Morton landed with Warwick at Dartmouth on the 13th of September 1470, but the battle of Tewkesbury finally shattered the Lancastrian hopes, and Morton made his peace with Edward IV., probably through the mediation of Archbishop Bourchier.
Morton no doubt impressed Lancastrian traditions upon Henry VII., but he cannot be credited with any great originality as a statesman, and Henry's policy was as much Yorkist as Lancastrian.
As an ecclesiastic Morton followed orthodox Lancastrian lines: in 1489 he obtained a papal bull enabling him to visit and reform the monasteries, and he proceeded with some vigour against the abuses in the abbey of St Albans.
It became a borough in 1319 by a charter of Edward II., which was confirmed in 1342 and 1378, and by each of the Lancastrian kings.
During the Wars of the Roses he showed his sympathy with the Lancastrian party after the defeat of Henry VI.
John of Gaunt, indeed, at a time when it was possible that he would never obtain the Leicester moiety of the Lancastrian estates, seems to have made an ingenious but quite unfounded claim to the office as annexed to the honor of Hinckley.
But John of Gaunt, the next brother, who had married the heiress of Lancaster and had been created duke of Lancaster in consequence, refounded the Lancastrian line, which obtained the throne in the person of his only son by her, Henry IV., on the deposition of Richard II., to the exclusion of the infant earl of March.
From 1457 to 1459 a truce was made between Scotland and the Lancastrian party, then in power, but in July 1460, Henry VI.
In politics, the queen-mother, who had the private guardianship of her boys, the king and the dukes of Albany and Ross, turned from the Lancastrian to the Yorkist side, while Kennedy and his party (Lancastrians) were accused of endangering Scotland to please France.
The factions were fairly balanced, for if the majority of the baronage were, on the whole, Lancastrian, the greatest houses stood by the cause of York.
The Yorkists proclaimed Ed ~ Edward, Duke Richards heir, king of England; they earl of took no further heed of the claims of King Henry, March, declared their leader the true successor of Richard II., Pro- and stigmatized the whole period of the Lancastrian ~ rule as a mere usurpation.
All the estates of the Lancastrian lords, living or dead, were confiscated, and their blood was declared corrupted.
After Towton peace prevailed south of the Tyne and east of the Severn, for it was only in Northumberland and in Wales that the survivors of the Lancastrian faction succeeded Civil war in keeping the war alive.
But the obstinate and hard-handed Warwick beat them down again and again, and the old Lancastrian party was Battle of almost exterminated when the last of its chiefs went Hexham.
His first sign of revolt was his secret marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, a lady of decidedly Lancastrian connections, for her Ed ~ father and her first husband were both members of ~ the defeated faction.
Some unimportant riots had broken out in Lincolnshire, originating probably in mere local quarrels, but possibly King in Lancastrian intrigues.
composed of Lancastrian exiles, partly of his own men.
Devon rose in the Lancastrian interest; Kent, where the earls name had always been popular, took arms a -.
His plan was to unite the causes of York and Lancaster by wedding the Lady Elizabeth, the eldest sister of the murdered princes, to Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, a young exile who represented the very doubtful claim of the Beauforts to the Lancastrian heritage.
and by the landing on the south coast of Henry of Execution Richmond with a body of Lancastrian exiles and of Buck-.
Under the later Plantagenets and the Lancastrian kings the great check on the power of the crown had been that financial difficulties were continually compelling the sovereign to summon parliaments.
There are traces of a want of public interest in its proceedings, very different from the anxiety with which they used to be followed in Plantagenet and Lancastrian times.
Indeed he was accepted by the English people as the benefactor who had delivered them from anarchy; and if they murmured at his love of hoarding, and cursed his inquisitors Empson and Dudley, they had no wish to change the Tudor rule, and were far from regarding the times of the Lancastrian experiment as a lost golden age.
In 1399 the Lancastrian Henry IV.
The disastrous reign of the third Lancastrian completed Henry v.
Returning suddenly to England in 1450, Richard left the government to James, earl of Ormonde and Wiltshire, who later married Eleanor, daughter of Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset, and was deeply engaged on the Lancastrian side.
After Blore Heath Richard was attainted by the Lancastrian parliament, and returned to Dublin, where the colonial parliament acknowledged him and assumed virtual independence.
This, of course, was only Lancastrian claim, never valid, even as such, till the direct male line of John of Gaunt had become extinct.
At the time of the Wars of the Roses the county, owing to territorial influence, was mainly Lancastrian, and in 1461 the Yorkist strongholds of Grantham and Stamford were sacked to such effect that the latter never recovered.
A member of this house, Thomas White, whilst mayor of Tenby, did signal service to the Lancastrian cause in 1471 by harbouring Jasper Tudor, earl of Pembroke, and his nephew Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond (afterwards King Henry VII.), prior to their escape to France.
The rewards were " for the care shown to the late duchess and for the Lancastrian children after their mother's death " .
At the end of the war, Henry Tudor, a Lancastrian, married the niece of the leader of the Yorks.
On 24 June 1464, the Lancastrian stronghold of Dunstanburgh Castle also fell to the forces of Edward IV.
He received a good deal of ecclesiastical preferment from the Lancastrian party, was present, if he did not fight on the losing side, at the battle of Towton in 1461, and was subsequently attainted by the victorious Yorkists.
But there was bitterness and mistrust between the old Lancastrian faction and the Nevilles, and Queen Margaret Restorarefused to cross to England or to trust her son in the Henry Vi.
In November of this year Stratford became chancellor, and for the next ten years he was actively engaged in public business, being the king's most prominent adviser and being politically, says Stubbs, the "head of the Lancastrian or constitutional party."
Next year the Lancastrian revolution forced Henry into precocious prominence as heir to the throne.
in 1470, Archbishop Neville took the oath of allegiance to Edward, but during the short Lancastrian restoration which compelled Edward to cross to Holland, Neville acted as chancellor to Henry VI.; and when the tide once more turned he again trimmed his sails to the favouring breeze, making his peace with Edward, now again triumphant, by surrendering Henry into his hands.
Sir Thomas Dymoke (1428?-1471) joined a Lancastrian rising in 1469, and, with his brother-in-law Richard, Lord Willoughby and Welles, was beheaded in 1471 by order of Edward IV.
with Charles VI.'s daughter Isabella, but the Lancastrian revolution of 1399 destroyed the diplomatic advantages gained by this union.
As the cotton industry has in some degree extended from Lancashire into the West Riding, so has the woollen from the West Riding into a few Lancastrian towns, such as Rochdale.
The king thought himself secure, but when Warwick and Clarence made terms with the Lancastrian exiles, Edward in his turn had to seek refuge in Holland (September 1470).
The rivalry between them was purely personal; both were prepared to go on with the Lancastrian experiment, the attethpt to govern the realm in a constitutional fashion by an alliance between the king and the parliament; both were eager persecutors of the Lollards; both were eager to make profit for England by interfering in the civil wars of the Orleanists and Burgundians which were now devastating France.
It is this fact which accounts for the growing bitterness of the Yorkist and Lancastrian parties during the last years of Henry VI.
This might have been more tolerable if the Lancastrian party had shown any governing power; but both while Somerset was their leader, down to his death in the first battle of St Albans, and while iii 1456-1459 Exeter, Wiltshire, Shrewshury and Beaumont were the queens trusted agents, the condition of England was de.
When it is added that the Lancastrian party avoided holding a parliament for three years, because they dared not face it, and that the French were allowed to sack Fowey, Sandwich and other places because there was no English fleet in existence, it is not wonderful that many men thought that the cup of the iniquities of the house of Lancaster was full.
Some excuse must be found for getting rid of the queen and her friends, and the doubtful legitimacy of the Lancastrian claim to the crown afforded such an excuse.
It is true that some classes were undoubtedly influenced in their choice of sides mainly by the general causes spoken of above; the citizens of London and the other great towns (for example) inclined to the Yorkist faction simply because they saw that under the Lancastrian rule the foreign trade of England was being ruined, and insufficient security was given for life and property.
But when the earl changed his politics and f6ught on the Lancastrian side at St Albans in 1455, the baron at once became a strenuous adherent of the duke, adhered firmly to the white rose and died by the axe for its cause.
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