by several other statues, including those of Charles Augustus (1875); Lucas Cranach (1886); Marie Seibach (1889); the composer Hummel (1895) and Franz Liszt (1904).
In 1606 he was vicar-general of the congregation of France, and received from Marie de' Medici the revenues of the sees of Lombez and Saintes.
JEAN JOSEPH MARIE AMIOT (1718-1793), French Jesuit missionary, was born at Toulon in February 1718.
Louis Marie De La Revelliere-Lepeaux >>
LOUIS MARIE OLIVIER DUCHESNE (1843-), French scholar and ecclesiastic, was born at Saint Servan in Brittany on the 13th of September 1843.
Marie Francois Sadi Carnot >>
His demonstration that letters attributed to Marie Antoinette were not genuine roused much interest in France.
The city is a railway centre of some importance, and is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault St Marie, and the Chicago & NorthWestern railways, by interurban electric lines, and by steamboat lines connecting through the Fox river with vessels on the Great Lakes.
In Paris, too, at this time he made a whimsical but pleasant friendship. Marie de Jars de Gournay (1565-1645), one of the most learned ladies of the 16th and 17th centuries, had conceived such a veneration for the author of the Essays that, though a very young girl and connected with many noble families, she travelled to the capital on purpose to make his acquaintance.
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie, the Grand Trunk, and the Pere Marquette railways.
One of them, Jean Jacques de Beauharnais, seigneur de Miramion, had for wife Marie Bonneau, who in 1661 founded a female charitable order, called after her the Miramiones.
He married Marie Anne Francoise (called Fanny) Mouchard, a woman of letters who had a celebrated salon.
In 1874 Prince Alfred, duke of Edinburgh, married Princess Marie Alexandrovna, only daughter of the tsar Alexander II.
and of Marie de' Medici.
He regained his ascendancy over the king, punished his enemies and forced Marie de' Medici and Gaston of Orleans to sue for pardon.
fail and to sue for pardon again and again; but Marie de'Medici ended her life in exile.
ALACOQUE, or AL COQ, Marguerite Marie (1647-1690), French nun and mystic, was born at Lauthecourt, a village in the diocese of Autun, on the 22nd of July 1647.
Having been cured of this, as she believed, by the intercession of the Holy Virgin, she changed her name to Marie and vowed to devote her life to her service.
Capefigue, Marie Marguerite Al-Coq (Paris, 1866).
Carlo Buonaparte [Charles Marie de Bonaparte] (1746-1785), the father of Napoleon I., took his degree in law at the university of Pisa, and after the conquest of Corsica by the French became assessor to the royal court of Ajaccio and the neighbouring districts.
Marie Pauline (1780-1825), the gayest and most beautiful member of the family, was born at Ajaccio on the 20th of October 1780.
Her offhand treatment of the new empress, Marie Louise, in 1810 led to her removal from court.
Eight children survived him: Joseph Lucien Charles Napoleon, prince of Canino (1824-1865), who died without heirs; Lucien Louis Joseph Napoleon, born in 1828, who took holy orders in 1853 and became a cardinal in 1868; Julie Charlotte Zenaide Pauline Laetitia Desiree Bartholomee, who married the marquis of Roccagiovine; Charlotte Honorine Josephine, who married Count Primoli; Marie Desiree Eugenie Josephine Philomene, who married the count Campello; Auguste Amelie Maximilienne Jacqueline, who married Count Gabrielli; Napoleon Charles Gregoire Jacques Philippe, born in 1839, who married the princess Ruspoli, by whom he had two daughters; and Bathilde Aloyse Leonie, who married the comte de Cambaceres.
in January 1859 with the princess Marie Clotilde of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel, a prelude to the war for the liberation of Italy.
of the Missouri river, in the Mouse river valley along the line of the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie railway, and at a few places in the same region along the line of the Great Northern railway.
The main line of the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie enters the S.E.
MARIE GALANTE, an island in the French West Indies.
Marie Leszczynska >>
On the death of Henry, Conde returned to France, and intrigued against the regent, Marie de' Medici; but he was seized, and imprisoned for three years (1616-1619).
GASPARD CLAIR FRANCOIS MARIE RICHE DE PRONY (1755-1839), French engineer, was born at Chamelet, in the department of the Rhone, on the 22nd of July 1755, and was educated at the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees.
ADRIEN MARIE LEGENDRE (1752-1833), French mathematician, was born at Paris (or, according to some accounts, at Toulouse) in 1752.
His first published writings consist of articles forming part of the Traite de mecanique (1774) of the Abbe Marie, who was his professor; Legendre's name, however, is not mentioned.
- Marie von Chauvin, Zeitschr.
The wife of John Casimir, a Frenchwoman, Marie Louise, hired a troop of French actors and first familiarized the Poles with something which resembled the modern stage.
In Italy Austria retained her hold on Lombardy and Venetia, Genoa was assigned to the kingdom of Sardinia, while Parma went to Marie Louise, the legitimate heir, Carlo Ludivico, having to be content with the reversion after her death, the congress meanwhile assigning Lucca to him as a duchy; the claims of the young Napoleon to succeed his mother in Parma were only destroyed by the efforts of France and England.
Bartholdi, stands in front of the castle; and in the Place d'Armes is the bronze group "Quand Meme" by Antonin Mercie, in memory of Thiers and of Colonel Pierre Marie Aristide Denfert-Rochereau (1823-1878), commandant of the place during the siege.
Francois Marie Raoult >>
But his fall was assured when Philip, who in 1271 lost his first wife, Isabella, daughter of James I., king of Aragon, married in 1274 Marie, daughter of Henry III., duke of Brabant.
His death left the parties of Marie, the queen, and Margaret, the queen-mother, to struggle for the mastery.
In May 1275 the party of Marie secured for Philip, the king's second son, the hand of Jeanne, the heiress of Navarre and Champagne, along with the guardianship of the kingdom of Navarre during the minority of Jeanne.
This was a mere matter of form; Marie of Brabant and her party had decided the matter beforehand, and the crown of Aragon, which the French pope Martin IV.
By his second wife, Marie (d.
In 1646 he was sent at the head of an extraordinary mission to France, and on his return married the queen's cousin Marie Euphrosyne of Zweibri cken, who, being but a poor princess, benefited greatly by her wedding with the richest of the Swedish magnates.
(From MS. written for the monastery of Ste Marie de Parco, Louvain, A.D.
The reign of Theodore began with a rebellion in favour of the infant tsarevich Demetrius, the son of Ivan's fifth wife Marie Nagaya, a rebellion resulting in the banishment of Demetrius, with his mother and her relations, to their appanage at Uglich.
His son, Baron Antoine Marie Roederer (1782-1865), was also a politician of some note in his day.
GEORGE ERNEST JEAN MARIE BOULANGER (1837-1891), French general, was born at Rennes on the 29th of April 1837.
Following Cuvier's Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, the rich succession of Tertiary mammalian life was gradually revealed to France through the explorations and descriptions of such authors as Croizet, Jobert, de Christol, Eymar, Pomel and Lartet, during a period of rather dry, systematic work, which included, however, the broader generalizations of Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1778-1850), and culminated in the comprehensive treatises on Tertiary palaeontology of Paul Gervais (1816-1879).
Winter, Mexico and her People of To-day (Boston, 1907); Marie R.
Marie Catherine Le Jumel de Barneville de la Motte, Baronne d'Aulnoy >>
BRUNE, GUILLAUME MARIE ANNE (1763-1815), marshal of France, the son of an advocate, was born at Brives-la-Gaillarde (Correze), on the 13th of March 1763.
Francois Charles Marie Fourier >>
in 1 744 to his mistress, Marie Anne de Mailly-Nesle, duchess of Chateauroux.
It is on the main line of the Northern Pacific, and on the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie railways; and steamboats run from here to Mannhaven, Mercer county, and Fort Yates, Morton county.
His Histoire de Marie Stuart (2 vols., 1851) is well worth reading; the author made liberal use of some important unpublished documents, taken for the greater part from the archives of Simancas.
On his return he was added to the Committee of Public Safety, which had decreed the arrest en masse of all suspects and the establishment of a revolutionary army, caused the extraordinary criminal tribunal to be named officially "Revolutionary Tribunal" (on the 29th of October 1793), demanded the execution of Marie Antoinette and then attacked Hebert and Danton.
Large canals and locks on both sides of the Sault (pronounced Soo) Ste Marie in the outlet of Lake Superior are actively used except during three or four winter months.
The Erie Canal in New York, the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, and the Sault Ste Marie Canal are the most important in the country.
The tonnage of vessels cleared between American ports on the lakes in 1908 wa~ 103,271,885 net tons; the freight they carried came to 80,974,605 long tons, Vessels aggregating 46,751,717 net tons, carrying 57,895,149 tons of freight, valued at $470,141,318, passed through the Sault Ste Marie Canal and 47,621,078 tons of freight were moved through the Detroit river in the same year.
(Leiden, 1646); Marie, Hist.
gave welcome to Marie Antoinette, that Napoleon I.
received Marie Louise of Austria, that Louis XVIII.
The St Lawrence system, for instance, generates many thousand horse-power at Sault Ste Marie, Niagara and the Lachine rapids.
Her missionaries and leaders were already at Sault Ste Marie commanding the approach to Lake Superior, and at Michilimackinac commanding that to Lake Michigan.
and of Marie Josephe of Saxony, and consequently brother of Louis XVI.
At the age of sixteen he married Marie Therese of Savoy, sister-in-law of his brother, the count of Provence (Louis XVIII.).
of Hesse, Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie, thenceforward known as Maria Alexandrovna, who bore him six sons and two daughters.
Marie du Mesnil, Memoire sur le prince Le Brun, duc de Plaisance (Paris, 1828); Opinions, rapports et choix d'ecrits politiques de C. F.
In 1639 he went among the Tobacco Nation, and in 1641 journeyed to Sault Sainte Marie, where he preached to the Algonquins.
Although he had previously published meritorious researches on piezoelectricity, the magnetic properties of bodies at different temperatures, and other topics, he was chiefly known for his work on radium carried out jointly with his wife, Marie Sklodowska, who was born at Warsaw on the 7th of November 1867.
Wace and Benoit de Sainte-More compiled their histories at his bidding, and it was in his reign that Marie de France composed her poems. An event with which he was closely connected, viz.
The lais of Marie de France were written in England, and the greater number of the romances composing the matiere de Bretagne seem to have passed from England to France through the medium of Anglo-Norman.
As to fables, one of the most popular collections in the middle ages was that written by Marie de France, which she claimed to have translated from King Alfred.
In the Conies moralises, written by Nicole Bozon shortly before 1320 (Soc. Anc. Textes, 1.889), a few fables bear a strong resemblance to those of Marie de France.
72); Histoire de Marie et de Jesus (Rom.
Patrice, by Marie de France (Jenkins, 1894; Eckleben, Aelteste Schilderung vom Fegefeuer d.
"ALFRED VON KIDERLEN-WACHTER (1852-1912), German diplomatist, was born at Stallgast July 10 1852, and was the son of a banker, Robert Kiderlen, who had married Baroness Marie von Wachter.
MARIE JOSEPH DE GERANDO (1772-1842), French philosopher, was born at Lyons on the 29th of February 1772.
JEAN BAPTISTE GASTON ORLEANS, DUKE OF (1608-1660), third son of the French king Henry IV., and his wife Marie de Medici, was born at Fontainebleau on the 25th of April 1608.
Gaston's first wife was Marie (d.
By Marie he left a daughter, Anne Marie, duchesse de Montpensier; and by Marguerite he left three daughters, Marguerite Louise (1645-1721), wife of Cosimo III., grand duke of Tuscany; Elizabeth (1646-1696), wife of Louis Joseph, duke of Guise; and Francoise Madeleine (1648-1664), wife of Charles Emmanuel II., duke of Savoy.
LOUISE DE KEROUALLE PORTSMOUTH, DUCHESS OF (1649-1734), mistress of the English king Charles II., was the daughter of Guillaume de Penancourt and his wife Marie de Plaeuc de Timeur.
On the left bank the two old forts Isabelle and Marie alone defend the Scheldt.
(1855-1881), with a very successful girls' school founded and endowed by the tsaritsa Marie; a library and reading-room; a theatre, a museum and a hospital.
He married for his second wife in May 1214 Marie, daughter of Henry I., duke of Brabant, but left no children.
This was followed by his marriage, in 1608, to Marie Reigersberg, a lady of family in Zeeland, a woman of great capacity and noble disposition.
Four different sources have been suggested; the classical myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts for the golden fleece, the scriptural story of Gideon, the staple trade of Flanders in wool, and the fleece of golden hair of Marie de Rambrugge, the duke's mistress.
JEAN MARIE ANTOINE DE LANESSAN (1843-), French statesman and naturalist, was born at Sainte-Andre de Cubzac (Gironde) on the 13th of July 1843.
Labanoff's Lettres inedites, 1558-1587 (Paris, 1839), and Lettres, instructions, et mmoires de Marie Stuart (7 vols., London, 1844), selections from which have been translated into English by W.
Mignet, Histoire de Marie Stuart (2 vols., Brussels, 1851); Martin Philippson, Histoire du regne de Marie Stuart (3 vols., Paris, 1891); Sir John Skelton, Mary Stuart (London, 1893), Maitland of Lethington and the Scotland of Mary Stuart (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1887), The Impeachment of Mary Stuart (Edinburgh, 1878), and Essays in History and Biography, including the Defence of Mary Stuart (Edinburgh, 1883); Joseph Stevenson, Mary Stuart: The First Eighteen Years of her Life (Edinburgh, 1886); D.
(1894-), King of Bulgaria, eldest son of King Ferdinand (see 10.269) and of Marie Louise de Bourbon, eldest daughter of Duke Robert of Parma, was born at Sofia, Jan.
Here he worked at Sault Ste Marie, St Esprit (near the western extremity of Lake Superior) and St Ignace (near Michilimackinac or Mackinaw, on the strait between Huron and Michigan).
Edouard Smits (1789-1852) showed romantic tendencies in his tragedies of Marie de Bourgogne (1823), Elfrida (1825), and Jeanne de Flandre (1828).
Fernand Louis Armand Marie De Langle De Cary >>
On the 20th of March 1811 the empress Marie Louise gave birth to a son, named in his very cradle king of Rome.
In the choir the heart of Marie de' Medici is buried; and in the adjoining side-chapels are monuments of the founder and other archbishops of Cologne, and the shrine of the Three Kings, which is adorned with gold and precious stones.
LOUIS PHILIPPE I., king of the French (1773-1850), was the eldest son of Louis Philip Joseph, duke of Orleans (known during the Revolution as Philippe Egalite) and of Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon, daughter of the duc de Penthievre, and was born at the Palais Royal in Paris on the 6th of October 17 73.
and Queen Marie Antoinette; his governess was the famous Madame de Geniis, to whose influence he doubtless owed many of the qualities which later distinguished him: his wide, if superficial knowledge, his orderliness, and perhaps his parsimony.
The other children were Louise, consort of Leopold I., king of the Belgians; Marie, who married Prince Alexander of Wurttemberg and died in 1839; Louis Charles, duc de Nemours; Clementine, married to the duke of Coburg-Kohary; Francois Ferdinand, prince de Joinville; Henri Eugene, duc d'Aumale; Antoine Philippe, duc de Montpensier, who married the Infanta, younger sister of Queen Isabella of Spain.
MARIE ALFRED CORNU (1841-1902), French physicist, was born at Orleans on the 6th of March 1841, and after being educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole des Mines, became in 1867 professor of experimental physics in the former institution, where he remained throughout his life.
Menasha is served by the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the Chicago & North-Western railways, and by an inter-urban electric railway system.
CLERMONT - TONNERRE, STANISLAS MARIE [[Adelaide, Comte De]] (1757-1792), French politican, was born at Pont-aMousson on the 10th of October 1757.
The LancelotGuenevere romance took form and shape in the artificial atmosphere encouraged by such patronesses of literature as Eleanor of Aquitaine and her daughter Marie, Comtesse de Champagne (for whom Chretien de Troyes wrote his Chevalier de la Charrette), and reflects the low social morality of a time when love between husband and wife was declared impossible.
MARIE LESZCZYNSKA (1703-1768), queen consort of France, was born at Breslau on the 23rd of June 1703, being the daughter of Stanislas Leszczynski (who in 1704 became king of Poland) and of Catherine Opalinska.
Marie's one attempt to interfere in politics, an effort to prevent the disgrace of the duke of Bourbon, was the beginning of her husband's alienation from her; and after the birth of her seventh child Louise, Marie was practically deserted by Louis, who openly avowed his liaison with Louise de Nesle, comtesse de Mailly, who was replaced in turn by her sisters Pauline marquise de Vintimille, and Marie Anne, duchess de Chateauroux, and these by Madame de Pompadour.
After a momentary reconciliation with Louis during his illness at Metz in 1744, Marie shut herself up more closely with her own circle of friends until her death at Versailles on the 24th of June 1768.
des Diguieres, Lettres inedites de la reine Marie Leczinska et de la duchesse de Luynes au President Henault (1886); Marquise des Reaux, Le Roi Stanislas et Marie Leczinska (1895); P. de Raynal, Le Mariage d'un roi (Paris, 1887); H.
d'apres des documents nouveaux (1900) P. de Nolhac, La Reine Marie Leczinska (1900) and Louis XV.
et Marie Leczynska 0900); P. Boye, Lettres du roi Stanislas a Marie Leszczynska 1 7541766 (Paris and Nancy, 1901); and C. Stryienski's book on Marie Josephs de Saxe (La Mere des trois derniers Bourbons, Paris, 1902).
Marie Louise >>
At the south-eastern end St Mary's river carries its waters to Lake Huron, with a fall of 602 to 581 ft., most of which takes place at Sault Sainte Marie, where the largest locks in the world permit vessels of 10,000 tons to pass from one lake to the other, and where water-power has been greatly developed for use in the rolling mills and wood pulp industry.
127 9), daughter of Simon, of Dammartin, count of Ponthieu, by right of his wife Marie, Ferdinand was the father of Eleanor, the wife of Edward I.
1387), the lordship of Aremberg, which he increased by his marriage with Marie de Looz, heiress of Lumain.
The fact that Leopold's sister, Marie Antoinette, was the wife of Louis XVI.
(Vienna, 1882); Baron Henry de Worms, The Austro-Hungarian Empire (London, 2nd ed., 1876); Louis Asseline, Histoire de l'Autriche depuis la mort de Marie Therese (Paris, 1877), sides with the Slays against Germans and Magyars; Louis Leger, Hist.
His only child Marie having predeceased him in 1610, the title lapsed.
His widow followed the fortunes of Marie de' Medici, from whom she received many marks of favour, and was secretly married to Francois de Bassompierre, who joined her in conspiring against Cardinal Richelieu.
He was concerned in the Fronde of 1651, but soon afterwards became reconciled with Mazarin, and in 16J4 married the cardinal's niece, Anne Marie Martinozzi (1639-1672), and secured the government of Guienne.
LOUIS Armand De Bourbon, prince de Conti (1661-1685), eldest son of the preceding, succeeded his father in 1666, and in 1680 married Marie Anne, a daughter of Louis XIV.
Conti was a favourite of his uncle the great Conde, whose grand-daughter Marie Therese de Bourbon (1666-1732) he married in 1688.
On the death of his cousin, Jean Louis Charles, duc de Longueville (1646-1694), Conti in accordance with his cousin's will, claimed the principality of Neuchatel against Marie, duchesse de Nemours (1625-1707), a sister of the duke.
He failed to obtain military assistance from the Swiss, and by the king's command yielded the disputed territory to Marie, although the courts of law had decided in his favour.
P. Jacobsen (q.v.; 1847-1885) Denmark was now taught to welcome the greatest artist in prose which she has ever possessed; his romance of Marie Grubbe led off the new school with a production of unexampled beauty.
His most important work is his Histoire de la rivalite de la France et de l'Angleterre (in 11 vols., 1 77 1 - 1 777); and among his other works may be mentioned Essai de rhetorique francaise, a l'usage des jeunes demoiselles (1745), often reprinted, and in 1822 with a life of the author; Histoire de Marie de Bourgogne (1757); Histoire de Francois I" (7 vols., 1776-1779); Histoire des grander querelles entre Charles V.
By his first wife Marie, daughter of the elector palatine Louis VI., he had six children, of whom only one daughter, Catherine, survived; by his second wife, Christina, daughter of Adolphus, duke of Holstein-Gottorp, he had five children, including Gustavus Adolphus and Charles Philip, duke of Finland.
The muniments of the abbacy, preserved in the archives of the earl of Morton, were edited by Cosmo Innes for the Bannatyne Club and published in 1837 under the title of Liber sancte Marie de Melros.
Napoleon's answer was to refuse to ratify the convention of the 4th of January, and to announce his engagement to the archduchess Marie Louise in such a way as to lead Alexander to suppose that the two marriage treaties had been negotiated simultaneously.
Waukesha is served by the Minneapolis, St Paul && Sault Ste, Marie, the Chicago & North-Western and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways, and by interurban electric railways connecting it with Milwaukee, Oconomowoc and Madison.
(Marie) Paul Hyacinthe Meyer >>
On the 3rd of July 1449 James married Marie of Gueldres, seized and imprisoned the Livingstones, and generally asserted royal power.
In 1874 he spent part of the winter in Russia, whither he went to take part in the marriage of the duke of Edinburgh and the grand duchess Marie.
On the 30th of May 1864 he married his cousin, the princess Marie Isabelle, daughter of the duc de Montpensier; and his son and heir, the duc d'Orleans, was born at York House, Twickenham, in 1869.
On the 16th of September 1811 Hegel married Marie von Tucher (twenty-two years his junior) of Nuremberg.
Superior is served by the Northern Pacific, the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, the Wisconsin Central, the Great Northern, the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie, and the Chicago & North-Western railways, and (for freight only) by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul.
LOUIS MARIE JOSEPH LESCURE, MARQUIS DE (1766-1793), French soldier and anti-revolutionary, was born near Bressuire.
Nevertheless, in the axolotl the latent tendency can still be revived, as we have seen above and as is proved by the experiments of Marie von Chauvin.
and his queen, Marie of Anjou, was born on the 3rd of July 1423, at Bourges, where his father, then nicknamed the "King of Bourges," had taken refuge from the English.
It was in the year parting the two centuries (1600) that he presented to Marie de' Medici an ode of welcome, the first of his remarkable poems. But four or five years more passed before his fortune, which had hitherto been indifferent, turned.
The beautiful Consolation a Duperier, in which occurs the famous line Et, rose, elle a vecu ce que vivent les roses the odes to Marie de' Medici and to Louis XIII., and a few other pieces comprise all that is really worth remembering of him.
Marie Malibran >>
She is called Marie by some of the chroniclers.
Louis Eugene Marie Bautain >>
'JEAN MARIE COLLOT D'HERBOIS (1750-1796), French revolutionist, was a Parisian by birth and an actor by profession.
To the second volume he appended a critical study on Marie Antoinette et Louis XVI apocryphes, in which he proved, by evidence drawn from documents in the private archives of the emperor of Austria, that the letters published by Feuillet de Conches (Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth, 1864-1873) and Hunolstein (Corresp. inedite de Marie Antoinette, 1864) are forgeries.
With the collaboration of Alfred von Arneth, director of the imperial archives at Vienna, he edited the Correspondance secrete entre Marie-Therese et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau (3 vols., 1874), the first account based on trustworthy documents of Marie Antoinette's character, private conduct and policy.
The cathedral of Ste Marie in Grand Bayonne is an imposing Gothic structure of the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries.
Ste Marie contains glass windows of the 15th and 16th centuries and other rich decoration.
LOUIS MARIE STANISLAS FRERON (1754-1802), French revolutionist, son of the preceding, was born at Paris on the 17th of August 1754.
Andre Marie Ampere >>
Frustrated in all his plans, broken-hearted by the death of his son (by his second wife, Marie Ludwika of Angouleme, Wladislaus had no issue), the king, worn out and disillusioned, died at Merecz on the 20th of May 1648, in his 52nd year.
LOUIS MARIE DE LA HAYE CORMENIN, VICOMTE DE (1788-1868), French jurist and political pamphleteer, was born at Paris on the 6th of January 1788.
Stevens Point is served by the Green Bay & Western and the Minneapolis, St Paul && Sault Ste Marie railways.
Charles Francois Marie, comte de Remusat >>
Though in favour of national reform he continued to cherish a strong feeling of loyalty to the royal family, and on the trial of Marie Antoinette in 1793 bore testimony in her favour.
In 1647 we find him receiving the confiscated goods of his uncle Pussort, in 1648 obtaining 40,000 crowns with his wife Marie Charron, in 1649 appointed councillor of state.
From 1617 to 1619 Marie de' Medici, wife of King Henry IV., exiled from the court, lived at the château, which was soon afterwards given by Louis XIII.
In 1814 Blois was for a short time the seat of the regency of Marie Louise, wife of Napoleon I.
Therese Marie >>
On the right bank is the church (once the cathedral) of Ste Marie, the choir of which is thought to date in parts from the 9th century, while the nave belongs to the 12th century.
and the third son of Louis, duke of Burgundy, and Marie Adelaide, princess of Savoy.
S.) BLAINVILLE, HENRI MARIE DUCROTAY DE (1777-1850), French naturalist, was born at Argues, near Dieppe, on the 12th of September 1777.
The art was sustained by Karl Anton Wetterbergh (1804-1889), who called himself " Onkel Adam," by August Blanche the dramatist, and by Marie Sofie Schwartz (1819-1892).
OCTAVE HENRI MARIE MIRBEAU (1850-), French dramatist and journalist, was born at Trevieres (Calvados) on the 16th of February 1850.
Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat Condorcet >>
It was Esterhazy who conveyed to Marie Antoinette the portrait of Louis XVI.
Eugenie Marie >>
and Marie Fran901se Elisabeth, daughter of Charles Amadeus of Nemours, and grand-daughter of Henry IV.
Queen Marie detested Alphonso and fell in love with his brother D.
But Queen Marie had died in 1683, and in 1687 Cadaval had daughter of the elector-palatine.
of France, who had hoped through the influence of Queen Marie to secure Portuguese support for his own grandson Philip V., realized that this second marriage might thwart his policy, and strove to redress the balance by creating a strong party at the court of Lisbon.
On the 30th of June he obtained licence in mortmain and on the 26th of November issued his charter of foundation of "Seynt Marie College of Wynchestre in Oxenford" for a warden and 70 scholars to study theology, canon and civil law and arts, who were temporarily housed in various old halls.
On the 6th of October 1382 the crown licence in mortmain was issued, on the loth-13th of October the site was conveyed, and on the 20th of October 1382 "Sancte Marie collegium" or in vulgar tongue "Seinte Marie College of Wynchestre by Wynchestre" was founded for a warden and "70 pore and needy scholars studying and becoming proficient in grammaticals or the art and science of grammar."
By the marriage of John of Chalons with Marie de Baux, the house of Chalons succeeded to the sovereignty in 1393.
Marie, Freifrau Von Ebner-Eschenbach >>
In 1448 Pierre de Bauffremont, lord of Charny, married Marie, a legitimatized daughter of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy.
A mission to Vienna to secure the return of Marie Louise resulted in failure.
MARIE JEANNE BECU DU BARRY, COMTESSE (1743-1793), French adventuress, mistress of Louis XV., was the natural daughter of a poor woman of Vaucouleurs, and was born there on the 19th of April 1743.
Marie, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul.
Marie, which passes the rapids of St Mary's River; the St Clair Flats, at the north end of Lake St Clair, by which a deeper channel is made through shallow water; and the Portage Lake, in the copper district, which connects that lake with Lake Superior.
Marie in 1837 but little had been accomplished in 1852 when the national government granted 750,000 acres of land to the state in aid of the enterprise, and three years after that the canal was completed.
Two Jesuits, Raymbault and Jogues, visited the site of Sault Sainte Marie as early as 1641 for the conversion of the Chippewas; in 1668 Marquette founded there the first permanent settlement within the state; three years later he had founded a mission among the Hurons at Michilimackinac; La Salle built a fort at the mouth of the Saint Joseph in 1679; and in 1701 Cadillac founded Detroit as an important point for the French control of the fur trade.
Andre Jean Francois Marie Brochant de Villiers >>
Louis Marie Augustin, duc d'Aumont (1709-1782), was a celebrated collector of works of art.
Louis Marie Celeste d'Aumont, duc de Piennes, afterwards duc d'Aumont (1762-1831), emigrated during the Revolution and served in the army of the royalists, as also in the Swedish army.
Among her many sitters was Marie Antoinette, of whom she painted over twenty portraits between 1779 and 1789.
The marriage of Marie de Bourbon, niece of Philip of Burgundy, with John, duke of Calabria, Rene's eldest son, cemented peace between the two princes.
Anna's sympathies were in time diverted to the school of Jacob Cats, but Marie Tesselschade maintained close ties with Hoof t, who revised her translation of Tasso.
The duchess of Vendome's grandson, Louis Joseph, inherited Penthievre in 1669, but it was taken from him by decree in 1687 and adjudged to Anne Marie de Bourbon, princess of Conti.
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the Milwaukee, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie railways, by two interurban electric railways, and by steamboat lines on the lake and on the Fox river, which flows out of Lake Winnebago at this point.
Marie d'Harcourt (d.
In 1686 Marie Jeanne Baptiste, duchess of Nemours and of Aumale, and wife of Charles Emmanuel II., duke of Savoy, sold Aumale to Louis XIV., who gave it to his natural son, the duke of Maine.
HiS SOn, Jacques Marie Eugene Godefroi Cavaignac (18J3-1905), French politician, was born in Paris on the 21st of May 1853.
MARIE AMELIE THERESE (1782-1866), queen of Louis Philippe, king of the French, was the daughter of Ferdinand IV., king of Naples, and the archduchess Maria Carolina, daughter of the empress Maria Theresa, and belonged to the house of Bourbon.
Driven from Naples in 1798, the Neapolitan royal family fled to Palermo, and the years from 1800 to 1802 were spent by Marie Amelie with her mother at the Austrian court.
Marie Amelie took refuge with her four children in England, where she spent two years at Orleans House, Twickenham.
Marie Amelie died at Claremont, on the 24th of March 1866.
Trognon, Vie de Marie Amelie (1872); A.
Baron Imbert de St Amand, La Jeunesse de Marie Amelie (1891), Marie Amelie au Palais Royal (1892), Marie Amelie et la cour de Palerme (1891), Marie Amelie et la cour des Tuileries (1892), Marie Amelie et l'apogee de regne de Louis Philippe (1893), Marie Amelie et la societe francaise 1847 (1894), and Marie Amelie et la duchesse d'Orleans (1893).
Marie Antoinette >>
After a distinguished career at school and college, he adopted the law as his profession, and in 1837 married the highly gifted but eccentric Augusta Marie, daughter of the philologist Peter Oluf Brbndsted.
Her husband died soon after; and calling herself the Princesse Marie de Solms, she spent her time in various fashionable places and dabbled in literature, Eugene Sue and Francois Ponsard being prominent in her court of admirers.
He increased the pros- and French perity of his land considerably, but by so doing roused the jealousy of Ras Marie of Amhara - to whom he had refused tribute - and Ubie, son of Hailo Mariam, a governor of Simen.
In an ensuing battle (in January 1831), both Sabagadis and Marie were killed, and Ubie retired to watch events from his own province.
Marie was shortly succeeded in the ras-ship of Amhara by Ali, a nephew of Guxa and a Mahommedan.
The season of navigation, controlled by the opening and closing of the Sault Ste Marie canals, averages about eight months - from the middle of April to the middle of December.
FRANCOIS MARIE RAOULT (1830-1901), French chemist, was born at Fournes, in the Departement du Nord, on the 10th of May 1830.
ANTOINE PIERRE JOSEPH MARIE BARNAVE (1761-1793), one of the greatest orators of the first French Revolution, was born at Grenoble in Dauphine, on the 22nd of October 1761.
MARIE FRANCOIS SADI CARNOT (1837-1894), fourth president of the third French Republic, son of L.
His younger brother, Edouard Marie, comte de Barthelemy, who was born in Angers in 1830, has published a number of documents upon the ancient French nobility and upon the history of Champagne.
a visionary named Marie d'Avignon declared that France was being ruined by a woman and would be restored by an armed virgin from the marches of Lorraine.
Marie, Queene of Scotland, by Eusebius Dicaeophile (London, 1569), reprinted, with alterations, at Liege in 1571, under the title, A Treatise concerning the Defence of the Honour of Marie, Queene of Scotland, made by Morgan Philippes, Bachelor of Divinitie, Piae a?licti animi consolationes, ad Mariam Scot.
By his mistress, Marie Touchet, he had one son, Charles, duke of Angouleme.
Richelieu not only allowed him 500 crowns a year, but soon afterwards, it is said, though on no certain authority, employed his omnipotence in reconciling the father of the poet's mistress, Marie de Lamperiere, to the marriage of the lovers (1640).
Pierre, the eldest son, a cavalry officer who died before his father, left posterity in whom the name has continued; Marie, the eldest daughter, was twice married, and by her second husband, M.
Yet tradition is unanimous as to his affection for his family, and as to the harmony in which he lived with his brother Thomas who had married Marguerite de Lamperiere, younger sister of Marie, and whose household both at Rouen and at Paris was practically one with that of his brother.
Of the latter's four sisters, the eldest (Marie Eleonore) was married to Albert Frederick, duke of Prussia, the second (Anna) to Philip Louis, count palatine of Neuburg, the third (Magdalena) to John, count palatine of Zweibriicken, and the fourth (Sybille) to Charles of Habsburg, margrave of Burgau.
Her only excuse is that as a sister of Marie Antoinette the very name of Republican or Jacobin filled her with loathing.
CHARLES JEAN MARIE BARBAROUX (1767-1794), French revolutionist, was educated at first by the Oratorians of Marseilles, then studied law, and became a successful advocate.
In 1807, after conducting a successful suit on behalf of a client's title to a part of the batture or alluvial land near New Orleans, Livingston attempted to improve part of this land (which he had received as his fee) in the Batture, Ste Marie.
In Italy he gained the grand duke of Tuscany - marrying his niece Marie de' Medici in 1600 - the duke of Mantua, the republic of Venice and Pope Paul V.
By Marie de' Medici he had Louis, later Louis XIII.; Gaston, duke of Orleans; Elizabeth, who married Philip IV.
represented a younger branch which had transferred itself first to France and then to Italy, but by the extinction of the elder branch the admiral became head of the family; his eldest son, Richard, had married Marie Louise Pelline, the daughter and heiress of Emerich Joseph, duc de Dalberg, a naturalized French noble of ancient German lineage who had entered the French service under Napoleon and represented Louis XVIII.