Leo shook his head and smiled.
"Hi, Leo," Kelli said with a smile.
"Aw, this is cool weather for Norfolk," Leo replied.
Leo thought to himself that with one more drink he'd try to swim across the Chesapeake.
According to sources at the Ocean Shore Motel, Byrne was last seen on his way to the beach shortly after midnight by Leo Sutter, a waiter at the motel.
"...make sure someone else sees you leave your room, like Leo, the waiter," Hunter finished.
The two detectives spoke with Leo the waiter, the night clerk and the maid.
He lectured at Padua, Naples, Rome and Pisa, and won so high a reputation that he was deputed by Leo X.
Leo Africanus rightly describes its lower course as "severing by its winding channel the barren and naked soil from the green and fruitful."
He was ordained to the priesthood on the 15th of March, consecrated bishop on the 17th, and enthroned with the name of Leo X.
There is no evidence of simony in the conclave, and Leo's election was hailed with delight by the Romans on account of his reputation for liberality, kindliness and love of peace.
Many problems confronted Leo X.
At the very time of Leo's accession Louis XII.
On the 9th of December the fifth Lateran council, which had been reopened by Leo in April, ratified the peace with Louis XII.
Leo at once formed a new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to ensure English support made Wolsey a cardinal.
The king of Spain wrote to his ambassador at Rome "that His Holiness had hitherto played a double game and that all his zeal to drive the French from Italy had been only a mask"; this reproach seemed to receive some confirmation when Leo X.
Its three main objects, the peace of Christendom, the crusade and the reform of the church, could be secured only by general agreement among the powers, and Leo or the council failed to secure such agreement.
had unanimously condemned, and the confirmation of the concordat between Leo X.
Leo closed the council on the 16th of March 1517.
The year which marked the close of the Lateran council was also signalized by Leo's unholy war against the duke of Urbino.
Leo had intended his younger brother Giuliano and his nephew Lorenzo for brilliant secular careers.
Guicciardini reckoned the cost of the war to Leo at the prodigious sum of 800,000 ducats.
Leo treated the Uniate Greeks with great loyalty, and by bull of the 18th of May 1521 forbade Latin clergy to celebrate mass in Greek churches and Latin bishops to ordain Greek clergy.
Leo was disturbed throughout his pontificate by heresy and schism.
Although Leo did not fully comprehend the import of the movement, he directed (3rd February 1518) the vicar-general of the Augustinians to impose silence on the monks.
Leo then formally excommunicated Luther by bull of the 3rd of January 1521; and in a brief directed the emperor to take energetic measures against heresy.
of England sent to Leo his book against Luther on the seven sacraments.
stayed the Lutheran movement, and Luther himself, safe in the solitude of the Wartburg, survived Leo X.
It was under Leo X.
Leo sent a new nuncio to Copenhagen (1521) in the person of the Minorite Francesco de Potentia, who readily absolved the king and received the rich bishopric of Skara.
That Leo did not do more to check the tendency toward heresy and schism in Germany and Scandinavia is to be partially explained by the political complications of the time, and by his own preoccupation with schemes of papal and Medicean aggrandizement in Italy.
Leo vacillated between the powerful candidates for the succession, allowing it to appear at first that he favoured Francis I.
Leo was now anxious to unite Ferrara, Parma and Piacenza to the States of the Church.
Leo agreed to invest Charles with Naples, to crown him emperor, and to aid in a war against Venice.
Leo at once announced that he would excommunicate the king of France and release his subjects from their allegiance unless Francis laid down his arms and surrendered Parma and Piacenza.
Several minor events of Leo's pontificate are worthy of mention.
Leo showed special favours to the Jews and permitted them to erect a Hebrew printing-press at Rome.
As patron of learning Leo X.
Leo called Theodore Lascaris to Rome to give instruction in Greek, and established a Greek printing-press from which the first Greek book printed at Rome appeared in 1515.
The Venetian ambassador Gradenigo estimated the paying number of offices on Leo's death at 2150, with a capital value of nearly 3,000,000 ducats and a yearly income of 328,000 ducats.
More recent studies have served to produce a fairer and more honest opinion of Leo X.
Leo was dignified in appearance and elegant in speech, manners and writing.
On the other hand, in spite of his worldliness, Leo was not an unbeliever; he prayed, fasted, and participated in the services of the church with conscientiousness.
- The life of Leo X.
Roscoe, Life and Pontificate of Leo X.
Leo XI >>
From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and GÃ¶ttingen, devoting himself more especially to history, philology and theology.
In addition to his lecturing, Leo found time for much literary and political work.
Leo was by nature highly excitable and almost insanely passionate, though at the same time strictly honourable, unselfish, and in private intercourse even gentle.
Johannes Leo >>
A third form was employed in the case of the concordat of 1516 between Leo X.
The situation was modified by the concordat of Bologna, which was personally negotiated by Leo X.
constructed in 830 a fortified enceinte, called Gregoriopolis, in the eastern portion of the ancient city, and the Saracens were signally defeated here under Leo IV.
No theologian save Augustine has had an equal influence on the theological thought and language of the Western Church, a fact which was strongly emphasized by Leo XIII.
The best modern edition of the works of Aquinas is that prepared at the expense of Leo XIII.
It is said to have been written by the Neapolitan arch-presbyter Leo, who was sent by Johannes and Marinus, dukes of Campania (941-965) to Constantinople, where he found his Greek original.
des Archpresbyter Leo (Historia de proeliis), (Erlangen, 1885); Alexander's letter to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are included in the Teubner edition of Julius Valerius (ed.
The kingdom of Armenia fell before the sultan of Egypt, who took prisoner its last king Leo V.
Extending the area of his activities, he entered into communication with the emperor Henry III., addressed to Pope Leo IX.
He died in the fortress prison of San Leo in 1795.
After his retirement from the public service in 1863 he supported in the Bohemian Landtag and the Austrian Reichsrat the federal policy of his brother Leo.
The third son of Count Franz, Leopold or LEO (1811-1888), was one of the leading Austrian statesmen.
In 1520 he went to Rome, where he entered the brilliant literary circle of Leo X.
It has a fine Renaissance facade, constructed about 1500 by Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici (afterwards Pope Leo X.), and some good terra cottas by the Della Robbia.
ceded it to Leo IX.
He had agreed with Pope Leo X.
Half the proceeds in his province were to go to him, half to Leo X.
3, 14 (based on Varro), the historical character of which is doubted by Leo (Plautinische Forschungen, p. 60, sqq.).
The new comedy of Greece was probably limited for the most part to scenes written in the metres of dialogue; it remained for Plautus, as Leo has shown, to enliven his plays with cantica modelled on the contemporary lyric verse of Greece or Magna Graecia, which was in its turn a development of the dramatic lyrics of Euripides.
1888; Leo (a very important work), 1895-1896; Lindsay, 1904-1905.1905.
1891); Langen, Beitrage (1877) and Plautinische Studien (1886); Leo, Plautinische Forschungen (1895); Lindsay, Codex Turnebi (1898).
Gian Paolo Baglioni was lured to Rome in 1520 and beheaded by Leo X.; and in 1534 Rodolfo, who had slain a papal legate, was defeated by Pier Luigi Farnese, and the city, captured and plundered by his soldiery, was deprived of its privileges.
Leo, the saint's favourite disciple and companion on Mount Alverno at the time, which describes the circumstances of the stigmatization; Elias of Cortona, the acting superior, wrote on the day after his death a circular letter wherein he uses language clearly implying that he had himself seen the Stigmata, and there is a considerable amount of contemporary authentic second hand evidence.
Leo, his favourite and most intimate disciple, and that the Legenda 3 Soc. is what it claims to be - the handiwork of Leo and the two other most intimate companions of Francis, compiled in 1246; these are the most authentic and the only true accounts, Thomas of Celano's Lives being written precisely in opposition to them, in the interests of the majority of the order that favoured mitigations of the Rule especially in regard to poverty.
Leo; on the other hand, Thomas of Celano's two Lives are free from the "tendencies" ascribed to them by Sabatier, and that of 1248 was written with the collaboration of Leo and the other companions; thus the best sources of information are those portions of the Speculum that can with certainty be carried back to Br.
Leo, and the Lives by Thomas of Celano, especially the second Life.
When Leo the Isaurian published his decrees against the worship of images in 726, Gregory II.
law Desiderius, the last Lombard king, in 774, and when he received the circlet of the empire from Leo Ill, at Rome ~fl 800, he did but complete and ratify the compact offered to his grandfather, Charles Martel, by Gregory III.
His half-brother, Robert Wiskard or Guiscard, after defeating the papal troops at Civitella in 1053, received from Leo IX.
When Leo X.
Leo for a while relied on Francis; for the vast power of Charles V., who succeeded to the empire in 1519, as in 1516 he had succeeded to the crowns of Spain and Lower Italy, threatened the whole of Europe.
Meanwhile Leo X.
But on the death of Pius in I823, his successor Leo XII.
Leo died in 1829, and the mild, religious Pius VIII.
The Italian government not only Leo xui.
In July following Leo XIII.
The sixth oecumenical synod decreed that the dead pope Honorius should be " cast out from the holy Catholic Church of God " and anathematized, a sentence approved by the reigning pope Leo II.
In 1516 a Concordat between Leo X.
The most valuable work on Africa about this time is, however, that written by the Moor Leo Africanus in the early part of the 16th century.
Leo travelled extensively in the north and west of Africa, and was eventually taken by pirates and sold to a master who presented him to Pope Leo X.
The older portion, the capella in palatio, an octagonal building surmounted by a dome, was designed on the model of San Vitale at Ravenna by Udo of Metz, was begun under Charlemagne's auspices in 796 and consecrated by Pope Leo III.
The Latin West was scarcely less productive; it is enough to mention Hilary of Poitiers, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo, Leo of Rome, Jerome, Rufinus, and a father lately restored to his place in patristic literature, Niceta of Remesiana.'
The period ends in the West with two great Italian names, Cassiodorus and Pope Gregory I., after Leo the greatest of papal theologians.
1344), called Ralbag, the great commentator on the Bible and Talmud, in philosophy a follower of Aristotle and Averroes, known to Christians as Leo Hebraeus, wrote also many works on halakhah, mathematics and astronomy.
Leo I., although he recognized the council as ecumenical and confirmed its doctrinal decrees, rejected canon xxviii.
In what proportion zeal for the ancient canons and the rights of others, and jealous fear of encroachment upon his own jurisdiction, were mixed in the motives of Leo, it would be interesting to know.
He compressed into a single chapter the domestic history and policy of the emperors from the son of Heraclius to Isaac Angelus; and did no justice to the remarkable ability and the indefatigable industry shown in the service of the state by most of the sovereigns from Leo III.
At the desire of Leo (then archdeacon of Rome) he wrote against Nestorius his De Incarnatione Domini in seven books.
This delicate matter was arranged by Mr Taft in a personal interview with Pope Leo XIII.
Leo Allatius (Lyons, 1629; cf.
It seems to have been suggested in 1516, and although certain charters have been appealed to in proof of an earlier use of the title, it was first conferred by Pope Leo X.
New to the Sacred College and free from traditional preconceptions, he was admirably fitted to carry out the papal policy under Leo XIII.
Rightly or wrongly, he was held personally responsible for the rapprochement with France and Russia and the opposition to the Powers of the Triple Alliance; and this attitude had its effect on his career when Leo XIII.
23) that in the year 387 the churches of Gaul kept Easter on the 21st of March, those of Italy on the 18th of April, and those of Egypt on the 25th of April; and it appears from a letter of Leo the Great (Epist.
The first trustworthy notice of the use of the mitre is under Pope Leo IX.
From Leo IX.'s time papal grants of the mitre to eminent prelates became increasingly frequent, and by the 12th century it had been assumed by all bishops in the West, with or without papal sanction, as their proper liturgical head-dress.
The first instance is again a bull of Leo IX.
in 1514, and reaped his reward in the bishoprics of Lincoln and Tournai, the archbishopric of York, which was conferred on him by papal bull in September, and the cardinalate which he had sent Polydore Vergil to beg from Leo X.
Valerius's translation was completely superseded by that of Leo, arch-priest of Naples in the 10th century, the socalled Historia de Preliis.
Angilbert was the Homer of the emperor's literary circle, and was the probable author of an epic, of which the fragment which has been preserved describes the life at the palace and the meeting between Charlemagne and Leo III.
The emperor Leo, the Isaurian, came to open rupture with Pope Gregory II.
Leo Abarbanel and Jochana,n Aleman - see L.
The popes had put themselves at the head of Italian resistance: in 848 Leo IV.
In 1195 Amalric, the brother of Guy de Lusignan, and his successor in Cyprus, sought the title of king from Henry and did homage; and at the same time Leo of Lesser Armenia, in order to escape from dependence on the Eastern empire, took the same course.
The letter, arriving at Bec when Lanfranc was absent at Rome (1050), was sent after him, but was opened before it reached him, and Lanfranc, fearing the scandal, brought it under the notice of Pope Leo IX.
K01rpos), SOH of Leo III.
On the 9th of December 1886 he was beatified by Pope Leo XIII.
Leo Reinisch, Die Somalie Sprache (Vienna, 1900, et seq.); F.
In the jubilee year 1825 he was selected by his fellowstudents at the Collegium Romanum to head a deputation to Pope Leo XII., whose memory he subsequently cherished and whose name he assumed in 1878.
led some of the cardinals to vote for Pecci, since his age (within a few days of sixty-eight) and health warranted the expectation that his reign would be comparatively brief; but he had for years been known as one of the few "papable" cardinals; and although his long seclusion at Perugia had caused his name to be little known outside Italy, there was a general belief that the conclave had selected a man who was a prudent statesman as well as a devout churchman; and Newman (whom he created a cardinal in the year following) is reported to have said, "In the successor of Pius I recognize a depth of thought, a tenderness of heart, a winning simplicity, and a power answering to the name of Leo, which prevent me from lamenting that Pius is no longer here."
The second day after his election Pope Leo XIII.
The numerous encyclicals by which the pontificate of Leo XIII.
This last was slightly tinged with modern socialism; it was described as "the social Magna Carta of Catholicism," and it won for Leo the name of "the workingman's pope."
It was the knowledge that in all points of religious faith and practice Leo XIII.
The establishment of a diocesan hierarchy in Scotland had been decided upon before the death of Pius IX., but the actual announcement of it was made by Leo XIII.
The reactionary policy thus indicated gave the impression that a similar aim underlay the appointment about the same date of a commission to inquire into Biblical studies; and in other minor matters Leo XIII.
The worship of Mary, largely developed during the reign of Pius IX., received further stimulus from Leo; nor did he do anything during his pontificate to correct the superstitions connected with popular beliefs concerning relics and indulgences.
sent the earl of Denbigh to Rome to congratulate Leo XIII.
to Leo XIII.
The elevation of Newman to the college of Cardinals in 1879 was regarded with approval throughout the English-speaking world, both on Newman's account and also as evidence that Leo XIII.
Dupanloup would doubtless have received the same honour had he not died shortly after Leo's accession.
Grave and serious in manner, speaking slowly, but with energetic gestures, simple and abstemious in his life - his daily bill of fare being reckoned as hardly costing a couple of francs - Leo XIII.
There are lives of Leo XIII.
Goetz (Gotha, 1899), &c. A life of Leo XIII.
Leo (Emperors) >>
Georg Leo Caprivi De Caprera De Montecuccoli >>
Pope Leo X.
The synod of Chalcedon in 451, following the lines of Pope Leo I.'s famous letter, endeavoured to steer a middle course between the so-called Nestorian and Eutychian positions.
Timothy Aelurus was chosen bishop, and a synod which he called was so powerful as to impress even the emperor Leo I.
saw the prestige of his see involved in this slighting of Chalcedon and his predecessor Leo's epistle.
- Pope Leo XIII.
Entering the service of Eberhard, princebishop of Liege, he was sent by that prelate on a mission to Rome, where Pope Leo X.
And a few days later Pope Leo XIII.
Pope Leo had indeed, in a letter to the Franciscan ministergeneral (November 1898), and in an encyclical to the French clergy (September 1899), vigorously emphasized the traditionalist principles of his encyclical Providentissimus of 1893; he had even, much to his prompt regret, signed the unfortunate decree of the Roman Inquisition, January 1897, prohibiting all doubt as to the authenticity of the "Three Heavenly Witnesses" passage, John v.
In 1890 Lavigerie appeared in the new character of a politician, and arranged with Pope Leo XIII.
In 1509 he went with Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge, archbishop of York, to Rome, where he won the esteem of Pope Leo X., who advised Henry VIII.
These were contested by Germany, whose flag was hoisted on Yap, and the matter was referred to the arbitration of Pope Leo XIII.
To) shows figures masked and costumed to represent Corax, Perses, Miles and Leo, indicating the practice on occasion of rites involving the use of sacred disguise, a custom probably reminiscent of the primitive time when men represented their deities under the form of animals, and believed themselves in closer communion with them when disguised to impersonate them.
Of the seven degrees, those mystics not yet beyond the third, Miles, were not in full communion, and were called inrnpETOUVTES (servants); while the fourth degree, Leo, admitted them into the class of the fully initiate, the (participants).
A sacred communion of bread, water and possibly wine, compared by the Christian apologists to the Eucharist, was administered to the mystic who was entering upon one of the advanced degrees, perhaps Leo.
Through the favour of Leo X., he was succeeded by his cousin Raffaello Petrucci, previously governor of St Angelo and afterwards a cardinal.
He caused Borghese and a younger son named Fabio to be proclaimed as rebels, while a third son, Cardinal Alphonso, was strangled by order of Leo X.
In 1896 Leo XIII.
We have an interesting description of their tactics from the pen of the emperor Leo VI., whose account of them is confirmed by the contemporary Russian annals.
Historical research and literary criticism flourished under Racki, the first president of the Academy, and his pupils: while Strassmayer did much to revive the Glagolitic, or ancient Slavonic liturgy, and to win for it the favour of Pope Leo XIII.
Leopolis was founded about 1259 by the Ruthenian prince Leo Danilowicz, who moved here his residence from Halicz in 1270.
In 1888 he retired and received from Leo XIII.
The decisions of a Gregory or a Leo the Great, of a Gelasius or an Innocent, prelates of holy life and unequalled wisdom, are accepted by the universal church; for, coming from such men, they cannot but be good.
Leo Weinthal), The Bawenda of the Spelonken (1908); Report on the Census of 1904 (Pretoria, 1906); Reports of the South African Assoc.; Annual Reports of the Transvaal Chamber of Mines (Johannesburg); L.
That important legal work, The Laws of the Emperors Constantine, Theodosius and Leo, which was composed in Greek about 475, and " which lies at the root of all subsequent Christian Oriental legislation in ecclesiastical, judicial and private matters" (Wright), must have been repeatedly translated into Syriac. The oldest form is contained in a British Museum MS. which dates from the earlier part of the 6th century, and this was edited by Land (Anecd.
In 472 Olybrius was sent to Italy by the emperor Leo to assist the emperor Anthemius against his son-in-law Ricimer, but, having entered into negotiations with the latter, was himself proclaimed emperor against his will, and on the murder of his rival ascended the throne unopposed.
His son Gegnesius in 722 was taken to Constantinople, where he won over to his opinions the iconoclast emperor, Leo the Isaurian.
The iconoclast emperor Leo V., an Armenian, persecuted the sect afresh, and provoked a rising at Cynoschora, whence many fled into Saracen territory to Argaeum near Melitene.
and continued by Leo X.
bibliography under LEO X.
died, he largely contributed by his eloquence to the election of Leo XI.
to the papal throne, and, on the death of Leo twenty-four days after, to the election of Paul V.
Amalfi is first mentioned in the 6th century,and soon acquired importance as a naval power; in the 9th century it shared with Venice and Gaeta the Italian trade with the East, and in 848 its fleet went to the assistance of Pope Leo IV.
Levond (Leo) II., "the Great" (1185-1219), extended the kingdom beyond Mount Taurus and established the capital at Sis.
In 798 he was appointed missis dominicus, and two years later performed so great services for Leo III.
His first work, Die Erste Liebe zu Christo, to which in modern times attention was again directed by Leo Tolstoy, appeared in 1696.
In 1513, on the death of Julius II., Giovanni de' Medici was elected pope as Leo X., an event which greatly enhanced the importance of the house.
He was a contemporary of Averroes, who, according to Leo Africanus, heard his lectures, and learned physic of him.
In Ambrose, Augustine and Leo I., sacrilegium means sacrilege.
Soon after the election of Leo X.
This judgment is the more interesting as being in distinct conflict with the opinion of the bishop of Rome - Leo - who, departing from the policy of his predecessor Celestine, had written very strongly to Flavian in support of the doctrine of the two natures and one person.
There the synod of Ephesus was declared to have been a "robber synod," its proceedings were annulled, and, in accordance with the rule of Leo as opposed to the doctrines of Eutyches, it was declared that the two natures were united in Christ, but without any alteration, absorption or confusion.
On the accusation of the orthodox he was deposed by the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus, but at Chalcedon in 451 was pardoned on condition of anathematizing both Nestorius and Eutyches and accepting the Tome of Leo.
This functionary is first formally mentioned under Leo X.(1513-1521) in the proceedings in connexion with the canonization of St Lorenzo Giustiniani.
The Persian king implored the emperor Leo I.
Justinian's rival Vardanes in turn sought an asylum in Khazaria, and in Leo IV.
Kha'zar troops were amongst the bodyguard of the imperial court; they fought for Leo VI.
Leo Africanus, writing early in the 16th century, gives a favourable picture of the "great city" of Tunis, which had a flourishing manufacture of fine cloth, a prosperous colony of Christian traders, and, including the suburbs, nine or ten thousand hearths; but he speaks also of the decay of once flourishing provincial towns, and especially of agriculture, the once powerful Church.
Shaw's Travels (1757); Leo Africanus's description of Africa in Ramusio and in Purchas's Pilgrims; Rousseau, Annales tunisiennes (Algiers, 1864); the late Sir R.
was seconded by the architect Leo von Klenze, while the external decorations of painting and sculpture were mainly designed by Peter von Cornelius, Wilhelm von Kaulbach and Schwanthaler.
Among the eminent artists of this period whose names are more or less identified with Munich were Leo von Klenze (1784-1864), Joseph Daniel Ohlmiiller (1791-1839), Friedrich von Gartner (1792-1847), and Georg Friedrich Ziebland (1800-1873), the architects; Peter von Cornelius (1783-1867), Wilhelm von Kaulbach (1804-1874), Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794-1872), and Karl Rottmann, the painters; and Ludwig von Schwanthaler, the sculptor.
They radiate from a point within the Sickle of Leo and are termed Leonids.
At ten years of age he succeeded his father, Leo IV.,.
But as he did not long observe his oath he was deposed at a synod held in St Peter's, after Otto had compelled the Romans to swear they would elect no pope without the imperial consent; and a nominee of the emperor, who took the name of Leo VIII., was chosen in his stead.
The long poem celebrating the triumph of Christ and His saints was called forth by the favour shown him by Pope Leo VII., during whose pontificate he visited Rome, and he devotes fourteen books to the history of the popes.
Leo Pilatus >>
Clement Philibert Leo Delibes >>
7, 1878); and in the subsequent conclave, while some Italian cardinals were prepared to vote for his election to fill the vacant chair, he himself supported Cardinal Pecci, afterwards known as Leo XIII.
With him, however, Manning found less sympathy than with his predecessor, though Manning's advocacy of the claims of labour attracted Leo's attention, and influenced the encyclical which he issued on the subject.
It is possible that Leo's letter to Flavian gave the impulse to put it forward because it contained a parallel to words which Leo quoted from the Old Roman Creed, " born of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary," " crucified and buried," which do not occur in the first Nicene Creed.
Dingli and ecclesiastics of all denominations, for conflicting reasons, swelled the opposition against the liberal concessions obtained from Leo XIII.
About 726, however, he became involved in a conflict with the emperor Leo the Isaurian on account of the excessive taxation of the Italians, and, later, on the question of image worship, which had been proscribed by the government of Constantinople.
Leo endeavoured to rid himself of the pope by violence, but Gregory, supported by the people of Rome and also by the Lombards, succeeded in eluding the emperor's attacks, and died peacefully on the 11th of February 731.
Of successful mediation in the strict sense there have been many instances: that of Great Britain, in 1825, between Portugal and Brazil; of France, in 1849-1850, when differences arose between Great Britain and Greece; of the Great Powers, in 1868-1869, when the relations of Greece and Turkey were strained to breaking-point by reason of the insurrection in Crete; of Pope Leo XIII., in 1885, between Germany and Spain in the matter of the Caroline Islands.
For his zeal in defending the papal pretensions against the council of Pisa, in a series of works which were condemned by the Sorbonne and publicly burnt by order of King Louis XII., he obtained the bishopric of Gaeta, and in 1517 Pope Leo X.
From Rome it passed to Constantinople; at the end of the 9th century it was diligently studied by Leo VI., who himself wrote a work on tactics; and in the middle of the 10th century Constantine Porphyrogenitus mentioned it as one of the most valuable books in the imperial library.
The best edition of the text is Wolfflin and Melber (Teubner Series, 1887, with bibliography and editio princeps of the Strategemata of the emperor Leo); annotated editions by Isaac Casaubon (1589) and A.
No sooner had Leo been made pope than he formed schemes for the aggrandizement of his family.
Later on, Leo designed for him a duchy in Emilia, to be cemented out of Parma, Piacenza, Reggio and Modena.
Towards the year 1519 both Leo X.
He earnestly admonished Leo, for his own sake and for Florence, to found a permanent and free state system for the republic, reminding him in terms of noble eloquence how splendid is the glory of the man who shall confer such benefits upon a people.
It would seem that from the date of Machiavelli's discourse to Leo on the government of Florence the Medici had taken him into consideration.
Adalgis, the son of Desiderius, who was residing at Constantinople, hoped the emperor Leo IV.
This policy caused a further breach with Pope Adrian; but when Adrian died in December 795, his successor, Leo III., in notifying his elevation to the king, sent him the keys of St Peter's grave and the banner of the city, and asked Charles to send an envoy to receive his oath of fidelity.
There is no doubt that Leo recognized Charles as sovereign of Rome.
Leo soon had occasion to invoke the aid of his protector.
His authority was undisputed; and after Leo had cleared himself by an oath of certain charges made against him, Charles restored the pope and banished his leading opponents.
The great event of this visit took place on the succeeding Christmas Day, when Charles on rising from prayer in St Peter's was crowned by Leo and proclaimed emperor and Augustus amid the acclamations of the crowd.
This act can hardly have been unpremeditated, and some doubt has been cast upon the statement which Einhard attributes to Charles, that he would not have entered the building had he known of the intention of Leo.
Contemporary accounts lay stress upon the fact that as there was then no emperor, Constantinople being under the rule of Irene, it seemed good to Leo and his counsellors and the " rest of the Christian people " to choose Charles, already ruler of Rome, to fill the vacant office.
In 804 he was visited by Pope Leo, who returned to Rome laden with gifts.
It was he who negotiated with Leo X.
During his father's life-time he had been beaten by Gervais, bishop of Le Mans (1038), but now (10 4 7 or 1048) succeeded in taking the latter prisoner, for which he was excommunicated by Pope Leo IX.
Siricius (384-389), Leo the Great (440-461), and Gelasius (492-496) left little for their successors to add to the arguments in favour of the papal supremacy.
to Leo X.
and Leo X.
After some' scandalous negotiations with Leo X.
In January 1522, Leo X.
Denmark had suffered from all the abuses of papal provisions, and the nuncio of Leo X.
had won his victory at Marignano, Leo 'X.
LEO VIII., pope from 963 to 965, a Roman by birth, held the lay office of protoscrinius when he was elected to the papal chair at the instance of Otto the Great by the Roman synod which deposed John XII.
In February 964, the emperor having withdrawn from the city, Leo found it necessary to seek safety in flight, whereupon he was deposed by a synod held under the presidency of John XII.
as his successor; but Otto, returning and laying siege to the city, compelled their acceptance of Leo.
It is usually said that, at the synod which deposed Benedict, Leo conceded to the emperor and his successors as sovereign of Italy full rights of investiture, but the genuineness of the document on which this allegation rests is more than doubtful.
Leo IX >>
Porphyrogennetos, " born in the purple") (905-959), East Roman emperor, author and patron of literature, was the son of Leo VI.
In 431 he appeared in Rome to interview Pope Celestine regarding the teachings of St Augustine and then all traces of him are lost until 440, the first year of the pontificate of Leo I., who had been in Gaul and thus probably had met Prosper.
Frederick, who had been raised to the cardinalate by Leo IX., acted for some time as papal legate at Constantinople, and was with Leo in his unlucky expedition against the Normans.
It is a small octavo volume of 120 parchment leaves, written throughout by Leo," notary and sinner,"who finished his task on the 11th of June 1156.
In 806 Charlemagne sent him to Rome to obtain the signature of Pope Leo III.
JOHANNES LEO (c. 1494-1552), in Italian GIOVANNI LEO or
The Breviarium was enlarged and continued down to the time of Justinian by Paulus Diaconus; the work of the latter was in turn enlarged by Landolfus Sagax (c. i 000), and taken down to the time of the emperor Leo the Armenian (813-820) in the Historia Miscella.
LEO IX., pope from 1049 to 1054, was a native of Upper Alsace, where he was born on the 21st of June 1002.
Setting out shortly after Christmas, he had a meeting with abbot Hugo of Cluny at Besancon, where he was joined by the young monk Hildebrand, who afterwards became Pope Gregory VII.; arriving in pilgrim garb at Rome in the following February, he was received with much cordiality, and at his consecration assumed the name of Leo IX.
The greater part of the year that followed was occupied in one of those progresses through Italy, Germany and France which form a marked feature in Leo's pontificate.
After a fourth Easter synod in 1053 Leo set out against the Normans in the south with an army of Italians and German volunteers, but his forces sustained a total defeat at Astagnum near Civitella (18th June 1053); on going out, however, from the city to meet the enemy he was received with every token of submission, relief from the pressure of his ban was implored and fidelity and homage were sworn.
Leo X >>
Leo, 1883,1883, i.
At the moment of crossing the equator towards the north the sun is said to be at the first point of Aries; some thirty days later it enters Taurus, and so on through Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius and Pisces.
a close analogy with the Mexican calendar sign Cipactli, a kind of marine monster resembling a narwhal s Aquarius is a still more exclusively meteorological sign than Leo.
Gilgamesh's conquest of the divine bull was placed under Taurus; his slaying of the tyrant Khumbaba (the prototype of Geryon) in the fifth month typified the victory of light over darkness, represented in plastic art by the group of a lion killing a bull, which is the form ordinarily given to the sign Leo on Ninevite cylinders.
The Egyptians adopted from the Greeks, with considerable modifications of its attendant symbolism, the twelve-fold division of the zodiac. Aries became the Fleece; two Sprouting Plants, typifying equality or resemblance, stood for Gemini; Cancer was re-named Scarabaeus; Leo was converted, from the axe-like configuration of its chief stars, into the Knife: Libra into the Mountain of the Sun, a reminiscence, apparently, of the Euphratean association of the seventh month with a " holy mound," designating the biblical tower of Babel.
Reminiscences of the Greek signs of Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius, Capricornus and Pisces are obvious severally in the Hindu Two Faces, Lion's Tail, Beam of a Balance, Arrow, Gazelle's Head (figured as a marine nondescript) and Fish.
For genethliacal purposes the signs were divided into six solar and six lunar, the former counted onward from Leo, the " house " of the sun, the latter backward from the moon's domicile in Cancer.
Thus Mercury, as the planet nearest the sun, obtained Virgo, the sign adjacent to Leo, with the corresponding lunar house in Gemini; Venus had Libra (solar) and Taurus (lunar); and so for the rest.
10 Individuals, too, adopted zodiacal emblems. Capricornus was impressed upon the coins of Augustus, Libra on those ' of Pythodoris, queen of Pontus; a sultan of Iconium displayed Leo as his " horoscope " and mark of sovereignty; Stephen of England chose the protection of Sagittarius.
The hieroglyph of Leo, for instance, occurs among the symbols of the Mithraic worship."
Dawson and Leo Lesquereux, and others who reported on the Canadian and American fossil plants.
about the Pelagians (whom he was not inclined to regard as heretical), gave from his own point of view an account of the disputes which had recently arisen within his patriarchate.3 While ordinarily Rome might have been expected to hold the balance between the contrasted schools of thought, as Leo was able later to do, it is not surprising that this implied appeal proved unsuccessful, for Celestine naturally resented any questioning of the Roman decision concerning the Pelagians and was jealous of the growing power of the upstart see of the Nova Roma of the East.
He did not refuse to speak of Mary as being the mother of Christ or as being the mother of Emmanuel, but he thought it improper to speak of her as the mother of God, and Leo in the Letter to Flavian which was endorsed at Chalcedon uses the term "Mother of the Lord" which was exactly what Nestorius wished.
The Nestorian Church, following its leader, formally recognizes the Letter of Leo to Flavian and the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon.
and recently confirmed by Leo X., and in May 1518 he journeyed to Basel for three months to set the second edition of the New Testament in progress.
Probably this rise in dignity was connected with the establishment of a bishop's see there, the first bishop certainly known, Isaac, being heard of about 400 in a letter addressed by St Eucherius to Salvius, while, in 450, a letter of St Leo states that the see was then a suffragan of the archbishopric of Vienne.
Developing the ideas of Leo I., Gelasius I.
For the popes nominated by him, Leo IX.
It was, then, a fact pregnant with the most momentous consequences that Leo IX.
His intrigues were discovered by Otto, who, after he had defeated and taken prisoner Berengar, returned to Rome and summoned a council which deposed John, who was in hiding in the mountains of Campania, and elected Leo VIII.
An attempt at an insurrection was made by the inhabitants of Rome even before Otto left the city, and on his departure John returned at the head of a formidable company of friends and retainers, and caused Leo to seek safety in immediate flight.
Otto determined to make an effort in support of Leo, but before he reached the city John had died, in what manner is uncertain, and Benedict V.
He appears to have attracted the notice of the Frankish king, through whose influence in 798 Salzburg was made the seat of an archbishopric; and Arno, as the first holder of this office, became metropolitan of Bavaria and received the pallium from Pope Leo III.
LEO (Annibale della Genga), pope from 1823 to 1829, was born of a noble family, near Spoleto, on the 22nd of August 1760.
Personally most frugal, Leo reduced taxes, made justice less costly, and was able to find money for certain public improvements; yet he left the finances more confused than he had found them, and even the elaborate jubilee of 1825 did not really mend matters.
Leo, temperamentally stern, hard-working in spite of bodily infirmity, died at Rome on the 10th of February 1829.
(2 vols., 1843; by the secretary of the French embassy in Rome); Bruck, "Leo XII.," in Wetzer and Welte's Kirchenlexikon, vol.
Nippold, The Papacy in the 19th Century (New York, 1900), chap. 5; Benrath, "Leo XII.," in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, vol.
Leo XIII >>
1431), who introduced a new style of epistolary Latin; by Paolo Cortesi, who discovered the importance of a rhythmical structure in the composition of Ciceronian prose (1490); and by the accomplished secretaries of Leo X., Bembo and Sadoleto.
In Micronesia, since the discoveries of the early Spanish navigators, the Carolines, Mariana and Pelew Islands had been recognized as Spanish territory until 1885, when Germany began to establish herself in the first-named group. Spain had never occupied this group, but protested against the German action, and Pope Leo XIII.
Other compilations were those of Oecolampadius (Basel, 1526), Leo Juda (Zurich, 1534), and Bullinger (Zurich, 1555).
In Rome itself, its progress after the restoration was at first slow, and it was not till the reign of Leo XII.
Leo XIII., while favouring them somewhat, never gave them his full confidence; and by his adhesion to the Thomist philosophy and theology, and his active work for the regeneration and progress of the older orders, he made another suppression possible by destroying much of their prestige.
It represented in the Old Testament a thorough and independent revision of the text of the Great Bible with the help of the Hebrew original, the Latin versions of Leo Judd (1543), Pagninus (1528), Sebastian Munster (1534-1535), and the French versions of Olivetan.
See Leo Africanus, and Paul Lambert's detailed description in Notice sur la y ille de Maroc (Paris, 1868).
= Sibylla, I sister of Leo III.
Of 4000 thus exiled, more than 1000 died in the course of the first two years from exhaustion and disease; and more would have perished had not information reached Count Leo Tolstoy and his friends, and through them the Society of Friends in England.
During the Conclave of 1878 he succeeded, by negotiations with Cardinal Pecci (afterwards Leo XIII.), in inducing the Sacred College to remain in Rome, and, after the election of the new pope, arranged for his temporary absence from the Vatican for the purpose of settling private business.
- Special monographs on this epistle by Leo (1850)(1850) and Bahnsen (Die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe, I., der 2 Tim., 1876) are to be noted.
In Rome Leo the Great was the first who took energetic measures, along with the state authorities, against the system.
He was abbreviator under Leo X., and in that capacity drew up in 1520 the bull against Luther (L.
and Silvester II., in urging certain territorial claims. But not till 1050 was it made the basis of the larger papal claims, when another Frankish pope, Leo IX., used it in his controversy with the Byzantines.
2 Leo of Vercelli, the emperor Otto III.'s chancellor, protested that the Constitutum was a forgery, but without effect.
Ricimer then obtained from Leo I., emperor at Constantinople, the title patrician, but in 457 set up Majorianus as his own emperor in the West, and induced Leo to give his consent.
proclaimed as emperor Olybrius, whom Leo had sent to pacify the two enemies, and after three months' siege took the city, on the 1st of July 472.
created him doctor of divinity and of canon and civil law; and in 1825 Leo XII.
Under Emmanuel Philibert it became the usual residence of the ducal family, and in 1515 the bishopric was raised to metropolitan rank by Leo X.
The theatre, decorated by Girolamo Genga, is one of the earliest in Italy; in it was performed the first Italian comedy, the Calandria of Cardinal Bibbiena, the friend of Leo X.
In March 1825 he was created cardinal by Leo XII., and shortly afterwards was entrusted with an important mission to adjust a concordat regarding the interests of the Catholics of Belgium and the Protestants of Holland.
In October of the same year he succeeded to the archbishopric. Pope Leo XIII.
More was beatified by Leo XIII.
Leo X., needing a subsidy from the English clergy, sent Campeggio to England on the ostensible business of arranging a crusade against the Turks.
In 1879 Pope Leo XIII.
Church became gradually more rare, the chief occasions being the question of the images in the 8th century, the quarrel between Photius and Ignatius in the 9th, the affairs of the four marriages of the emperor Leo VI.
To complete the situation, a formal rupture had occurred in 1054 between the patriarch Michael Cerularius and Pope Leo IX.
Under Leo IX.
This thought had already crossed the minds of Leo IX.
is still perpetuated by the Appartamenta Borgia, decorated by Pinturicchio with magnificent frescoes, and since restored by Leo XIII.
was followed by a man of an entirely different type - Leo X.
As a statesman Leo X.
The efforts of Leo to promote a crusade, which fall mainly in the years 1517 and 1518, deserve all recognition, but very various opinions have been held as to the attitude of the pope towards the Imperial election consequent on the death of Maximilian I.
For this reason Leo, from the very first, entertained no genuine desire for the selection either of Charles V.
He was degraded from the cardinalate by Leo X.
- [ED.] III., the French king appeared the less dangerous, and the result was the Leo championed his cause with all his energies.
The state of Germany, together with the unwise behaviour of Francis I., compelled Leo X.
against the French king; and the united forces of the empire and papacy had achieved the most brilliant success in upper Italy, when Leo died unexpectedly, on the 1st of December 1521.
Leo's name is generally associated with the idea of the Medicean era as a golden age of science and art.
In many respects the brilliance of this long and often vaunted Maecenate of Leo X.
The genuine significance of Leo lies rather in the stimulus which he gave.
As a patron of art Leo occupies a more exalted plane.
Under Leo X.
His successor, Leo XI., undisguisedly French in sympathy, reigned but twenty-seven days - a sorry return for the 300,000 ducats which his election is rumoured to have cost Henry IV.
At a time when the non-Catholic theologians were chiefly small fry, bent on Leo XI., 1605.
After Consalvi's retirement, Leo XII.
The following years of Leo XIII.'s pontificate only tended to increase their dissatisfaction.
But at last Leo XIII.
could Leo XIII.
How proud Leo XIII.
But this attitude was adopted by Leo XIII.
This was at the time regarded merely as a formality imposed by circumstances, and one not to be seriously entertained; but it became more and more evident that the recovery of the temporalities was the real mainspring of Leo's whole policy.
After peace had been concluded, Leo, by the agency of Galimberti, reminded the chancellor of the settlement of the Roman question.
Thus slowly, but yet deliberately, between 1887 and 1893, a transformation took place in Leo's spirit and policy, and with Leo XIII.
In his first encyclical, Leo XIII.
The pontificate of Leo XIII.
Whilst not openly repelling the tendencies of the Jesuits, Leo yet showed himself well disposed towards, and even amenable to, views of a diametri- The Papacy cally opposite kind; and as soon as the Vatican and the threw itself into the arms of France, and bade fare Modern well to the idea of a national Italy, the policy of Democracy.
The second phase in Leo's policy could only be accomplished with the aid of the Jesuits, or rather, it required the submission of the ecclesiastical hierarchy to the mandates of the Society of Jesus.
No one will be so foolish or so unjust as to hold Leo XIII.
To have revived it, and to have carried it out as far as is possible, was the work of Leo XIII.