He frequently declares that this discovery was the result of the literary labours of his whole life.
The fact that he embellished with his own great literary ability the speeches of the Liberals and Reformers only added to the influence of his news-letters.
Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs (London, 1907), pp. 394-39 8.
Hutton took charge of the literary side of the paper, and by degrees his own articles became and remained up to the last one of the best-known features of serious and thoughtful English journalism.
He was a man of remarkable literary gifts as well as a good soldier.
Articles written in common soon led to a complete literary partnership, and 1831 there appeared in the Revue de Paris a joint novel entitled Prima Donna and signed Jules Sand.
The sequel to this literary alliance is best recounted in George Sand's own words: " I resisted him for three months but then yielded; I lived in my own apartment in an unconventional style."
" After the unexpected literary success of Indiana I returned to Berri in 1832 and found a pleasure in painting the scenes with which I had been familiar from a child.
The language of her country novels is the genuine patois of middle France rendered in a literary form.
Among the public buildings are the town hall, classic in style; the market house, and literary and scientific institution, with a museum containing a fossil collection from the limestone of the locality.
From this date till the battle of Flodden, in September 1513, he appears to have been occupied with his ecclesiastical duties and literary work.
Douglas's literary work, now his chief claim to be remembered, belongs, as has been stated, to the period 1501-1513, when he was provost of St Giles.
King Hart is another example of the later allegory, and, as such, of higher literary merit.
The subjects and styles of these prologues show great variety: some appear to be literary exercises with little or no connexion with the books which they introduce, and were perhaps written earlier and for other purposes.
In addition to his lecturing, Leo found time for much literary and political work.
Its publication placed him in the first rank of contemporary poets, and amongst other things procured him admission to the literary circle of Maecenas.
Propertius had a large number of friends and acquaintances, chiefly literary, belonging to the circle of Maecenas.
The first book, or Cynthia, was published separately and early in the poet's literary life.
While at home Hastings is said to have attached himself to literary society; and it may be inferred from his own letters that he now made the personal acquaintance of Samuel Johnson and Lord Mansfield.
Towards the end of the r8th century Mannheim attained great celebrity in the literary world as the place where Schiller's early plays were performed for the first time.
"Next to being a citizen of the world," writes Thomas Hood in his Literary Reminiscences, " it must be the best thing to be born a citizen of the world's greatest city."
As a proof of the seriousness with which he regarded the literary vocation, it may be mentioned that he used to write out his poems in printed characters, believing that that process best enabled him to understand his own peculiarities and faults, and probably unconscious that Coleridge had recommended some such method of criticism when he said he thought "print settles it."
Artisans came from a great distance to view and honour the image of the popular writer whose best efforts had been dedicated to the cause and the sufferings of the workers of the world; and literary men of all opinions gathered round the grave of one of their brethren whose writings were at once the delight of every boy and the instruction of every man who read them.
His financial affairs he had entrusted to the care of the abbe Picot, and as his literary and scientific representative he adopted Mersenne.
The second brief visit, in 1647, partly on literary, partly on family business, was signalized by the award of a pension of 3000 francs, obtained from the royal bounty by Cardinal Mazarin.
Queen Christina was not yet twenty, and took a lively if a somewhat whimsical interest in literary and philosophical culture.
Clerselier (the friend of Descartes and his literary executor), his son-in-law Rohault (who achieved that relationship through his Cartesianism), and others, opened their houses for readings to which the intellectual world.
The Port Royalists, Pierre Nicole (1625-1695) and Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694), had applied it to grammar and logic; Jean Domat or Daumat (1625-1696) and Henri Francois Daugesseau (1668-1751) to jurisprudence; Fontenelle, Charles Perrault (1628-1703) and Jean Terrasson (1670-1750) to literary criticism, and a worthier estimate of modern literature.
This year may be taken as the beginning of his literary activity and public life.
1885) a novelist of some literary repute, her best books perhaps being Cousin Stella (1859) and Who breaks, pays (1861).
The Ethiopic versions are of great interest as a striking example of literary "accommodation."
He was a priest of the Jerusalem temple, probably a member of the dominant house of Zadok, and doubtless had the literary training of the cultivated priesthood of the time, including acquaintance with the national historical, legal and ritual traditions and with the contemporary history and customs of neighbouring peoples.
In Ulfilas' Gothic version of the Bible, the earliest extant literary monument of the Germanic languages, the Syrophoenician woman (Mark vii.
The remaining ten or twelve years of Avicenna's life were spent in the service of Abu Ya`far 'Ala Addaula, whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns.
During these years he began to study literary matters and philology, instigated, it is asserted, by criticisms on his style.
In the absence of literary culture the Albanian dialects, as might be expected, are widely divergent; the limits of the two principal dialects correspond with the racial boundaries of the Ghegs and Tosks, who understand each other with difficulty; the Albanians in Greece and Italy have also separate dialects.
Other literary schemes of larger scope and deeper interest were long in contemplation, but were not destined to take effect - an Essay on the Religions of the World, a Commentary on the Gospels, a Life of Christ, a volume on Moral Ideas.
He became (1756-1759) the leading spirit of Nicolai's important literary undertakings, the Bibliothek and the Literaturbriefe, and ran some risk (which Frederick's good nature obviated) by somewhat freely criticizing the poems of the king of Prussia.
He was a good scholar and mixed with the best literary society, being an intimate friend of Alexander Pope.
His name is probably most widely known for his literary work.
For some suggestive remarks on the relation between nomadism and the Levites, and their influence upon Israelite religion and literary tradition, see E.
Under the patronage of the earl of Bath he entered into a good many literary controversies, vindicating Milton from W.
His literary talent, though mainly employed in journalism, was also shown in a little volume of verses, Poems of a Life (1884).
In 1520 he went to Rome, where he entered the brilliant literary circle of Leo X.
He studied law at Gottingen and Leipzig, but ultimately devoted himself entirely to literary studies.
- Good characterizations of Plautus, from the literary point of view, are given by Sellar in his Roman Poets of the Republic, and Wight Duff, in his Literary History of Rome (1909).
As a literary critic Pollio was very severe.
Paul forbade Roman Catholics to take the oath; but to no purpose, beyond stirring up a literary controversy.
The institutions which co-operate with the universities are the special schools for engineers at Turin, Naples, Rome and Bologna (and others attached to some of the universities), the higher technical institute at Milan, the higher veterinary schools of Milan, Naples and Turin, the institute for higher studies at Florence (Istituto di studi superiori, pratici e di perfezionamento), the literary and scientific academy of Milan, the higher institutes for the training of female teachers at Florence and Rome, the Institute of Social Studies at Florence, the higher commercial schools at Venice, Ban and Genoa, the commercial university founded by L.
A vast amount of material on the Risorgimenti has been published both in Italy and abroad as well as numeron works of a literary and critical nature.
annus, year; hence annales, sc. libri, annual records), the name given to a class of writers on Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla.
Leslie Stephen gave this popular agnosticism its finest literary expression.
Freinsheim's literary activity was chiefly devoted to the Roman historians.
PALI, the language used in daily intercourse between cultured people in the north of India from the 7th century B.C. It continued to be used throughout India and its confines as a literary language for about a thousand years, and is still, though in a continually decreasing degree, the literary language of Burma, Siam, and Ceylon.
Two factors combined to give Pali its importance as one of the few great literary languages of the world: the one political, the other religious.
But when Pali first became known to Europeans it was already used also, by those who wrote in Pali, of the language of the later writings, which bear the same relation to the standard literary Pali of the canonical texts as medieval does to classical Latin.
It would seem that up to the 4th century of our era the Sinhalese had written exclusively in their own tongue; that is to say that for six centuries they had studied and understood Pali as a dead language without using it as a means of literary expression.
Dampier's literary ability eventually secured for him a commission in the king's service; and he was sent on a voyage of discovery, during which he explored part of the coasts of Australia and New Guinea, and discovered the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and New Britain, returning in 1701.
had considerable literary culture, and was proud to claim descent from the historian, whose works he caused to be transcribed at the public expense and placed in the public libraries.
The town possesses a literary and scientific institute (1850).
In the post-Nicene period the literary output of the Church was greater.
The authors he most carefully studied at this period were Thucydides and Aristotle, and for their writings he formed an attachment which remained to the close of his life, and exerted a powerful influence upon his mode of thought and opinions, as well as upon his literary occupations in subsequent years.
His energies were chiefly devoted to the business of the school; but he found time also for much literary work, as well as for an extensive correspondence.
His chief literary work was the often-translated Month of Mary (Vienna, 1843).
Judah suffered also, and it is not until a century later that any important literary activity is again manifested.
The Jews have always been, however, an intensely literary people, and the books ultimately accepted as canonical were only a selection from the literature in existence at the beginning of the Christian era.
Besides definite works of this kind, there was also being formed during this period a large body of exegetical and legal material, for the most part orally transmitted, which only received its literary form much later.
They begin with Mar Rab Sheshna (7th century) and continue to Hai Gaon, who died in 1038, and are full of historical and literary interest.
about 1140), wrote in Arabic a philosophical work based on Greek and Arabic as well as Jewish authorities, known by the name of the Hebrew translation as Arugath ha-bosem, and the Kitab al-Mahadarah, of great value for literary history.
Meanwhile the literary activity of the Jews in Spain had its effect on those of France.
1807), a kabbalist, but also the author of Shem ha-gedholim, a valuable contribution to literary history.
In the 19th century the modernizing tendency continued to grow, though always side by side with a strong conservative opposition, and the most prominent names on both sides are those of scholars rather than literary men.
1891), both scholarly investigators of Jewish literary history.
Patriotic efforts are made to encourage the use of Hebrew both for writing and speaking, but the continued existence of it as a literary language depends on the direction in which the future history of the Jews will develop.
Rhys Roberts's edition of the Three Literary Letters (1901); the same author published an edition of the De compositione verborum (1910, with trans.); see also M.
In the latest empire Ausonius, Symmachus, Apollinaris, Sidonius and other Gaulish writers, chiefly of Gallia Comata, kept alive the classical literary tradition, not only for Gaul but for the world.
French, as a separate tongue from Latin, already existed as a literary speech, and no people had done more than the Normans to spread it as a literary speech, in both prose and verse.
His first works were in the sphere of literary criticism; of his.
We learn from Suetonius that, like Ennius after him, he obtained his living by teaching Greek and Latin; and it was probably as a school-book, rather than as a work of literary pretension, that his translation of the Odyssey into Latin Saturnian verse was executed.
Thus, in view of persecution or slander, the Christian church naturally produced literary " Apologies."
He also wrote several literary articles for the first two volumes of the Encyclopaedia, and to the remaining volumes he contributed mathematical articles chiefly.
During the time he was engaged on the Encyclopaedia he wrote a number of literary and philosophical works which extended his reputation and also exposed him to criticism and controversy, as in the case of his Mï¿½nges de Philosophic, d'Histoire, et de Litterature.
His Essai sur la societe des gens de lettres avec les grands was a worthy vindication of the independence of literary men, and a thorough exposure of the evils of the system of patronage.
The list of his more noteworthy literary works is completed by the mention of the Histoire des membres de l'Academie frangaise, containing biographical notices of all the members of the Academy who died between 1700 and 1772, the year in which he himself became secretary.
His later years were saddened by circumstances connected with a romantic attachment he had formed for Mademoiselle de Lespinasse, whose acquaintance he made at the house of Madame du Deffand, a noted resort of literary men and savants.
His literary and philosophical works were collected and edited by Bastien (Paris, 1805, 18 vols.
It has been concluded that in the latter part of his life he gratified the tendency to seclusion for which he was ridiculed in The Time Poets (Choice Drollery, 1656) by withdrawing from business and from literary life in London, to his native place; but nothing is known as to the date of his death.
From this period we must date the beginning of Athenian literary ascendancy.
In connexion with the Monumenta Pertz also began the publication of a selection of sources in octavo form, the Scriptores rerum germanicarum in usum scholarum; among his other literary labours may be mentioned an edition of the Gesammelte Werke of Leibnitz, and a life of Stein.
HEBREW RELIGION (I) Introductory.-To trace the history of the religion of the Hebrews is a complex task, because the literary sources from which our knowledge of that history is derived are themselves complex and replete with problems as to age and authorship, some of which have been solved according to the consensus of nearly all the best scholars, but some of which still await solution or are matters of dispute.
He still continued his yearly experimental contributions to the North American Review, elaborating them with a view as much to ultimate historical proficiency as to immediate literary effect, the essays on Scottish Song (1826), Novel-Writing (1827), Moliere (1828), and Irving's Granada (1829)) belonging to this preparatory period.
As an historian Prescott stands in the direct line of literary descent from Robertson, whose influence is clearly discernible both in his method and style.
In one courtyard of this temple are deposited the celebrated ten stone drums which bear poetical inscriptions commemorative of the hunting expeditions of King Suan (827-781 B.C.), in whose reign they are believed, though erroneously, to have been cut; and in another stands a series of stone tablets on which are inscribed the names of all those who have obtained the highest literary degree of Tsin-shi for the last five centuries.
All Cyprian's literary works were written in connexion with his episcopal office; almost all his treatises and many of his letters have the character of pastoral epistles, and their form occasionally betrays the fact that they were intended as addresses.
The numerous Letters of Cyprian are not only an important source for the history of church life and of ecclesiastical law, on account of their rich and manifold contents, but in large part they are important monuments of the literary activity of their author, since, not infrequently, they are in the form of treatises upon the topic in question.
Ockley's book on the Saracens " first opened his eyes " to the striking career of Mahomet and his hordes; and with his characteristic ardour of literary research, after exhausting all that could be learned in English of the Arabs and Persians, the Tatars and Turks, he forthwith plunged into the French of D'Herbelot, and the Latin of Pocock's version of Abulfaragius, sometimes understanding them, but oftener only guessing their meaning.
No sooner had he returned home than he began the work of accumulation, and records that, on the receipt of his first quarter's allowance, a large share was appropriated to his literary wants.
It may not be uninteresting here to note the principles which guided him both now and afterwards in his literary purchases.
And thus he was led to draw that interesting picture of the literary recluse among the crowds of London: " While coaches were rattling through Bond Street, I have passed many a solitary evening in my lodging with my books.
His account of its first reception and subsequent fortunes in England deserves to be cited as a curious piece of literary history.
He complains of the busy idleness in which his time was spent; but, considering the circumstances, so adverse to study, one is rather surprised that the military student should have done so much, than that he did so little; and never probably before were so many hours of literary study spent in a tent.
It was during this period that he read Homer and Longinus, having for the first time acquired some real mastery of Greek; and after the publication of the Essai, his mind was full of projects for a new literary effort.
The militia was disbanded in 1762, and Gibbon joyfully shook off his bonds; but his literary projects were still to be postponed.
2 Voltaire was at Geneva, Rousseau at Montmorency, and Buffon he neglected to visit; but so congenial did he find the society for which his education had so well prepared him, and into which some literary reputation had already preceded him, that he declared, " Had I been rich and independent, I should have prolonged and perhaps have fixed my residence at Paris."
Doubtless the secret fire of a consuming, but as yet ungratified, literary ambition also troubled his repose.
He executed the first book in French; it was read (in 1767), as an anonymous production, before a literary society of foreigners in London, and condemned.
Deyverdun in starting a literary journal under the title of Memoires litteraires de la GrandeBretagne.
Urged by such considerations, he once more turned his eyes to the scene of his early exile, where he might live on his decent patrimony in a style which was impossible in England, and pursue unembarrassed his literary studies.
Neither nature nor acquired habits qualified him to be an orator; his late entrance on public life, his natural timidity, his feeble voice, his limited command of idiomatic English, and even, as he candidly confesses, his literary fame, were all obstacles to success.
prosecution of his literary enterprise; a hermit in his study as long as he chose, he found the most delightful recreation always ready for him at the threshold.
After that time he devoted himself to literary work and lecturing on history.
At the request of Mir `Alishirr, himself a distinguished statesman and writer, Mirkhond began about 1474, in the quiet convent of Khilasiyah, which his patron had founded in Herat as a house of retreat for literary men of merit, his great work on universal history, Rauzat-ussafa fi sirat-ulanbia walmuluk walkhulafa or Garden of Purity on the Biography of Prophets, Kings and Caliphs.
So little was the collection considered as a literary work with a definite text that every one assumed a right to abridge or enlarge, to insert ideas of his own, or fresh scriptural quotations; nor were the scribes and translators by any means scrupulous about the names of natural objects, and even the passages from Holy Writ.
the Bestiaire d'amour by Richard de Fournival, and finally the traces left by it upon the encyclopaedical and literary work of the later middle ages.
Borlase was well acquainted with most of the leading literary men of the time, particularly with Alexander Pope, with whom he kept up a long correspondence, and for whose grotto at Twickenham he furnished the greater part of the fossils and minerals.
A great part of Farr's literary production is to be found in the papers which, from 1839 to 1880, he wrote for each annual report of the registrar-general on the cause of the year's deaths in England.
The historical traditions are to be supplemented by the great body of prophetic, legal and poetic literature which reveal contemporary conditions in various internal literary, theological or sociological features.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
The writings are the result of a continued literary process, and the Israelite national history has come down to us through Judaean hands, with the result that much of it has been coloured by late Judaean feeling.
But the history of (north) Israel had naturally its own independent political backgrounds and the literary sources contain the same internal features as the annals and prophetic narratives which are already met with in 1 Samuel.
The bearing of this displacement upon the literary and historical criticism of the narratives has never been worked out.
(the literary growth of legislation).
seq.) meant to describe the discovery of Deuteronomy is evident from the events which followed; and this identification of the roll, already made by Jerome, Chrysostom and others, has been substantiated by modern literary criticism since De Wette (1805).
It is true that the situation in Israel or Samaria continues obscure, but a careful study of literary productions, evidently not earlier than the 7th century B.C., reveals a particular loftiness of conception and a tendency which finds its parallels in Hosea and approximates the peculiar characteristics of the Deuteronomic school of thought.
It was an age of literary activity which manifested itself, not in contemporary historical records - only a few of which have survived - but rather in the special treatment of previously existing sources.
Its treatment of the monarchy is only part of a great and now highly complicated literary undertaking (traceable in the books Joshua to Kings), inspired with the thought and coloured by language characteristic of Deuteronomy (especially the secondary portions), which forms the necessary introduction.
To a certain extent it would seem that even as Chronicles (q.v.) has passed through the hands of one who was keenly interested in the Temple service, so the other historical books have been shaped not only by the late priestly writers (symbolized in literary criticism by P), but also by rather earlier writers, also of priestly sympathies, but of " southern " or half-Edomite affinity.
historical criticism is faced with the established literary conclusions which, it should be noticed, place the Deuteronomic and priestly compilations posterior to the great changes at and after the fall of the northern monarchy, and, to some extent, contemporary with the equally serious changes in Judah.
There were catastrophes detrimental to the preservation of older literary records, and vicissitudes which, if they have not left their mark on contemporary history - which is singularly blank - may be traced on the representations of the past.
There are external historical circumstances and internal literary features which unite to show that the application of the literary hypotheses of the Old Testament to the course of Israelite history is still incomplete, and they warn us that the intrinsic value of religious and didactic writings should not depend upon the accuracy of their history.'
70), it will be seen that the recurrence of similar causes leads to a similarity in the contemporary literary productions (with a reshaping of earlier tradition), the precise date of which depends upon delicate points of detail and not upon the apparently obvious historical elements.
Besides, this was only one of the aspects of Jewish literary activity.
Maintaining that the position of the Pentateuch alone explains the books which follow, conservative writers concede that it is composite, has had some literary history, and has suffered some revision in the post-exilic age.
The naïve impression that each period of history was handled by some more or less contemporary authority is not confirmed by a criticism which confines itself strictly to the literary evidence.
They were a unique product of rabbinism; and the authors of the system were also the compilers of its literary expression, the Talmud.
While the Spanish period of Jewish history was thus brilliant from the point of view of public service, it was equally notable on the literary side.
Robert of Aragonvicar-general of the papal states - in particular encouraged the Jews and supported them in their literary and scientific ambitions.
Anglo-Jewry is rich, however, in charitable, educational and literary institutions; chief among these respectively may be named the Jewish board of guardians (1859), the Jews' college (1855), and the Jewish historical society (1893).
The choice of the two names has some significance, when we consider his later literary life as the associate of the Queen Anne poets and as a collector of old Scots poetry.
Ramsay's importance in literary history is twofold.
In 1832 the Registro Trimestre, a literary and scientific journal printed at Mexico, contained a communication by Dr. Pablo de la Llave, describing this species (with which he first became acquainted before 1810, from examining more than a dozen specimens obtained by the natural-history expedition to New Spain and kept in the palace of the Retiro near Madrid) under the name by which it is now known, Pharomacrus mocino.3 Quezal, male and female.
In addition to his political activity, he was president of the literary section of the Hungarian Academy, and director of the National.
The ancient name of Krete or Kriti was, however, always retained in use among the Greeks, and is gradually resuming its place in the usage of literary Europe.
(1866), and of Life in the South: a Companion to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), was superintendent of common schools in1853-1865(the executive head of the state's educational department having previously been a " literary board "), and won the name of the " Horace Mann of the South " by his wise reforms. He kept the public schools going through the Civil War, having advised against the disturbance of the school funds and their reinvestment in Confederate securities.
Its main centres were at Edessa and Nisibis, but it was the literary language of practically all the Christian writers in the region east of Antioch, as well as of the Christian subjects of the Persian empire.
The so-called mysticism of the Persian Sufis is less intense and practical, more airy and literary in character.
For the literary problems of these books, see also Samuel (Books).
As the last capital of the ancient Hindu dynasty of the Cholas, and in all ages one of the chief political, literary and religious centres of the south, the city is full of interesting associations.
He then intervened in the suit pending between his father and mother before the parlement of Paris, and attacked the ruling powers so violently that he had to leave France and again go to Holland, and try to live by literary work.
After a period of work in Holland he betook himself to England, where his treatise on lettres de cachet had been much admired, being translated into English in 1787, and where he was soon admitted into the best Whig literary and political society of London, through his old schoolfellow Gilbert Elliot, who had now inherited his father's baronetcy and estates, and become a leading Whig member of parliament.
This luminous judgment, it must be noted, was written by a man of acknowledged purity of life, who admired Mirabeau in early life not when he was a statesman, but when he was only a struggling literary man.
He first sent Mme de Nehra to Paris to make peace with the authorities, and then returned himself, hoping to get employment through an old literary collaborateur of his, Durival, who was at this time director of the finances of the department of foreign affairs.
This last pamphlet brought him into a controversy with Caron de Beaumarchais, who certainly did not get the best of it, but it lost him any chance of literary employment from the government.
His first literary work, except the bombastic but eloquent Essai sur le despotisme (Neufchatel, 1 775), was a translation of Robert Watson's Philip II., done in Holland with the help of Durival; his Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus (London, 1788) was based on a pamphlet by Aedanus Burke (1743-1802), of South Carolina, who opposed the aristocratic tendencies of the Society of the Cincinnati, and the notes to it were by Target;, his financial writings were suggested by the Genevese exile, Claviere.
As to the style and literary character of Jordanes, every author who has used him speaks in terms of severe censure.
To the brilliant court of Marienburg, not only a school of chivalry, but under Winrich's predecessor Luther of Brunswick, a literary centre,(fn3) men came from all over Europe to win their spurs.
He began literary work in 1799 as a regular contributor to the Edinburgh Magazine, of which he acted as editor at the age of twenty.
Here he lived in close intercourse with Schiller, Goethe, Herder and the most distinguished literary men of the time.
He at once retired to la Roche-Gtiyon, the château of the duchesse d'Enville, returning shortly to Paris, where he spent the rest of his life in scientific and literary studies, being made vice-president of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres in 1777.
In each was a piano, the eccentric master of the whole being fond of music as the recreation of his literary hours.
But although in his father's lifetime he several times filled the office of consul, and after his death was nominally the partner in the empire with his brother Titus, he never took any part in public business, but lived in great retirement, devoting himself to a life of pleasure and of literary pursuits till he succeeded to the throne.
Thompson (1823-1873), widely known in his day as a poet and as the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in 1847-59.
Thomas Corneille is in many ways remarkable in the literary gossip-history of his time.
But the literary partnership ceased in about eighteen years, when only the first portion of the plan had been completed, because each of the members felt he could work to better advantage separately than jointly.
He sought relief in active literary occupation, in politics, sociology and psychology.
He retired with a sense of relief to his cottage and his literary life at Avignon.
Now he looked forward to a literary life, and his letters show how much he enjoyed the change.
Browne's Literary History of Persia, i., ii.
Meanwhile the literary activity of Origen was increasing year by year.
His literary work, too, was prosecuted with unabated vigour.
The father's literary tastes, general inquisitiveness, and powers of intrigue reappeared in Napoleon, who, however, derived from his mother Letizia (a descendant of the Ramolino and Pietra Santa families) the force of will, the power of forming a quick decision and of maintaining it against all odds, which made him so terrible an opponent both in war and in diplomacy.
To this period belongs his first crude literary effort, a polemic against a Genevese pastor who had criticized Rousseau.
At Valence also he wrote an essay for a prize instituted by his friend and literary adviser, Raynal, at the academy of Lyons.
Desmoulins may be said to have begun on the following day that public literary career which lasted till his death.
Angilbert was the Homer of the emperor's literary circle, and was the probable author of an epic, of which the fragment which has been preserved describes the life at the palace and the meeting between Charlemagne and Leo III.
There are not many traces of any particular literary influence of his writings upon the Christian Church, and this need not surprise us.
His writings show sound scholarship and high literary power, while they helped to shape the thought of the Puritan party in England.
After being educated at the high school of Edinburgh and at Durham, he attended the literary and law classes at the university of Edinburgh, and becoming in 1810 a member of the Edinburgh faculty of advocates, he for some time enjoyed the intimate acquaintance of Cockburn, Jeffrey, Scott and other distinguished men whose talent then lent lustre to the Scottish bar.
During the last thirty-three years of his life Erskine ceased from literary work.
During a long residence at Bemerton Coxe was mainly occupied in literary work.
There is an art department of the city government, under unpaid commissioners, appointed by the mayor from candidates named by local art and literary institutions; and without their approval no work of art can now become the property of the city.
Boston was the undisputed literary centre of America until the later decades of the 19th century, and still retains a considerable and important colony of writers and artists.
Its ascendancy was identical with the long predominance of the New England literary school, who lived in Boston or in the country round about.
on its schools, its libraries, its literary traditions, its splendid public works and its reputation as the chief centre of American culture.
Swift, Literary Landmarks of Boston (Boston, 1903).
There he continued his literary and scientific labours, enjoying congenial intercourse with such men as Matthew Boulton, James Keir, James Watt and Erasmus Darwin at the periodical dinners of the Lunar Society.
The work, which is thus a pragmatical chronicle of the calamities that have happened to mankind from the fall down to the Gothic period, has little accuracy or learning, and even less of literary charm to commend it; but it was the first attempt to write the history of the world as a history of God guiding humanity.
Three years before his death he parted with his share of the ancestral principality, and designed, when certain literary plans were completed, to give away all he had and wander barefoot through the world preaching Christ.
At Berlin Harnack continued his literary labours.
His literary and scientific reputation speedily brought him honourable recognition.
To dwell upon such literary infamies would be below the dignity of the historian, were it not that these habits of the early Italian humanists imposed a fashion upon Europe which extended to the later age of Scaliger's contentions with Scioppius and Milton's with Salmasius.
r r, '20; but he soon abandons this literary device, and speaks in his own name.
The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.
With the Mahommedan conquest the Perso-Arabic alphabet was introduced among the Malays; it has continued ever since to be in use for literary, religious and business purposes.
The Malays cannot, strictly speaking, be said to possess a literature, for none of their writings can boast any literary beauty or value.
The collections of Malay Proberbs made by, Klinkert, Maxwell and Clifford also give a good idea of the literary methods of the Malays.
There are numerous rhymed fairy tales, which are much liked by the people, but they are of no literary merit.
Taking Varro for his model, Fenestella was one of the chief representatives of the new style of historical writing which, in the place of the brilliant descriptive pictures of Livy, discussed curious and out-of-the-way incidents and customs of political and social life, including literary history.
But side by side with this literary transmission Berthelot insists that there was another mode of transmission, by means of the knowledge of practical receipts and processes traditional among jewellers, painters, workers in glass and pottery, and other handicraftsmen.
Though pre-eminently a man of action, Boniface has left several literary remains.
A vigorous campaign against monasticism took place; the monasteries were closed, and many of them pulled down or converted into barracks; monks and nuns were compelled to marry, and exiled in large numbers to Cyprus; the literary and artistic treasures were sold for the benefit of the imperial treasury.
The name Marguerite was common in the Valois dynasty, and during the 16th century there were three princesses, all of whom figure in the political as well as in the literary history of the time, and who have xvii.
Her literary work consists of the Heptameron, of poems entitled Les Marguerites de la marguerite des princesses, and of Letters.
He died quite suddenly and in the full swing of his literary activity on the 13th of October 1899, at Steeple Court, Botley, Hants.
The literary and artistic value of many of the Robin Hood ballads cannot be pronounced considerable, but eight of them attain the high-water mark of their class.
During his long stay in Catalonia he made preparations for a geographical and historical description of this province, which was bound to France by so many political and literary associations.
The period, however, is one of literary forgeries; most of the MSS.
The collected literary works of Wagner in German fill ten volumes, and include political speeches, sketches for dramas that did not become operas, autobiographical chapters, aesthetic musical treatises and polemics of vitriolic violence.
The same translator has also published a close, purely literary version.
For the other numerous commentaries and for further biographical and literary particulars of Jalal-uddin, see Rieu's Cat.
German literature tells of several literary schools, or groups of writers animated by the same ideas, and working in the spirit of the same principles and by the same poetic methods.
Rawnsley, Literary Associations of the English Lakes (2 vols., Glasgow, 1894) and Life and Nature of the English Lakes (Glasgow, 1899); Stopford Brooke, Dove Cottage, Wordsworth's Home from 1800 to 1808; A.
Ephesians has been called "the crown of St Paul's writings," and whether it be measured by its theological or its literary interest and importance, it can fairly dispute with Romans the claim to be his greatest epistle.
In this combination resides the doubtless unconscious but nevertheless real literary art of the composition.
The relationship, both literary and theological, between the epistle to the Ephesians and that to the Colossians is very close.
In Mesopotamia more than any other country literary results have been regarded as archaeology, owing to the enormous mass of the written material recovered, which has caused the study of the art and general civilization of different periods to be neglected in comparison with the same subjects in Egypt.
EPIC OF GILGAMESH, the title given to one of the most important literary products of Babylonia, from the name of the chief personage in the series of tales of which it is composed.
In its final form, the outcome of an extended and complicated literary process, the Gilgamesh Epic covered twelve tablets, each tablet devoted to one adventure in which the hero plays a direct or indirect part, and the whole covering according to the most plausible estimate about 3000 lines.
This is occasioned by the y-sound with which u now begins, and is carried further in dialect than in the literary language, sue and suit, for example, being pronounced in Scotland like the Eng.
The Ptolemaic court, with the museum attached to it, is so prominent in the literary and scientific history of the age that it is unnecessary to give a list of the philosophers, the men of letters and science, who at one time or other ate at King Ptolemy's table.
The Pergamene court was in no degree behind the Ptolemaic in its literary and artistic zeal.
This idea finds its most magnificent literary expression in Milton's Paradise Lost.
The Quakers had always been active controversialists, and a great body of tracts and papers was issued by them; but hitherto these had been of small account from a literary point of view.
3, which is the oldest literary authority which enjoins these two great commands.
A man of literary taste and culture, familiar with the classics, a facile writer of Latin verses' as well as of Ciceronian prose, he was as anxious that the Roman clergy should unite human science and literature with their theological studies as that the laity should be educated in the principles of religion; and to this end he established in Rome a kind of voluntary school board, with members both lay and clerical; and the rivalry of the schools thus founded ultimately obliged the state to include religious teaching in its curriculum.
She was received with great consideration at foreign courts, and her literary and scientific reputation procured her the entree to the society of the learned in most of the capitals of Europe.
In 1782 she returned to the Russian capital, and was at once taken into favour by the empress, who strongly sympathized with her in her literary tastes, and specially in her desire to elevate Russ to a place among the literary languages of Europe.
It was not till 1828 that he set about the first task of his literary ambition.
While still a boy, he showed promise of rare literary gifts, and distinguished himself by his facility in the acquisition of knowledge.
It had been found by experience that the charta Augusta was, from its fineness and porous nature, ill suited for literary use; it was accordingly reserved for correspondence only, and for other purposes was replaced by the new paper.
The earliest literary papyrus is that known, from the name of its former owner, as the Prisse papyrus, and now preserved at Paris, containing a work composed in the reign of a king of the fifth dynasty, and computed to be itself of the age of upwards of 2500 years B,C. The papyri discovered in Egypt have often been found in tombs, and in the hands, or swathed with the bodies, of mummies.
Besides the ritual and religious rolls, there are the hieratic, civil and literary documents, and the demotic and enchorial papyri, relating generally to sales of property.
In Athens it was doubtless in use for literary as well as for other purposes as early as the 5th century B.C. An inscription relating to the rebuilding of the Erechtheum in 407 B.C. records the purchase of two papyrus rolls, to be used for the fair copy of the rough accounts.
Of medieval literary Greek papyri very few relics have survived, but of documents coming down to the 8th and 9th centuries an increasing number is being brought to light among the discoveries in Egypt.
His life in London was varied by frequent visits to Italy, where he occupied himself more in literary and antiquarian research than with art.
Literary criticism (see Cheyne, Encycl.
In one of the literary and fashionable circles of Berlin he had met a Fraulein von Ddnniges, for whom he at once felt a passion, which was ardently reciprocated.
Others found shelter in Rome or Venice, and a large number settled in Ragusa, where they doubtless contributed to the remarkable literary development of the 16th and 17th centuries in which the use of the Bosnian dialect was a characteristic feature.
Another literary seaman of this period was Sidi Ali, celebrated under his poetic pseudonym of Katibi (or Katibi Rumi, to distinguish him from the Persian poet of the same name).
In all literary matters the Ottoman Turks have shown themselves a singularly uninventive people, the two great schools, the old and the new, into which we may divide their literature, being closely modelled, the one after the classics of Persia, the other after those of modern Europe, and more especially of France.
Hence the vast majority of the people whom we are accustomed to think of as Ottomans are so only by adoption, being really the descendants of Seljuks or Seljukian subjects, who had derived from Persia whatever they possessed of civilization or of literary taste.
They set the fashion of ghazel-writing; and their appearance was the signal for a more regular cultivation of poetry and a greater attention to literary style and to refinement of language.
Of Sa`d-ud-Din's successors in the office of imperial historiographer the most remarkable for literary power is Na`ima.
They returned to Paris, or at least to its neighbourhood, in 1785, and Mlle Necker resumed literary work of a miscellaneous kind, including a.
The abundant documents in the hands of her descendants, the families of Broglie and Haussonville, have indeed furnished material for books and papers, but these are almost wholly on the social aspect of Mme de Stael, not on her literary merit.
Take away her assiduous frequentation of society, from the later philosophe coteries to the age of Byron - take away the influence of Constant and Schlegel and her other literary friends - and probably little of her will remain.
All these views have, however, been cast in the shade by more recent investigations based on minute literary analysis of the Pentateuch, begun by Graf, continued by Kuenen, and culminating in the work of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith.
The complex of observances connected with the Passover and the very want of systemization observed in the literary sources would seem to vindicate the primitive character of the feast, which indeed is recognized by all inquirers.
The Kiteib ul-Hayawan, or "Book of Animals," a philological and literary, not a scientific, work, was published at Cairo (1906).
In 1684 Bayle began the publication of his Nouvelles de la republique des lettres, a kind of journal of literary criticism.
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