Two lateral tunnels were also constructed, making the total length 63 m.
When the lateral forces are too great to be controlled " climbing " occurs.
To the outer end of this lateral wire a condenser was attached and the coherer inserted between the condenser and the earth.
Trophosome (only known in one genus), polyps with two tentacles forming a creeping colony; gonosome, free medusae with four, six or more radial canals, giving off one or more lateral branches which run to the margin of the umbrella, with the stomach produced into four, six or more lobes, upon which the gonads are developed; the mouth with four lips or with a folded margin; the tentacles simple, arranged evenly round the margin of the umbrella.
The number of cells is not large (some 2 to 8), and as a rule they lie along the lateral lines.
The canal and river system attains its greatest utility in the north, northeast and north-centre of the country; traffic is thickest along the Seine below Paris; along the rivers and small canals of the rich departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and along the Oise and the canal of St Quentin whereby they communicate with Paris; along the canal from the Marne to the Rhine and the succession of waterways which unite it with the Oise; along the Canal de lEst (departments of Meuse and Ardennes); and along the waterways uniting Paris with the Sane at Chalon (Seine, Canal du Loing, Canal de Briare, Lateral canal of the Loire and Canal du Centre) and along the Sane between Chalon and Lyons.
A nervous system has been shown to exist in many species, and consists of a perioesophageal ring giving off usually six nerves which run forwards and backwards along the lateral and median lines; these are connected by numerous fine, circular threads in the sub-cuticle.
The lateral of the switchback was longer than it appeared and by the time he reached the spot below where the cyclist had stood, the other biker was long out of sight.
A nervous system has been shown to exist in many species, and consists of a perioesophageal ring giving off usually six nerves which run forwards and backwards along the lateral and median lines; these are connected by numerous fine, circular threads in the sub-cuticle.
Another lateral rsnge, the Prato Magno, which branches off from the central chain at the Monte Falterona, and separates the upper valley of the Arno from its second basin, rises to 5188 ft.; while a similar branch, called the Alpe di Catenaja, of inferior elevation, divides the upper course of the Arno from that of the Tiber.
Lateral canal of Loire 137
Cuscuses and phalangers form a numerous group, all the members of which are arboreal, and some of which are provided with lateral expansions of skin enabling them to glide from tree to tree like flying-squirrels.
Beneath the epidermis is a longitudinal layer of muscle-fibres which are separated into four distinct groups by the dorsal, ventral and lateral areas; these are occupied by a continuation of the epidermic layer; in the lateral areas run two thin-walled tubes with clear contents, which unite in the anterior part of the body and open by a pore situated on the ventral surface usually about a quarter or a third of the body length from the anterior end.
- Syrinx muscles entirely lateral or attached to the dorsal or ventral corners of the bronchial semi-rings.
- Syrinx muscles entirely lateral or attached to the dorsal or ventral corners of the bronchial semi-rings.
The oscillations set up in the vertical antenna excited sympathetic ones in the lateral circuit provided this was of the proper length; and the coherer was acted upon by the maximum potential variations possible.
It is occupied by the branches and offshoots of the mountain ranges which separate it from the great plain to the north, and send down their lateral ridges close to the water's edge, leaving only in places a few square miles of level plains at the mouths of the rivers and openings of the valleys.
South of Palestrina again, the main mass of the Apennines throws off another lateral mass, known in ancient times as the Volscian mountains (now called the Monti Lepini), separated from the central ranges by the broad valley of the Sacco, a tributary of the Liri (Liris) or Garigliano, and forming a large and rugged mountain mass, nearly 5000 ft.
The pouch is incomplete, with two lateral folds, and the number of teats six.
The bullet of your thought must have overcome its lateral and ricochet motion and fallen into its last and steady course before it reaches the ear of the hearer, else it may plow out again through the side of his head.
Each corbula contains a central row of blastostyles enclosed and protected by lateral rows of branches representing stunted buds (Allman , p. 60, fig.
The lateral hoofs are well developed.
This orifice is the spiraculum, which is lateral, on the left side of the body, in most tadpoles, but median, on the breast or belly, in those of the Discoglossidae and of some of the Engystomatidae.
Eight very broad radial canals; ex-umbrella often provided with lateral outgrowths; tentacles differing in size, but in a single row.
The Buprestidae are distinguished from the Elateridae by the immobility of the prosternal process in the mesosternal cavity and by the absence of the lateral processes at the hind corners of the prothorax.
This sliding movement is resisted by placing a check rail on the inner side of the inner rail, to take the lateral thrust of the wheels on that side.
He overcame the difficulty by erecting a vertical earthed receiving antenna like a lightning rod and attached a lateral extension to it at a yard or two above the earthed end.
It precludes the explanation of any common features in the dissevered porciuns of the tropical area of vegetation by lateral communirations, and throws back their origin to the remotest geological antiquity.
The valley, composed of two lateral parallel slopes inclined towards a narrow strip of plain at a lower level which itself slopes downwards in the direction of its length.
a membranous, or ossified, tube which rises from a pneumatic foramen in the os articulare, on the median side of the articulation, and passes upwards between the quadrate and lateral occipital bone, opening into the cavity of the middle ear.
This pad varies much; it is morphologically the homologue of the pair of basiventral elements which by their lateral extension give origin to the corresponding ribs.
a membranous, or ossified, tube which rises from a pneumatic foramen in the os articulare, on the median side of the articulation, and passes upwards between the quadrate and lateral occipital bone, opening into the cavity of the middle ear.
This may possibly be the cell sap in their interior, which must exercise a slightly different hydrostatic pressure on the basal and, the lateral walls of the cells.
The opisthotic lies between the epiotic and the lateral occipital with which it ultimately fuses; in some birds, e.g.
The lateral process in most birds sends out an outgrowth, directed out and upwards, overlapping some of the ribs, the processus obliquus.
The anterior margin of the sternum, between the right and left anterior lateral processes receives in sockets the feet of the coracoids.
The forebrain forms the bulk of the whole brain, but the large size of the hemispheres is due to the greater development of the basal and lateral portions (pedunculi cerebri and corpora striata), while the pallium (the portion external to the lateral ventricles) is thin, and restricted to the median side of each hemisphere.
It is easy to distinguish the great primitive watercourses from the lateral ducts which they fed, the latter being almost without banks and merely traceable by the winding curves of the layers of alluvium in the bed, while the former are hedged in by high banks of mud, heaped up during centuries of dredging.
The outer pair receive the strain of the rotator, and the inner are for adjustment and to prevent lateral movement.
The slides are accurately fitted so as to have no sensible lateral shake, but yet so as to move easily in the direction of the greatest length of the micrometer box.
Lateral canal of Garonne 133
- Hydrothecae sessile, biserial on the main stem, uniserial on the lateral branches or pinnules, which give the colony its characteristic feathery form; with nematophores.
Many of the lower forms of Brown Seaweeds (Phoeophyceae) have a thallus consisting of simple or branched cell threads, as in the green and red forms. The lateral union of the branches to form a solid thallus is not, however, so common, nor is it carried to so high a pitch of elaboration as in the Rhodophyceae.
Sieve Tubes.The sieve tubes consist of partially fused rows of cells, the transverse cr lateral walls being perforated by minute openings, through which the contents of the cells are connected with each other, and which after a certain time become closed by,the formation of callus on the sieve plates.
eo, Lateral occi pital.
eo, Lateral occipital.
In both the four-wheeled and the six-wheeled types the axles were free to rise and fall on springs through a limited range, but not to turn with respect to the body of the carriage, though the middle axle of the six-wheeled coach was allowed a certain amount of lateral play.
A second advantage of the vestibule developed in use, for it was found that the lateral swaying of the cars was diminished by the friction between the vestibule frames.
eo, Lateral occi pital.
eo, Lateral occipital.
In the region of the neck lateral strands pass through the transverse canal of the cervical vertebrae; but from the thoracic region onwards, where the cardiac branch to the heart is given off, each strand is double and the basal ganglia are successively connected with the next by a branch which runs ventrally over the capitulum of the rib, and by another which passes directly through the foramen or space formed between capitulum and tuberculum.
Auditory ment in the crocodile, and with the ", chain " of Chicken, X 6 processus folii of the mammalian diameters; lateral and basal malleus, it follows that the whole views.
The vas deferens descends with many undulations down the lateral side of the ureter of the same side, and opens upon a small papilla into the urodaeum.
Among other characteristics of these animals may be noticed the great length of the neck and limbs, the complete absence of lateral toes and the long and tufted tail.
The relief of the surface typically includes a central plain, Homology sometimes dipping below sea-level, bounded by lateral Homology of con- h i ghlands or mountain ranges, loftier on one side than.
I) is a single knob, being formed almost wholly by the basi-occipital, while the lateral occipitals (often perversely called exoccipitals) take but little share in it.
The squamosals form the posterior outer margin of the orbits and are frequently continued into two lateral downward processes across the temporal fossa.
The proOtic encloses between it and the lateral occipital the fenestra ovalis, into which fits the columella of the ear.
The four sepals are arranged symmetrically, an outer median and an inner lateral pair.
Closely allied to the question of safety is the problem of preventing jolting at curves; and to obtain easy running it is necessary not merely to adjust the levels of the rails in respect to one another, but to tail off one curve into the next in such a :nanner as to avoid any approach to abrupt lateral changes of direction.
31), the earliest form, consisted of a single row of columns supporting two lines of longitudinal girders carrying the rails, the lateral stability of the structure being obtained by anchoring the feet of the columns to their foundations.
p1, pl, The two lateral divisions p, p,1, The three inner, of the inner perianth.
In Cypripedium all three stigmas are functional, but in the great majority of orchids only the lateral pair form receptive surfaces (st, fig.
In Cypripedium two of the outer stamens are wanting; the third - the one, that is, which corresponds to the single fertile stamen in the Monandreae - forms a large sterile structure or staminode; the two lateral ones of the inner series are present, the third being undeveloped.
The Monandreae have been subdivided into twenty-eight tribes, the characters of which are based on the structure of the anther and pollinia, the nature of the inflorescence, whether terminal or lateral, the vernation of the leaf and the presence or absence of a joint between blade and sheath, and the nature of the stem.
most important great natural mountain divisions of the boundary world, consists of two parallel chains, of which the western is the water-divide of the Pamirs, and the eastern (which has been known as the Kashgar or Kandar range) is split at intervals by lateral gorges to allow of the passage of the main drainage from the eastern Pamir slopes.
f2, f 3, Lateral and caudal sb, Seminal pouch.
Here, however, the buds are lateral, though produced from a budding may be defective upon one or other of the noto a b FIG.
cl, Muscle cells of lateral line.
In addition to the median lacuna there are two lateral lacunae, one upon each side.
(After Kovalevsky.) network places these sinuses and the lateral sinuses in communication.
In Hirudo and the Gnathobdellidae there is only one system of cavities which consist of four principal longitudinal trunks, of which the two lateral are contractile, which communicate with a network ramifying everywhere, even among the cells of the epidermis.
In favour of seeing in the lateral trunks and their branches a vascular system, is the contractility of the former, and the fact of the intrusion of the latter into the epidermis, matched among the Oligochaeta, where undoubted blood capillaries perforate the epidermis.
The trees have usually a straight trunk, and a tendency to a conical or pyramidal growth, throwing out each year a more or less regular whorl of branches from the foot of the leading shoot, while the buds of the lateral boughs extend horizontally.
1, A), and agrees with the method of coiling of a mollusc without lateral torsion, such as Nautilus.
D, Embryo with lateral torsion and an endogastric shell.
the Opisthobranchia) we find the lobation of the foot still further carried out by the development of lateral lobes, the parapodia, whilst there are many Pectinibranchia, on the other hand, in which the foot has a simple oblong form without any trace of lobes.
The odontophore also is remarkably developed, its lateral teeth being mobile, and it serves as an efficient organ for attacking the other pelagic forms on which the Heteropoda prey.
Radula narrow with one lateral tooth on each side, and one median tooth or none.
Shell solid, piriform, with thick folded columella; lateral teeth of radula bicuspidate.
Shell elongated, with long siphon; lateral teeth of radula multicuspidate.
The fins of Pteropods are now interpreted as the expanded lateral margins of the foot, termed parapodia, not homologous with the siphonof Cephalopods which is formed from epipodia.
As in some Pectinibranchia, the free margin of the mantle-skirt is frequently reflected over the shell when a shell exists; and, as in some Pectinibranchia, broad lateral outgrowths of the foot (parapodia) are often developed which may be thrown over the shell or naked dorsal surface of the body.
(From Owen.) of the liver or great digestive gland is found in the scorpions, where the axial portion of the digestive canal is short and straight, and the lateral ducts sufficiently wide to admit food into the ramifications of the gland there to be digested; whilst in the spiders the gland is reduced to a series of simple caeca.
D, E, Dorsal and lateral view of Elysia (Actaeon) viridis.
Body furnished with three pairs of lateral lobes, bearing the tegumentary papillae; foot very narrow; pelagic. Glaucus.
Body depressed, without dorsal papillae, but with two very large lateral expansions, with dorsal plications.
Body elongated, with lateral expansions; tentacles large; foot narrow.
ing gs, the bilobed arch sh, The primitive shell-sac or enteron or lateral vesicles shell-gland ° of invaginated endoderm, pi, The rectal peduncle or whichwill develop into liver.
Mesothorax: III, Lateral view.
IV, Lateral view with f, Scutum.
ing the dorsal with the ventral sclerites of the Lateral thoracic abdomen, lessens t he capacity of the abdo ternal femoral minal region, while the contraction of the power Longit.
These elements are a central piece or sternite, 12 and a lateral field on each side bearing the leg-rudi 1s ment.
The external part of the lateral field subsequently 14 grows up, and by coalescence with its fellow forms the t6 tergite or dorsal part of the segment.
- Morphology of an Insect: the embryo of Gryllotalpa, somewhat diagrammatic. The longitudinal segmented band along the middle line represents the early segmentation of the nervous system and the subsequent median field of each sternite; the lateral transverse unshaded bands are the lateral fields of each segment; the shaded areas indicate the more internally placed mesoderm layer.
Then, it is true, two lateral points of ossification appear at the margin, but subsequently the remaining three are developed, and when once formed they grow with much greater rapidity than in the fowl, so that by the time the young duck is quite independent of its parents, and can shift for itself, the whole sternum is completely bony.
The sternum has no keel, and ossifies from lateral and paired centres only; the axes of the scapula and cora.coid have the same general direction; certain of the cranial bones have characters very unlike those possessed by the next order - the vomer, for example, being broad posteriorly and generally intervening between the basisphenoidal rostrum and the palatals and pterygoids; the barbs of the feathers are disconnected; there is no syrinx or inferior larynx; and the diaphragm is better developed than in other birds.'
The situation of the lateral nervestems in the different genera with respect to the muscular layers lends definite support to the interpretation of their homologies here given and forms the basis of Burger's classification.
As central organs we have to note the brain-lobes and the longitudinal lateral cords which form one continuous unsegmented mass of fibrous and cellular nerve-tissue.
L.N., Lateral nerve-stems.
In others there is an approximation of the lateral stems towards the median ventral line (Drepanophorus); in a genus of Heteronemertines (Langia), on the other hand, an arrangement occurs by which the longitudinal stems are no longer lateral, but have more or less approached each other dorsally.
This apparatus is usually known under the name of the lateral organs.
As to the Mesonemertini, in the most primitive genus, Carinella, we do not find any lateral organs answering to the description above given.
Two lateral, shallow pits occur on the side of the body about the level of the hinder end of the proboscis in some species of the genus Carinella, which are termed side-organs.
In the Metanemertines it is generally situated towards the middle of a lateral transverse groove on either side of the head, as was noticed for Carinella, and as is also present in Polia.
- Lateral views of head of a Heteronemertine (fig.
The chief vessels are three longitudinal trunks, a median and two lateral ones.
18, in the Heteronemertines the lateral stems, while entirely uniform all through the posterior portion of the body, no longer individually exist in the oesophageal region, but here dissolve themselves into a network of vascular spaces surrounding this portion of the digestive tract.
Special mention must be made of the delicate transverse vessels regularly connecting the longitudinal and the lateral ones.
Two lateral longitudinal lacunae form, so to say, the forerunners of the lateral vessels.
Associated with the lateral blood-vessels are the single pair of nephridia.
On its inner surface the longitudinal canal is adpressed to the lateral bloodvessel, and gives off a number of small, blind caeca or tags, each of which ends in a small clump of cells.
The reproductive on the lateral vessel of system is of the simplest, strongly con- Drepanophorus spectatrasting with the complicated arrange- bilis.
The line of the genital openings is usually dorsal to the lateral nerve.
LN, Lateral nerves.
LBv, Lateral blood-vessel.
lateral nerve; 21, oesophageal nerve; 22, mouth; 23, ventral ganglion of brain; 24, dorsal ganglion of brain; 25, rhynchodaeum.
The origin of the lateral organs has already been noticed; that of the nerve system is essentially epiblastic.
The frieze of the entablature contains sculptures only in the metopes of the east front and in those of the sides immediately adjoining it; the frontal metopes represent the labours of Heracles, the lateral the exploits of Theseus.
According to Armstrong, anthracene behaves unsymmetrically towards substituents, and hence one lateral ring differs from the other; he represents the molecule as consisting of one centric ring, the remaining medial and lateral ring being ethenoid.
For general purposes, however, the symbol (2), in which the lateral rings are benzenoid and the medial ring fatty, represents quite adequately the syntheses, decompositions, and behaviour of anthracene.
(7) (2) Phenanthrene is regarded by Armstrong as represented by (3), the lateral rings being benzenoid, and the medial ring fatty; Bamberger, however, regards it as (4), the molecule being (3) (4) entirely aromatic. An interesting observation by Baeyer, viz.
Equally exaggerated are the statements as to the linear and lateral extent of the catacombs, and their intercommunication with one another.
The statuary of the lateral portals, the stained glass of the 13th century, and the choir-screen of the Renaissance are all unique from the artistic standpoint.
Nearly related is the extinct family Lophiodontidae (inclusive of the American Helaletidae), in which both the upper and lower first premolar may be absent, while the upper molars present a more rhinoceros-like form, owing to the lateral compression and consequent lengthening of the outer columns, of which the hinder is bent somewhat inwards and is more or less concave externally, thus forming a more complete outer wall.
In both alike the scirocco, bringing rain from the south-west, is a prevalent wind, as well as the bora, the fearful north-north-easter of Illyria, which, sweeping down the lateral valleys of the Dinaric Alps, overwhelms everything in its path.
An offensive move into Franconia was under discussion, and for this purpose the Prussian staff had commenced a lateral concentration about Weimar, Jena and Naumburg when the storm burst upon them.
It is skirted on the west by the Garonne itself, and on the north by its lateral canal.
The river is crossed by a stone bridge, by a suspension bridge for foot-passengers, and by a fine canalbridge, carrying the lateral canal.
The lateral canal of the Loire, the Berry Canal and the canal from Roanne to Digoin together traverse about 57 m.
The dorsal skeletal elements of the thorax and of the anterior six abdominal segments unite with the wing-cases to form a large respiratory chamber, containing five pairs of tracheal gills, with lateral slits for the inflow and a posterior orifice for the outflow of water.
An important feature is the occurrence in some species (Ptychoderidae) of paired longitudinal pleural or lateral folds of the body which are mobile, and can be approximated at their free edges so as to close in the dorsal surface, embracing both the median dorsal nerve-tract and the branchial grooves with the gill-pores, so as to form a temporary peri-branchial and medullary tube, open behind where the folds cease.
These vascular membranes are called the lateral septa.
For about two thirds of its length - from its beginning to Khush Yailak - the third section consists of three principal ranges connected by lateral ranges and spurs.
The Raka Tsanpo is a lateral affluent, flowing for 200 m.
Then it diverges northwards into the lateral valley of the Raka, until the Raka joins the Brahmaputra below Janglache.
Other_ systems are the herring-bone plan of a vertical channel with lateral connecting channels about i ft.
the configuration is complicated by the great lateral indentation of Lake Baikal.
j, k, 1, Lateral muscles (j, an 26, Interior of dorsal valve.
King makes out five pairs and an odd one, and individualizes their respective functions as follows: - Three pairs are lateral, having their members limited to the sides of the shell; one pair are transmedians, each member passing across the middle of the reverse side of the shell, while the odd muscle occupies the umbonal cavity.
Those who have not seen the animal in life, or who did not believe in the possibility of the valves crossing each other with a slight obliquity, would not consent to appropriating any of its muscles to that purpose, and consequently attributed to all the lateral muscles the simple function of keeping the valves in an opposite position, or holding them adjusted.
In the Testicardines, where no such sliding action of the valves was necessary or possible, no muscles for such an object were required, consequently none took rise from the lateral portions of the valves as in Lingula; but in an extinct group, the Trimerellidae, which seems to be somewhat intermediate in character between the Ecardines and Testicardines, have been found certain scars, which appear to have been produced by rudimentary lateral muscles, but it is doubtful (considering the shells are furnished with teeth, though but rudely developed) whether such muscles enabled the valves, as in Lingula, to move forward and backward upon each other.
Dorsal lateral nerve.
About this stage the larvae leave the broodpouch, which is a lateral or median cavity in the body of the female, and lead a free swimming life in the ocean.
PLR, Posterior lateral rod or RAP, Right anterior process.
PLP, Posterior lateral process.
ALR, Anterior lateral rod or tendon.
On the surface of the carapace there are in both animals a pair of central eyes with simple lens and a pair of lateral eyetracts, which in Limulus consist of closely-aggregated simple eyes, forming a " compound" eye, whilst in Scorpio they present several AC separate small eyes.
- Ventral surface of the same central and the lateral eyes entosternum as that drawn in fig.
ap, Anterior lateral process (same as RAP and LAP in fig.
imp, Lateral median process (same as ALR and PLR of fig.
oc, Lateral compound eyes.
The wide divarication of the lateral cords in the prosoma and their connexion by transverse commissures, together with the " attraction " of ganglia to the prosomatic ganglion group which properly belong to hinder segments, are very nearly identical in the two animals.
The Minute Structure of the Central Eyes and of the Lateral Eyes.
- Limulus agrees with Scorpio not only in having a pair of central eyes and also lateral eyes, but in the microscopic structure of those organs, which differs in the central and lateral eyes respectively.
The lateral eyes are in Limulus " compound eyes," that is to say, consist of many lenses placed close together; beneath each lens is a complex of protoplasmic cells, in which the optic nerve terminates.
The lateral eyes of Scorpio consist of groups of separate small lenses each with its ommatidium, but they do not form a continuous compound eye as in Limulus.
23) each ommatidium has a peculiar ganglion cell developed in a central position, whilst the ommatidium of the lateral eyelets of Scorpio shows!
The struc ture of the lateral eye of Limulus was first described by Grenacher, and further and more accurately by Lankester and Bourne (5) and by Watase; that of Scorpio by Lan kester and Bourne, FIG.
that the lateral eyes of Scorpio have a single cell-layered or " monostichous " ommatidium like that of Limulus.
Watase has shown, in a very convincing way, how by deepening the pit-like set of cells beneath a simple lens the more complex ommatidia of the compound eyes of Crustacea and Hexapoda may be derived from such a condition as that presented in the lateral eyes of Limulus and Scorpio.
(For details the reader is referred to Watase (11) and to Lankester and Bourne (5).) The structure of the central eyes of Scorpio and spiders and also of Limulus differs essentially from that of the lateral eyes in having two layers of cells (hence called diplostichous) beneath the lens, separated from one another by a membrane (figs.
Whilst each unit of the lateral eye of Limulus has arhabdom of ten t pieces See fig.
s Though ten is the prevailing number of retinula cells and rhabdomeres in the lateral eye of Limulus, Watase states that they may be as few as nine and as many as eighteen.
(From Lankester, loc. cit.) forming a star-like chitinous centre in section, each lateral eye of Scorpio has several rhabdoms of five or less rhabdomeres, indicating that the Limulus lateral eye-unit is more specialized than the detached lateral eyelet of Scorpio, so as to present a coincidence of one lens with one rhabdom.
It became isolated and detached, why or with what advantage to the organism it is difficult to say, and at that period of Arachnidan development the great ventral nerve cords occupied a more lateral position than they do at present.
We know that such a lateral position of the nerve cords preceded the median position in both Arthropoda and Chaetopoda.
I and 2) correspond in the two animals, and the median lateral process imp of the scorpion represents the tendinous outgrowths ALR, PLR of Limulus.
sa, Rudiment of lateral eyes.
v., 1892.) heart differs in Limulus from the arrangement obtaining in Scorpio, in that a pair of lateral commissural arteries exist in Limulus (as described by Alphonse Milne-Edwards (6)) leading to a suppression of the more primitive direct connexion of the four pairs of posterior II.
- Development of the lateral eyes of a scorpion.
- Section through the lateral eye of Euscorpius italicus.
- Section through a portion of the lateral eye of Limulus, showing three ommatidia - A, B and C. hyp, The epidermic cell-layer (so-called hypodermis), the cells of which increase in volume below each lens, 1, and become nerve-end cells or retinula-cells, rt; in A, the letters rh point to a rhabdomere secreted by the cell rt; c, the peculiar central spherical cell; n, nerve fibres; mes, mesoblastic skeletal tissue; ch, chitinous cuticle.
In both animals the wall of the pericardial sinus is connected by vertical muscular bands to the wall of the ventral venous sinus (its lateral expansions around the lung-books in Scorpio) in each somite through which the pericardium passes.
The only point in which the gut of Limulus resembles that of Scorpio rather than that of any of the Crustacea, is in possessing more than a single pair of ducts or lateral outgrowths connected with ramified gastric glands or gastric caeca.
D, Transverse section of a retinula of the lateral eye of Limulus, showing ten retinula cells (ret), each bearing a rhabdomere (rhab).
ce, Cerebral arteries; sp, supra - spinal or medullary artery; c, caudal artery; 1, lateral anastomotic artery of Limulus.
art, Lateral artery.
- Diagram of a lateral view of a longitudinal section of a scorpion.
- Diagram of a lateral view of a longitudinal section of Limulus.
They had lateral eyes' which resemble no known eyes so closely as the lateral eyes of Limulus.
Compound lateral eyes present; median eyes wanting.
The form of the middle and lateral regions of the prosomatic shield has been used, and an excessive importance attached to the demarcation of certain areas in that structure.
Lateral eyes also may be present, arranged in lateral groups, and having a single or double cell-layer beneath the lens.
a, Lateral eye.
Lateral eyes consisting of a densely packed group of eye-units (" compound " eyes).
The lateral eyes of Limulus appear to be identical in structure and position with those of certain Trilobitae.
Lateral eyes, when present, represented by separate ocelli.
Lateral eyes monostichous.
- Prosoma covered by a single dorsal shield, bearing typically median and lateral eyes; its sternal elements reduced to a single plate lodged between or behind the basal segments of the 5th and 6th pairs of appendages.
Lateral eyes when present diplostichous.
Appendages of 2nd pair with their basal segments united in the middle line and incapable of lateral movement; appendages of 3rd pair with only the apical segment many-jointed.
two in Geralinura), bearing median and lateral eyes.
- Prosoma wider than long, covered above by a single shield bearing median and lateral eyes, which have diplostichous ommatea.
Lateral view of a male.
- Prosoma covered with a single shield and typically furnished with median and lateral eyes of diplostichous structure, as in the Amblypygi.
C, Lateral view, I to VI, proprosternites; c, mesosternite; and d, metasternite of the somatic appendages; a,b,c, prosoma; f, ventral surface the three tergal plates of the of the prae-genital somite; prosoma; prae-gen, the prae g, sternite of the genital genital somite; 1 to 10, the somite (first opisthosomatic ten somites of the opisthosoma.
- Prosoma covered by a single dorsal shield, at most furnished with one or two diplostichous lateral eyes; sternal elements obliterated or almost obliterated.
a, Lateral region of the cephalic plate to which the first pair of appendages are articulated.
- Orifice of foetid glands opening on a tubercle situated near the lateral border of the carapace above the base of the 5th appendage.
D, Lateral view of the 1st and 2nd pair of appendages.
E, Lateral view of the whole body and two 1st appendages, showing the fusion of the dorsal elements of the prosoma into a single plate, and of those of the opisthosoma into an imperfectly segmented plate continuous with that of the prosoma.
A, Lateral view with appendages III to VI removed; 1, plate covering the whole dorsal area, representing the fused tergal sclerites of the prosoma and opisthosoma; 2, similarly-formed ventral plate; 3, tracheal stigma.
xvii., 1879; Grenacher, Gehororgane der Arthropoden (GÃ¶ttingen, 1879); Kishinouye, " Lateral Eyes of Spiders," Zool.
3, 4: and persists after the flowers and leaves, bearing next season's plant as a lateral shoot in the axil of a scale-leaf at its base.
Like the Kunduz, it probably drains the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush by deep lateral valleys, more or less parallel to the crest, reaching westwards towards the Khawak pass.
If the change of temperature progressed uniformly from one side to the other, the result would be a lateral displacement of the image without loss of definition; but in general both effects would be observable.
The limiting efficiency of the microscope is attained when the angular aperture amounts to 180°; and it is evident that a lateral displacement of the point under observation through -IX entails (at the old image) a phase-discrepancy B Q' of a whole period, one extreme ray FIG.
The directions of the lateral spectra are such that the passage from one element of the grating to the corresponding point of the next implies a retardation of an integral number of wave-lengths.
The lateral (spectral) images occur in such directions that the projection of the element (a+d) of the grating upon them is an exact multiple of X.
(7) If B m denote the brightness of the mth lateral image, and Bo that the central image, we have amp 'cosx' dx= a d (1) (-) m7r B.: Bo= a+d am?r sin' a4 d (1).
The light stopped by the opaque parts of the grating, together with that distributed in the central image and lateral spectra, ought to make up the brightness that would be found in the central image, were all the apertures transparent.
Babinet, the brightness of a lateral spectrum is not affected by an interchange of the transparent and opaque parts of the grating.
It is possible to prepare gratings which give a lateral spectrum brighter than the central image, and the explanation is easy.
If BQ be the direction for the first minimum (the darkness between the central and first lateral band), the relative retardation of the extreme rays is (mn+1)X.
The small inconspicuous flowers are generally more or less crowded in terminal or lateral clusters, the form of the inflorescence varying widely according to the manner of branching and the length of the pedicels.
The surrounding region, lying on the eastern slopes of one of the lateral ranges of the Serra do Espinhaco, is rough and barren, but.
(For details see Hughes, Text-book of Coal Mining, pp. 236-272; Hildenbrand, Underground Haulage by Wire Rope.) Rope haulage is widely used in collieries, and sometimes in other mines having large lateral extent and heavy traffic. With the tail-rope system, cars are run in long trains at high speed, curves and branches are easily worked, and gradients may be steep, though undulating gradients are somewhat disadvantageous.
bore, provided with a lateral branch b near its upper end, which latter, by an india-rubber joint governable by a screw-clamp, communicates with a funnel.
The Hindu Kush is, in fact, but the face of a great upheaved mass of plateau-land lying beyond it northwards, just as the Himalaya forms the southern face of the great central tableland of Tibet, and its general physiography, exhibiting long, narrow, lateral valleys and transverse lines of "antecedent" drainage, is XIII.
The tendril or inflorescence, according to the views above explained, though in reality terminal, is bent to one side; hence it appears to be lateral and opposite to the leaf.
The leaf directly opposite the bunch must in all cases be preserved, and the young shoot is to be topped at one or two joints beyond the incipient fruit, the latter distance being preferable if there is plenty of room for the foliage to expand; the lateral shoots, which will push out after the topping, must be again topped above their first or second joints.
B, C, marginal and lateral views of the anterior part of B.
(From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.) the base of the tail; nervous and muscular systems arise; and finally the rostellum and suckers become completely enclosed in the sac formed by the lateral extension of the " hind-body."
The majority of these are large and heavilybuilt ruminants, with horns present in both sexes, the muzzle broad, moist and naked, the nostrils lateral, no face-glands, and a large dewlap often developed in the males; while the tail is long and generally tufted, although in one instance longhaired throughout.
They consist of a so-called "frond" - a flattened green more or less oval structure which emits branches similar to itself from lateral pockets at or near the base.
developed in one of the lateral pockets.
Numerous lateral ramifying branches spread out from the main trunk in a horizontal direction, tier upon tier, covering a compass of ground the diameter of which is often greater than the height of the tree.
A, Fasciola hepatica, from the ventral surface (X 2); the alimentary and nervous systems only shown on the left side of the figure, the excretory only on the right; a, right main branch of the intestine; c, a diverticulum; g, lateral ganglion; n, lateral nerve; o, mouth; p, pharynx; s, ventral sucker; cs, cirrus sac; d, left anterior dorsal excretory vessel; m, main vessel; v, left anterior ventral trunk; x, excretory pore.
Of these there are three on each side of the body: a large ventral tract, smaller lateral strands and dorsal ones.
If successful, the larva throws off its cilia and develops a dorsal papilla, a median ventral sucker and an additional pair of lateral suckers.
Zooecia either arising from a stolon, without lateral connexion with one another, or laterally united to form sheets.
and lateral sides, of a calcareous lamina covered externally by a soft membrane.
(iv.) In the Microporidae and Steganoporellidae the body-cavity becomes partially subdivided by a calcareous lamina ("cryptocyst," Jullien) which grows from the proximal and lateral sides in a plane parallel to the frontal membrane and not far below it.
The principal differences are the complication of the ciliated band, the absence of the excretory organ, the great lateral compression of the body, the possession of a pair of shells protecting the sides, the presence of an organ known as the "pyriform organ," and the occurrence of a sucker in a position corresponding with the depression seen between (m) and (a) in fig.
The upper surface of the lateral edges of the mandible has also a number of parallel fine transverse ridge, like those on the bill of a duck.
The cavern is divided into four grottoes, with two lateral ramifications which reach to the distance of about a mile and a half from the entrance.
Has both a summit and a lateral crater, which are apparently connected and perpetually emitting steam.
of scaly reptiles with movable quadrate bones; with a transverse vent, near the posterior lateral corners of which open the eversible, paired copulatory organs.
The prefrontals are in lateral contact with the nasals.
- Nostrils lateral; dentition well developed.
The development of its scutes and spines varies exceedingly, and specimens may be found without any lateral scutes and with short spines, others with only a few scutes and moderately sized spines, and again others which possess a complete row of scutes from the head to the caudal fin, and in which the fin-spines are twice as long and strong as in other varieties.
The facade has a Gothic portal, ascribed to Giorgio da Como (1228), which was intended to have a lateral arch on each side.
Ample arrangements were made for obtaining and circulating intelligence, and all lateral communications were improved and supplemented to the utmost.
On the south of the plateau we find a similar succession of narrow valleys dividing parallel flexures, or anticlinals, formed under similar geological conditions to those which appear to be universally applicable to the Himalaya, the Hindu Kush, and the Indus frontier mountain systems. From one of these long lateral valleys the Hari Rud receives its principal tributary, which joins the main river below Obeh, 180 m.
The church of St-Jean-Baptiste dates from the 13th century, the choir and lateral chapels belonging to the 15th and 16th.
two lateral ridges diverge from the great Atlantic rise, the Rio Grande ridge towards the north-west and the Walfisch ridge towarls the north-east.
The return air from fiery workings is never allowed to approach the furnace, but is carried into the upcast by a special channel, called a dumb drift, some distance above the furnace drift, so as not to come in contact with the products of combustion until they have been cooled below the igniting point of fire-damp. Where the upcast pit is used for drawing coal, it is usual to discharge the smoke and gases through a short lateral drift near the surface into a tall chimney, so as to keep the pit-top as clear as possible for working.
The most interesting genera are, however, the Upper Oligocene and Lower Miocene Gelocus and Prodremotherium, which have perfectly selenodont teeth, and the third and fourth metacarpal and metatarsal bones respectively fused into an imperfect cannon-bone, with the reduction of the lateral metacarpals and metatarsals to mere remnants of their upper and lower extremities.
The Suidae include the Old World pigs (Suinae) and the American peccaries (Dicotylinae), and are characterized by the snout terminating in a fleshy disk-like expansion, in the midst of which are perforated the nostrils; while the toes are enclosed in sharp hoofs, of which the lateral ones do not touch the ground.
In the above genera, so far as is known, the feet were four-toed, although with the lateral digits relatively small; but in Elotherium (or Entelodon), from the Lower Miocene of Europe and the Oligocene of North America, the two lateral digits in each foot had disappeared.
The Cher itself becomes navigable when it receives the Arnon and Yevre, and the communications of the department are greatly facilitated by the Canal du Berry, which traverses it from east to west, the lateral canal of the Loire, which follows the left bank of that river, and the canal of the Sauldre.
pennanti, on the other hand, there is a pair of faint additional lateral white stripes, making five in all, and the under-surface of the tail is uniformly whitish olive.
One end of the bar is slotted to take the sliding leaf; this end of the bar is graduated from o° to 6°, and in conjunction with the fore-sight affords a lateral scope of 6° on either side of the normal for picking up an auxiliary mark.
The collimateur, or sight proper, has a lateral movement of 9°, and is actuated by the drum on the right turned by the mill - headed screw.
Some foresights have, however, a lateral motion giving within narrow limits the deflection found to be necessary for the variation of each rifle from the average.
The fore-sight of the British service " short " Lee-Enfield (1903) has guards and also a lateral adjustment of the barleycorn.
Fine lateral adjustments are provided on the " short " Lee-Enfield, and on many other military sights of modern date.
Lateral hoofs are generally present.
With the palla, or impala(A epyceros melampus), we reach an exclusively African genus, characterized by the lyrate horns of the bucks, the absence of lateral hoofs, and the presence of a pair of glands with black tufts of hair on the hind-feet.
melanotis) are the best-known representatives of a group characterized by the vertical direction of the horns and the small gland-pit in the skull; lateral hoofs being absent in the firstnamed and present in the second.
A bare gland-patch behind the ear serves to distinguish the oribis or ourebis, as typified by Oribia montana of the Cape; lateral hoofs being present and the face-pit large.
In some respects connecting the last group with the Cervicaprinae is the rhebok, or vaal-rhebok (Pelea capreolus), a grey antelope of the size of a roebuck, with small upright horns in the bucks recalling those of the last group, and small lateral hoofs, but no face-glands.
The duikers, or duikerboks (Cephalophus), of Africa, which range in size from a large hare to a fallow-deer, typify the subfamily Cephalophinae, characterized by the spike-like horns of the bucks, the elongated aperture of the face-glands, the naked muzzle, the relatively short tail, and the square-crowned upper molars; lateral hoofs being present.
the lateral) faces being a triangle with an angular point in one end of the figure and its opposite side in the other.
In the ordinary case three of the four lateral surfaces of the prismoid are at right angles to the two ends.
In special cases two of these three lateral surfaces are equally inclined to the third.
For this purpose the skin is tied by connecting fibres of white fibrillar tissue to the deep layer of the dermis along the lateral and lower edges of the palmar fascia and to the sheaths of the flexor tendons.
The pressure causes the soft metal to flow like a viscous solid, but its lateral escape is prevented by a collar which surrounds the blank while it is being struck.
The central fruits of each triplet form two regular rows, but the lateral spikelets form not four straight single rows as in (ii.), but two regular double rows, the whole ear appearing irregularly four-rowed.
After 1/nth of a revolution, the two sets of perforations will again coincide, the lateral impulse of the air repeated, and hence the rapidity of rotation increased.
His plan was accepted, but " a lateral influence suddenly made itself felt, and the completely unexpected result was war."
The pillars are strengthened against lateral yielding by horizontal and diagonal bracing.
Lateral canals are provided from the main canals to each farm.
The sprat cannot be confounded with the herring, as it has no teeth on the vomer and only 47 or 48 scales in the lateral line.
their constituent ranges are folded and squeezed by lateral compression into a breadth of some 150-200 m., their summits being forced up to correspondingly higher altitudes, in the E.
Altogether this western extremity of the Kuen-lun system is a very rugged mountainous region, a consequence partly of the intricacy of the flanking ranges and spurs, partly of the powerful lateral compression to which they have been subjected, and partly of the great and abrupt differences in vertical elevation between the crests of the ranges and the bottoms of the deep, narrow, rugged glens between them.
Small lateral chains of mountains, rising some 2000 ft.
The U-shaped electrolytic vessel and the electrodes are made of an alloy of platinum-iridium, the limbs of the tube being closed by stoppers made of fluor-spar, and fitted with two lateral exit tubes for carrying off the gases evolved.
It imitates the motions made in polishing a speculum by hand by giving both a rectilinear and a lateral motion to the polisher, while the speculum revolves slowly; by shifting two eccentric pins the course of the polisher can be varied at will from a straight line to an ellipse of very small eccentricity, and a true parabolic figure can thus be obtained.
Both the grinding and polishing tools are grooved, to obtain a uniform distribution of the emery used in the grinding process and of the rouge employed in polishing, as also to provide for the lateral expansion of the pitch with which the polisher is coated.
Their lateral, compound, feebly movable eyes agree with those of the Phyllopoda.
The Halocypridae are destitute of compound lateral eyes, and have the sexual orifice unsymmetrically placed.
In 1892 he distinguished the former as those in which the first antennae of the male have both members modified for holding the female, and the genital openings of the female have a ventral position, sometimes in close proximity, sometimes strongly lateral; the latter as those in which the first antennae of the male are similar to those of the female, the function of holding her being transferred to the male maxillipeds, while the genital openings of the female are dorsal, though at times strongly lateral.
They are modifications of the lateral muscles and are supplied with numerous branches of the spinal nerves.
by the so-called "lateral canal" of the Garonne, constructed in 1838-1856.
The Meuse is canalized within the department, and the Canal des Ardennes, uniting that river with the Aisne, and the lateral canal of the Aisne are together about 65 m.
Celestus of Mexico, the Antilles and Central America, with well-developed limbs, but with a lateral fold.
Pseudopus, the glass-snake, from Morocco and the Balkan peninsula to Burma and Fokien; also in the U.S.A., with the limbs reduced to a pair of tiny spikes near the vent, and a lateral fold along the snake-like body.
Anguis, with its sole species fragilis, the slow-worm or blind-worm, is devoid of a lateral fold, and the limbs are entirely absent.
Tiliqua of Australia, Tasmania and Malay Islands, has stout lateral teeth with rounded-off crowns; C. gigas of the Moluccas and of New Guinea is the largest member of the family, reaching a length of nearly 2 ft.; the limbs are well developed, as in Trachysaurus rugosus of Australia, which is easily recognized by the large and rough scales and the short, broad, stump-like tail.
Femoral pores present, also mostly a lateral fold.
Gerrhosaurus, with lateral fold and complete limbs; Tetradactylus also with a fold, but with very variable limbs; Condylosaurus; all in Africa.
living horse, rear view, showing large lateral digits on the fore and hind feet, adapted to prevent the animal from sinking into the soft soil.
- Neohipparion, a plains-living horse with very slender limbs and lateral digits small and well raised from the ground, adapted to a dry, hard soil.
Similarly, there is no correlation in the rate of evolution either of adjoining or of separated parts; the middle digit of the foot of the three-toed horse is accelerated in development, while the lateral digits on either side are retarded.
One of the causes of these sudden advances is undoubtedly to be found in the acquisition of a new and extremely useful character., Thus the perfect jaw and the perfect pair of lateral fins when first acquired among the fishes favoured a very rapid and for a time unchecked development.
It by no means follows, however, from this incontrovertible evidence that the acquisition either of the jaw or of the lateral fins had not been in itself an extremely gradual process.
From these are given off at irregular intervals short lateral branches, each of which terminates in a flame-cell (f) precisely similar in structure to the flame-cells found in Planarians, Trematodes and Cestodes; here as there the question whether they are open to the body cavity or not must probably be answered in the negative.
A, lateral surface view of an adult female: a, median ventral appendage; b, median dorsal appendage; c, distal ventro-lateral appendage; d, dorso-lateral appendage; f, dorsal antenna; g," chin "; x', cephalotroch.
B, lateral view, showing viscera: oc, eye-spots; n, nephridia; e, ciliated toes; other letters as above.
E, dorsal view of a male: a, lateral appendages; b, dorsal appendage.
F, lateral view of a male.
1, Euchlanis deflexa; 2, lateral; 2a, dorsal views of Colurus bicuspidatus; 3, Notops brachionus; 4, Diglena permollis; 5, Gastropus minor; 6, Anuraea serrata; 7, Ascomorpha parasita; 8, Notholca heptodon.
They are six in number, median, ventral and dorsal, and two unequal lateral pairs.
- a, Microcodon clavus, showing corona, lateral antennae and jointed foot; b, Rhinops vitrea, corona from below, showing proboscidiform extension containing eyes; c, Philodina megalotrocha; d, head of Rotifer macroceros, postero-ventral view, showing lobes of corona, and antero-dorsal median antenna, telescopic with setae; e, Rotifer (Actinurus) neptunius, showing head with retracted corona, and protruded dorsal proboscis bearing median antenna, and telescopic foot with toes and spurs; f.
This head-shield is succeeded by a varying number of free segments, each of which consists of a medium convex tergal piece and a pair of arched lateral plates, the pleura, of which there is one on each side.
They are also well marked on the cephalic shield, the tergal elements being represented by a median axial elevated area showing indistinct signs of segmentation, and a lateral unsegmented plate, the gena, which carries the eyes.
Up to the present time all attempts to arrange the genera in natural and definable groups have failed to meet with general approval; and this criticism must be extended to Beecher's subdivision of the class into three orders, named Hypoparia, Proparia and Opisthoparia, based upon the form and position of a groove, the so-called genal suture, which marks the lateral portion of the head-shield.
Those genera, like Paradoxides, Olenus, Asaphus, Phillipsia and others, in which this groove cuts the posterior edge of the head-shield on the inner side of its angle are referred to the Opisthoparia; those, like Dalmanites and Phacops, in which it cuts the lateral border in front of the posterior angle, belong to the Proparia.
Both bear their round or ovoid male catkins at the ends of the slender terminal branchlets; the ovoid cones, either terminal or on short lateral twigs, have thick woody scales dilated at the extremity, with a broad disk depressed in the centre and usually furnished with a short spine; at the base of the scales are from three to seven ovules, which become reversed or partially so by compression, ripening into small angular seed with a narrow wing-like expansion.
A curious feature appears in northern Pennsylvania: here the lateral pressure of the Palaeozoic mountain-making forces extended its effects through a belt about fifty miles wider than the folded belt of the Hudson Valley, thus compressing into great rock waves a part of the heavy stratified series which in New York lies horizontal and forms the Catskills; hence one sees, in passing south-west from the horizontal to the folded strata, a beautiful illustration of the manner in which land sculpture is controlled by land structure.
On account of the rapid deposition of sediment near the main channel at times of overflow, the flood plain, as is normally the case on mature valley floors, has a lateral slope of as much as 5, 10, or even 12 ft.
In New Mexico, if glaciers were formed at all in the high valleys, they were so small as not greatly to modify the more normal forms. In central Colorado and Wyoming, where the mountains are higher and the Pleistocene glaciers were larger, the valley heads were hollowed out in well-formed cirques, often holding small lakes; and the mountain valleys were enlarged into U-shaped troughs as far down as the ice reached, with hanging lateral valleys oii the way.
Lake Chelan, long and narrow, deep set between spurless ridges with hanging lateral valleys, and evidently of glacial origin, ornaments one of the eastern valleys.
When hardened in situ its shape is that of a right-angled, triangular prism showing five surfaces - superior, anterior, inferior, posterior and right lateral which represents the base of the prism.
From its lower margin the right lateral ligament is reflected on to the diaphragm.
A similar fold passes from the tip of the left lobe as the left lateral ligament, and both these are the lateral margins of the coronary ligament.
When these have united the Spigelian lobe re of ductus venosus mental tuberosity ageal groove End of right suprarenal vein Suprarenal impression R; ght end of caudate lobe Uncovered area of right lobe Renal impression Attachment of right lateral ligament Fissu Portal fissure Umbilical fissure Quadrate lobe Portal vein Gall bladder Duodenal impression 0 Oesoph Cohc impressio; From A.
It will be seen that the umbilical fissure (u) divides the organ into right and left halves, as in the lower vertebrates, but that the ventral part of each half is divided into a central and lateral lobe.
Passing from right to left there are therefore: right lateral (rl), right central (rc), left central (lc), and left lateral (11) lobes.
The Spigelian (s) and caudate lobes (c) belong to the right half of the liver, the latter being usually a leaf shaped lobe attached by its stalk to the Spigelian, and having its blade flattened between the right lateral lobe and the right kidney.
u, Umbilical vein of the foetus, rlf, The right lateral fissure.
ligament in the adult, lying 11, The left lateral lobe.
rl, The right lateral lobe.
llf, The left lateral fissure.
The Lamellibranchia are mainly characterized by the rudimentary condition of the head, and the retention of the primitive bilateral symmetry, the latter feature being accentuated by the lateral compression of the body and the development of the shell as two bilaterally symmetrical plates or valves covering each one side of the animal.
Arca and Pectunculus) the lateral processes which are set on the axis of the ctenidium are not lamellae, but are slightly flattened, very long tubes or hollow filaments.
lar into the non-glandular D, Lateral view showing the sac of the left nephridium.
26, lateral view), and thus the chief organs and general form of the adult are acquired.
lateral; mantle with a single Umbo.
Its limbs, especially the hinder pair, are long; and the feet remarkable for the great development of the lateral pair of hoofs and for the freedom of motion The Musk-deer (Moschus moschiferus).
The base of the triangle is upward, and at each lateral angle one of the Fallopian tubes opens.
The round ligament is a cord of unstriped muscle which runs from the lateral angle of its own side of the uterus forward to the internal abdominal ring, and so through the inguinal canal to the upper part of the labium majus.
It is often described as formed of three lobes two lateral and a median or posterior, but careful sections and recent research throw doubt on the existence of the last.
Many of them, like ungulates, are specialized for swift running, and have unusually long limbs, with ridges developed on the articular surfaces of the lower bones; the clavicles are more or less reduced; the thorax is more compressed than usual, with a narrower breast-bone; and there is a marked tendency to the reduction or loss of the lateral toes, more especially in the hind limb.
range is much longer than the other, and its ridge is very much broken; on the land side there are many ravines formed by lateral spurs, but to the sea for 30 m.
The valleys are remarkable for beautiful scenery, - peaks, cliffs, lateral ravines, cascades and tropical vegetation.
aggregatum, is propagated by the lateral bulbs, which it throws out, under ground, in considerable numbers.
A few large streams enter the lower Apure from the south, but they are frequently entangled in lateral canals, due to the slight elevation of the plains above sea-level, the waters of the Apure, especially during flood time, having opened a great number of canos before reaching the Orinoco.
A median mesentery running dorsoventrally supports the alimentary canal and is continued behind it into the tail, thus dividing the body cavity into two lateral halves.
The nervous system consists of a cerebral ganglion in the head, a conspicuous ventral ganglion in the trunk, and of lateral cornmissures uniting these ganglia on each side.
The two testes lie in the tail and are formed by lateral proliferations of the living peritoneal cells.
The archenteron gives off two lateral pounchs and thus becomes trilobed.
The two lateral lobes contain the coelom; each separates off in front a segment which forms the head and presumably then divides again to form anteriorly the trunk, and posteriorly the tail regions.
Slabber, with two pairs of lateral fins.
Krohnia P. Langerhans, with one lateral fin on each side, extending on to the tail.
Spadella P. Langerhans, with a pair of lateral fins on the tail and a thickened ectodermic ridge running back on each side from the head to the anterior end of the fin.
But his principal work was Historiae Philippicae in forty-four In the trogon of Cuba, Prionotelus, they are most curiously scooped out, as it were, at the extremity, and the lateral pointed ends diverge in a way almost unique among birds.
The fish is characterized by its large scales (34 to 40 in the lateral line), its long dorsal fin, the first ray of which is stiff and serrated, and the presence of two small barbels on each side of the mouth.
Castelsarrasin, situated on the left bank of the lateral canal of the Garonne and about a mile from the right bank of that river, is surrounded by promenades occupying the site of the old fortifications.
In the Hellenic age the water was derived wholly from the Cladeus and from the small lateral tributaries of its valley.
Extremity of a branch of the thallus with a young lateral branch a; h, hyphae; g, cells of the alga; gs, the apex of the thallus.
They enclose long lateral valleys, some of which are fertile and highly cultivated, and traversed by narrow precipitous gorges at intervals, which form the only means of access to the interior from the sea.
Of course each of these semi-detached ranges has a watershed of its own, like the lateral ridges that branch off from the main watershed.
To secure these conditions free exposure to light and air is requisite; but in the case of coppices and woods, or where long straight spars are needed by the forester, plants are allowed to grow thickly so as to ensure development in an upward rather than in a lateral direction.
Growth in length is mainly in a vertical direction, or at least at the ends of the shoots; and this should be encouraged, in the case of a timber tree, or of a climbing plant which it is desired should cover a wall quickly; but where flowers or fruit are specially desired, then, when the wood required is formed, the lateral shoots may often be trained more or less downward to induce fertility.
To form a standard tree, either the stock is allowed to grow up with a straight stem, by cutting away all side branches up to the height required, say about 6 ft., the scion or bud being worked at that point, and the head developed therefrom; or the stock is worked close to the ground, and the young shoot obtained therefrom is allowed to grow up in the same way, being pruned in its progress to keep it single and straight, and the top being cut off when the desired height is reached, so as to cause the growth of lateral shoots.
In forming a pyramidal tree, the lateral growths, instead of being removed, as in the standard tree, are encouraged to the utmost; and in order to strengthen them the upper part of the leading shoot is removed annually, the side branches being also shortened somewhat as the tree advances in size.
In after years the leading shoot was not to be cut back, but all the lateral shoots were to be shortened, and from these year by year other shoots were to be selected to fill up the area occupied by the tree.
in length, should be stopped by pinching out the point, this giving rise to lateral shoots.
In the second case all roots that have struck downwards into a cold uncongenial subsoil must be pruned off if they cannot be turned in a lateral direction, and all the lateral ones that have become coarse and fibreless must also be shortened back by means of a clean cut with a sharp knife, while a compost of rich loamy soil with a little bone-meal, and leaf-mould or old manure, should be filled into the trenches from which the old sterile soil has been taken.
of each valve to its lateral borders There may be only one such row on either side, or many rows.
The heart is enclosed in the pericardium, and consists of a median elongated ventricle and a pair of lateral auricles, so that the structure somewhat resembles that in the Lamellibranchiata.
A small longitudinal projection in the ventral groove represents the A, Lateral view.
The oesophagus is short and leads into a long, straight stomach, provided with numerous symmetrical lateral caeca.
The pericardium is ciliated internally on its dorsal and lateral walls.
1, Visceral (lateral) nerve-cord.
There should also be only a single coelom, or a pair of lateral coelomic cavities.
Many parasitic hyphae put out minute lateral branches, which pierce the cell-wall of the host and form a peg-like (Trichosphaeria), sessile (Cystopus), or stalked (Hemileia), knot-like, or_a B FIG.
Brefeld regarded the promycelium as a kind of basidium, bearing lateral or terminal conidia (comparable to basidiospores), but since the number of basidiospores is not fixed, and the basidium has not yet assumed very definite morphological characters, Brefeld termed the group Hemibasidii, and regarded them as a halfway stage in the evolution of the true Basidiomycetes from Ph co Y Y mycetes, the Tilletia type leading to the true basidium (Autobasidium), the Ustilago type to the proto pm basidium, with lateral spores; but this p m view is based on very poor evidence, so that it is best to place these forms?p, c;,::, as a separate group, the Ustilaginales.
in diameter, in the centre of which a smaller crater was later on built up (the basin is now known as the Campo di Annibale) with several lateral vents (the Lake of Albano, the Lake of Nemi, &c.).
The very small pups are of a beautiful quality, but too tiny to make into garments, and, as the aim of a good furrier is to avoid all lateral or cross seams, skins are selected that are the length of the garment that, is to be made.
high, which have risen over lateral fissures.
The town is situated on the Oise (which here becomes navigable) and at the junction of the canal of St Quentin with the lateral canal of the Oise, and carries on an active trade.
Above Janville a lateral canal continued by the Sambre-Oise canal accompanies the river to Landrecies.
Leaves are produced as lateral outgrowths of the stem in definite succession below the apex.
4), in place of there being only a single midrib there are several large veins (ribs) of nearly equal size, which diverge from the point where the blade joins the petiole or stem, giving off lateral veins.
Lateral segmentation affects the lamina, producing indentations, lobings or fissuring of its margins.
It is a palmately-partite leaf, in which the lateral lobes are deeply divided.
They are not usually of the same form as the ordinary foliage leaves of the plant, from which they are distinguished by their lateral position at the base of the petiole.
In Pinus the only leaves produced on the main stern and the lateral shoots are scales, the acicular leaves of the tree growing from axillary shoots.
The circles in the centre indicate a rectilinear series of indicate the five turns of the spiral, scales and two lateral secondand show the insertion of each of the ary spirals, one turning from leaves.
The area of this lateral basin being about 7100 sq.
After flowering the plant dies down, but increases by new lateral growths from the rootstock.
Theoretically this requires an infinite plate; or a perfect heat insulator, so that the lateral flow can be prevented or rendered negligible.
If the beds fall only in one direction longitudinally, their crowns should be made in the middle; but, should they fall laterally as well as longitudinally, as is usually the case, then the crowns should be made towards the upper sides, more or less according to the lateral slope of the ground.
The apparatus consisted of two small boards, with glass rollers between them, the whole fastened together by indiarubber bands in such a manner that the upper board could slide under lateral pressure to a limited extent over the lower one.
Tice occurrence of such lateral movement was at once indicated by means of an upright haystalk fastened to the apparatus.
The under jaws are hinged on to the quadrate bones, which extend obliquely backwards, and are immovably wedged in between the squamosal and the lateral occipital wings.
It is then dropped or carried by some external agent, wind, water or some member of the animal kingdom, on to the receptive surface of lateral type, that is to sa the elements of the wood or ?P y?
In many Monocotyledons the terminal cell forms the cotyledonary portion alone of the shoot of the embryo, its axial part and the root being derived from the adjacent cell; the cotyledon is thus a terminal structure and the apex of the primary stem a lateral one - a condition in marked contrast with that of the Dicotyledons.
19 a lateral surface either, in which case they are said to be free; when mucilage does occur on the lateral wall, it appears as the sheath surrounding either the single filament, or a sheaf of filaments of common origin.
" True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).
Oedogonium sp., oogonium antheridium at a node on at moment of fertilization a lateral appendage.
From the first node arise rhizoids; from the second a lateral bud, which becomes the new plant.
It will be remembered that in M usci, the asexual spore somewhat similarly gives rise to a protonema, from which the adult plant is produced as a lateral bud.
In Fucus vesiculosus they arise in lateral pairs; in Ascophyllum they are single and median; in Macrocystis one vesicle arises at the base of each thallus segment; in Sargassum and Halidrys the vesicles arise on special branches.
In some Sphacelariaceae branches may appear at their inception as lateral protuberances of the apical cell itself.
From this cell segments are cut off in three or four lateral oblique planes.
In such cases as Lemanea, the terminal cells of the lateral branches form a superficial layer which has all the appearance of a parenchyma when viewed from the surface.
When such a lateral branch overtops the main axis whose growth has become limited, as in Plocamium and Dasya, a sympodium is formed.
In Iridaea the thallus is an entire lamina; in Callophyllis a lobed lamina; in Delesseria it is provided with midrib and veins, simulating the appearance of a leaf of the higher plants; in Constantinea the axis remains cylindrical, and the lateral branches assume the form of leaves.
The feet have only two hoofs, all traces of the small lateral pair found in many other ruminants having disappeared.
(X i .) Lateral digits of both fore and hind feet almost always present, and frequently the lower ends of the metacarpals and the metatarsals as well.
With the exception that the right antler is malformed and partially aborted, and that the bones of the lateral toes have been lost, the skeleton is practically complete.
In the absence of any trace of the lower extremities of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones of the lateral toes the skeleton differs from the American deer, and resembles those hollow-horned ruminants in which these toes persist.
The lateral toes may be completely absent, but more often are represented by the hoofs alone, supported sometimes by a very rudimentary skeleton, consisting of mere irregular nodules of bone.
Lower ends of the lateral metacarpals and metatarsals never present.
The animals thus associated, the Rotifera, Chaetopoda and Arthropoda, are composed of a larger or smaller number of hollow rings, each ring possessing typically a pair of hollow lateral appendages, moved by intrinsic muscles and penetrated by blood-spaces.
The main hoofs are short and rounded and the lateral hoofs very large.
The lateral metacarpal bones are represented only by their lower extremities; the importance of this feature being noticed in the article Deer.
An excellent example of structures differentiated according to position is given by the appendages borne on the stem of an ordinary flowering plant-the one or two seed leaves; the stem leaves, which may or may not be differentiated into secondary sets; and the various floral organs borne at the apex of the stem or its lateral branches.
in length drains to the north-east, parallel to the general strike of the mountain system into the transverse course of the Oxus, which it joins nearly opposite to the lateral valleys of Yaz Ghulam and Wanj.
in height, with aisles and lateral chapels, a transept with aisles, and a choir (with deambulatory) ending in an apse surrounded by chapels.
The lateral hind-toes (that is to say the second and fifth of the typical series) had, however, become rudimentary; although it is probable that the corresponding digits of the forelimb were functional, so that this foot was four-toed.
four closed spaces of the nature of body-cavities, two lateral and a dorso-median and a ventromedian.
Into the former the ovaries project, though the lumen of the lateral body-cavity is quite shut off from the lumina of the ovaries or uteri.
In the adult male the lateral body-cavities are absent.
A curious duct with lateral branches termed the supra-intestinal organ lies above the intestine in the female.
Fabre has found that in the nests of some species of Osmia the young bee developed in the first-formed cell, if (as often happens) she emerges from her cocoon before the inmates of the later cells, will try to work her way round these or to bite a lateral hole through the bramble shoot; should she fail to do this, she will wait for the emergence of her sisters and not make her escape at the price of injury to them.
In all the more typical members of the family the three middle metatarsals of the long hind-legs are fused into a cannon-bone; and in the true jerboas of the genus Jaculus the two lateral toes, with their supporting metatarsals, are lost, although they are present in the alactagas (Alactaga), in which, however, as in certain allied genera, only the three middle toes are functional.
In the first of these, which consists of one principal ridge with several lateral spurs, overlooking Port Louis, are the singular peak of the Pouce (2650 ft.), so called from its supposed resemblance to the human thumb; and the still loftier Pieter Botte (2685 ft.), a tall obelisk of bare rock, crowned with a globular mass of stone.
The roundish leaves, toothed on the margin, are slightly downy when young, but afterwards smooth, dark green on the upper and greyish green on the lower surface; the long slender petioles, much flattened towards the outer end, allow of free lateral motion by the lightest breeze, giving the foliage its well-known tremulous character.
On its east, between it and the coast, which it follows at a moderate distance, is a fertile strip difficult of access, and on the west it throws off so many lateral ranges and spurs, as to break up the country into a chaos of corrugated and precipitous hills and steep-sided valleys, each with a rapid perennial stream.
The articulation of the mandible to the quadrate-bone is such as to allow of a very considerable amount of lateral play, and, by a particular arrangement of the muscles which move the former, it comes to pass that so soon as the bird opens its mouth the point of the mandible is brought immediately opposite to that of the maxilla (which itself is movable vertically), instead of crossing or overlapping it - the usual position when the mouth is closed.
inserted between the scales or into the pome, but on opening the mouth still more widely, the lateral motion of the mandible is once more brought to bear with great force to wrench aside the portion of the fruit attacked, and then the action of the tongue completes the operation, which is so rapidly performed as to defy scrutiny, except on very close inspection.
in height, is the lateral expansion of the cheeks, owing to a kind of warty growth, thus producing an extraordinarily broad and flattened type of face.
The church of Santa Chiara (St Clare), the foundress of the Poor Clares, with its massive lateral buttresses, fine rose-window, and simple Gothic interior, was begun in 1257, four years after her death.
If x be measured upwards from the lower end, the horizontal component of the tension P at any point will be Pay/ax, approximately, if y denote the lateral displacement.
It is obvious that the motions of a pair of points may be varied in any manner, whether by direct or by lateral deviation, and yet that their comparative motion may remain constant, in consequence of the deviations taking place in the same proportions, in the same directions and at the same instants for both points.
Sliding Cont?,zct (lateral): Skew-Bevel Wheels.An hyperboloid of revolution is a surface resembling a sheaf or a dice box, generated by the rotation of a straight iAn line round an axis from which it is at a constant distance, - c and to which it is inclined at -~- a constant angle.
The motion of two such hyperboloids, turning in contact with each other, has hitherto been classed amongst cases of rolling ~ contact; but that classification is not strictly correct, for, although the corn ponent velocities of a pair of points of G contact in a direction at right angles --- to the line of contact are equal, still, - F as the axes are parallel neither to each - other nor to the line of contact, the velocities of a pair of points of contact FIG have components along the line of contact which are unequal, and their difference constitutes a lateral sliding.
The component across the direction of motion is a lateral pressure; the unbalanced lateral pressure on any piece, or part of a piece, is deflecting force.
A lateral pressure may increase resistance by causing friction; the friction so caused acts against the motion, and is a resistance, but the lateral pressure causing it is not a resistance.
Balanced Lateral Pressure of Guides and Bearings.The most important part of the lateral pressure on a piece of mechanism is the reaction of its guides, if it is a sliding piece, or of the bearings of its axis, if it is a turning piece; and the balanced portion of this reaction is equal and opposite to the resultant of all the other forces applied to the piece, its own weight included.
(Original drawings.) (I) Lateral view of adult, to show general form, the myomeres, fin rays and gonads.
lanceolatus obtained by the tow-net in 8 -10 fathoms, showing the asymmetry of the large lateral sinistral mouth with its ciliated margin cm and the dextral series of simple primary gill-slits (Ips-14ps).
Their presence is due to lateral outgrowths of crystals shooting from the side of a growing stalactite, or to deflections caused by currents of air, or to the existence of a diminutive fungus peculiar to the locality and designated from its habitat Mucor stalactitis.
long and about an inch wide, closely arranged in two rows as in the true Flag (Iris); the tall, flowering stems (scapes), which very much resemble the leaves, bear an apparently lateral, blunt, tapering spike of densely packed, very small flowers.
A long leaf (spathe) borne immediately below the spike forms an apparent continuation of the scape, though really a lateral outgrowth from it, the spike of flowers being terminal.
The surface is made up of extensive plains covered with sand and deposits of alkaline salts, broken by ranges of barren hills having the appearance of spurs from the Andes, and by irregular lateral ranges in the vicinity of the main cordillera enclosing elevated saline plateaus.
The western slopes of the Andes, with its spurs and lateral ranges, cover a broad zone on the eastern side of the republic, and the Cordillera Maritima covers another broad zone on its western side from about lat.
From the 52nd to about the 31st parallel this great mountain system, known locally as the Cordillera de los Andes, apparently consists of a single chain, though in reality it includes short lateral ranges at several points; continuing northward several parallel ranges appear on the Argentine side and one on the Chilean side which are ultimately merged in the great Bolivian plateau.
The Chilean lateral range, which extends from the 29th to the 19th parallels, traverses an elevated desert region and possesses several noteworthy peaks, among which are Cerro Bolson, 16,017 ft., and Cerro Dona Ines, 16,706 ft.
By opening the stop wider, similar deviations arise for lateral points as have been already discussed for axial points; but in this case they are much more complicated.
e.l., Extra lateral.
l.occ., Lateral occipital.
Here all the main drainage either runs northwards to the Gomal, passing through the uplands that lie west of the Suliman Range; or it gathers locally in narrow lateral valleys at the back of these mountains and then bursts directly eastwards through the limestone axis of the hills, making for the Indus by the shortest transverse route.
Directly south are the beginnings of the meridional arteries, the Hab, the Purali and the Hingol, which end in the Arabian Sea, leaving a space of mountainous seaboard (Makran) south of the Panjgur and west of the Hingol, which is watered (so far as it is watered at all) by the long lateral Kej river and several smaller mountain streams. Thus southern Baluchistan comprises four hydrographical sections.
Recent investigations show that all the chief rivers of Nepal flowing southwards to the Tarai take their rise north of the line of highest crests, the " main range " of the Himalaya; and that some of them drain long lateral high-level valleys enclosed between minor ridges whose strike is parallel to the axis of the Himalaya and, occasionally, almost at right angles to the course of the main drainage channels breaking down to the plains.
The molar teeth have cylindrical crowns, with several islands and a single lateral fold of enamel when worn.
It is also stable as regards displacements transverse to the axis, for the film is in a state of tension, and any lateral displacement of its middle parts would produce a resultant force tending to restore the film to its original position.
But as the head increases, so do the lateral velocities which go to form the transverse vibrations.
The gate has been enlarged by two lateral colonnades, each supported by sixteen columns.
This caused various lateral and contrary movements, resulting in a whirling movement (Slvn) resembling the rotation of Anaxagoras, whereby similar atoms were brought together (as in the winnowing of grain) and united to form larger bodies and worlds.
A glance at the hydrographic structure of Bohemia, which is of such a striking regularity, shows us that the Moldau is the main stem, while the Elbe and the other rivers are only lateral branches; moreover, the Elbe below Melnik, the point of its confluence with the Moldau, follows the general direction of the Moldau.
Its majestic cathedral was built in the 13th century on the site of a Romanesque church, to which the lateral arcades of the nave and the two western towers with their high stone spires belonged.
As a further advance, the pit becomes widened out into a cup, as in the lateral ocelli of Charybdaea.
the main similar to that of oc.l, Lateral ocelli.
The animal may produce its like by lateral budding, or by budding from a basal stolon.
Commencement of lateral vessel.
3), this coalescence affects only the dorsal region of the thoracic somites, and the lateral portions of the carapace overhang on each side, enclosing a pair of chambers within which lie the gills.
In the development of the Phyllopod Branchipus, the eyes are at first sessile, and the lateral lobes of the head on which they are set grow out and become movably articulated, forming the peduncles.
Most commonly there is a pair of lateral caeca, which may be more or less ramified and may form a massive " hepato-pancreas " or " liver."
The its muscular coat; g, g, the heart is of the usual Arthro lateral teeth, which when podous type, lying in a more or in use are brought in conless well-defined pericardial blood tact with the sides of the sinus, with which it communi median tooth m; c, c, the cates by valvular openings or muscular coat.
They are ciliated, and their extremities are enlarged and have a small lateral depression in each.
Each contains a terminal ganglion connected with sensory cells in the lateral pit.
C, Lateral view of the same.
The shell-gland is formed on the dorsal surface, and the mantle arises as two lateral lobes which afterwards unite by their ventral edges to form the tubular mantle of the adult.
Foot expanded distally into a symmetrical disk with a crenate edge or simple and vermiform without well-developed lateral processes; shell often contracted towards the anterior aperture.
Beyond the parapodia are four pairs of organs, often called suckers, but probably of sensory nature, and comparable to the lateral sense organs of Capitellids (Wheeler).
The former leads to a protrusible pharynx (B), from which the oesophagus opens into a wide intestinal chamber with branching lateral diverticula.
The paired ovaries discharge their products into a median coelemic chamber with lateral branches (C), often called the uterus, from which the ripe ova are discharged by a median dorsal pore into the terminal region of the rectum (cloaca).
The rudder for lateral steering was placed about 21 metres behind the main surfaces and was formed of two vertical pivoted aeroplanes.
The existing lakes include Windermere and Coniston, draining south; Wastwater, draining south-west, Ennerdale water, Buttermere and Crummock water (the two latter, originally one lake, are now divided by a lateral delta), draining north-west; Derwent water and Bassenthwaite water (which were probably originally one lake), and Thirlmere, draining north; Ullswater and Haweswater, draining north-east.
As regards navigation, only such taxes or duties were to be levied as had "the character of an equivalent for services rendered to navigation itself"; and it was further provided that (Article 16) "The roads, railways or lateral canals which may be constructed with the special object of obviating the innavigability or correcting the imperfection of the river route on certain sections of the course of the Congo, its affluents, and other waterways, placed under a similar system as laid down in Article 15, shall be considered, in their quality of means of communication, as dependencies of this river and as equally open to the traffic of all nations.
This definition will include the living and also most of the extinct forms, although in some of the latter the lateral metacarpal bones not only retain their lower ends, but are complete in their entire length.
- Lateral metacarpal bones represented only by their lower extremities; antlers present in both sexes, complex.
- Lateral metacarpals as in preceding; antlers (as in the following genera) present only in the male, arising at right angles to the median longitudinal line of the skull, and extending at first in the plane of the forehead, after which, when in their fullest development, they expand into a broad palmation margined with snags.
- Lateral metacarpals represented only by their upper ends.
- Lateral metacarpals as in Cervus; antlers small, with a brow-tine and an unbranched beam, supported on long bony pedicles, continued downwards as convergent ridges on the forehead; upper canines of male large and tusk-like.
- Lateral metacarpals as in Rangifer; antlers wanting; upper canines of males tusk-like and growing from semi-persistent pulps; cheek-teeth tall-crowned (hypsodont); tail moderate.
- Lateral metacarpals as in Rangifer; antlers rather small, without a brow-tine or sub-basal snag, dichotomously forked, with the upper or posterior prong again forking; tail rudimentary; vomer not dividing posterior nasal aperture of skull.
- Lateral metacarpals as in Cervus; antlers large, without a brow-tine or sub-basal snag, dichotomously forked, with the upper prong of the fork curving forwards and dividing, and the lower prong long, simple, and projected backwards, the beam making a very marked angle with the plane of the face; tail very long; vomer as in Capreolus.
- Lateral metacarpals as in Rangifer; antlers very variable in size, forming a marked angle with the plane of the face, without a brow-tine; when consisting of more than a simple prong, dichotomously forked, frequently with a subbasal snag, and always with the lower prong of the fork projected from the front edge of the beam, in @ome cases the lower, in others the upper, and in others both prongs again dividing; tail long; tarsal gland generally present; metatarsal gland very variable, both as regards presence and position; vomer dividing the inner aperture of the nostrils in the skull into two distinct chambers.
- Hair coarse and brittle; upper canines of male very long; no tarsal or metatarsal glands or tufts; lateral metacarpals represented by their lower extremities; lateral hoofs very large; tail very short; naked portion of muzzle extensive; male with a large abdominal gland.
It is of thin membranous consistence, usually obtuse, often bifid, and possesses no central rib or nerve, but has two lateral ones, one on either side; the margins are frequently folded in at the ribs, which thus become placed at the sharp angles.
The flowering glume has generally a more or less boat-shaped form, is of firm consistence, and possesses a well-marked central midrib and frequently several lateral ones.
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