Each province has also its own judicial system.
They were the king's lieutenants for judicial and administrative purposes and were established in the 12th century, either by Alexander I.
The judicial authorities requested a rescript from the emperor Aurelian for the decision of the cause.
Lord Mansfield's great reputation rests chiefly on his judicial career.
c. 41 to the judicial committee of the privy council.
Michel de Bourges was the counsel whose eloquent pleadings brought the suit for a judicial separation to a successful issue in 1836.'
All the public acts and judicial decisions of one province have full legal effect and authority in all the others.
Under all these three acts there is a final appeal to the judicial committee of the privy council.
Much that had been done by bishops, sine strepitu forensi et figura judicii, is now done in the course of regular judicial procedure.
As a woman could not prove her case in the judicial combat, it was felt that the earlier practice gave her an unfair advantage.
St Ambrose and St Paulinus had even held high administrative and judicial offices.
A few years later, in 347, the council of Sardica, a council of practically the whole West save Africa, reversed Tyre and acquitted St Athanasius after a full judicial inquiry.
One and all they underwent the influences emanating Character from Paris; and in respe& to civil administration, of Napo- law, judicial procedure, education and public works, Ieon~s they all experienced great benefits, the results of which rule, never wholly disappeared.
The judicial powers are vested in a high court and other federal courts, and the federal judges hold office for life or during good behaviour.
The appeal is to the king in council, and is heard by the judicial committee of the privy council.
The thirteen districts in their council nominated four caporioni, who acted in concert with a senator, appointed, like the podest of other cities, for supreme judicial functions.
A judicial system has been instituted to which natives as well as Europeans are amenable.
She could only remarry with judicial consent, when the judge was bound to inventory the deceased's estate and hand it over to her and her new husband in trust for the children.
Mention may also be made of the Tribunal des Conflits, a special court whose function it is to decide which is the competent tribunal when an administration and a judicial court both claim or refuse to deal with a given case.
A new judicial office was created in the name of the Company, to which Sir Elijah Impey was appointed, though he never consented to draw the additional salary offered to him.
The theory, as expressed in legal phrase by St Cyprian in the 3rd century, was that the apostolic power of delegated sovereignty from the Lord, alike legislative and judicial, was held in joint-tenancy by the whole body of Catholic bishops.
A father could disinherit a son in early times without restriction, but the Code insisted upon judicial consent and that only for repeated unfilial conduct.
From this time the chief interest of his career lies in his judicial work, but he did not wholly dissever himself from politics.
Certain types of dangerous individuals are relegated after serving a sentence in the ordinary convict prisons, and by administrative, not by judicial process, to special penal colonies known as domicilii coatti or forced residences.
Here it is used, in the limited sense defined by an American Court, as " the authority by which judicial officers take cognizance of and decide causes."
c.19 and its present successor the judicial committee of Privy Council (infra: Rep. Com.
This measure focuses on all three branches of the government - executive, legislative, and judicial.
All his work shows a judicial tone of mind, and is remarkable for the charm of its style.
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of Appeals, the Circuit courts, such inferior courts as may be established, county courts, the powers and duties of which are, however, chiefly police and fiscal, and in justices of the peace.
Equity as thus described would correspond rather to the judicial discretion which modifies the administration of the law than to the antagonistic system which claims to supersede the law.
Each has its own judicial system, and enacts laws relating to the administration of justice, the distribution and imposition of taxes, and all matters affecting the province.
The ordinary judicial system of France comprises two classes of courts: (I) civil and criminal, (2) special, including courts dealing only with purely commercial cases; in addition there are the administrative courts, including bodies, the Conseil dEtat and the Conseils de Prefecture, which dGal, in their judicial capacity, with cases coming under the droit administratif.
The first was the appointment of a grand council with supreme judicial and financial functions P 7 ?
He was made commander-in-chief of both the military and naval forces with supreme authority, and in his hands was placed the final appointment to all political and judicial posts and to vacant city magistracies.
It was thus practically a committee of the larger council, and assisted the king in his judicial work, its authority being as undefined as his own.
Subsequently he was transferred, perhaps through Cromwell's influence, to the service of the king, and in January 15 3 2 he was sent to Rome to obstruct the judicial proceedings against Henry in the papal curia.
It established that all Italian cabinets since 1880 had grossly neglected the state banks; that the two preceding cabinets had been aware of the irregularities committed by Tanlongo; that Tanlongo had heavily subsidized the press, paying as much as 20,000 for that purpose in 1888 alone; that a number of deputies, including several ex-ministers, had received from him loans of a considerable amount, which they had apparently made no effort to refund; that Giolitti had deceived the Chamber with regard to the state banks, and was open tosuspicion of having,after the arrest of Tanlongo, abstracted a number of documents from the latters papers before placing the remainder in the hands of the judicial authorities.
Divorce is forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church, and only 839 judicial separations were obtained from the courts in 1902, more than half of the demands made having been abandoned.
The sheriff "was the king's representative in all matters judicial, military and financial in the shire.
The judicial powers of the county court are confined to probate, the appointment of executors, administrators and other personal representatives, and the settlement of their accounts, matters relating to apprentices and to contested elections for county and district officers.
It is more important to observe that under Joseph and his ministers or advisers, including the Frenchmen Roederer, Dumas, Miot de Melito and the Corsican Saliceti, great progress was made in abolishing feudal laws and customs, in reforming the judicial procedure and criminal laws on the model of the Code Napoleon, and in attempting the beginnings of elementary education.
The mandamenti or administrative divisions no longer correspond to the judicial divisions (mandamenti giudiziarii) which in November 1891 were reduced from 1806 to 1535 by a law which provided that judicial reform should not modify existing administrative and electoral divisions.
The judges of the supreme court are elected biennially by tine General Assembly, and all the other judicial officers are elected by the people.
First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.
Police.Broadly, the police of France may be divided into two great branchesadministrative police (la police administrative) and judicial police (la police judic-iaire), the former having for its object the maintenance of order, and the latter charged with tracing out offenders, collecting the proofs, and delivering the presumed offenders to the tribunals charged by law with their trial and punishment.
Subdivisions may be, and often are, named according to the particular duties to which they are assigned, as la police politique, police des mceurs, police sanitaire, &c. The officers of the judicial police comprise the juge de paix (equivalent to the English police magistrate), the maire, the commissaire de police, the gendarmerie and, in rural districts, the gardes champtres and the gardes forestiers.
Finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science - everything, in short - emerged recast from his shaping hand.
Murano, however, retained its original constitution of a greater and a lesser council for the transaction of municipal business, and also the right to coin gold and silver as well as its judicial powers.
It is divided into three co-ordinate branches, legislative, executive and judicial, and is carried on under the provisions of the constitution of 1886, profoundly modified by the amendments of 1905.
Each bishop is assisted by at least two officers with judicial or quasi-judicial powers, the " archimandrite " who adjudicates upon causes of revenue and the archdeacon who adjudicates on questions between deacons (op. cit.
Outside his judicial duties he was responsible for much useful public work, particularly in the department of higher education.
The comprehensiveness of his legal and judicial reforms is very striking.
The narration of Herodotus is only a popular tradition which derives the origin of kingship from its judicial functions, considered as its principal and most beneficent aspect.
The judicial power is vested in a high court and many subordinate courts.
There are civil, commercial and criminal courts in Montevideo, a departmental court in each departmental capital, and a justice of the peace in each of 205 judicial districts into which the republic is divided, with sub-district courts under deputy judges in addition.
The judicial functions are discharged by four grades of officials - the local magistrates, the courts of common pleas, the quarterly courts (five in number) and the supreme court.
The judicial and administrative work of the old council was in 1906 assigned to separate committees.
See Judicial System, below.
Not the least valuable of the gifts of the " tsar emancipator," Alexander II., to Russia was the judicial System system established by the statute (Sudebni Ustav) of the 10th of November 1864.
p principles: the separation of the judicial and administrative functions, the independence of the judges and courts, the publicity of trials and oral procedure, the equality of all classes before the law.
The establishment of a judicial system on these principles, constituted, as M.
From the town The judge (ispravnik), who, in spite of the principle laid ordinary down in 1864, combines judicial and administrative functions, an appeal lies (as in the case of the justices of the peace) to an assembly of such judges; from these again there is an appeal to the district court (okrugniya sud), consisting of three judges; 4 from this to the court of appeal (sudebniya palata); while over this again is the senate, which, as the supreme court of cassation, can send a case for retrial for reason shown.
The confusion of the judicial and administrative functions was introduced again by the appointment of officials as judges.
A certain amount of local self-government was entrusted to the nobles and the burghers, and the judicial administration was thoroughly reorganized in an enlightened and humane spirit.
the principle of the separation of the administrative and judicial functions) were largely curtailed.
Private operation, subject only to judicial regulation, was exemplified most fully in the early railway history of the United States.
But the jurisdiction of the state commissions was, by judicial interpretation, limited to commerce beginning and ending within the limits of the single state.
In this connexion, reference should be made to the Anti-Trust Act of 1890, which, by its judicial interpretation, has been held to include railways and to forbid rate agreements between competing carriers.
We stand on safer ground when we come to Elijah's bold intervention on behalf of righteousness when he declared in the name of Yahweh the divine judgment on Ahab and his house for the judicial murder of Naboth.
The judicial department consists of a supreme court with a chief justice and two associate justices, chosen for six years, and district courts, with judges chosen for four years.
Worship is simpler at the smaller shrines than at the more famous temples; and, as the rulers are the patrons of the religion and are brought into contact with the religious personnel, the character of the social organization leaves its mark upon those who hold religious and judicial functions alike.
A triennial parliament, a cabinet, a privy council, and an elaborate judicial system were established, and the cumbrous machinery was placed in the hands of a " prime minister," a retired Wesleyan missionary, Mr Shirley Baker.
They are appointed, promoted, transferred or removed by order of the council of justice, a body composed of the five highest judicial dignitaries, sitting at Canea.
It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.
The local judicial authorities are the county board of supervisors of five members and the justices of the peace.
Garner's Reconstruction Mississippi (New York, 1902) is judicial, scholarly and readable.
Weeks deals with the religious history in his Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1892), Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893) and Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); he is anti-Anglican, but judicial.
Thus, for instance, was the Rationale of Judicial Evidence written out by J.
This year also he found a congenial occupation in editing Bentham's Rationale of Judicial Evidence.
He had become convinced that his comrades in the Utilitarian Society, never more than ten, had not the stuff in them for a world-shaking propaganda; the society itself was dissolved; the Parliamentary Review was a failure; the Westminster did not pay its expenses; Bentham's Judicial Evidence produced little effect on the reviewers.
(6th of February 1801), it enabled the government to supersede the ordinary judicial machinery for political offences in no fewer than thirty-two departments.
They contain the voluminous and invaluable records of the Venetian republic, diplomatic, judicial, commercial, notarial, &c. Under the republic the various departments of state stored their records in various buildings, at the ducal palace, at the Scuola di San Teodoro, at the Camerlenghi.
The judicial department in 1910 was composed of a supreme court of six judges, eight circuit courts.'
While the body of the noblesse formed the high court, the court of the burgesses was composed of twelve legists (probably named by the king) under the presidency of the vicomte - a knight also named by the king, who was a great financial as well as a judicial officer.
The court was part of the general immunity which made these quarters imperia in imperio: their exemptions from tolls and from financial contributions is parallel to their judicial privileges.
The Territory is administered, under the direction of the governor, by a resident commissioner, who is also the chief judicial officer.
Four legati juridici (or simply juridici) of consular rank were appointed for Italy, who took over certain important judicial functions formerly exercised by local magistrates (cases of fideicommissa, the nomination of guardians).
The judicial council (consiliarii Augusti, later called consistorium), composed of persons of the highest rank (especially jurists), became a permanent body of advisers, although merely consultative.
As minister he carried through an important judicial reform which had been prepared by his predecessor, but had to retire from office because he was opposed to the reactionary measures for restoring the influence and privileges of the nobility.
Its most important feature, when compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit judges, the state' attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment..
The appeal to these "persons," called delegates, continued until it was transferred first to the privy council and then to the judicial committee of the privy council by acts of 1832 and 1833.
Assisted no doubt by their judicial control, the Eupatridae also tended to become sole owners of the land, reducing the original freeholders or tenants to the position of serfs.
It recognizes the will and attaches great importance to written deeds, but on the other hand sanctions the judicial duel and the cojuratores (sworn witnesses).
As a ruler he showed legislative capacity, and a very commendable wish to provide his kingdoms with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system.
His family was known among judicial circles in the 16th century, and maintained the Roman Catholic faith after the official introduction of the Reformed religion into Navarre.
In his own kingdom Charles took some steps to reform the financial and judicial administration and so to increase his revenue; but he was soon occupied once more with foreign entanglements, and in July 1362, in alliance with Peter the Cruel, king of Castile, he invaded Aragon, deserting his new ally soon afterwards for Peter IV., king of Aragon.
They were to be elected for five years by seventeen of the tribes chosen by lot from the thirty-five; the imperium was to be conferred upon them by the lex curiata, together with judicial powers and the rank of praetor.
Nominally a free Greek city, Alexandria retained its senate to Roman times; and indeed the judicial functions of that body were restored by Septimius Severus, after temporary abolition by Augustus.
During the republic and the empire he filled successively judicial offices at Louviers, Rouen and Evreux.
A provisional code of judicial procedure, prepared by Edward Livingston, was in effect in 1805 to 1825.
The judicial system was much improved, a better grade of officials became the rule, many French Creoles were appointed to office, intermarriages of French and Spanish and even English were encouraged by the highest officials, and in general a liberal and conciliatory policy was followed, which made Louisiana under Spanish rule quiet and prosperous.
The introduction of English law, and the changes made in the judicial and legal systems of Louisiana after 1804 have already been described.
The character of this body was altered in 1890, and in 1898, in which latter year its functions were reduced to the essentially judicial.
The preliminaries of the elections of December 1905 and March 1906 being marked by frauds and injustice, the Liberals deserted the polls at those elections, and instead of appealing to judicial tribunals controlled by the Moderates, issued a manifesto of revolution on the 28th of July 1906.1 This insurrection rapidly assumed large proportions.
All these officials unite in their own persons the judicial and executive functions, under the " Law of the Vilayets," which made its appearance in 1861, and purported, and was really intended by its framers, to confer on the provinces a large measure of self-government, in which both Mussulmans and non-Mussulmans should take part.
After the promulgation of the reforms, the judicial duties of the Imperial Divan, which with other functions also exercised those of a kind of supreme court of appeal, were transferred to the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
English officers were engaged to reform the gendarmerie, and judicial inspectors of foreign nationality were to travel through the country to redress abuses.
The resident superior is assisted by the protectorate council, consisting of heads of French administrative departments (chief of the judicial service, of public works, &c.) and one native "notable," and the royal orders must receive its sanction before they can be executed.
The judicial department comprises a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and (since 1881) four associate justices elected for terms of six years, and lower courts consisting of district courts with original jurisdiction in civil cases in law and equity, and in criminal cases upon indictments by grand juries; justices' courts, in which the amount in litigation cannot exceed $ioo, or the punishment cannot exceed three months' imprisonment or a fine of $loo; and of municipal and probate courts with the usual jurisdictions.
This has been decided by the judicial committee of the Privy Council (Hebbert v.
As chairman of the judiciary committee, he brought forward a number of measures for the improvement of judicial procedure, and in May 1826 joined with Benton in presenting a report on executive patronage.
The administration is in the hands of a council of chiefs which exercises legislative, executive and, to some extent, judicial functions.
Although acknowledged as the county town of Pembrokeshire, Pembroke was superseded by Haverfordwest as the judicial and administrative centre of the shire on account of the more convenient position of the latter place.
Arbitration differs from Mediation in so far as it is a judicial act, whereas Mediation involves no decision, but merely advice and suggestions to those who invoke its aid.
His essential functions were judicial and executive, and in documents he is often described as the king's agent (agens publicus) or royal judge (judex publicus or fiscalis).
He also retained a third of the fines which he imposed in his judicial capacity.
The states are subdivided into cornarcas, or judicial districts, and into municipios, or townships, which is the smallest autonomous division.
The supreme powers of the nation are vested in three partially independent branches of government - executive, legislative, and judicial - represented by the president and his cabinet, a national congress of two chambers, and a supreme tribunal.
The states are forbidden, likewise, to tax federal property, to tax inter-state commerce, to impose duties of their own on foreign imports, or to resist the execution of judicial sentences originating in other states.
The judicial system of the republic consists of a supreme federal tribunal of fifteen judges in the national capital, and a district tribunal in the capital of each state, which forms a federal judicial district.
The judges are appointed for life and can be removed only by judicial sentence and impeachment.
Limited judicial powers are exercised by chiefs of police, and by certain department commissions, or boards, of an executive character.
The judicial and financial functions in each province were vested in the Ouvidor, whose authority in the college of finance was second only to that of the governor.
As early as 1618 a code of laws for the regulation of the mining industry had been drawn up by Philip III., the executive and judicial functions in the mining districts being vested in a provedor, and the fiscal in a treasurer, who received the royal fifths and superintended the weighing of all the gold, rendering a yearly account of all discoveries and produce.
Much of his attention must have been engrossed by the work of administration, carried on without the help of those elaborate institutions, judicial and financial, which were perfected by Henry I.
The judicial power is independent of the administrative power.
The judicial authorities in Hungary are: (1) the district courts with single judges (458 in 1905); (2) the county courts with collegiate judgeships (76 in number); to these are attached 15 jury courts for press offences.
(4) The Royal Supreme Court at Budapest, and the Supreme Court of Justice, or Table of Septemvirs, at Zagrab, which are the highest judicial authorities.
The judicial murder of Laszlo Hu.iyadi (q.v.) by the enemies of his house (March 16, 1457) was therefore a stupid blunder as well as the foulest of crimes, and on the death of his chief assassin, Ladislaus V., six months later (Nov.
The same centralizing tendency was shown in the administrative and judicial reforms taken in hand by the diet of 1722.
The civil administration of justice began in April; in October a reformed judicial system, with Sir J.
That important legal work, The Laws of the Emperors Constantine, Theodosius and Leo, which was composed in Greek about 475, and " which lies at the root of all subsequent Christian Oriental legislation in ecclesiastical, judicial and private matters" (Wright), must have been repeatedly translated into Syriac. The oldest form is contained in a British Museum MS. which dates from the earlier part of the 6th century, and this was edited by Land (Anecd.
It has its council of notables, forming a sort of oligarchy which, through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates, directs the interior affairs of the community - policing, recruiting, the assignment and collection of taxes, &c. - and has judicial power in less important suits and crimes.
More serious cases come within the purview of the an-sat, a judicial auxiliary of the governor.
The judicial power is vested in a supreme federal court, called the Corte Federal y de Casacion, and such subordinate tribunals as may be created by law.
As the laws and procedure are uniform throughout the republic and all decrees and findings have legal effect everywhere, the state judicial organizations may be considered as taking the place of district federal courts, although the constitution does not declare them so.
The federal court consists of 7 members, representing as many judicial districts of the republic, who are elected by Congress for periods of six years (Const.
The judicial organization of the states includes in each a supreme court of three members, a superior court, courts of first instance, district courts and municipal courts.
The judicial terms in the states are for three years.
Crispi was compelled to resign office, although the judicial authorities upheld the invalidity of his early marriage, contracted at Malta in 1853, and ratified his subsequent union with Signora Barbagallo.
The ensuing Rudini cabinet lent itself to Cavallotti's campaign, and at the end of 1897 the judicial authorities applied to the chamber for permission to prosecute Crispi for embezzlement.
Volumes and almost libraries have been written on the Calas affair, and we can but refer here to the only less famous cases of Sirven (very similar to that of Calas, though no judicial murder was actually committed), Espinasse (who had been sentenced to the galleys for harbouring a Protestant minister), Lally (the son of the unjustly treated but not blameless Irish-French commander in India), D'Etalonde (the companion of La Barre), Montbailli and others.
Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).
For judicial purposes Westminster was merged with the county of London in 1889, and the Liberty of the Tower was abolished in 1894.
Other purely judicial officers are the judicial commissioner for Upper Burma, and the civil judges of Mandalay and Moulmein.
The scale of judicial fines is given in the denarius (" which makes so many solidi"), and it is known that the monetary system of the solidus did not appear until the Merovingian period.
seems to indicate that the Frankish power extended south of the Loire, since it speaks of men dwelling "trans Legerem" being summoned to the mallus (judicial assembly) and being allowed eighty nights for their journey.
(629-639), to a time when the power of the mayors of the palace was still feeble, since we read of a mayor being threatened with the death penalty for taking bribes in the course of his judicial duties.
In the Ripuarian Law a certain importance attaches to written deeds; the clergy are protected by a higher wer gild- 600 solidi for a priest, and 900 for a bishop; on the other hand, more space is given to the cojuratores (sworn witnesses); and we note the appearance of the judicial duel, which is not mentioned in the Salic Law.
Savonarola also proposed a court of appeal for criminal and political crimes tried by the Otto di guardia e balia; this too was agreed to, but the right of appeal was to be, not to a court as Savonarola suggested, but to the Greater Council, a fact which led to grave abuses, as judicial appeals became subject to party passions.
council, a director of the interior, a judicial head, and a director of the penitentiary administration.
The most important public function whose transformation into a private possession was assisted by the growth of the immunity was the judicial.
The transfer of the judicial process, and of the financial and administrative sides of the government as well, into private possession, was not, however, accomplished entirely by the road of the immunity.
His right to exact military, financial and judicial duties for the state he had used to force men to become his dependants, and then he had stood between them and the state, freeing them from burdens which he threw with increased weight upon those who still stood outside his personal protection.
The early German governments whose chief functions, military, judicial, financial, legislative, were carried on by the freemen of the nation because they were members of the body politic, and were performed as duties owed to the community for its defence and sustenance, no longer existed.
It contains also the highest judicial, financial, military and administrative official authorities of Austria, and is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Vienna enjoys autonomy for communal affairs, but is under the control of the governor and the Diet of Lower Austria, while the election of the chief burgomaster requires the sanction of the sovereign, advised by the prime minister.
The government is divided into three independent branches, legislative, executive and judicial, of which through force of circumstances the executive has become the dominating power.
No member of the executive branch of the government (president, cabinet minister, prefect, sub-prefect, or governor) can be elected to either chamber, nor can any judge or " fiscal " of the supreme court, nor any member of the ecclesiastical hierarchy from his diocese, province or parish, nor any judge or " fiscal " of superior and first-instance courts from their judicial districts, nor any military officer from the district where he holds a military appointment at the time of election.
The Samaritans, who otherwise shared the scruples of the Jews about the utterance of the name, seem to have used it in judicial oaths to the scandal of the rabbis.4 The early Christian scholars, who inquired what was the true name of the God of the Old Testament, had therefore no great difficulty in getting the information they sought.
Mainz is the seat of the administrative and judicial authorities of the province of Rhein-Hessen, and also of a Roman Catholic bishop.
At the head of the judicial system is the supreme court (1747), divided since 1893 into an appellate division and a common pleas division, with final revisory and appellate jurisdiction upon all questions of law and equity.
The town (or township) is the unit of local government, the county being recognized only for judicial purposes and to a certain extent in the appointment by central administrative boards.
While a comparison of his expositions of the Pauline and Johannine Christologies with the earlier Unitarian exegesis in which he had been trained shows how wide is the interval, the work does not represent a mind that had throughout its history lived and worked in the delicate and judicial investigations he here tried to conduct.
His work, which appeared in three parts, entitled respectively History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France (2 vols., 1879), The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre (2 vols., 1886), and The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (2 vols., 1895), is characterized by painstaking thoroughness, by a judicial temper, and by scholarship of a high order.
The judicial committee of the privy council, as the last court of appeal, has on several occasions pronounced judgments by which the scope of the act has been confined to its narrowest legal effect.
Heresy or no heresy, in the last resort, like all other ecclesiastical questions, is decided by the judicial committee of the council.
This piece was played after the fall of the Terror, but the fratricide of Timoleon became the text for insinuations to the effect that by his silence Joseph de Chenier had connived at the judicial murder of Andre, whom Joseph's enemies alluded to as Abel.
There was also a lord warden, who was usually a nobleman and performed no judicial functions.
In judicial impartiality Parkman may be compared with Gardiner, and for accuracy of learning with Stubbs.
His view of constitutional history was that it should contain only so much of the political and general history of the time as bears directly on specific changes in the organization of the state, including therein judicial as well as ecclesiastical institutions.
For his share in this judicial murder a deep stain rests on the memory of Aarssens.
One of the peculiarities of the government was that in addition to the regular executive, legislative and judicial departments there was a privy council without whose approval the governor's power was little more than nominal.
1840), who from 187 9 to 1885 had been the attorney-general of the state and subsequently was a member of the Spanish-American Peace Commission at Paris in 1898 and became a judge of the United States circuit court, third judicial circuit, in 1899.
The early poems of the cycle sometimes contain curious information on the Frankish methods in war, in council and in judicial procedure, which had no parallels in contemporary institutions.
At the beginning of the 13th century there existed a tour des pairs which exercised judicial functions and dated possibly from the 11th century, but their prerogatives at the beginning of the 14th century appear to have been mainly ceremonial and decorative.
The judicial system, revised by a constitutional amendment of 1891, consists of a supreme court of three members, elected for a term of six years, with civil jurisdiction only, largely appellate; a court of criminal appeals, of three members, elected for six years, with appellate jurisdiction in criminal cases; courts of civil appeals (number determined by the legislature) of three members each, elected for six years; district courts, each with one judge, elected for four years, with original jurisdiction in the more important civil and criminal (felony) cases and a limited appellate jurisdiction; county and justice of the peace courts with original jurisdiction in misdemeanours and petty civil cases.
7-325, for an account of legislative and judicial history; and J.
Iowa, having separated from Wisconsin in 1838 on account of lack of courts for judicial relief, the question of applying for admission into the Union as.
ex, out of, away from; communis, common), the judicial exclusion of offenders from the rights and privileges of the religious community to which they belong.
It is noteworthy that the word av6.9E1.ta had fallen into disuse about the beginning of the 4th century, and that, throughout the same period, no instance of the judicial use of the phrase rapaSovvat T(i) larava can be found.
The constitutional changes of Diocletian and Constantine extended still further the power of the praefect, in whom, after the disbanding of the guards and the removal from Rome of the highest officials, the whole military, administrative and judicial powers were centred.
Under the republic judicial praefects (praefecti jure dicendo) were sent annually from Rome as deputies of the praetors to administer justice in certain towns of the Italian allies.
Courts of justice, however, do not grant reprieves by way of dispensation from the penalties of the law, which is not for the judicial department, but for temporary purposes, e.g.
Meanwhile the Conqueror had invested him with important judicial functions.
From the point of view of purely judicial administration, Anjou was subject to the parlement of Paris; Angers was the seat of a presidial court, of which the jurisdiction comprised the senechaussees of Angers, Saumur, Beauge, Beaufort and the duchy of Richelieu; there were besides presidial courts at Château-Gontier and La Fleche.
The Eumenides of Aeschylus is a glorification of the institution, though for obvious reasons it is there represented as an essentially judicial body.
The bishop, or count, on whose lands the peace was violated was vested with judicial power, and was directed, in case he was himself unable to execute sentence, to summon to his assistance the laymen and even the clerics of the diocese, all of whom were required to take a solemn oath to observe and enforce the peace.
The great monument of his episcopate is the eleven famous charges in which he from time to time reviewed the position of the English Church with reference to whatever might be the most pressing question of the day - addresses at once judicial and statesmanlike, full of charitable wisdom and massive sense.
He had a very judicial mind, and J.
The highest judicial court in the state is not, as in most states of the Union, the supreme court, but the court of appeals.
This board of charities consists of one member from each of the nine judicial districts and three additional members from the City of New York, all appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate for a term of eight years.
The regents of the University are chosen by the legislature, one retiring each year; and an act of 1909 requires that their number shall at all times be three more than the number of judicial districts..
The town (pop. 5000, including about 100 Europeans) is the seat of the customs administration and of the judicial department, and is the largest centre for the trade of the colony.
duties, appointed an autocratic boule of its own creatures, and proceeded by judicial murders and confiscations to earn for the new government the name of "the Thirty Tyrants.
programme were: (I) property qualification for franchise; (ii.) abolition of pay; (iii.) transference of some judicial powers.
The establishment of a supreme court also occupied the attention of Sir John, who had a strong sense of the necessity of maintaining the purity and dignity of the judicial office.
For judicial purposes the province is divided into twenty-four divisions, in each of which is a resident magistrate, who has limited civil and criminal jurisdiction.
He believed that international controversies would ultimately be settled by judicial procedure, and in the Russo-Japanese War and the establishment of the Hague Court he took an active part in promoting the judicial settlement of disputes between nations.
In his Nobel address he said: "In any community of any size the authority of the courts rests upon actual potential force; on the existence of a police or on the knowledge that the able-bodied men of the country are both ready and willing to see that the decrees of judicial and legislative bodies are put into effect;" and he expressed the opinion that until a recognized international supreme court was firmly established, every nation must be prepared to defend itself, and when it was established all the nations must be prepared to maintain its decrees against any recalcitrant nation.
xiv.; see AsA); Jehoshaphat's wars and judicial measures (2 Chron.
Judicial References have been long known to the law of Scotland.
When an action is in court the parties may at any stage withdraw it from judicial determination, and refer it to arbitration.
A judicial reference falls like the other by the elapse of a year; and the court cannot review the award on the ground of miscarriage.
The procedure was gratuitous and voluntary; and the functions of the arbitrator were not judicial; he merely recorded the arrangement arrived at, or the refusal of conciliation.
The judicial department consists of the supreme court, circuit courts, county courts, justices of the peace, and police Sioux Falls, 12,283; Lead, 8052; Aberdeen, 5841; Mitchell, 5719; Watertown, 5164;5164; Deadwood, 4364; Yankton, 4189; Huron, 3783;3783; Brookings, 3265.
Of the three forms of absolution in the Anglican Prayer Book, that in the Visitation of the Sick (disused in the church of Ireland by decision of the Synods of 187r and 1877) runs "I absolve thee," tracing the authority so to act through the church up to Christ: the form in the Communion Service is precative, while that in Morning and Evening Prayer is indicative indeed, but so general as not to imply anything like a judicial decree of absolution.
He studied law, and after holding some minor judicial offices, was minister to New Granada in 1853.
In 1872 he undertook the defence of his friend Lord Chancellor Hatherley, when attacked for his appointment of Sir Robert Collier to the judicial committee of the Privy Council, and, by a line of argument more ingenious than convincing, secured a majority for the government.
The fusion of law and equity, the reorganization of the whole judicial system of England, and the association of all the supreme tribunals in one common home were works of no ordinary magnitude or importance, and give a character of unusual importance to his chancellorship. That Lord Selborne was a truly religious man it is impossible to doubt: his whole life was regulated and inspired by a sense of his duty towards God and his fellowmen, and a long life spent amid the temptations of legal and public life left not the faintest stain on his memory.
During his brief reign at Naples, Joseph effected many improvements; he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, reorganized the judicial, financial and educational systems, and initiated several public works.
The judicial department consists of the supreme court, district courts, county courts, municipal courts, and justices of the peace.
For each judicial district (the tenth district was created in 2907) there is one district judge, elected for four years; the district courts have original jurisdiction (except in probate matters) and certain appellate jurisdiction.
331,000 Judicial and other fees.
A large portion of the work of the foreign consuls, especially the British, was consequently judicial, and in 1901 the office of judge.
In 1906 a bill was passed somewhat modifying the existing status of the classes above mentioned, and especially directing new ordinances with regard to the judicial treatment of Christian natives.
A general judicial revision being also in contemplation, this bill did not immediately come into force.
Justice for Europeans is administered by European judges, but, as with administration at large so in judicial matters, native chiefs have extensive powers in native affairs.
For native justice there are courts in the districts and regencies; residents act as police judges; provincial councils have judicial powers, and there are councils of priests with powers in matrimonial disputes, questions of succession, &c.
A calm and judicial annihilation of the claim is to be found in a brief article by Sir G.
But Count Amadeus of Savoy not merely seized (1287) the castle built by the bishops (about 1219) on the Ile, but also (1288) the office of vicedominus [vidomne], the official through whom the bishop exercised his minor judicial rights.
He therefore claimed in both spheres the supreme administrative, legislative and judicial authority.
Their judicial functions also brought profit to the priests, fines being exacted for certain offences and paid to them (2 Kings xii.
It is instructive to observe how differently the prophets of the 8th century speak of the judicial or " teaching " functions of the priests and of the ritual of the great sanctuaries.
The framers of the constitution were largely influenced by the American and French constitutions, and the American principle of the division and balance of the legislative, executive and judicial powers was followed.
His fair and judicial manner as president of the Senate, recognized even by his bitterest enemies, helped to foster traditions in regard to that position quite different from those which have become associated with the speakership of the House of Representatives.
There are five judicial districts (partidos judiciales), named after their chief towns - Inca, Iviza, Manacor, Palma and Port Mahon.
Exclusive of the city of Baltimore, the state is divided into seven judicial circuits, in each of which are elected for a term of fifteen years one chief judge and two associate judges, who at the time of their election must be members of the Maryland bar, between the ages of thirty and seventy, and must have been residents of the state for at least five years.
The canton (in France a judicial area) has, however, no existence in Algeria.
Two judicial systems exist in Algeria - native and French.
But this date (July 22, 1834), very important from a judicial point of view, is much less so from a historical point of view.
His parliamentary career, which, though not brilliantly successful, had won him high general esteem, was terminated by his elevation to the judicial bench as Lord Jeffrey in May 1834.
On the disruption of the Scottish Church he took the side of the seceders, giving a judicial opinion in their favour, afterwards reversed by the house of lords.
The counties are grouped into judicial circuits, those containing a population of more than 150,000 constituting separate districts; each district has a judge and a commonwealth's attorney.
Four years later, this in turn was divided into three counties, Jefferson, Lincoln and Fayette, but the name Kentucky was revived in 1782 and was given to the judicial district which was then organized for these three counties.
Perhaps Gertz deserved his fate for "unnecessarily making himself the tool of an unheard-of despotism," but his death was certainly a judicial murder, and some historians even regard him as a political martyr.
The cases of Nathan and David in the matter of Uriah, of Elijah and Ahab after the judicial murder of Naboth, will occur to everyone, Elijah..
This judicial reform (or rather compromise) was the work of Caesar's uncle, L.
The central government consists of three co-ordinhte branches - executive, legislative and judicial - each nominally independent of the other.
The judicial branch of the government consists of a supreme court of justice, three circuit courts, and 32 district courts.
Lands were set apart for the maintenance of the judges, and indeed nothing gives a higher idea of the elaborate civilization of Mexico than this judicial system, which culminated in a general court and council of state presided over by the king.
Among the resemblances to old-world law was the use of a judicial oath, the witness touching the ground with his finger and putting it to his lips, thus swearing by Mother Earth.
New Spain in its widest meaning includes the audiencias or judicial districts of Manila, San Domingo and Guatemala, and the viceroy had some sort of authority over them: but in its narrower meaning it comprised the audiencia district of Mexico and the subordinate audiencia district of Guadalajara, which together extended from Chiapas and Guatemala to beyond the eastern boundary of the modern state of Texas and northwards, eventually, to Vancouver's Island.
28, 1841), abolishing all the Siete Leyes except the part re- Santa Anna lating to the judicial system, arranging for a new Restored, constituent assembly, and reserving for the presi 1841.
The first regular expedition to ry penetrate far inland was in 1801-1802, when John (afterwards Sir John) Truter, of the Cape judicial bench, and William Somerville - an army physician and afterwards husband of Mary Somerville - were sent to the Bechuana tribes to buy cattle.
The corporation has neither control over the police nor any judicial duties, excepting as regards a court of conscience dealing with debts under 40s.
(I) Judicial Notice.
- The courts, both temporal and spiritual, take judicial notice of the tenets and authorities of the Church of England, the crown being head of the law and of the church.
The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, consisting of a chief justice and four associate justices elected by the people; six appeal courts, each with three judges, also elected by the people; and twenty-six courts of first instance, each consisting of one judge appointed by the president and two by the chief justice of the supreme court.
- It must be remembered that the courts of each state form a judicial system, complete in itself, and independent of the Federal courts, and, of course, of other states.
In New England the county was originally an aggregation of towns for judicial purposes, and in that part of the Union it is still in the main a judicial district.
There is no general representative council or board, but judicial officers, a sheriff and a clerk, are elected in each county, and also a county treasurer and county commissioners.
In the Southern states the county is the local administrative unit, and in addition to its original judicial and financial functions it has now also control over public schools, the care of the poor and the construction and mana,gement of roads.
These American corporations had the usual English system of borough government, consisting of a mayor, aldermen and councilmen, who carried out the simple administrative and judicial functions needed br the then small communities.
Following what was then deemed a fundamental maxim of political science, they divided the government into three departments, the legislative, the executive and the judicial, and sought to keep each of these as far as possible detached from and independent of the other two.
The functions of the Senate fall into three classeslegislative, executive and judicial.
The judicial function of the Senate is to sit as a high court for the trial of persons impeached by the House of Representatives, a vote of two-thirds of those present being needed for conviction.
The attorney-general is the legal adviser of the president, public prosecutor and standing counsel for the United States, and also has general oversight of the Federal judicial administration, especially of the prosecuting officers called district attorneys and of the executive court officers called marshals.
The circuit courts consist of twenty-nine circuit judges, acting iji nine judicial circuits, while to each circuit there is also allotted one of the justices of the Supreme Court.
It is not strictly a part of the general judicial system, but is a creation of Congress designed to relieve that body of a part of its own labors.
Part of this jurisdiction has, however, been withdrawn by the eleventh amendment to the Constitution, which declares that the judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
Now, the functions of judicial tribunals of all courts alike, whether Federal or state, whether superior or inferioris to interpret the law, and if any tribunal finds a congressional statute or state statute inconsistent with the Constitution, the tribunal is obliged to hold such statute invalid.
The great importance of these nominating bodies lies not only in the fact that there are an enormous number of state, county and city offices (including judicial offices) filled by direct popular election, but also in the fact that in the United States a candidate has scarcely any chance of being elected unless he is regularly nominated by his party, that is to say, by the recognised primary or convention.
The purpose of this bill was disclosed in the statement that "the government of India had decided to settle the question of jurisdiction over European British subjects in such a way as to remove from the code, at once and completely, every judicial disqualification which is based merely on race distinctions," in fact to subject Europeans in certain cases to trial by native magistrates.
From the decisions of the supreme court of Canada appeal may be made to the judicial committee of the imperial privy council.
A statement made by the Canadian commissioners, who refused to sign the report, of an unexplained change of opinion on the part of Lord Alverstone, produced a widespread impression for a time that his decision in favour of American claims was diplomatic rather than judicial.
The right of appeal from the supreme court, thus constituted, to the judicial committee of the privy council marks, in questions judicial, Canada's place as a part of the British empire.
South Australia, as colonial members of the judicial committee still further established the position of that body as the final court of appeal for the British people.
The grave questions of respective jurisdiction which have from time to time arisen between the federal and provincial governments have for the most part been settled by appeal to one or both of these judicial bodies.
On a larger scale speeches written by orators to be delivered by litigants were published and encouraged publication; and, as the Attic orators were his contemporaries, publication had become pretty common in the time of Aristotle, who speaks of many bundles (Skaas) of judicial speeches by Isocrates being hawked about by the booksellers (Fragm.
7, I), by separating the declamatory (E7rt6ELKTLK011) from the deliberative (bjwjyoptcOv, av,u ovXEVTLKOV) and judicial (SLKavtKOV); whereas his rival Isocrates had considered that laudation and vituperation, which Aristotle elevated into species of declamation, run through every kind (Quintilian iv.
4), and Anaximenes recognized only the deliberative and the judicial (Dionys.
4) imputes to Anaximenes two genera, deliberative and judicial, and seven species, " hortandi, dehortandi, laudandi, vituperandi, accusandi, defendendi, exquirendi, quod E ETaaTthov dicit."
But the author of this rhetoric most certainly recognized three genera (T pia 'y v71), since, besides the deliberative and judicial, the declamatory genus constantly appears in the work (chaps.
This period is not astronomical, like the two former, but has reference to certain judicial acts which took place at stated epochs under the Greek emperors.
A Tuesday market formed the subject of a judicial inquiry in 1768, but since the middle of the 19th century it has been held on Saturdays.
On the 16th of May, after sessions in which the Senate repeatedly reversed the rulings of the chief justice as to the admission of evidence, in which the president's counsel showed that their case was excellently prepared and the prosecuting counsel appealed in general to political passions rather than to judicial impartiality, the eleventh article was voted on and impeachment failed by a single vote (35 to 19; 7 republicans and 12 democrats voting " Not guilty ") of the necessary two-thirds.
Other reforms. followed in quick succession during the next five or six years: army and navy organization, a new judicial administration on the French model, a new penal code and a greatly simplified system of civil and criminal procedure, an elaborate scheme of local self-government for the rural districts and the large towns, with elective assemblies possessing a restricted right of taxation, and a new rural and municipal police under the direction of the minister of the interior.
Other important libraries, with the approximate number of their books, are the Grosvenor (founded in 1859), for reference (75,000 volumes and 7000 pamphlets); the John C. Lord, housed in the building of the Historical Society (10,620); the Law (8th judicial district) (17,000); the Catholic Institute (12,000); and the library of the Buffalo Historical Society (founded 1862) (26,600), now in the handsome building in Delaware Park used as the New York state building during the PanAmerican Exposition of 1901.
A further development in the common efforts which have been made by different powers to assure the reign of justice and judicial methods among the states of the world was the proposal of Secretary Knox of the United States to insert in the instrument of ratification of the International Prize Court Convention (adopted at the Hague in 1897) a clause stating that the International Prize Court shall be invested with the duties and functions of a court of arbitral justice, such as recommended by the first Voeu of the Final Act of the conference.
The court contemplated by the convention was a court of appeal for reviewing prize decisions of national courts both as to facts and as to the law applied, and, in the exercise of its judicial discretion, not only to confirm in whole or in part the national decision or the contrary, but also to certify its judgment to the national court for enforcement thereof.
The adoption of this jurisdiction would have involved a revision of the judicial systems of probably every country accepting it.
The two courts would have separate spheres of activity, and litigants would practically have the option of submitting their differences to a judicial court which would regard itself as being bound by the letter of the law and by judicial methods or to a special court created ad hoc with a purely arbitrative character.
Foremost among standing peace agreements are, of course, the International Hague Conventions relating directly to peace, agreements which have not only created a special peace jurisdiction for the settlement of international difficulties by judicial methods but also a written law to apply within the scope of this jurisdiction.
At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites.
As a matter of fact he does commonly contribute to the party treasury, though in the case of certain candidates, particularly those for the presidency and for judicial offices, financial contributions are not general.
.As early as 1502 he was appointed under-sheriff of the city of London, an office then judicial and of considerable dignity.
The vengeance of Henry was not satisfied by this judicial murder of his friend and servant; he enforced the confiscation of what small property More had left, expelled Lady More from the house at Chelsea, and even set aside assignments which had been legally executed by More, who foresaw what would happen before the commission of the alleged treason.
An Arab's curse is escaped by falling flat on the face, for it then shoots over the head; and recently the following case was referred from French Canada before the judicial committee of the privy council.
The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, 5 circuit courts, and 29 district courts, each having a jurisdiction corresponding to similar courts in each state in the Union; and, entirely distinct from these territorial courts, Hawaii has a United States district court.
From them sprang a code of ecclesiastical laws and a whole judicial organization.
Indeed, a great part of his life was passed in hearing pleadings and pronouncing judgments, and few sovereigns have ever worked so industriously or shown such solicitude for the impartial exercise of their judicial functions.
387, that in cases for judicial separation the court has jurisdiction to hear the case in camera, where it is satisfied that justice cannot be done by hearing the case in public.
The practice of calling in expert assistance in judicial inquiries was not confined to medico-legal cases.
56), and a like power is given to both these courts and the judicial committee of the privy council in patent cases (Patents, &c., Act 1883, s.
The judicial committee of the privy council, besides its power to call in assessors in patent cases, is authorized to call them in in ecclesiastical causes (Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876, s.
He studied grammar and rhetoric at Rome and philosophy at Athens, after which he returned to Rome, where he held a judicial office.
He abolished all privileges which were not secured by charter and imposed a more rigidly centralized scheme of government in which the activities of the provincial diet were restricted to some judicial and financial functions, and their freedom in matters of foreign policy was withdrawn altogether.
The state is divided into three supreme judicial districts, the eastern, the middle and the western.
CURIA ROMANA, the name given to the whole body of administrative and judicial institutions, by means of which the pope carries on the general government of the Church; the name is also applied by an extension of meaning to the persons who form part of it, and sometimes to the Holy See itself.
In order to understand the organization of the various constituent parts of the Roman Curia, we must remember that the modern principle of the separation of powers is unknown to the Church; the functions of each department are limited solely by the extent of the powers delegated to it and the nature of the business entrusted to it; but each of them may have a share at the same time in the legislative, judicial and administrative power.
In this constitution he declared that the competency of these various organs was not always clear, and that their functions were badly arranged; that certain of them had only a small amount of business to deal with, while others were overworked; that strictly judicial affairs, with which the Congregations had not to deal originally, had developed to an excessive extent, while the tribunals, the Rota and the Signatura, had nothing to do.
He consequently withdrew all judicial affairs from the Congregations, and handed them over to the two tribunals, now revived, of the Rota and the papal Signatura; all affairs concerning the discipline of the sacraments were entrusted to a new Congregation of that name; the competency of the remaining Congregations was modified, according to the nature of the affairs with which they deal, and certain of them were amalgamated with others; general rules were laid down for the expedition of business and regarding personnel; in short, the work of Sixtus V.
The tribunals are three in number: one for the forum internum, the Penitentiary; the other two for judicial matters in foro externo, the Rota and the papal Signatura.
They collect all taxes, are responsible for the levy of troops, the courier service, corvees, &c., and exercise judicial functions, corresponding directly with Lhasa.
He was master in chancery for Woodford county, Illinois, in 1860-1864, and district-attorney for the twenty-third judicial district of that state from 1865 to 1869, when he removed to Bloomington.
The whole efforts of the elector and his minister were directed to nullifying the constitutional control vested in the diet; and the Opposition was fought by manipulating the elections, packing the judicial bench, and a vexatious and petty persecution of political "suspects," and this policy continued after the retirement of Hassenpflug in 1837.
He continued to discharge his judicial duties till within a few days of his death at Edinburgh on the 27th of December 1782.
His supervision of the law courts was close and jealous; he transacted a great amount of judicial business in his own person, even after he had formed a high court of justice which might sit without his personal presence.
In South Carolina he was a judicial officer, but the office no longer exists, as South Carolina has now a probate court.
(1) The Messianic is executed by the Messiah or the saints by victory in war, or by judicial sentence.
In the following month he resigned to accept an appointment as United States Judge for the Seventh Judicial Circuit.
In 1771 Beccaria was made a member of th° supreme economic council; and in 1791 he was appointed one of the board for the reform of the judicial code.
All the innate hatred of the foreigner went to strengthen the hands of the archbishops, who slowly acquired, in addition to their spiritual authority, powers military, executive and judicial.
The chiefs, indeed, were little more than leaders in war; for the right of private revenge limited their authority in judicial matters; and they received no taxes.
In 167 the country suffered severely from the intrigues of a philo-Roman party, which caused a series of judicial murders and the deportation of many patriots to Italy.
For five years he was assistant city attorney in Austin, and from 1891 to 1898 was attorney of the 26th judicial district of Texas.
The finances and the judicial system were reorganized,a class of civil servants and a national militia founded,and several small districts were brought under the duke's authority.
Important reforms were now introduced, including the separation of the judicial and executive powers and the drawing up of a new criminal code.
in his struggle with the princes who desired reforms in Germany, and in return for this loyalty received many marks of favour from Frederick, including extensive judicial rights which aroused considerable irritation among neighbouring rulers.
granted to Archbishop Adaldag "in the place called Bremen" (in loco Bremun nuncupato) the right to establish a market, and the full administrative, fiscal and judicial powers of a count, no one but the bishop or his advocatus being allowed to exercise authority in the city.
In the 13th century, however, whatever the civic organization of the townsfolk may have been, it was still strictly subordinate to the archbishop and his Vogt; the council could issue regulations only with the consent of the former, while in the judicial work of the latter, save in small questions of commercial dishonesty, its sole function was advisory.
In the Apology, after contrasting the judicial treatment of Christians with that of other accused persons, he refutes the accusations brought against the Christians of atheism, eating human flesh and licentiousness, and in doing so takes occasion to make a vigorous and skilful attack on pagan polytheism and mythology.
712 B.C.); (5) office was made annual, and to the existing three offices were added the six thesmothetae whose duty it was to record judicial decisions.
Gradually, however, the archonship lost its power, especially in judicial matters, until it retained merely the right of holding the preliminary investigation and the formal direction of the popular courts.
In 1824 he failed to secure re-election, and occupied himself with his judicial duties until his nomination as councillor of state in 1827.
The provinces are governed by a governor nominated by the king, the canton is a judicial division for marking the limit of the jurisdiction of each juge de paix, and the commune is the administrative unit, possessing self-government in all local matters.
The Cour de Cassation has a peculiar judicial sphere.
This was the object he had in view in his attempt to make Dutch, except in the Walloon districts, the official language for all public and judicial acts, and a knowledge of Dutch a necessary qualification for every person entering the public service.
The use of Flemish in public documents, in judicial procedure and in official correspondence was hereafter required in the Flemish provinces, and Belgium became officially bi-lingual.
The highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court, which is empowered to decide upon the constitutional validity of acts passed by Congress; its three members are appointed for four years by Congress, subject to the approval of the president.
In 1816 the first annual conference was held, id in 1843 there was instituted a general conference, composed delegates chosen by the annual conferences and constituting ie highest legislative and judicial authority in the church.
The legislative power of the empire also takes precedence of that of the separate states in the regulation of matters affecting freedom of migration (Freizugigkeit), domicile, settlement and the rights of German subjects generally, as well as in all that relates to banking, patents, protection of intellectual property, navigation of rivers and canals, civil and criminal legislation, judicial procedure, sanitary police, and control of the press and of associations.
Unfortunately the council of Constance, which met mainly through the efforts of Sigismund in 1414, marred its labors by the judicial murders of John Huss and of Jerome of Prague.
In them the armies are incorporated in the Prussian army; the railways are generally merged in the Prussian system; indirect taxation, post office, Waldeck and nearly the whole of the judicial arrangements are imperial.
Several questions in which Ontario and the Dominion came into conflict were carried to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, and in all of them Mowat was successful.
east of Port Arthur, but in 1884 the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council unanimously decided in favour of Ontario; and in 1888 another decision gave her absolute control, of the crown lands of New Ontario.
Menabrea disavowed Garibaldi and instituted judicial proceedings against him; but in negotiations with the French government he protested against the retention of the temporal power by the pope and insisted on the Italian right of interference in Rome.
After studying for two years (1843-1845) at Miami University, he practised law at Centerville, Indiana, and in 1852 was judge of the sixth judicial circuit of Indiana.
Bodies were established for executive, financial and judicial purposes, the Austrian lands constituted one of the imperial circles which were established in 1512, and in 1518 representatives of the various diets (Landtage) met at Innsbruck, a proceeding which marks the beginning of an organic unity in the Austrian lands.
He studied law at the universities of Vienna and Graz, but after passing the examination for employment in the state judicial service abandoned this career and, becoming a journalist, travelled extensively in south-east Europe, and visited Asia Minor and Egypt.
The judicial board of decemvirs (stlitibus judicandis) formed a civil court of ancient origin concerned mainly with questions bearing on the status of individuals.
While the lower classes remained pagan, a fairly civilized system of administration, with an efficient judicial and fiscal organization, was established in the Hausa territories.
There was a small judicial staff directed by a chief justice, and there was a native constabulary of about 1000 men, trained and drilled by white officers.
They were of two classes, the " Alkalis' Court," presided over by trained Mahommedan jurists, and " Judicial Councils," under the leading chiefs and natives presided over by the emir or other native ruler.
For the law relating to the prevention of cruelty to children see CHILDREN, LAW RELATING TO; for cruelty in the sense of such conduct as entitles a husband or wife to judicial separation see DIVORCE.
Justice.There are four judicial systems in Egypt: two applicable to Egyptian subjects only, one applicable to foreigners only, and one applicable to foreigners and, to a certain extent, natives also.
admitted as a judicial language by khedivial decree of the 17th of April 1905.
Besides their judicial duties, the courts practically exercise legislative functions, as no important law can be made applicable to Europeans without the consent of the powers, and the powers are mainly guided by the opinions of the judges of the Mixed Courts.
The judicial systems applicable solely to Egyptians are supervised by the ministry of justice, to which has been attached since 1890 a British judicial adviser.
For other than the purposes indicated, the native judicial system, both civil and criminal, was superseded in 1884 by tribunals administering a jurisprudence modelled on that of the French code.
A committee of judicial surveillance watches the working of the courts of first instance and the summary courts, and endeavours, by letters and discussions, to maintain purity and sound law.
Among the Moslems the Sheikh-elIslam, appointed by the khedive from among the Ulema (learned class), exercises the highest religious and, in certain subjects, judicial authority.
When magicians made figures of wax representing men whom they desired to injure, this was of course an illegal act like any Dther, and the law stepped in to prevent it: one papyrus that has been preserved records the judicial proceedings taken in 1uch a case in connection with the harem conspiracy against Rameses III.
The new Egyptian army was so far improved that it gained successes over the forces of the Mahdi; the burden of the national debt was lightened by a successful conversion; the corve was abolished; 1 the land tax was reduced 30% in the poorest provinces, and in spite of this and other measures for lightening the public burdens, the budgetary surplus constantly increased; the quasi-judicial special commissions for brigandage, which were at once barbarous and inefficient, were abolished; the native tribunals were improved, and Mr (afterwards Sir John) Scott, an Indian judge of great experience and sound judgment, was appointed judicial adviser to the khedive.
This is mostly done by so-called Committees of Conciliation, but in some cases by the court itself before commencing formal judicial proceedings.
In 1796 a special ordinance reformed the whole system of judicial procedure, making it cheaper and more expeditious; while the toll ordinance of the 1st of February 1797 still further extended the principle of free trade.
In 1747 appeared the Codex Fridericianus, by which the Prussian judicial body was established.
vated by the general decline, during the last two centuries, of the level of forensic and judicial learning.
But the former is tainted by venality, which, aggravated by the scantiness of judicial salaries or in some cases by the judge having no salary at all, is almost universal among the administrators of justice.
On leaving the Home Office in 1895, Mr Asquith decided to return to his work at the bar, a course which excited much comment, since it was unprecedented that a minister who had exercised judicial functions in that capacity should take up again the position of an advocate; but it was obvious that to maintain the tradition was difficult in the case of a man who had no sufficient independent means.
Among the important buildings are the United States Government building (Grand Rapids is the seat of the southern division of the Federal judicial district of western Michigan), the County Court house, the city hall, the public library (presented by Martin A.
The law in regard to images, which in this connexion include pictures and stained-glass windows, but not sculptured effigies on monuments or merely ornamental work, is contained in various judicial decisions, and is not defined by statute.
The question whether a crucifix or rood standing alone or combined with figures of the Blessed Virgin and St John can, in any circumstances, be regarded as merely decorative, has given rise to a difference of judicial opinion and appears to be unsettled."
Speaking generally, articles of decoration and embellishment not used in the services cannot lawfully be introduced into a church without the consent of the ordinary given by a faculty, the granting of which is subject to the judicial discretion of the chancellor or commissary, sitting as judge of the bishop's court.
The king and the Estates were curtailing the judicial privileges and jurisdiction of the clergy; and the anti-pope, Peter de Luna, quarrelled with the country on this ground.
- Budapest is the seat of the government of Hungary, of the parliament, and of all the highest official authorities - civil, military, judicial and financial.
The judiciary consists of a supreme court of 7 members elected for a term of 9 years; a circuit court of 54 judges, 3 for each of 18 judicial districts, elected for 6 years; and four appellate courts - one for Cook county (which has also a "branch appellate court," both the court and the branch court being presided over by three circuit judges appointed by the Supreme Court) and three other districts, each with three judges appointed in the same way.
In consequence, although the high judicial character of the men appointed and the lawyers' regard for precedent served to keep the court in the path marked out by Marshall and Story, the state sovereignty influence was occasionally manifest, as, for example, in the opinion (written by Taney) in the Dred Scott case (18 57, 19 Howard, 393)393) that Congress had no power to abolish slavery in territory acquired after the formation of the national government.
He devoted himself to philosophical trifling, petty administrative and judicial details, while his craze for economy developed into avarice.
But it was soon admitted (and notably by his colleagues on the judicial bench) to have been amply justified.
There is no evidence for the theory that originally the ephors were market inspectors; they seem rather to have had from the outset judicial or police functions.
O'Connell steadily supported Lord Melbourne's government, gave it valuable aid in its general measures, and repeatedly expressed his cordial approval of its policy in advancing Irish Catholics to places of trust and power in the state, though personally he refused a high judicial office.
He actually opposed the Irish Poor Law, as encouraging a communistic spirit; he declared a movement against rent a crime; and, though he had a strong sympathy with the Irish peasant, and advocated a reform of his precarious tenure, it is difficult to imagine that he could have approved the cardinal principle of the Irish Land Act of 1881, the judicial adjustment of rent by the state.
of Semites, p. 70, who compares the judicial authority of Moses.
He then continued his legal studies at Breslau and Berlin, and after a visit of three years to England, then the model state for German liberals, entered the Prussian judicial service.
His great work, however, was the share he took in the judicial reform during the ten years 1867-1877.
Ottumwa is the headquarters of the Ottumwa Division of the Southern Federal Judicial District of Iowa, and terms of United States District and Circuit courts are held there.
have chief courts, and Oudh, the Central Provinces, Upper Burma, Sind and the North-West Frontier Province have judicial commissioners, all established by local legislation.
From the high courts, chief courts and judicial commissioners an appeal lies to the judicial committee of the privy council in England.
Below these courts come district and sessions judges, who perform the ordinary judicial work of the country, civil and criminal.
In the non-regulation territory judicial and executive functions are to a large extent combined in the same hands.
Nearly all the higher appointments, administrative and judicial, are appropriated by statute to this service, with xlv.
Other sources of revenue are stamps, levied on judicial proceedings and commercial documents; registration of mortgages and other instruments; and provincial rates, chiefly in Bengal and the United Provinces for public works or rural police.
The purity and integrity of his life are commemorated in a sentence by Daniel Webster: "When the spotless ermine of the judicial robe fell on John Jay, it touched nothing less spotless than itself."
In a judgment of the judicial committee of the privy council in 1899 (Coote v.
The judicial committee, however, rested its decision chiefly on the allegation that the acquisition of the territory was an act of state and that "no municipal court had authority to enforce such an obligation" as the duty of the new government to respect existing titles.
The islands were subdivided into provinces under alcaldes majores who exercised both executive and judicial functions.
Thus in the pro Caecina he alleges judicial corruption against a witness, Falcula, while in the pro Cluentio he contends that the offence was not proved (Caec. 28, Clu.
We hear from them of such interesting details as that the senate annul a judicial decision improperly arrived at by the governor, or that the college of tribunes could consider the status at Rome of a man affected by this decision (V err.
From the speech pro Cluentio (1 451 54) we gain unique information concerning the condition of society in a country town, the extraordinary exemption of equites from prosecution for judicial corruption, the administration of domestic justice in the case of slaves examined by their owner (ib.
It now consists of 48 members, of whom 28 are nominated, and the remainder are elected by local bodies, landholders, Mahommedans, &c. In Agra the chartered high court sitting at Allahabad, and in Oudh the court of the judicial commissioner, sitting at Lucknow, have final jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases, subject to appeal to the privy council.
The former is composed of a chief justice and six puisne judges appointed by the Crown; the latter of a judicial commissioner and two additional judicial commissioners.
A measure of judicial and prison reform was granted.
He was district - attorney for the second Judicial District of Iowa in1866-1870and an assessor of internal revenue in Iowa in 1863-1873; and was a representative in Congress in1879-1881and in 1885-1889, being elected by a Greenback-Democratic fusion.
The number of the members of the governing body proper varies from twelve to a hundred, and its functions were both judicial and administrative.
The state is divided into four judicial districts, and in each of these a district judge is elected for a term of eight years.
The principal departments, whose chiefs reside at the capital, are the treasury, the land and survey, the public works, the constabulary, the medical and the judicial.
They have restricted judicial powers.
A land revenue is derived from the sale of government lands, from quit rents and fees of transfer, &c. Judicial fees bring in a small amount, and the issue and sale of postage and revenue stamps have proved a fruitful source of income.
The powers of the central government are entrusted to three distinct authorities - executive, legislative and judicial.
The supreme judicial authority is vested in a Supreme Court, which consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, all appointed for life by the president, subject to confirmation by the Senate.
2 [His official title in republican times was Praetor qui inter peregrinos jus dicit, under the empire Praetor qui inter tines peregrinos jus dicit, until the time of Vespasian, when the abbreviated title praetor peregrinus came into use.] (Gallia cisalpina) was added to the previous nine, and thus the number of judicial and provincial departments corresponded to the annual number of praetors, propraetors and proconsuls.
Besides their judicial functions, the praetors, as colleagues of the consuls, possessed, though in a less degree, all the consular powers, which they regularly exercised in the absence of the consuls; but in the presence of a consul they exercised them only at the special command either of the consul or, more usually, of the senate.
Its site is that formerly occupied by the terminus of the Schleswig-Holstein railways, but a handsome central station lying somewhat farther to the N., connected with Hamburg by an elevated railway, now accommodates all the traffic and provides through communication with the main Prussian railway systems. There are also fine municipal and judicial buildings, a theatre (under the same management as the Stadttheater in Hamburg), a gymnasium, technical schools, a school of navigation and a hospital.
Like many other distinguished German jurists, pari passu with his professorial activity, Simson followed the judicial branch of the legal profession, and, passing rapidly through the subordinate stages of auscultator and assessor, became adviser (Rath) to the Landgericht in 1846.
On the dissolution of the Erfurt assembly, Simson retired from politics, and for the next few years devoted himself exclusively to his academical and judicial duties.
In the first of these years he attained high judicial office as president of the court of appeal at Frankfort on the Oder.
The state is divided into thirty judicial circuits and in each of these a circuit judge is chosen for a term of eight years by a joint vote of the Senate and the House of Delegates.
Judicial functions are in the hands of the elders, who " have to do with suits " (Sucao'ir6Xot), and " uphold judgments " (Nyt6Tas Edpbarat).
He was less successful in addressing juries, and towards the close of his career did not take Nisi Arius work, but in the court of appeal and House of Lords and before the judicial committee of the privy council he enjoyed a very large practice, making for some time fully Li 5,000 a year.
The last-named official soon confined himself to the judicial magisterial office, and a further increase in the numbers of the council having taken place by the appointment of 8 nominees of the king, a municipal council of 34, under the direction of the senior consul or burgomaster, dealt with matters exclusively civic. Later this council (the kleine Rat) was increased to 42 members, 8 of whom belonged to the artisan class.
The same authority observes that William of Warenne and Richard Clare (Bienfaite), who were left in charge of England in 1074, are named by a writer in the next generation " praecipui Angliae justitiarii "; but he considers the name to have not yet been definitely attached to any particular office, and that there is no evidence to show that officers appointed to this trust exercised any functions at all when the king was at home, or in his absence exercised supreme judicial authority to the exclusion of other high officers of the court.
Henceforward, according to Stubbs, the office may be said to have survived only in the judicial functions, which were merely part of the official character of the chief justiciar.
The justiciar may, therefore, be said to have become from a political a purely judicial officer.
The lord chief justice is, next to the lord chancellor, the highest judicial dignitary in the kingdom.
He is now the only judicial functionary privileged to wear the collar of SS.
Either by administrative survey or by judicial examination care is taken to see that there has been no improper diversion from the designed purposes.
The judicial department included a supreme court, district courts, probate courts and local justices of the peace.
There were six judicial districts, each with a court presided over by a justice of the supreme court.
The Moderate party, which maintained its ascendancy till the beginning of the 19th century, sought to make the working of the church in its different parts as systematic and regular as possible, to make the assembly supreme, to enforce on presbyteries respect for its decisions, and to render the judicial procedure of the church as exact and formal as that of the civil courts.
In common parlance, as well as for judicial purposes of circuits, the Principality is divided into North Wales and South Wales, each of which consists of six counties.
(to) Harayoth (" decisions "), on judicial and other errors (Lev.
A far ruder outlook on life, however, which has again and again appealed to some form of the divine cognizance by means of the ordeal and the oath, frequently supplements the moral issues of this world by the judicial award of the next.
His writings have been described as "apologetic in intention, meditative in method and mystical in substance," and Tyrrell himself certainly combined in a wonderful way the judicial and the enthusiastic types of character.
Vital statistics: Reports of the registrars-general respectively for England, for Scotland (Edinburgh), for Ireland (Dublin); Census Reports (decennial, 1901, &c.), ditto; Education: Reports of the Board of Education for England and Wales; Report of the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland; Report of the Committee of Council on Education in Scotland; Electoral Statistics (London, 1905); Statistical Tables relating to Emigration and Immigration; Judicial Statistics of England and Wales, of Scotland, of Ireland; Local Government Reports, ditto; Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, in which the most important statistics are summarized for each of the fifteen years preceding the year of issue.
The appointment of the majority of public officials is vested in the king, who can himself dismiss cabinet ministers and certain others, whereas in most cases a judicial inquiry is necessary before dismissal.
(1) There are 119 rural judicial districts (domsagor), which may be subdivided into judicial divisions (tingslag).
(3) The Supreme Court (HOgsta Domstolen) passes sentences in the name of the king, who is nominally the highest judicial authority.
This famous body, which consisted of 50 nobles, 25 priests, 25 burgesses, and, very exceptionally, 25 peasants, possessed during the session of the Riksdag not only the supreme executive but also the surpeme judicial and legislative functions.
The supreme powers of government are vested in three distinct branches - legislative, executive and judicial.
Directly and indirectly, therefore, the administration of all these political divisions is in the hands of the president, who, in like manner, makes and controls the appointments of all judicial functionaries, subject, however, to receiving recommendations of candidates from the courts and to submitting appointments to the approval of the council of state.
The judicial power consists of a Supreme Court of Justice of seven members located in the national capital, which exercises supervisory and disciplinary authority over all the law courts of the republic; six courts of appeal, in Tacna, Serena, Valparaiso, Santiago, Talca and Concepcion; tribunals of first instance in the department capitals; and minor courts, or justices of the peace, in the subdelegacies and districts.
The police officials, who are under the direct control of the minister of interior, also exercise some degree of judicial authority.
In other ways also the power of the podestas was reduced; they were confined more and more to judicial functions until they disappeared early in the 16th century.
The judicial organization consists of the tribunal da Relaga6 at the state capital and subordinate courts in the comarcas and termos.
Cruelty is not a Persian vice; torture and punishments of an unusual and painful nature being part of their judicial system.
to demand judicial reforms, and in 1906 cried out for representative institutions and a constitution.
Taking Vienna in the same way as illustrative of the Austrian police, it is to be observed that there are three branches: (1) administration; (2) public safety and judicial police; and (3) the government police.
Passing over the subdivisions of the administrative branch, the public safety and judicial branch includes the following departments: the office for public safety, the central inquiry office and the record or Evidenzbureau.
There are two main classes of police functions recognized by law, the administrative and the judicial police, the former engaged in the daily maintenance of peace and order and so preventing offences, the latter in the investigation of crime and tracing offenders; but the duties are necessarily performed to a great extent by the same agents.
The two other functions of the judicial police are, however, limited to the same classes of officers, and they perform the same duties as in Paris - the law in practice there being expressly adopted in Brussels.
It is enough to refer here to the fragmentary series of his Shakespearian criticisms, containing evidence of the truest insight, and a marvellous appreciation of the judicial "sanity" which raises the greatest name in literature far above even the highest of the poets who approached him.
Being declared by judicial decision in 1863 a voluntary body, the Anglicans formed " The Church of the Province of South Africa."
In the period which has elapsed since the establishment of British rule at the Cape the law has been considerably modified and altered, both by legislation and by judicial decisions, and it is not too much to say that at the present time there exists hardly any material difference in principle over the greater part of the field of jurisprudence between the law of England and the law of South Africa.
Upon the dissolution of a marriage in community of property, or in the event of a judicial separation a communione bonorum, the property of the spouses is divided as upon the liquidation of a partnership. It is not necessary here to refer particularly to certain exceptions to this general rule in cases of divorce.
van Zyl, The Judicial Practice of.
Measures were also taken to reform the administration and the whole course of judicial procedure, and torture as an instrument of legal investigation was abolished.
Though the authority of the courts had been strengthened by the Petition of Right and the act of 1640, it was still rendered insufficient by reason of the insecurity of judicial tenure, the fact that only the chancellor (a political as well as a legal officer) and the court of king's bench had undoubted right to issue the writ, and the inability or hesitation of the competent judges to issue the writ except during the legal term, which did not cover more than half the year.
Under pressure from the king, who was himself present in Vienne, the pope determined that, as the order gave occasion for scandal but could not be condemned as heretical by a judicial sentence (de jure), it should be abolished per modum provisionis seu ordinationis apostolicae; in other words, by an administrative ruling based on considerations of the general welfare.
To pass from his political to his judicial character is to shift to ground on which his greatness is universally acknowledged.
If the accused is acquitted, the state undertakes to appease the soul of the murdered person or its judicial representative, the Erinys.
The monarchical constitution recognized four powers in the state - the executive, moderating, legislative and judicial.
- In 1910 Portugal was divided into 193 judicial districts (comarcas), in each of which there was a court of first instance.
Seditious journals were suppressed; gaols and fortresses were crowded with prisoners; the upper house, which was hostile to the dictator, was deprived of its judicial powers and reconstituted on a less democratic basis (as in 1826); the district and municipal councils were dissolved and replaced by administrative commissions nominated by the Crown (Jan.
In Santarem appeared Antonio Prestes, a magistrate who drew from his judicial experience but evinced more knowledge of folk-lore than dramatic talent, while Camoens himself was so far influenced by Gil Vicente, whose plays he had perhaps seen performed in Lisbon, that in spite of his Coimbra training he never exchanged the old forms for those of the classical comedy.
Under the reign of St Louis (which was also the period at which the name parlement began to be applied to these judicial sessions) the aspect of affairs changed.
The judicial competence of the Parlement developed and became more clearly defined; the system of appeals came into existence, and appeals against the judgments of the baillis and seneschals were brought before it; cases concerning the royal towns, the bonnes villes, were also decided by it.
At the beginning of the 1 4 th century a certain number of those who were to hold the session of the Parlement were set apart to receive and judge the petitions (requetes) on judicial questions which had been presented to the king and not yet dealt with.
There were also great judicial bodies exercising the same functions as the parlements, though without bearing the name, such as the Conseil souverain of Alsace at Colmar, the Conseil superieur of Roussillon at Perpignan; the provincial council of Artois had not the supreme jurisdiction in all respects.
The parlements, besides their judicial functions, also possessed political rights; they claimed a share in the higher policy of the realm, and the position of guardians of its fundamental laws.
They could make regulations (pouvoir reglementaire) having the force of law within their province, upon all points not settled by law, when the matter with which they dealt fell within their judicial competence, and for this it was only necessary that their interference in the matter was not forbidden by law.
The status of consuls commissioned by the Christian powers to reside in Mahommedan countries, China, Korea, Siam, and, until 1899, in Japan, and to exercise judicial functions in civil and criminal matters between their own countrymen and strangers, is exceptional to the common law, and is founded on special conventions or capitulations.
in the constitutional, administrative and judicial organization of the various powers, in international law, commercial law and maritime law, in the history of treaties and in commercial and political geography, in political economy, and in the German and English languages.
Consuls in the Ottoman empire, China, Siam and Korea have extensive judicial and executive powers.
At the request of the pope he drew up a report of two hundred pages on the Inquisition in Portugal, with the result that after a judicial inquiry Pope Innocent XI.
He entered the Bengal civil service in 1867 and had a distinguished career as an administrator, becoming secretary to the Home Department of the Government of India in 1889, chief commissioner of Assam in 1894 and of the Central Provinces from 1895 to 1898, whence he was transferred to the India Office at home as secretary to the Judicial and Public Department, a post which he held until his retirement in 1910.
The Empire was the counterweight to the local tyrannies into which the local authorities established by the Empire itself, the feudal powers, judicial and military, necessary for the purposes of government, invariably tended to degenerate.
Penance accompanied by the judicial absolution of the priest makes a true sacrament.
This was an answer to another anonymous pamphlet, written by Philip Yorke, afterwards Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, who replied in an enlarged edition (1728) of his original Discourse of the Judicial Authority.
In 1652 he was appointed to important judicial positions and sent on weighty embassages.
He rejected Schmerling's proposal that he should take part in the project of judicial reform, but on the other hand he held completely aloof from the widespread, secret revolutionary movements.
The judicial system is complex and is an interesting development from the English system of the 18th century.
The state is divided into nine judicial districts, and each supreme court justice holds circuit courts within each county of a judicial district, besides being associated with the " president " judge of the court of common pleas of each county in holding the court of common pleas, the court of quarter sessions, the court of oyer and terminer and the orphans' court.
The election of the governor was taken from the legislature and given to the people; the powers of government were distributed among legislative, executive and judicial departments; representation in the assembly was based on population; and the property qualification for membership in the legislature and for the suffrage was abolished.
There is also another Old Norwegian leith, a court or judicial assembly, and modern Danish has laegd, a division of the country for military purposes.
The steward of the court acted as judge, presiding wholly in a judicial character, the ministerial acts being executed by the bailiff.
Zola's object was a prosecution for libel, and a judicial inquiry into the whole affaire, and at the trial, which took place in Paris in February, a fierce flood of light was thrown on the case.
Areas Areas Judicial Areas Areas Areas (City, Lincolnshire .
Quarter sessions were originally a judicial body, but being the only body having jurisdiction over the county as a whole, certain powers were conferred and certain duties imposed upon them with reference to various matters of county government from time to time.
The overseers of any parish aggrieved by the basis may appeal against it to quarter sessions, and it is to be noticed that this appeal is not interfered with, the transfer of the duties of justices relating only to administrative and not to judicial business.
A borough justice is required to take the oaths of allegiance and the judicial oaths before acting; he must while acting reside in or within 7 m.
It is a military district, a customs district (since 1868), is organized into a land district, and constitutes three judicial divisions.
This act extended over Alaska the laws of the state of Oregon so far as they should be applicable, created the judicial district and a land district, put in force the mining laws of the United States, and in general gave the administrative system the organization it retained up to the reforms of 1899-1900.
The probability is that in such cases governments and courts applying international law would probably be guided not by technical facts - such, to take the case of British possessions, as the fact that an order in council permitted appeals to the Judicial Committee - but would look to the facts of the case.
At the head of the department of justice is the supreme judicial court, which consists of a chief justice and seven associate justices appointed by the governor and council for a term of seven years.
The chief judicial official is known as the aira-negus (breath of the king).
The judicial power is vested in the Senate sitting as a court of impeachment, in the Supreme Court, the district courts, in justices of the peace, and in " such inferior courts as may be established by law."
Their rivalry and Clarence's continued intrigues furnished Edward with his chief domestic difficulty; the trouble was ended by the judicial murder of Clarence in 1478.
As to what is an advancement there has been much conflict of judicial opinion.
It established the usual type of government under a bailiff (schout) and judicial assessors (scabini, or schoppenen), the overlord's supremacy being guarded, and an appeal lying from the court of the scabini, in case of their disagreement, to Utrecht.
The weak governments which took the place of imperial authority were not able to maintain the strict discipline and the stress of judicial power which would have been necessary to guarantee the tenure and status of the serfs.
This he succeeded in doing to a large extent, witnessing if not initiating the practical abolition of the corvee and many other reforms. The appointment of an Anglo-Indian official as judicial adviser to the khedive was, however, opposed by Riaz, who resigned in May 1891.
The state credit was improved by the conversion of the public debt; the sale of the state lands to the peasantry was actively continued; a law was passed making irremovable the judges of the court of appeal and the presidents of tribunals, and other important judicial reforms were carried out; a mining law was passed with the object of introducing foreign capital; and the commercial marine was developed by the formation of a state ocean service of passsenger and cargo steamers.
There is nothing extraordinary in the general judicial system.
The judicial branch of the government, like the others, has been in great measure reorganized.
It consists of a supreme court of seven members at Bogota, and a superior court in each judicial district.
There are various inferior courts also, including magistrates or jueces de paz, but their organization and functions are loosely defined and not generally understood outside the republic. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in judicial matters, and original jurisdiction in impeachment trials and in matters involving constitutional interpretation.
The basis of the judicial system is the Roman-Dutch law, which has been, however, modified by legislation of the Cape parliament.
It was not to the hostility of the natives, nor to the hard struggle with nature necessary to make agriculture profitable on Karroo or veld, that the slow progress made by the colonists was due, so much as to the narrow and tyrannical policy adopted by the East India Company, which closed the colony against free immigration, kept the whole of the trade in its own hands, combined the administrative, legislative and judicial powers in one body, prescribed to the farmers the nature of the crops they were to grow, demanded from them a large part of their produce, and harassed them with other exactions tending to discourage industry and enterprise.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.