RAMESWARAM, a town of British India, in the Madura district of Madras, on the island of Pambam in Palk Straits.
The islands are often described as of two groups, Java and Madura forming one, and the other consisting of Sumatra, Borneo, Riouw-Lingga Archipelago, Banka, Billiton, Celebes, Molucca Archipelago, the small Sunda Islands, and a part of New Guinea-the Outposts as they are collectively named.
Population.-The following table gives the area and population of Java (including Madura) and of the Outposts: In no case are the above figures for population more than fairly accurate, and in some instances they are purely conjectural.
There are certain local forces outside the regular army - militia in some of the large towns, native infantry in Madura, and guards of some of the vassal princes.
It visited Madura, and came into conflict with the Portuguese at Bantam in Java, returning to Holland in 1597.
The explorers reached Amboyna and Ternate, after gaining some knowledge of Java, Madura, Sumbawa and other islands, possibly including New Guinea.
Missions: India (dioceses of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, Madura, Mangalore, Trichinopoly), Ceylon (dioceses of .Galle and Trincomalee), China (Kiang-nan, S.-E, Chih-li), Madagascar, Koango (W.
In 1830 ten societies with 106 stations and 147 agents were at work; 1834 saw the founding of the Basel Mission on the west coast, the American Mission in Madura, the American Presbyterian Mission in Ludhiana.
(4) Vernacular schools, a good example of which is seen in the American Board's Madura Mission.
The Periyar scheme has for its object both the addition of new irrigation and the safeguarding of that which exists in the district of Madura, a plain watered by means of a great number of shallow tanks drawing their supply from a very uncertain river, the Vaigai.
The Periyar irrigation project conducts water through the ghats in a tunnel to irrigate the Madras district of Madura, for which compensation of Rs.
After these come the Roman Catholics, who trace their origin to the teaching of St Francis Xavier and the Madura Jesuits.
Just as two centuries earlier the Jesuits at Madura, in the extreme south, composed works in Tamil, which are still acknowledged as classical by native authors, so did the Baptist mission at Serampur, near Calcutta, first raise Bengali to the rank of a literary dialect.
The cultivation has also extended to the Shevaroy hills in Salem district and to the Palni hills in Madura.
But now the larger part of the cotton goods used in India is manufactured in mills in that country or in England, and the handloom weavers' output is confined to the coarsest kinds of cloth, or to certain special kinds of goods, such as the turbans and " saris " of Bombay, or the muslins of Arni, Cuddapah, and Madura in Madras, and of Dacca in Bengal.
In the south, Madura and Tanjore have a similar fame; and in the west, Ahmedabad, Poona and Nasik.
The Madura pottery deserves mention from the elegance of its form and the richness of its colour.
To this day the name of Malik Kafur is remembered in the remote district of Madura, in association with irresistible fate and every form of sacrilege.
SURABAYA (Dutch Soerabaja), a seaport of Java, in the eastern division of the island, on the narrow Surabaya strait, which separates the island of Madura from Java, and at the mouth of the Kali Mas River.
Its roadstead is sheltered by Madura, and it has important dockyards.
Thence he betook himself to Maabar (the Coromandel coast), where he joined a Mussulman adventurer, residing at Madura, who had made himself master of much of that region.
DINDIGUL, a town of British India, in the Madura district of Madras, 880 ft.
from Madura by rail.
above the town; this was formerly a position of great strategic importance, commanding passes into Madura from Coimbatore, and figured prominently in the military operations of the Mahrattas in the 17th and 18th centuries, and of Hyder Ali in 1 755 seq., being thrice captured by the British (1 767, 1783, 1790).
For that reason, and also on account of its excellent horses and numerous buffaloes, Saleyer is often compared with Madura, being of the same importance to Celebes as is Madura to Java.
AUGUSTUS DE MORGAN (1806-1871), English mathematician and logician, was born in June 1806, at Madura, in the Madras presidency.
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