The only question was which form of Christianity were the Magyars to adopt, the Eastern or the Western?
Unfortunately the court of Vienna was not content with winning back the Magyars to the Church.
The terror of their name had long preceded them, and Bela, in 1235 or 1236, sent the Dominican monk Julian, by way of Constantinople, to Russia, to collect information about them from the "ancient Magyars" settled there, possibly the Volgan Bulgarians.
Encouraged by promises of help from Louis XIV., the Magyars now rose pro libertate et justitia, and chose the youthful ThOkoly as their leader.
of Vyatka, the Permyaks in Perm, the Syryenians or Zyryans in Vologda, Archangel, Vyatka and Perm; (e) the Ugrians, or Trans-Uralian Finns, including the Voguls on both slopes of the Urals, the Ostiaks in Tobolsk and partly in Tomsk, and the Magyars, or Ugrians.
The archives of the cathedral were plundered by Magyars and Moslems, but several inscriptions, Greek, Slav and Ruman, are left.
But the Magyars refused to send representatives to the central parliament; the Slays, resenting the Germanizing policy of the government, withdrew; and the emperor had really withdrawn his confidence from Schmerling long before the constitution was suspended in 1865 as a first step to a reconciliation with Hungary.
Above all, he recognized the necessity for reconciling the Magyars to the monarchy; for it was their discontent that had mainly contributed to the collapse of the Austrian power.
In his relations with the Slays the emperor displayed the same conciliatory disposition as in the case of the Magyars; but though he more than once held out hopes that he would be crowned at Prague as king of fiohemia, the project was always abandoned.
In 1867 she accompanied the emperor to Budapest, s nd took much interest in tile reconciliation with the Magyars.
In Transylvania, however, the common peril evoked by the Turkish incursion and a simultaneous rising of the Vlach peasantry had knit together the jarring interests of Magyars, Saxons and Szeklers, a union which, under the national hero, the voivode Janos Hunyadi, was destined for a while to turn the tide of war.
Of the emigrants in 1906, 52,121 were Magyars, 32,904 Slovaks, 30,551 Germans, 20,859 Rumanians and 16 0 016 Croats.
The Magyars formed but 3 .
The Magyars occupy almost exclusively the great central plain intersected by the Danube and the Theiss, being in an overwhelming majority in 19 counties (99'7% in Hajdu, east of the Theiss).
The Sla y s, the most numerous race after the Magyars, are divided into several groups: the Slovaks, mainly massed in the mountainous districts of northern Hungary; the Ruthenians, established mainly on the slopes of the Carpathians between Poprad and Maramaros Sziget; the Serbs, settled in the south of Hungary from the bend of the Danube eastwards across the Theiss into the Banat; the Croats, overwhelmingly preponderant in Croatia-Slavonia, with outlying settlements in the counties of Zala, Vas and Sopron along the Croatian and Styrian frontier.
The Jews in 1900 numbered 851,378, not counting the very great number who have become Christians, who are reckoned as Magyars.
Of these, however, only 82,000 gave Romany as their language, while 104,000 described themselves as Magyars and 67,000 as Rumanians.
The central plains, which have the most fertile soil, and from the geographical conditions of the country form its centre of gravity, are occupied almost exclusively by the Magyars, the most numerous and the dominant race.
The only exception is formed by the Banat, where Magyars, Rumanians, Serbs, Bulgarians, Croats and Germans live mixed together.
The Calvinists are composed mostly of Magyars, so that in the country the Lutherans are designated as the " German Church," and the Calvinists as the " Hungarian Church."
The Unitarians are all Magyars.
During the following seventy years we know next to nothing of the internal history of the Magyars.
In 933 the war was resumed, and Henry, at the head of what was really the first national German army, defeated the Magyars at Gotha and at Ried (933).
Only seven of the Magyars escaped, and these were sold as slaves on their return home.
The catastrophe of the Lechfeld convinced the leading Magyars of the necessity of accommodating themselves as far as possible to the Empire, especially in the matter of religion.
A large proportion of the captives of the Magyars had been settled all over the country to teach their conquerors the arts of peace, and close contact with this civilizing element was of itself an of enlightenment.
The splendour of the imperial city profoundly impressed all the northern barbarians, and the Magyars, during the 10th century, saw a great deal of the Greeks.
Simultaneously a brisk border trade was springing up between the Greeks and the Magyars, and the Greek chapmen brought with them their religion as well as their wares.
It was the general opinion abroad that the Magyars would either relapse into heathendom, or become the vassals of the Holy Roman Empire, and this opinion was reflected in the increasingly hostile attitude of the popes towards the Arpad kings.
During the earlier part of that period the Magyars competed on fairly Empire.
(1342-1382), to rebuild the Hungarian state, and lead the Magyars back to civilization.
Hungary herself was now directly menaced, and the very circumstances which had facilitated the advance of the Turks, enfeebled the potential resistance of the Magyars.
This was due partly to the excessive proselytizing energy of the Angevins, which provoked rebellion on the part of their Greek-Orthodox subjects, partly to the natural dynastic competition of the Servian and Bulgarian tsars, and partly to the emergence of a new nationality, called Walachia was regarded by the Magyars as part of the banate of Szoreny.
Moldavia, again, ever since the 11th century, had been claimed by the Magyars as forming, along with Bessarabia and the Bukowina, a portion of the semi-mythical Etelkdz, the original seat of the Magyars before they occupied modern Hungary.
Obviously a warrior-king was preferable to a regimen of women and children, and the eyes of the wiser Magyars turned involuntarily towards Wladislaus III.
From 1465 the pick of the Magyars and Croatians were enlisted in the same way every year, till, towards the end of his reign, Matthias could count upon 20,000 horse and 8000 foot, besides 6000 black brigaders.
Thus the Magyars were saddled with two rival kings with equally valid titles, which proved an even worse disaster than the Mohacs catastrophe; for in most of the counties of the unhappy kingdom desperadoes of every description plundered the estates of the gentry, and oppressed the common people, under the pretext that they were fighting the battles of the contending monarchs.
For more than fifty years after the peace of Vienna the principality of Transylvania continued to be the bulwark of the liberties of the Magyars.
Their reigns synchronized with the Thirty Years' War, during which the emperors were never in a position seriously to withstand the attacks of the malcontent Magyars, the vast majority of whom were still Protestants, who naturally looked upon the Transylvanian princes as their protectors and joined them in thousands whenever they raided Moravia or Lower Austria, or threatened to advance upon Vienna.
In 1663 he invaded royal Hungary, with the intention of uniting all the Magyars against the emperor, but, the Magyars steadily refusing to attend any diet summoned under Turkish influence, his plan fell through, and his only notable military success was the capture of the fortress of Ersekujvar (Neuhausel).
This was partly owing to the fact that national aspirations of any sort were contrary to the imperial system, which claimed to rule by right divine, and partly to an inveterate distrust of the Magyars, who were regarded at court as rebels by nature, and therefore as enemies far more troublesome than the Turks.
tions, and for a time the legal government of Hungary was superseded (Patent of March 3, 1673) by a committee of eight persons, four Magyars and four Germans, presided over by a German governor; but the most influential person in this committee was Bishop Kollonich, of whom it was said that, while Pazmany hated the heretic in the Magyar, Kollonich hated the Magyar in the heretic. A gigantic process against leading Protestant ministers for alleged conspiracy was the first act of this committee.
But when, on the 7th of April 1711, Joseph died without issue, leaving the crown to his brother the Archduke Charles, then fighting the battles of the Allies in Spain, a peace-congress met at Szatmar on the 27th of April, and, two days later, an understanding was arrived at on the basis of a general amnesty, full religious liberty and the recognition of the inviolability of the ancient rights and privileges of the Magyars.
Deeply grateful to the Magyars for their sacrifices and services during the War of the Austrian Succession, she dedicated her whole authority to the good of the nation, but she was very unwilling to share that authority with the people.
Towards all her Magyars, especially the Catholics, she was ever most gracious; but the magnates, the Batthyanis, the Nadasdys, the Pallfys, the Andrassys, who had chased her enemies from Bohemia and routed them in Bavaria, enjoyed the lion's share of her benefactions.
found the country on the verge of revolution; but the wisdom of the new monarch saved the situation and won back the Magyars.
Writers, savants, poets, artists, noble and plebeian, layman and cleric, without any previous concert, or obvious connexion, were working towards that ideal of political liberty which was to unite all the Magyars.
In the assertion of their national aspirations, confused as these were with the new democratic ideals, the Magyars had had the support of the German democrats who temporarily held the reins of power in Vienna.
The emperor and his ministers hoped that, having conceded the demands of the Magyars, they would receive the help of the Hungarian government in crushing the revolution elsewhere, a hope that seemed to be justified by the readiness with which Batthyany consented to send a contingent to the assistance of the imperialists in Italy.
Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.
This was the challenge which the Magyars were not slow to accept.
Desultory fighting, in which Austrian officers with the tacit consent of the minister of war took part against the Magyars, had already broken out in the south.
His mission, which was a slight to Jellachich, was conceived as a concession to the Magyars, and had the general approval of Batthyany.
The Magyars at once took up the challenge.
They had at their disposal 375,000 men, to which the Magyars could only oppose 160,000.
The Magyars, too, were now more than ever divided among themselves, no plan of campaign had yet been drawn up, no commander-in-chief appointed to replace Gdrgei, whom Kossuth had deposed.
It ' The crowning atrocities, which the Magyars have never wholly forgiven, were the shooting and hanging of the " Arad Martyrs " and the execution of Batthyany.
The outbreak of the FrancoGerman War of 1870 turned the attention of the Magyars to assy.
20, 1866), excluding Austria from Italy and Germany, made the fate of the Habsburg monarchy absolutely dependent upon a compromise with the Magyars.
the king, weary of the tactics of a minority which for years had terrorized every majority and prevented the government from exercising its proper constitutional functions, had resolved to show the Magyars that he was prepared to rule unconstitu 1 The Austrian court resented especially the decree proclaiming national mourning for Louis Kossuth, though no minister was present at the funeral.
' Of the 16,000,000 inhabitants of Hungary barely a half were Magyar; and the franchise was possessed by only 800,000, of whom the Magyars formed the overwhelming majority.
This procrastinating policy played into the hands of the extremists; for supplies had not been voted, and the question of the credits for the expenditure incurred in connexion with the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, increasingly urgent, placed a powerful weapon in the hands of the Magyars, and made it certain that in the autumn the crisis would assume an even more acute form.
Kossuth and Justh, on the other hand, competitors for the leadership of the Independence party, declared themselves not prepared to accept anything short of the full rights of the Magyars in those matters.
The Magyars had certainly done much to justify their claim to a special measure of enlightenment.
The Uralian travels of Anthony Reguly (1843-1845), and the philological labours of Paul Hunfalvy and Joseph Budenz, may be said to have established it, and no doubt has been thrown on it by recent research, though most authorities regard the Magyars as of mixed origin physically and combining Turkish with Finno-Ugric elements.
As regards works of a scientific character, the Magyars until recently were confessedly behindhand as compared with many other European nations.
The Magyarok tortenete (History of the Magyars), in 4 vols., first published at Papa (1842-1846), and afterwards in 6 vols.
He saw in the Magyars the chief obstacle to the realization of his dream, and openly warned them that they were " an island in the Slav ocean," which one day might easily engulf them.
- After the collapse of the Hungarian revolution in 1849, the Croats, in the words of Pulszky, received as reward the same absolutist regime which had been imposed upon the Magyars as punishment.
Prussia's victory forced Austria to come to terms with the Magyars: and the bargain was sealed by the Ausgleich, or Dual System, at the expense of the lesser nationalities.
4 1905 40 Croat deputies from Croatia, Dalmatia and Istria formulated in the so-called " Resolution of Fiume " a complete programme of political reform, and defined the basis upon which solid friendship between Croats and Magyars seemed attainable.
Thus, in order to secure the town of Subotica (Szabadka) with its large Bunjevac (or Catholic Serb) population, she was allowed to annex not less than 250,000 Magyars.
According to nationality there were 578,789 Rumanians, 362,487 Germans, 251,938 Servians and 170,124 Magyars.
They were almost certainly the ancestors of the modern Magyars, also called Jugra.
Amongst the best known of his works, besides those alluded to, are Wanderings and Adventures in Persia (1867); Sketches of Central Asia (1868); History of Bokhara (1873); Manners in Oriental Countries (1876); Primitive Civilization of the Turko-Tatar People (1879) Origin of the Magyars (1882); The Turkish People (1885); and Western Culture in Eastern Lands (1906) .
Otto failed to take Mainz and Augsburg; but an attempt on the part of Conrad and Ludolf to gain support from the Magyars, who had seized the opportunity to invade Bavaria, alienated many of their supporters.
Meanwhile the Magyars had renewed their ravages and were attacking Augsburg.
I,151,210 II 1 Czechs, Magyars, Sla y s Bohemia 77,247 01 Hungary 256,347 2.5 Poland 141,908 Rumania 10,377 0.1 Russia 500,797 0 I Total Europe 9,197,014 88.9 3.6 Grand Total 10,339,539 Total Swiss-Switzerland Greeks-Greece Turks-Turkey Europe, not specified 135,736 7,325 3,411 294 North America All other countries 77 6, 071 7.5 366,454 100 0 1'4 4.8 9.5 A very important transformation has taken place in the proportionate number coming from different countries during the last half of the 19th century.
As a ruler of a rising great power in search of a seaboard he was the natural adversary of the Venetian republic, which already aimed at making the Adriatic a purely Venetian sea and resented the proximity of the Magyars in Dalmatia.
Among the Rumanians, who inhabited three states (Austria, Hungary and Rumania), the desire long prevailed for union within the monarchy, and Austria would only have had to stretch out her hand to them; but the Magyars would not have it.
(Poles 27.4, Magyars 36.4, Rumanians 60.4, Ruthenians 61.o, Serbo-Croatians 63.7).
20 the Czechs followed suit in Prague, on the 21st the German delegates in Vienna, on the 25th the Magyars in Pest.
But since the non-German nationalities were not prepared to accept such a peaceful settlement, the liquidation between the monarchy and the new republic was confined to German-Austria, and Lammasch's friendly offices might certainly be thanked for the fact that in this quarter the settlement was achieved quite bloodlessly, in favourable contrast with the two years of fighting between Czechs, Poles, Ruthenians, Magyars, Rumanians, Southern Slays and Italians.
The Hungarians (Magyars) declined to surrender the territories inhabited by Slovaks, and it was necessary to call in the military help of the Czechs before the last Hungarian troops, who had initiated a reign of terror in Slovakia, could be driven out of the land.
Not only was there in 1918-21 a sharp contrast in policy between the Czechoslovaks and the minority races living within the republic - the Germans and the Magyars - but each nationality was split up into a multiplicity of factions.
The Germans and the Magyars were also proportionately split up. The strongest party in the republic was that of the Czechoslovak Social Democrats, which up to Sept.
In 1921 the total number of Socialists of every complexion in the House of Deputies was 141, as opposed to 137 Bourgeois members (Czechoslovaks 199, Germans 72, Magyars 7).
In the Senate the Socialists numbered 68, as against 75 Bourgeois members (Czechoslovaks 103, Germans 37, Magyars 3).
Sigismund, in 1422, even went so far as to propose a partition of Poland between Hungary, the empire and the Silesian princes, a scheme which foundered upon Sigismund's impecuniosity and the reluctance of the Magyars to injure the Poles.
For a brief period, in the 7th and 8th centuries, the conquering Sla y s made it one of their Zupanates, or governments; but in the 10th century it was sacked by the Magyars, and in 1092 its territories were bestowed upon the cathedral chapter of Agram by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary.
Pop. (1900) 16,948, mostly Magyars and Roman Catholics.
The immediate result of the congress was a combined attack by the Magyars and Poles upon the emperor Louis and his ally Albert of Austria, which resulted in favour of Charles in 1337.
After the bloody battle of Buda he concluded a three days' truce with the Hungarians to enable him to assist Prince Windischgratz to reduce Vienna, and subsequently fought against the Magyars at Schwechat.
During the winter campaign of 1848-49 he commanded, under Windischgratz, the Austrian right wing, capturing Magyar-Ovar and Raab, and defeating the Magyars at Mor.
Their eastern neighbors there are first the Magyars, then the northern Slays and the Poles.
After his death in 899 his kingdom came under the nominal rule of his young son Louis the Child, and in the absence of firm rule and a central authority became the prey of the Magyars and other hordes of invaders.
But, threatened as they onra were by the Magyars, with the Slays and Northmen always ready to take advantage of their weakness, they could not afford to do without a central government.
In the first year of his reign the Magyars, who had continued to -scourge Henry Germany during the reign of Conrad, broke into and the isiagyars.
Hitherto the Germans had fought mainly on foot, and, as the Magyars came on horseback, the nation was placed at an immense disadvantage.
When he was ready he used his new troops, before turning them against their chief enemy, the Magyars, to punish refractory Slavonic tribes; and he brought under temporary subjection nearly all the Slays between the Elbe and the Oder.
The truce with the Magyars was not renewed, whereupon in 933 a body of invaders crossed, as in former years, the frontier of Thuringia.
The Magyars, unable to cope with a disciplined army, were cut down in great numbers, and those who survived rode in terror from the field.
The power of the Magyars w~s not indeed destroyed, but it was crippled, and the way was prepared for the effective liberation of Germany from an intolerable plague.
While the Magyars had been troubling Germany on the east and south, the Danes had been irritating her on the north.
Thc Magyars were as usual stimulated to action by the disunion of their enemies; and Conrad and Ludolf made the blunder of inviting their help, a proceeding which disgusted the Germans, many of whom fell away from their side and rallied to thi head and protector of the nation.
Lorrairn was given to Bruno; but Conrad, its former duke, aithougi thus punished, was not disgraced, for Otto needed his service~ in the war with the Magyars.
After a fierce and obstinate fight, in which Conrad and many other nobles fell the Germans were victorious; the Magyars were even mon thoroughly scourged than in the battles in which Ottos fathe had given them their first real check.
Maria Theresa, a woman of a noble and undaunted spirit, appealed, with her infant son, afterwards Joseph II., ~ in her arms, to the Hungarian diet, and the enthusiastic Magyars responded chivalrously to her call.
Pop. (1900) 26,077, of whom 16,141 were Saxons (Germans), 7106 Rumanians, and 5747 Magyars.
Magyars and Sla y s never willingly recognized a style which ignored their national rights and implied the superiority of the German elements of the monarchy; to the Germans it was a poor substitute for a title which had represented the political unity of the German race under the Holy Empire.
During the 9th century the Frankish supremacy vanished, and the mark was overrun by the Moravians, and then by the Magyars, or Hungarians, who destroyed the few remaining traces of Frankish influence.
In August 955 he gained a great victory over the Magyars on the rfh of Baben house - Lechfeld, freed Bavaria from their presence, and re- berg.
Composed of a congeries of nationalities which included Czechs, Magyars, Ruthenes, Rumanians, Germans, Italians, Flemings and other races, and with territories separated by many miles, the Habsburg dominions required from their ruler patience, tolerance, administrative skill and a full knowledge of the currents of European diplomacy.
Apart from the perennial discontents of Magyars and Sla y s, the confusion and corruption of the administration, and the misery caused by the ruin of the finances, had made the Habsburg dynasty unpopular even in its German states, and in Vienna itself a large section of public opinion was loudly in favour of the claims of Charles of Bavaria.
The isolated revolts in Italy were easily suppressed; and the insurrection of Poland, though it provoked the lively sympathy of the Magyars and Czechs, led to no actual movement in the Habsburg states.
On the 8th of April a separate constitution was promised to Bohemia; and if the petition of the Croats for a similar concession was rejected, this was due to the armed mob of Vienna, which was in close alliance with Kossuth and the Magyars.
But his true motives were soon apparent; his object was to play off the nationalism of the " Illyrians " against the radicalism of Magyars and Germans, and thus to preserve his province for the monarchy; and the Hungarian radicals played into his hands.
The proclamation of the new Joseph, emperor was a gage of defiance thrown down to Magyars 1848.
On the 4th of March the constitution was published; but it proved all but as distasteful to Czechs and Croats as to the Magyars, and the speedy successes of the Hungarian arms made it, for the while, a dead letter.
Vienna again became the centre g of a despotic government the objects of which were to Germanize the Magyars and Sla y s, to check all agitation for a constitution, and to suppress all attempts to secure a free press.
Politically, the principle underlying the agreement was that the empire should be divided into two portions; in one of these the Magyars were to rule, in the other the Germans; in either section the Slav races - the Serbs and Croatians, the Czechs, Poles and Slovenes - were to be placed in a position of political inferiority.
This concession of form having been made to the Magyars without the knowledge of the Austrian government, Prince Konrad Hohenlohe, the Austrian premier, resigned office; and his successor, Baron Beck, eventually (July 6) withdrew from the table of the Reichsrath the whole Szell-Korber compact, declaring that the only remaining economic ties between the two countries were freedom of trade, the commercial treaties with foreign countries, the joint state bank and the management of excise.
In this conflict the tactical advantage lay with the monarchy; for the Magyars were in a minority in Hungary, their ascendancy was based on a narrow and artificial franchise, and it was open to the king-emperor to hold in terrorem over them an appeal to the disfranchised majority.
The Czechs of Bohemia, like the Magyars, had refused to recognize the common parliament on the ground that it violated the.
(Vienna, 1882); Baron Henry de Worms, The Austro-Hungarian Empire (London, 2nd ed., 1876); Louis Asseline, Histoire de l'Autriche depuis la mort de Marie Therese (Paris, 1877), sides with the Slays against Germans and Magyars; Louis Leger, Hist.
In 1860 he was summoned to the remodelled Reichsrat by the emperor, who next year nominated him a life member of the Austrian upper house (Herrenhaus), where, while remaining a keen upholder of the German centralized empire, as against the federalism of Sla y s and Magyars, he greatly distinguished himself as one of the most intrepid and influential supporters of the cause of liberalism, in both political and religious matters, until his death at Graz on the 12th of September 1876.
The Magyars are mostly Roman Catholics or Unitarians, the Germans Protestants, and the Rumanians adherents of the Greek Church..
Of the total population, civil and military, 578,458 were Magyars, 104,520 were Germans, 25,168 were Slovaks, and the remainder was composed of Croatians, Servians, Rumanians, Russians, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies, &c. According to religion, there were 445,023 Roman Catholics, 5806 Greek Catholics, 4422 Greek Orthodox; 67,319 were Protestants of the Helvetic, and 38,811 were Protestants of the Augsburg Confessions; 168,985 were Jews, and the remainder belonged to various other creeds.
When the Magyars came into the country, at the end of the 10th century, they preserved the names of Buda and Pest, which they found for these two places.
In 900 Laibach suffered much from the Magyars, who were, however, defeated there in 914.
The Magyars occupied Belgrade, the Petchenegs (Patzinaks) continued their inroads, and in 1065 the Uzes (called by the Greeks Comani), a Turkish tribe from the shores of the Euxine, crossed the Danube in vast numbers, ravaged Thrace and Macedonia, and penetrated as far as Thessalonica.
(2) The Hungarians or Magyars.
The Magyars crossed the Carpathians into Hungary in A.D.
The modern Hungarians (excluding Slavonic elements) are probably a mixture of these Magyars with the remnants of older invaders such as Huns, Petchenegs and Kumans.
There is not much doubt that the third and fourth of these tribes are the same, and it is quite likely that the Magyars are descended from the horde which sent forth the Huns in the 4th century, but it is not demonstrable.
Neither can it be proved that the Huns and Magyars belonged either physically or linguistically to the same section as the lianas and Ephthalites.
The Magyars may very well have gradually spread first to the Don and then beyond it, until in the 9th century they entered Hungary.
The language of the Magyars is FinnoUgric and most nearly allied to the speech of the Ostiaks now found on the east of the Ural, but we have no warrant for assuming that the Huns, and still less that the Ephthalites and Hunas, spoke the same language.
Otto I., his son, drives the Magyars from southern Germany and establishes the East Mark (Austria) to guard the upper Danube.
As against the Magyars, he upheld the view that the unity of the monarchy must not be shaken, and he therefore offered a determined resistance to the attempts of the party of independence to intrench on the rights of the Crown in military matters.
In 1809, when Napoleon invited the Magyars to elect a new king to replace the Habsburgs, overtures were made to Prince Nicholas, who refused the honour and, further, raised a regiment of volunteers in defence of Austrian interests.
It is used at present in two senses: (a) Quite loosely to designate any of the Ural-Altaic tribes, except perhaps Osmanlis, Finns and Magyars, to whom it is not generally applied.
Then followed in the 7th century the Bessi, a Thracian tribe, who gave their name to the region, and in the 9th the Ugrians, that is to say the ancestors of the present Magyars of Hungary, the country being then known as Atel-kuzu.
The population of foreign descent comprises many Jews, Armenians, gipsies, Greeks, Germans, Turks, Tatars and Magyars, Servians and Bulgarians.
It was defended by the Bulgarian tsar Simeon against the Magyars and Greeks in 893.
He richly deserved the epithet "the greatest of the Magyars" bestowed upon him by his political antagonist Kossuth.
His family derived their name from their estates at Nagy Kallo, in Szabolcs, and claimed descent from the Balogh Semjen tribe, which colonized the counties of Borsod, Szabolcs, and Szatmar, at the close of the 9th century, when the Magyars conquered Hungary.
The experiment failed, chiefly because of the opposition of the Croatians and Magyars, whom he bitterly offended by his celebrated saying that "Hungary could wait."
These administrative changes, and especially the brief existence of united "Illyria," stimulated the dormant nationalism of the Croats and their jealousy of the Magyars.
Croatia and Slavonia were declared appanages of the Hungarian crown - pastes adnexae, or subject provinces, according to the Magyars; regna socia, or allied kingdoms, according to their own view.
The Croats acquiesced in their position of inferiority until 1840, when the Magyars endeavoured to introduce Hungarian as the official language.
He strongly advocated the union of Croatia with Carinthia, Carniola and Styria, but found his policy thwarted as much by the apathy of the Slovenes as by the hostility of the Magyars.
The Magyars had, however, resolved to subject Croatia-Slavonia to the crown of St Stephen, and in 1867 had secured control of the finances and electoral machinery.
But since Roman days the central Danube has never formed the boundary of a state; on the contrary it became the route followed from east to west by successive hordes of barbarians - the Huns, Avars, Slays, Magyars and Turks; while the Franks under Charlemagne, the Bavarians and the Crusaders all marched in the opposite direction towards the east.
At this juncture Damjanich broke his leg, an accident which prevented him from taking part in field operations at the most critical period of the war, when the Magyars had to abandon the capital for the second time.
He lost the two days' battle of Kossovo (October 17th-19th) owing to the treachery of Dan, hospodar of Wallachia, and of his old enemy Brankovic, who imprisoned him for a time in the dungeons of the fortress of Semendria; but he was ransomed by the Magyars, and, after composing his differences with his powerful and jealous enemies in Hungary, led a punitive expedition against the Servian prince, who was compelled to accept most humiliating terms of peace.
The Magyars had, however, to pay dearly for this crowning victory, the hero dying of plague in his camp three weeks later (11th August 1456).
Pop. (1900) 24,930; chiefly Magyars and Croats, with a few Germans and Jews.
By insisting on the superiority of the Magyars to the Slavonic inhabitants of Hungary, by his violent attacks on Austria (he already discussed the possibility of a breach with Austria), he raised the national pride to a dangerous pitch.
The first task was to reduce Hungary to obedience, for the Magyars refused to acknowledge the validity of the abdication in so far as it cou~ cerned Hungary, on the ground that such an act would only be valid with the consent of the Hungarian parliament.
Seton-Watson (" Scotus Viator "), Racial Problems in Hungary (London, 1908), a strong indictment of the racial policy of the Magyars, supported by exact references and many ' The methods pursued to this end are exposed in pitiless detail by Mr Seton-Watson in his chapter on the Education Laws of Hungary, in Racial Problems, 205.
From the Riesengebirge to the Vistula, and from the Moldau to the Drave, extended the shadowy empire of Moravia, founded by Moimir and Svatopluk (c. 850-890), which collapsed so completely at the first impact of the Magyars that, ten years after their arrival, not a trace of it remained.
Yet even now Sigismund, at the head of his Magyars, thrice (1422-1424, 1426-1427, and 1430-1431) encountered the Turks, not ingloriously, in the open field, till, recognizing that Hungary must thenceforth rely entirely on her own resources in any future struggle with Islam, he elaborately fortified the whole southern frontier, and converted the little fort of Nandorfehervar, later Belgrade, at the junction of the Danube and Save, into an enormous first-class fortress, which proved strong enough to repel all the attacks of the Turks for more than a century.
The Magyars fancied they were safe from attack, because the final assault was suspended; and everything went on in the old haphazard way.
By the peace of Vienna, Bocskay obtained religious liberty and political autonomy, the restoration of all confiscated estates, the repeal of all unrighteous judgments and a complete retrospective amnesty for all the Magyars in royal Hungary, besides his own recognition as independent sovereign prince of an enlarged' Transylvania.
But to the Magyars they were the immemorial strongholds of their liberties, the last defences of their constitution; and the attempt to suppress them, which made every county a centre of disaffection and resistance, was the action not of a statesman, but of a visionary.
In this latter respect Tisza rendered substantial aid to the joint minister for foreign affairs by repressing the anti-Russian ardour of the Magyars on the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78, and by supporting Andrassy's execution of the mandate from the Berlin Congress to Austria-Hungary for the occupation of Bosnia, against which the Hungarian opposition agitated for reasons ostensibly financial.
Apart from the question of constitutional right, the Magyars objected to German as the medium of military education as increasing the difficulty of magyarizing the subordinate races of Hungary (see KnatchbullHugessen, ii.
In the 11th century Christian teachers introduced the use of the Roman letters, but the employment of the Latin language was not formally decreed until 1114 (see Bowring, Poetry of the Magyars, Introd.
In 1867 the Magyars accepted with alacrity this role in Hungary, the eastern half of the Dual Monarchy, while in the Cisleithanian territories the cooperation of the Poles was also sought.
In Hungary itself a large party was in favour of the Germans, but the civil wars which raged between the two factions from 1276 to 1278 did not prevent Ladislaus, at the head of 20,000 Magyars and Kumanians, from co-operating with Rudolph of Habsburg in the great battle of Durnkri t (August 26th, 1278), which destroyed, once for all, the empire of the Pfemyslidae.
The deliverance of Ger many was complete, and from this time, notwithstandinf certain wild raids towards the east, the Magyars began to setti in the land they still occupy, and to adapt themselves to th conditions of civilized life.
The scheme alarmed the Coalition, which saw that universal suffrage might destroy not only the hegemony of the Magyar nobility and gentry in whose hands political power was concentrated, but might, by admitting the non-Magyars to political equality with the Magyars, undermine the supremacy of the Magyar race itself.
The Szeklers are of disputed origin, but closely akin to the Magyars (see Szeklers) The Saxons are the posterity of the German immigrants brought by King Geza II.
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