The judiciary system of Italy is mainly framed on the French model.
Baldwin, The American Judiciary (ibid., 1905).
New York City (q.v.) has an extensive judiciary system of its own.
The judiciary is composed of a supreme court of seven members, a court of chancery, a county court in each county, a probate court in each probate district, and justices of the peace.
The organization of the judiciary is similar to that under the old English system.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
The judiciary consists of a supreme court of three judges, thirteen (1908) circuit courts, seven (1908) chancery courts, county courts and justice of thelpeace courts.
The judiciary is composed of a supreme court, superior courts and courts of first instance, and justices of the peace.
The local judiciary includes the usual county and city judges, county surrogates and justices of the peace.
As chairman of the judiciary committee he conducted the impeachment trial (1830) of Judge James H.
Thus, while armaments are increasing, and wars are being fought out in the press and in public discussion, the great powers are steadily working out a system of written law and establishing a judiciary to adjust their differences in accordance with it.'
This acted at once and without any consciousness of difference of function, as judiciary, as legislature, in so far as there was any in the feudal period, and as council, and it exercised final supervision and control over revenue and administration.
Other prominent structures are the U.S. government and the judiciary buildings, the latter connected with the capitol by a stone terrace, the city hall, the county court house, the union station, the board of trade, the soldiers' memorial hall (with a seating capacity of about 4500), and several office buildings.
30 1919 did the Senate Judiciary Committee hand in its report recommending the appointment.
For the judiciary, provisions were made for expediting trials and decisions.
Under the Japanese regime the judiciary and the executive were rigidly separated.
Here he became the recognized Democratic leader and in 1879-1881 was chairman of the judiciary committee.
Facing the judiciary building is an heroic statue in bronze of Kamehameha the Great., About 2 m.
judiciary six years, provided for quadrennial sessions of the legislature, and introduced the office of lieutenant-governor.
The cultus applied at first to local martyrs, and it was only in exceptional circumstances that a kind of judiciary inquiry and express decision became necessary to legitimate this cultus.
Peck, led an unsuccessful movement to increase the number of Supreme Court judges and to relieve them of their circuit duties, and succeeded in defeating an attempt to repeal the twenty-fifth section of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which gave the Supreme Court appellate jurisdiction by writ of error to the state courts in cases where federal laws and treaties are in question.
He also obtained the suppression of the religious orders and of all ecclesiastical privileges, and actively contributed to the change of the judiciary and administrative system.
The plan provided for a Federal judiciary, the judges to be appointed by the national legislature, to hold office during good behaviour, and to have jurisdiction over cases in admiralty and cases in which foreigners or citizens of different states were parties.
There is no separate judiciary, or police force, or civil service, nor any separate departments of general government.
In each there was a governor, with minor executive officers, a legislature, and a judiciary; and although the Crown retained the power of altering the charter, and the British parliament could (in strict legal view) legislate over the head of the colonial legislature so as to abrogate statutes passed by the latter, still in practice each colony was allowed to manage its own affairs and to enact the laws it desired.
He worked for a revision of Ellsworth's judiciary act of 1789, and especially to relieve justices of the supreme court 1 The plan was not drafted by Randolph, but he presented it because he was governor.
Above all, there was no dividing 'line between the judiciary and the administrative functions.
A royal decree, dated February 1891, established three classes of prisons: judiciary prisons, for persons awaiting examination or persons sentenced to arrest, detention or seclusion for less than six months; penitentiaries of various kinds (ergastoli, case di reclusione, detenzione or custodia), for criminals condemned to long terms of imprisonment; and reformatories, for criminals under age and vagabonds.
Under the guidance of Judges John Jay, Marshall, and Joseph Story, the judiciary from 1790 to 1835 had followed the Federalist loose construction methods of interpreting the constitution.
Other legislation provided for the organization of a judiciary, a supreme court, the enactment of a code of civil procedure, the establishment of a bureau of forestry, a health department, and an agricultural bureau and a bureau of constabulary, made up of native soldiers officered by white men.
These three factorspopular election, limited terms and small salarieshave all tended to lower the character of the judiciary; and in not a few states the state judges are men of moderate abilities and limited learning, inferior (and sometimes conspicuously inferior) to the best of the men who practise before them.
The part played by the judiciary has at some moments been of special importance, while at others it has been little noticed.
There was to be, under this plan, an executive chosen by the national legislature, to be ineligible for a second term, to have general authority to execute the national laws and to have the executive rights vested in Congress by the Confederation; and the executive with a convenient number of the national judiciary was to compose a Council of Revision, with a veto power on acts of the national legislature and on the national legislature's vetoes of acts of state legislatures - but the national legislature might pass bills (or vetoes of state legislation) over the action of the Council of Revision.
In 1820 Webster took an important part in the convention called to revise the constitution of Massachusetts, his arguments in favour of removing the religious test, in favour of retaining property representation in the Senate, and in favour of increasing the independence of the judiciary, being especially notable.
As chairman of the judiciary committee, he brought forward a number of measures for the improvement of judicial procedure, and in May 1826 joined with Benton in presenting a report on executive patronage.
The state judiciary consists of a supreme court of six judges and a district court of fifty-three judges, from one to four in each of twenty districts.
the judiciary, transferred to the people the choice of many officers, state and local, who had been appointed by the governor or the legislature; and placed numerous restrictions on the law-making power of the legislature.
A constitutional convention met and proposed a new constitution in 1867, but every article was rejected by the people save one relating to the judiciary, which was adopted separately as an amendment in 1869.
In 1733 a popular organ, the New York Weekly Journal, was established under John Peter Zenger (1697-1746), and in 1735 both the freedom of the press and a great advance toward the independence of the judiciary were the outcome of a famous libel suit against Zenger.
It increased the number of senators and representatives, created the office of lieutenant-governor, substituted biennial for annual sessions of the legislature, introduced minority representation in the choice of the higher judiciary and of the county commissioners and auditors and provided (as had an amendment adopted in 1850) for the election of all judges by popular vote.
In 1907 there was a serious clash between the state authorities and the Federal judiciary, arising from an act of the legislature of that year which fixed the maximum railway fare at 21 cents a mile and imposed enormous fines for .its violation.
The constitutional changes since 18 4 6 affect principally the judiciary and cities.
The constitution of 1894 made further important changes in the judiciary and in the government of cities.
Returning to Massachusetts, he spoke and wrote in opposition to its ratification, and although not a member of the convention called to pass upon it, he laid before this convention, by request, his reasons for opposing it, among them being that the constitution contained no bill of rights, that the executive would unduly influence the legislative branch of the government, and that the judiciary would be oppressive.
A learned jurist, he contributed during the Constituent Assembly to the organization of the judiciary of France.
The constitution of the courts is based on the example of the English judiciary, and the rules of evidence and procedure are practically the same in both criminal and civil cases as in England.
The expenditure is largely on reproductive works (railways, harbours, post office, &c.), on the judiciary and police, education and military defence.
In 1803 he was again elected to the governor's council, and in 1807, on the reorganization of the Connecticut judiciary, was appointed chief justice of the new Supreme Court.
The judiciary consists of a court of appeals, circuit courts, quarterly courts, county courts, justice of the peace courts, police courts and fiscal courts.
Each has its own documentary constitution; its legislature of two elective houses; its executive, consisting of a governor and other officials; its judiciary, whose decisions are final, except in cases involving Federal law; its system of local government and local taxation; its revenue, system of taxation, and debts; its body of private civil and criminal law and procedure; its rules of citizenship, which may admit persons to be voters in state and national elections under conditions differing from those prevailing in other states.
The effect of the act was to impose upon the judges under severe sanction the duty of protecting personal liberty in the case of criminal charges and of securing speedy trial upon such charges when legally framed; and the improvement of their tenure of office at the revolution, coupled with the veto put by the Bill of Rights on excessive bail, gave the judicature the independence and authority necessary to enable them to keep the executive within the law and to restrain administrative development of the scope or penalties of the criminal law; and this power of the judiciary to control the executive, coupled with the limitations on the right to set up "act of state" as an excuse for infringing individual liberty is the special characteristic of English constitutional law.
He appeared personally before successive legislative committees, and in 1846 published a pamphlet, "The Reorganization of the Judiciary," which had its influence in persuading the New York State Constitutional Convention of that year to report in favour of a codification of the laws.
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
When conditions so changed that government could free itself from its dependence on the baron, feudalism disappeared as the organization of society; when a professional class arose to form the judiciary, when the increased circulation of money made regular taxation possible and enabled the government to buy military and other services, and when better means of intercommunication and the growth of common ideas made a wide centralization possible and likely to be permanent.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 (as amended by subsequent legislation) provides for the appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States of a final judgment or decree in any suit rendered in the highest court of a state in which a decision in the suit could be had where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute for an authority exercised under the United States, and the decision is against their validity; or where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised under, any state, on the ground of their being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of their validity; or where any title, right, privilege or immunity is claimed under the Constitution, or any treaty or statute of, or commission held or authority exercised under the United States, and the decision is against the title, right, privilege or immunity specially set up or claimed by either party under the Constitution, treaty, statute, commission or authority.
In addition to the prerogatives commonly invested in his office, the president is authorized to supervise the judiciary, to nominate candidates for the higher ecclesiastical offices, to intervene in the enforcement of ecclesiastical decrees, papal bulls, &c., to exercise supervisory police powers, and to appoint the intendants of provinces and the governors of departments, who in turn appoint the sub-delegates and inspectors of subordinate political divisions.
The judiciary holds a place of high importance, because it is the proper interpreter of the will of the people expressed in the supreme law, the Federal Constitution, which the people have enacted.
Mississippi thus became one of the first states in the Union to establish an elective judiciary.
Disputes between the confederate towns were brought for adjudication before the general assembly, but the League had no recognized federal judiciary.
His most important service to his country was without a doubt in connexion with the establishment of the Federal judiciary.
The individualistic principle was shown in the jealousy of the towns toward the central government, and in the establishment of legislative supremacy over the executive and the judiciary.
Dorr (1805-1854), a young lawyer of Providence, began a systematic campaign for an extension of the suffrage, a reapportionment of representation and the establishment of an independent judiciary.
The General Court was the legislature and the electorate; the governor and assistants were the executive and the judiciary.
The states are organized very much like the federal government, each with its own governor, legislature, laws and judiciary.
Nothing has done more to give cohesion to the American Federal system than the direct action of the Federal executive and judiciary.
The judiciary consists of a supreme court of 7 members elected for a term of 9 years; a circuit court of 54 judges, 3 for each of 18 judicial districts, elected for 6 years; and four appellate courts - one for Cook county (which has also a "branch appellate court," both the court and the branch court being presided over by three circuit judges appointed by the Supreme Court) and three other districts, each with three judges appointed in the same way.
The organic act contained a bill of rights, provided for the establishment of a popular assembly two years after the completion of a census of the Philippines, and more definitely provided for the organization of the judiciary.
The judiciary consists of a supreme court of three judges, elected every six years, and circuit and probate courts, the five district judges being elected every four years.
Elected as an Anti-Nebraska Democrat, he naturally joined the Republicans, and when this party secured control in the Senate he was made chairman of the important judiciary committee, from which he reported the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States abolishing slavery.
He took his seat in the Senate and his election was upheld by the Senate committee on the judiciary, whose report was adopted (26 March 1866) by a vote of 22 to 21, his own vote carrying the motion; but, because of the objection of Charles Sumner, he withdrew his vote on the 27th of March, and was thereupon unseated by a vote of 23 to 21.
Three constitutions, framed by conventions in 1820, 1865 and 1875, have been adopted by the people of the state, and a fourth (1845) was rejected, principally because it provided for popular election of the state judiciary, which was then appointed.
The judiciary was irremovable, and trial by jury was allowed for criminal offences.
representation for each political party in proportion to its numerical strength, by providing for first and second choice in voting - the system of preferential voting adopted in Idaho in 1909; and the "recall," by which the voters may remove from office after six months' service by a special election any local official.4 Judiciary.
The judiciary consists of a Supreme Court of five members elected for districts by the state at large for a term of six years, an appellate court (first constituted in 1891), and a system of circuit and minor criminal and county courts.
The Federal judiciary had been organized at the same time, but had never grasped the full measure of its powers.
The first constitution drafted was rejected (5th April 1847) owing to the articles relating to the rights of married women, exemptions, the elective judiciary, &c. A second convention, thought to be more conservative than the first, drafted another constitution, which on the 13th of March 1848 was adopted by 16,799 ayes and 6394 noes.
At the head of the judiciary is the Supreme Court already referred to; the superior court and the circuit courts are composed of judges appointed for four years by the members of the Supreme Court.
A large proportion of the public officials and judiciary were also disaffected; their removal from their posts was a matter of elementary prudence for a Government engaged in a war of such magnitude.
Amid this reign of terror and of revolt the university, the only moral and intellectual force, taking the place of the impotent The Or- states-general and of a parlement carefully restricted to donnance the judiciary sphere, vainly tried to re-establish a firm Cabo- monarchical system by means of the Ordonnance Cabochienne.
He wanted the Bolds, to provide his future sovereigntywith organs analogous imperial to those of France; a permanent army, and a judiciary ~ie~m&
Then came the final collapse: Cond having taken refuge in Spain for seven years, Gaston of Orleans being in exile, Retz in prison, and the parlement reduced to its judiciary functions only, the field was left open for Mazarin, who, four months after the king, re-entered in triumph that Paris which had driven him forth with jeers and mockery (February 1653).
The parlement, which had confused political power with judiciary administration, was given to understand, in the session of April 13, 1655, at Vincennes, that the era of political manifestations was over; and the money expended by Gourville, Mazarins agent, restored the members of the parlement to docility.
The promulgation and application of systematic measures from above had a response from below, from the corporation, the urban workshop, and the village street, which supported ecclesiastical and royal authority in its suppression of heresy, and frequently even went further: individual and local~ fanaticism co-operating with the head of the state, the intendants, and the military and judiciary authorities.
Choiseul did not hesitate to attack through lits de justice or by exile a judiciary oligarchy which doubtless rested its pretensions merely on wealth, high birth, or that e!icroaching spirit that was the only counteracting agency to the monarchy.
On the basis laid down by the Constituent Assembly and the Convention he constructed or consolidated the funds necessary for national institutions, local governments, a judiciary system, organs of finance, banking, codes, traditions of conscientious well-disciplined labor, and in short all the organization which for three-quarters of a century was to maintain and regulate the concentrated activity of the French nation (see the section Law and Institutions).
duplicity of politicians and the judiciary.
independence of the judiciary is paramount.
judiciary as a whole should be composed.
We supported the desire for common, interdisciplinary training and encouraged government to include the judiciary in their definition of interdisciplinary.
Our principal task is to provide the administrative, organizational and technical services required to support the judiciary in the delivery of justice.
Make no mistake we also have a good senior judiciary which is the envy of the world.
By nurturing a diverse legal profession today, we are ensuring a more diverse judiciary in the future.
But Chavez and his supporters should now be taking steps to strengthen the judiciary.
But he made a great point of separating military and civil office, and established a truly independent judiciary.
There are free trade unions, an independent judiciary, no silly wearing of uniforms by the party leadership.
In Canada, 26% of the federal judiciary are women; with one-third of judges at provincial level.
I expect much of our work in the coming months to focus on making the judicial role better suited to a more diverse judiciary.
The total number of the full-time judiciary is currently 175.
Already, the English judiciary is receiving the most ambitious training program on the Human Rights Act ever undertaken.
judiciary committee of the US House of Representatives has voted by 18 to 11 to ban human cloning.
judiciary cannot answer or deal with such a point.
Has not been embedded operations channel speed brake at senate judiciary committee.
I think thatÃ¢s a 20 year project creating a career judiciary.
Judges, magistrates and tribunal judiciary have contributed ' day in the life ' diaries.
Ministerial bullying of the judiciary via the national media is an unsavory sight in a free democracy " .
purview of one nation 's judiciary ' .
All members of the judiciary will undertake a refresher course every three years.
rumble of discontent among tribunal users, advisers and the judiciary.
The independence of the judiciary and of the legal profession is a fundamental constitutional safeguard.
writ of mandamus, relying on section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789.
In May 1899 the minister of justice stated in the chamber of deputies that the machinery of the courts in the country was antiquated, unwieldy and incapable of performing its duties; that 50,000 cases were then waiting decision in the minor courts, and Io,000 in the federal division; and that a reconstruction of the judiciary and the judicial system had become necessary.
The dissertations not embodied in his great work were collected by himself and (after his death) by his pupil, Camille Jullian, and published as volumes of miscellanies: Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1885), dealing with the Roman colonate, the land system in Normandy, the Germanic mark, and the judiciary organization in the kingdom of the Franks; Nouvelles recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1891); and Questions historiques (1893), which contains his paper on Chios and his thesis on Polybius.
1854), nevertheless urged the state courts and attorneys to proceed with the prosecution of other ticket agents, and threatened to resist with the force of the state any further interference of Federal judiciary; but in March 1908 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the North Carolina rate law unconstitutional on the ground that it was confiscatory.
From 1220 onward, the judiciary powers of these assemblies were exercised by a tour majour of twelve barons jurats charged with the duty of maintaining the integrity of the fors.
The dependence of the judiciary upon the legislature was maintained until 1860, and the governor is still shorn of certain powers which are customary in other states (see Administration).
Besides these direct services imposed upon the states, each state is of course practically limited in its legislative and executive action by the power of the Federal judiciary (in the exercise of its function of interpreting the Constitution) to declare invalid laws passed or acts done inconsistent with the Federal Constitution, or with statutes passed by the Federal legislature within the scope of its authority under the Constitution.
He considered as a practical middle ground changing the basis of representation in Congress from states to population; giving the national government "positive and complete authority in all cases which require uniformity"; giving it a negative on all state laws, a power which might best be vested in the Senate, a comparatively permanent body; electing the lower house, and the more numerous, for a short term; providing for a national executive, for extending the national supremacy over the judiciary and the militia, for a council to revise all laws, and for an express statement of the right of coercion; and finally, obtaining the ratification of a new constitutional instrument from the people, and not merely from the legislatures.
Indeed this case implicates issues of policy, politics and culture that go beyond the purview of one nation 's judiciary '.
Since then there has been a steady but growing rumble of discontent among tribunal users, advisers and the judiciary.
He applied to the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus, relying on section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789.
The Bolivian judiciary consists of a national supreme court, eight superior district courts, lower district courts, and juzgados de instrucciOn for the investigation and preparation of cases.
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