He beat Walter Johnson in a showdown, one to nothing.
He was a native of Berri, like herself, a stern but kindly taskmaster who treated her much as Dr Johnson treated Fanny Burney.
While at home Hastings is said to have attached himself to literary society; and it may be inferred from his own letters that he now made the personal acquaintance of Samuel Johnson and Lord Mansfield.
At the grammar school, founded in 1528, Dr Samuel Johnson was a master about 17 3 2, but found the work unbearable.
Foster, and "The Southern Presbyterians," by Thomas C. Johnson.
The essay was reviewed by Dr Johnson, and although it was resented by the medical profession it gained a reputation and a considerable practice for its author.
The chief institutions for higher instruction are the university of Vermont and State Agricultural College (1800, 1865), a land-grant college at Burlington, Middlebury College (1800) at Middlebury, Norwich University (1819) at, Northfield, and the state normal schools at Randolph (1867), Johnson (1867) and Castleton (1868).
It contains the panelling of a room from the house of Edmund Hector, which formerly stood in Old Square, Birmingham, where Dr Samuel Johnson was a frequent visitor.
Seward gradually regained his health, and remained in the cabinet of President Johnson until the expiration of his term in 1869.
" Bird," when it passed from its earliest meaning of " nestlings," seems to have been applied to the smaller, and " fowl " to the larger species, a distinction which was retained by Johnson.
After the war he was sent on a special diplomatic mission to France, on account of the presence of French troops in Mexico; and from June 1868 to March 1869 he served as secretary of war under President Andrew Johnson, after the retirement of E.
Johnson, The Normans in Europe (1877); E.
Johnson, vice-president of the United States in 1837-1841, and the sculptor Joel T.
Johnson and J.
Johnson, American Railway Transportation (New York, 1908); L.
Johnson, Yoruba Heathenism (1899, reprinted in R.
Johnson, Thoughts on the late Transactions respecting Falkland's Islands (1771); L.
He was essentially humane; and it is worthy of notice that he was in favour of the abolition of slavery, while humane men like his friend Lord Sheffield, Dr Johnson and Boswell were opposed to the antislavery movement.
At the close of the war he was appointed by President Johnson secretary of Montana Territory, and there, in the absence of the territorial governor, he acted as governor from September 1866 until his death from accidental drowning in the Missouri River near Fort Benton, Montana, on the 1st of July 1867.
Hezion Johnson (35 Miss.
In 1865 President Johnson appointed as provisional governor William Lewis Sharkey (1797-1873), who had been chief justice of the state in 1832-1850, and a convention which assembled on the 14th of August recognized the "destruction" of slavery and declared the ordinance of secession null and void.
In the " back country " extortionate fees, excessive taxes, and the oppressive manner of collecting them brought about a popular uprising, known as the Regulation, which centred in Orange and Anson counties, but was strong also in Brown, Edgecombe, Johnson, Granville and Halifax counties.
But the assembly, the members of which were nearly the same as those of the congress, refused to interrupt the meeting of the congress, and in the next month the governor sought safety in flight, first to Fort Johnson on the Cape Fear below Wilmington and then to a man-of-war along the coast.
REVERDY JOHNSON (1796-1876), American political leader and jurist, was born at Annapolis, Maryland, on the 21st of May 1796.
His father, John Johnson (1770-1824), was a distinguished lawyer, who served in both houses of the Maryland General Assembly, as attorney-general of the state (1806-1811), as a judge of the court of appeals (1811-1821), and as a chancellor of his state (1821-1824).
Taney; with Thomas Harris he reported the decisions of the court of appeals in Harris and Johnson's Reports (1820-1827); and in 1818 he was appointed chief commissioner of insolvent debtors.
Richard Johnson >>
But he retained the political support of many who were opposed, like Senators Borah and Johnson, to any sort of international association.
The earliest system adopted for the collection of petroleum appears to have consisted in Early skimming the oil from the surface of the water upon Methods which it had accumulated, and Professor Lesley states, that at Paint Creek, in Johnson county, Kentucky, a Mr George and others were in the habit of collecting oil from the sands, " by making shallow canals loo or 200 ft.
In 1865 a provisional governor was appointed by President Andrew Johnson, and a new state government was organized.
William Johnson Cory >>
2), Thomas Day (author of Sandford and Merton), Sterne, Warburton, Hutcheson, Beattie, John Wesley, Whitfield, Adam Smith, Millar, Robertson, Dr Johnson, Paley, Gregory, Gilbert Wakefield, Bishop Porteus, Dean Tucker.
To the original members were afterwards added several remarkable persons, amongst whom were Josiah Wedgwood, Bennet Langton (Dr Johnson's friend), and, later, Zachary Macaulay, Henry Brougham and James Stephen.
Johnson, Democratic Republican Pierre Derbigny, Democratic Republican (died in office) .
Isaac Johnson, Democrat.
Municipal ownership has been further developed in Cleveland than in any other large city in the United States, chiefly because of the advocacy of Tom Loftin Johnson (born 1854), a street-railway owner, iron manufacturer, an ardent single-taxer, who was elected mayor of the city in 1901, 1903, 1905 and 1907.
In this respect it reached its height in the second half of the 18th century, and is specially associated with Colley Cibber, Samuel Johnson, Cumberland the dramatist, David Garrick, Samuel Richardson, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Beau Nash, Miss Chudleigh and Mrs Thrale.
Democrat (died in office)1905-1909 John Albert Johnson Republican 1909Adolph Olson Eberhart Bibliography.
During the Reconstruction period he favoured the congressional plan rather than that of President Johnson, and on this account resigned the district-attorneyship. In 1867-1868 he was a member of the Massachusetts house of representatives, and in 1867 was retained with William M.
His philological studies, to which the last fourteen years of his life were devoted, resulted in the compilation of "A Glossary of Provincial and Archaic Words," intended as a supplement to Dr Johnson's Dictionary, but never published except in part, which finally in 1831 passed into the hands of the English compilers of Webster's Dictionary, by whom it was utilized.
Cicero's De Officiis abounds in the kind of question afterwards so warmly discussed by Dr Johnson and his friends.
They decided each problem on its merits, looking more to the spirit than to the letter, and often showing a practical sagacity worthy of Johnson himself.
discuss hard cases of conscience, as a very cursory glance at Fielding's novels (r742-175r) or Boswell's Life of Johnson (1791) will show.
His conversational powers rivalled those of Dr Johnson; and, if more of his sayings have not been chronicled for the benefit of posterity, the defect is due to the absence of a Boswell.
After the war he allied himself with the radical wing of his party, was a member of the joint committee that outlined the congressional plan of reconstructing the late Confederate States, and laboured for the impeachment of President Johnson.
In 1755 occurred the famous dispute with Johnson over the dedication to the English Dictionary.
In 1747 Johnson sent Chesterfield, who was then secretary of state, a prospectus of his Dictionary, which was acknowledged by a subscription of X10.
It was said that Johnson was kept waiting in the anteroom when he called while Cibber was admitted.
Chesterfield's " respectable Hottentot," now identified with George, Lord Lyttelton, was long supposed, though on slender grounds, to be a portrait of Johnson.
Samuel Johnson, who was not perhaps the best judge in the world, pronounced his manners to have been " exquisitely elegant "; yet as a courtier he was utterly worsted by Robert Walpole, whose manners were anything but refined, and even by Newcastle.
Johnson (New York, 1872), T.
He was sober enough (for his day and society) in eating and drinking generally; but drank coffee, as his contemporary, counterpart and enemy, Johnson, drank tea, in a hardened and inveterate manner.
He appears to have had no great sense of natural beauty, in which point he resembled his generation (though one remarkable story is told of his being deeply affected by Alpine scenery); and, except in his passion for the stage, he does not seem to have cared much for any of the arts, Conversation and literature were, again as in Johnson's case, the sole gods of his idolatry.
The Mitre in Fleet Street, so intimately associated with Dr Johnson, also existed at this time.
Dr Johnson's Jacobite sympathies are well known, and on the death of Victor Emmanuel I., the ex-king of Sardinia, in 1824, Lord Liverpool wrote to Canning saying "there are those who think that the ex-king was the lawful king of Great Britain."
Tin dissolves readily in strong hot hydrochloric acid as SnC12; aqueous sulphuric acid does not act on it appreciably in the cold; at 150° it attacks it more or less quickly, according to the strength of the acid, with evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen or, when the acid is stronger, of sulphurous acid gas and deposition of sulphur (Calvert and Johnson).
Johnson and the Rev. S.
Johnson in England Arc appear, in 1853, to have introduced the earliest practical form of furnace.
On the inauguration of President Lincoln in 1861 he was appointed secretary of the navy, a position which he held until the close of President Andrew Johnson's administration in 1869.
Welles supported President Johnson in his quarrel with Congress, took part in the Liberal Republican movement of 1872, and returning to the Democratic party, warmly advocated the election of Samuel J.
On the questions relating to political reconstruction and the policy of President Johnson, he supported his party, though opposed to its Radical leaders.
He warmly advocated the insertion in the Reconstruction Acts of a provision ensuring the early termination of military government; and he opposed the impeachment of President Johnson, though he voted for conviction on the trial.
In 1787, with Roger Sherman and William Samuel Johnson (1727-1819), he was one of Connecticut's delegates to the constitutional convention at Philadelphia, in which his services were numerous and important.
In 1865 he rejected the more radical views of his party as to the treatment to be accorded to the late Confederate states, opposed the immediate and unconditional enfranchisement of freedmen, and, though not accepting President Johnson's views in their entirety, he urged the people of Massachusetts to give the new president their support.
A.)] After the assassination of President Lincoln a disposition was shown by his successor, Andrew Johnson, to deal severely with the Confederate leaders, and it was understood that indictments for treason were to be brought against General Lee and others.
In the following year he became involved in the deadly quarrel between President Johnson and Congress.
To tie the president's hands Congress had passed the Tenure of Office Act, forbidding the president to remove any cabinet officer without the consent of the Senate; but in August 1867 President Johnson suspended Secretary Stanton and appointed Grant secretary of war ad interim until the pleasure of the Senate should be ascertained.
President Johnson was much disgusted at the readiness with which Grant turned over the office to Stanton, and a bitter controversy ensued between Johnson and Grant.
In May 1872 something was done towards alleviating the odious Reconstruction laws for dragooning the South, which had been passed by Congress in spite of the vetoes of President Johnson.
Presi- the beginning of 1868, hoped to make him their can 1868y' didate in the election of that year; but the effect of the controversy with President Johnson was to bring Grant forward as the candidate of the Republican party.
The Tory party and the established church were defended in the Critical Review (1756-1817), founded by Archibald Hamilton and supported by Smollett, Dr Johnson and Robertson.
Johnson contributed to fifteen numbers of the Literary Magazine (1756-1758).
490) drew up an imperfect list of the essayists, and reckoned that from the Taller to Johnson's Rambler, during a period of forty-one years, 106 papers of this description were published.
I, 1713), Steele, Addison, Berkeley, Pope, Tickell, Budgell, &c.; Rambler (March 20, 1750 to March 14, 1752), Johnson; Adventurer (Nov.
7, 1752 to March 9, 1 754), Hawkesworth, Johnson, Bathurst, Warton, Chapone; World (Jan.
30, 1756), Colman, Thornton, Warton, earl of Cork, &c. Idler (April 15, 1758 to April 5, 1760), Johnson, Sir J.
Cave introduced the practice of giving engravings, maps and portraits, but his greatest success was the addition of Samuel Johnson to the regular staff.
At a later period he was unjustly described as "a scurrilous party writer," which he certainly was not; but, on the other hand, Johnson spoke of his writing "so variously and so well," and put Robinson Crusoe among the only three books that readers wish longer.
He was a strong opponent of the reconstruction measures of President Johnson, for whose conviction he voted (on most of the specific charges) in the impeachment trial.
In October-November 1768, Sir William Johnson and representatives of Virginia and Pennsylvania met 3200 Indians of the Six Nations here and made a treaty with them, under which, for 10,460 in money and provisions, they surrendered to the crown their claims to what is now Kentucky and West Virginia and the western part of Pennsylvania.
On the 2nd of August an advance party of Colonel Barry St Leger's forces coming from the west arrived before the fort, and the main body (altogether about 650 whites, including loyalists - the Royal Greens - under Sir John Johnson, and more than Boo Indians, some led by Joseph Brant) arrived soon afterwards.
Marinus Willett (New York, 1831); and Orderly Book of Sir John Johnson during the Oriskany Campaign (Albany, 1882), with notes by W.
Fletcher Johnson, Life of William Tecumseh Sherman (Philadelphia, 1891); Manning F.
The inscription is by Dr Johnson.
IOWA CITY, a city and the county-seat of Johnson county, Iowa, U.S.A., on Iowa river, about 120 m.
Johnson), and 60 (G.
The new settlement prospered from the start, and a valuable trade was built up with the Indians, over whom Johnson exercised an immense influence.
After the war Sir William retired to his estates, where, on the site of the present Johnstown, he built his residence, Johnson Hall, and lived in all the style of an English baron.
In 1739 Johnson had married Catherine Wisenberg, by whom he had three children.
His Son, SIR John Johnson (1742-1830), Who was knighted in 1765 and succeeded to the baronetcy on his father's death, took part in the French and Indian War and in the border warfare during the War of Independence, organizing a loyalist regiment known as the "Queen's Royal Greens," which he led at the battle of Oriskany and in the raids (1778 and 1780) on Cherry Valley and in the Mohawk Valley.
Sir William's nephew, GUY Johnson (1740-1788), succeeded his uncle as superintendent of Indian affairs in 1774, and served in the French and Indian War and, on the British side, in the War of Independence.
Stone, Life of Sir William Johnson (2 vols., 1865); W.
Watts De Peyster, "The Life of Sir John Johnson, Bart.," in The Orderly Book of Sir John Johnson during the Oriskany Campaign, 1776-1777, annotated by William L.
3 Manuel Johnson, M.A., Radcliffe observer, Astronomical Observations made at the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford, in the Year 1850, Introduction, p. iii.
In conformity with President Johnson's plan of reconstruction, a constitution recognizing the abolition of slavery, renouncing the right of secession, and repudiating the war debt was adopted in 1864, and J.
With Benjamin Harrison, John Dickinson, Thomas Johnson and John Jay he was appointed in November 1775 to a committee to carry on a secret correspondence with the friends of America " in Great Britain, Ireland and other parts of the world."
On his father's return from Gibraltar, David, who had previously been educated at the grammar school of Lichfield, was, largely by the advice of Gilbert Walmley, registrar of the ecclesiastical court, sent with his brother George to the " academy " at Edial, just opened in June or July 1736 by Samuel Johnson, the senior by seven years of David, who was then nineteen.
This seminary was, however, closed in about six months, and on the 2nd of March 1736/7 both Johnson and Garrick left Lichfield for London - Johnson, as he afterwards said, " with twopence halfpenny in his pocket," and Garrick " with three-halfpence in his."
Johnson, whose chief asset was the MS. tragedy of Irene, was at first the host of his former pupil, who, however, before the end of the year took up his residence at Rochester with John Colson (afterwards Lucasian professor at Cambridge).
In September 1747 it was opened with a strong company of actors, Johnson's prologue being spoken by Garrick, while the epilogue, written by him, was spoken by Mrs Woffington.
Johnson, of whose various and often merely churlish remarks on Garrick and his doings many are scattered through the pages of Boswell, spoke warmly of the elegance and sprightliness of his friend's conversation, as well as of his liberality and kindness of heart; while to the great actor's art he paid the exquisite tribute of describing Garrick's sudden death as having " eclipsed the gaiety of nations, and impoverished the public stock of harmless pleasure."
4to), which includes his extensive Foreign Correspondence with distinguished French men and women, and the notices of him in the memoirs of Cumberland, Hannah More and Madame D'Arblay, and above all in Boswell's Life of Johnson, bear testimony to his many attractive qualities as a companion and to his fidelity as a friend.
grant merci, great, many thanks, which Johnson took for "grant me mercy."
Samuel Johnson, Lord Mansfield, Lady Hervey, Bishop Warburton join in his praise.
STEPHEN JOHNSON FIELD (1816-1899), American jurist, was born at Haddam, Connecticut, on the 4th of November 1816.
a pastor (Francis Johnson), a teacher (Greenwood), two deacons and two elders.
Gradually they resumed church-fellowship in Amsterdam, where they chose the learned Henry Ainsworth as teacher, in place of Greenwood, but elected no new pastor, as they expected Francis Johnson (1562-1618) soon to be released and to rejoin them.
Johnson, a man autocratic by nature, and leaning to his old Presbyterian ideals on the point, held that the church had no power to control its elders, once elected, in their exercise of discipline, much less to depose them; while Ainsworth, true to Barrow and the " old way " as he claimed, sided with those who made the church itself supreme throughout.
A reconciliation was effected, however, by Colonel William Johnson (1715-1774), who had long been superintendent of Indian affairs.
None of these was taken but on the 8th of September Major-General William Johnson, in command of the expedition against Crown Point, defeated a French and Indian force under Baron Dieskau in the battle of Lake George.
As Johnson thought it unsafe to pursue the routed army his victory had no other effect than the erection here of the useless defences of Fort William Henry, but as it was the only success in a year of gloom parliament rewarded him with a grant of X 5000 and the title of a baronet.
Sir William Johnson died in 1774, but under his influence and that of his son, Sir John Johnson, and his nephew Guy Johnson, the Mohawks and other Iroquois Indians had become firmly attached to the British side and threatened the western frontier.
Severe English moralists like Johnson thought but ill of him, but the public generally was not unwilling to testify against French intolerance, and regarded his sentimentalism with favour.
But between the time of Massillon and D'Aguesseau and the time of Lamennais and Joseph de Maistre the class of men of whom in England Berkeley, Butler and Johnson were representatives did not exist in France.
These meters, of which one well-known form is that of Johnson and Phillips, have the disadvantage of being unsuited for the measurement of electric supply in those cases in which it is irregular or intermittent - as in a theatre or hotel.
Johnson, " Present State of Classical Studies in France," in Classical Review (December 1907).
There are also many connexions with Dr Johnson, a frequent visitor here to his friend Dr Taylor, who occupied a house opposite the grammar school.
Johnson, who had been elected " governor," left the state when General A.
Johnston withdrew; Johnson himself was killed at Shiloh, but an attempt was subsequently made by General Bragg to install this government at Frankfort.
Johnson's successor, was actually " inaugurated," but naturally this state " government " immediately collapsed.
He first appeared as an author by contributing two articles to the Edinburgh Review (an earlier journal than the present, which was commenced in 1755, but of which only two numbers were published),-one on Johnson's Dictionary and the other a letter to the editors on the state of literature in the different countries of Europe.
3 A story was told by Sir Walter Scott, and is also related in the Edinburgh Review, of an "unfortunate rencontre," arising out of the publication of the same letter, between Smith and Dr Johnson, during the visit of the latter to Glasgow.
But it cannot be true; for Johnson bishop W.
Smith seems not to have met Johnson in Scotland at all.
It appears, however, from Boswell's Life, under date of 29th April 1778, that Johnson had on one occasion quarrelled with Smith at Strahan's house, apparently in London; it is clear that the "unlucky altercation" at Strahan's must have occurred in 1761 or 1763, and could have had nothing to do with the letter on Hume's death.
Against such a destiny D'Israeli's mind strongly revolted; and he carried his poem, with a letter earnestly appealing for advice and assistance, to Samuel Johnson; but when he called again a week after to receive an answer, the packet was returned unopened - the great Doctor was on his.
This cathedral contains the monuments of several illustrious persons, amongst which the most celebrated are those of Swift (dean of this cathedral), of Mrs Hester Johnson, immortalized under the name of "Stella"; of Archbishop Marsh; of the first earl of Cork; and of Duke Schomberg, who fell at the battle of the Boyne.
Pennant's Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides (1774); James Boswell's Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson, LL.D.
The most important was that of President Johnson, whose conviction failed by one vote35 to 19.
Jackson, however, as well as Tyler, Johnson and especially Cleveland, employed it pretty boldly.
Andrew Johnson is the only president who has been impeached.
Dawson, Handbook of Canadian Geology (1889); George Johnson, Alphabet of First Things in Canada (3rd ed., 1898); A.
and passing through Baker, Worth, Dooly, Dodge, Laurens, Johnson, Jefferson and Burke counties, has three distinct kinds of soil; a sand, forming what is known as the sand-hill region; red clay derived from silicious rock in the red hills; and grey, sandy soils with a subsoil of yellow loam.
In accord with President Andrew Johnson's plan for reorganizing the Southern States, a provisional governor, James Johnson, was appointed on the 17th of June 1865, and a state convention reformed the constitution to meet the new conditions, rescinding the ordinance of secession, abolishing slavery and formally repudiating the state debt incurred in the prosecution of the war.
Johnson Joseph E.
James Johnson 8.
Here is the gravestone of the wife of Dr Johnson.
ANDREW JOHNSON (1808-1875), seventeenth president of the United States, was born at Raleigh, North Carolina, on the 29th of December 1808.
Johnson began in politics to oppose the aristocratic element .and became the spokesman and champion of the poorer and labouring classes.
In 1835-1837 and 1839-1841 Johnson was a Democratic member of the state House of Representatives, and in 1841-1843 of the state Senate; in both houses he uniformly upheld the cause of the " common people," and, in addition, opposed legislation for " internal improvements."
Though his favourite leaders became Whigs, Johnson remained a Democrat, and in 1840 canvassed the state for Van Buren for president.
P. Morton) " perhaps no man in Congress exerted the same influence on the public sentiment of the North at the beginning of the war " as Johnson.
In 1864, to secure the votes of the war Democrats and to please the border states that had remained in the Union, Johnson was nominated for vice-president on the ticket with Lincoln.
Johnson was opposed to general or immediate negro suffrage.
Johnson took a prominent and undignified part in the congressional campaign of 1866, in which his policies were voted down by the North.
Of the eleven charges of impeachment the first was that Stanton's removal was contrary to the Tenure of Office Act; the second, that the appointment of Thomas was a violation of the same law; the third, that the appointment violated the Constitution; the fourth, that Johnson conspired with Thomas "to hinder and prevent Edwin M.
office of secretary for the department of war "; the fifth, that Johnson had conspired with Thomas to " prevent and hinder the execution " of the Tenure of Office Act; the sixth, that he had conspired with Thomas " to seize, take and possess the property of the United States in the department of war," in violation of the Tenure of Office Act; the seventh, that this action was " a high misdemeanour "; the eighth, that the appointment of Thomas was " with intent unlawfully to control the disbursements of the moneys appropriated for the military service and for the department of war "; the ninth, that he had instructed Major-General Emory, in command of the department of Washington, that an act of 1867 appropriating money for the army was unconstitutional; the tenth, that his speeches in 1866 constituted " a high misdemeanour in office "; and the eleventh, the " omnibus " article, that he had committed high misdemeanours in saying that the 39th Congress was not an authorized Congress, that its legislation was not binding upon him, and that it was incapable of proposing amendments.
President Johnson's leading political principles were a reverence of Andrew Jackson, unlimited confidence in the people, and an intense veneration for the constitution.
Foster, The Life and Speeches of Andrew Johnson (1866); D.
De Witt, The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (1903); C. E.
Chadsey, The Struggle between President Johnson and Congress over Reconstruction (1896); and W.
Dunning's paper ' ` More Light on Andrew Johnson" (in the American Historical Review, April 1906), in which apparently conclusive evidence is presented to prove that Johnson's first inaugural, a notable state paper, was.
Benjamin Johnson >>
In the bitter conflict between the large state party and the small state party he and his colleagues, Oliver Ellsworth and William Samuel Johnson, acted as peacemakers.
In 1832 Buffalo obtained a city charter, and Dr Ebenezer Johnson (1786-1849) was chosen the first mayor.
5) Wade and Davis published in the New York Tribune the famous "Wade-Davis Manifesto," a vituperative document impugning the President's honesty of purpose and attacking his leadership. As long as President Johnson promised severe treatment of the conquered South, Wade supported him, but when the President definitively adopted the more lenient policy of his predecessor, Wade became one of his most bitter and uncompromising opponents.
He voted for Johnson's conviction on his trial for impeachment, and for this was severely criticized, since, in the event of conviction, he would have become president; but Wade's whole course before and after the trial would seem to belie the charge that he was actuated by any such motive.
In 1755 the precursor of the later Edinburgh Review was started, now chiefly remembered because in its pages Adam Smith criticized the dictionary of Dr Johnson, and because the contents of its two numbers were edited by Wedderburn.
When Lord Bute was prime minister this legal satellite used, says Dr Johnson, to go on errands for him, and it is to Wedderburn's credit that he first suggested to the premier the propriety of granting Johnson a pension.
Johnson, R.N., showed from experiments in the iron steamship "Garry Owen" that the vessel acted on an external compass as a magnet.
The genuineness of these so-called translations from the works of a 3rd-century bard was immediately challenged in England, and Dr Johnson, after some local investigation, asserted (Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, 1775) that Macpherson had only found fragments of ancient poems and stories, which he had woven into a romance of his own composition.
Macpherson is said to have sent Johnson a challenge, to which Johnson replied that he was not to be deterred from detecting what he thought a cheat by the menaces of a ruffian.
Prior to the 4th century there is no evidence of non-celebration of the eucharist on Good Friday; but after that date the prohibition of communion 1 See Johnson's Collection of Ecclesiastical Laws (vol.
Perhaps our knowledge of Johnson's sentiments regarding the Scots in general, and of his expressions regarding Hume and Smith in particular, may lessen our surprise at this vehemence.
RICHARD MENTOR JOHNSON (1781-1850), ninth vicepresident of the United States, was born at Bryant's Station, Kentucky, on the 17th of October 1781.
The opposition to Johnson within the party greatly increased during his term, and the Democratic national convention of 1840 adopted the unprecedented course of refusing to nominate anyone for the vice-presidency.
In the ensuing election Johnson received most of the Democratic electoral votes, but was defeated by the Whig candidate, John Tyler.
Samuel Johnson >>
See Johnson, Life of Sir Edward Coke (1837); H.
village at the date of Johnson's visit during his Hebridean tour;, in 1786 it became a government fishing station; it was made.
SAMUEL JOHNSON (1709-1784), English writer and lexicographer, was the son of Michael Johnson (1656-1731), bookseller and magistrate of Lichfield, who married in 1706 Sarah Ford (1669-1759).
At a house (now the Johnson Museum) in the Market Square, Lichfield, Samuel Johnson was born on the 18th of September 1709 and baptized on the same day at St Mary's, Lichfield.
Old Michael Johnson was much better qualified to pore over books, and to talk about them, than to trade in them.
At Oxford Johnson resided barely over two years, possibly less.
The time drew near at which Johnson would, in the ordinary course of things, have become a Bachelor of Arts; but he was at the end of his resources.
At Lichfield, however, Johnson could find no way of earning a livelihood.
While leading this vagrant and miserable life, Johnson fell in love.
1734), whose daughter Lucy was born only six years after Johnson himself.
The "faces" that Johnson habitually made (probably nervous.
At length Johnson, in the twenty-eighth year of his age,, determined to seek his fortune in London as a literary adventurer.
Never since literature became a calling in England had it been a less gainful calling than at the time when Johnson took up his residence in London.
One of the publishers to whom Johnson applied for employment measured with a scornful eye that athletic though uncouth frame, and exclaimed, "You had better get a porter's knot and carry trunks."
Some time appears to have elapsed before Johnson was able to form any literary connexion from which he could expect more than bread for the day which was passing over him.
"Harry Hervey," said Johnson many years later, "was a vicious man; but he was very kind to me.
At Hervey's table Johnson sometimes enjoyed feasts which were made more agreeable by contrast.
About a year after Johnson had begun to reside in London he was fortunate enough to obtain regular employment from Edward Cave (q.
Oxford, when Johnson resided there, was the most Jacobitical place in England; and Pembroke was one of the most Jacobitical colleges in Oxford.
Even the ship-money Johnson would not pronounce to have been an unconstitutional impost.
But Johnson long afterwards owned that, though he had saved appearances, he had taken care that the Whig dogs should not have the best of it; and, in fact, every passage which has lived, every passage which bears the marks of his higher faculties, is put into the mouth of some member of the opposition.
A few weeks after Johnson had, entered on these obscure labours, he published a work which at once placed him high among the writers of his age.
What Pope had done for Horace, Johnson aspired to do for Juvenal.
Johnson's London appeared without his name in May 1738.
The attempt failed, and Johnson remained a bookseller's hack.
Among Johnson's associates at this time may be mentioned Boyse, who, when his shirts were pledged, scrawled Latin verses sitting up in bed with his arms through two holes in his blanket, who composed very respectable sacred poetry when he was sober, and who was at last run over by a hackney coach when he was drunk; Hoole, surnamed the metaphysical tailor, who, instead of attending to his measures, used to trace geometrical diagrams on the board where he sat cross-legged; and the penitent impostor, George Psalmanazar, who, after poring all day, in a humble lodging, on the folios of Jewish rabbis and Christian fathers, indulged himself at night with literary and theological conversation at an alehouse in the City.
But the most remarkable of the persons with whom at this time Johnson consorted was Richard Savage, an earl's son, a shoemaker's apprentice, who had seen life in all its forms, who had feasted among blue ribands in St James's Square, and had lain with fifty pounds weight of irons on his legs in the condemned ward of Newgate.
During some months Savage lived in the closest familiarity with Johnson; and then the friends parted, not without tears.
Johnson remained in London to drudge for Cave.
The Life of Savage was anonymous; but it was well known in literary circles that Johnson was the writer.
Such was Johnson's reputation that, in 1747, several eminent booksellers combined to employ him in the arduous work of preparing a Dictionary of the English Language, in two folio volumes.
He received Johnson's homage with the most winning affability, and requited it with a few guineas, bestowed doubtless in a very graceful manner, but was by no means desirous to see all his carpets blackened with the London mud, and his soups and wines thrown to right and left over the gowns of fine ladies and the waistcoats of fine gentlemen, by an absent, awkward scholar, who gave strange starts and uttered strange growls, who dressed like a scarecrow and ate like a cormorant.
During some time Johnson continued to call on his patron, but, after being repeatedly told by the porter that his lordship was not at home, took the hint, and ceased to present himself at the inhospitable door.
Johnson had flattered himself that he should have completed his Dictionary by the end of 1750; but it was not till 1755 that he at length gave his huge volumes to the world.
Continued adversity had soured Johnson's temper.
At length Johnson undertook the adventure in which so many aspirants had failed.
But Johnson had had enough of the patronage of the great to last him all his life, and was not disposed to haunt any other door as he had haunted the door of Chesterfield.
Mrs Johnson had been given over by the physicians.
The writings of Johnson were warmly praised.
But the just resentment of Johnson was not to be so appeased.
Johnson's Dictionary was hailed with an enthusiasm such as no similar work has ever excited.
Johnson was a wretched etymologist.
The Dictionary, though it raised Johnson's fame, added nothing to his pecuniary means.
In the spring of 1758 Johnson put forth the first of a series of essays, entitled the Idler.
While Johnson was busied with his Idlers, his mother, who had accomplished her ninetieth year, died at Lichfield.
Johnson has frequently blamed Shakespeare for neglecting the proprieties of time and place, and for ascribing to one age or nation the manners and opinions of another.
Yet Shakespeare has not sinned in this way more grievously than Johnson.
Johnson, not content with turning filthy savages, ignorant of their letters, and gorged with raw steaks cut from living cows, into philosophers as eloquent and enlightened as himself or his friend Burke, and into ladies as highly accomplished as Mrs Lennox or Mrs Sheridan, transferred the whole domestic system of England to Egypt.
By such exertions as have been described Johnson supported himself till the year 1762.
The head of the treasury was now Lord Bute, who was a Tory, and could have no objection to Johnson's Toryism.
Bute wished to be thought a patron of men of letters; and Johnson was one of the most eminent and one of the most needy men of letters in Europe.
This event produced a change in Johnson's whole way of life.
Churchill, who, confident in his powers, drunk with popularity, and burning with party spirit, was looking for some man of established fame and Tory politics to insult, celebrated the Cock Lane ghost in three cantos, nicknamed Johnson Pomposo, asked where the book was which had been so long promised and so liberally paid for, and directly accused the great moralist of cheating.
This publication saved Johnson's character for honesty, but added nothing to the fame of his abilities and learning.
Johnson had, in his prospectus, told the world that he was peculiarly fitted for the task which he had undertaken, because he had, as a lexicographer, been under the necessity of taking a wider view of the English language than any of his predecessors.
Raleigh and others, who recognize both sagacity and scholarship in Johnson's Preface and Notes.
Johnson's wide grasp of the discourse and knowledge of human nature enable him in a hundred entangled passages to go straight to the dramatist's meaning.
Johnson might easily in a few months have made himself well acquainted with every old play that was extant.
In the interval between 1765 and 1775 Johnson published only two or three political tracts.
To a man of Johnson's strong understanding and irritable temper, the silly egotism and adulation of Boswell must have been as teasing as the constant buzz of a fly.
Johnson hated to be questioned; and Boswell was eternally catechizing him on all kinds of subjects, and sometimes propounded such questions as, "What would you do, sir, if you were locked up in a tower with a baby ?"
Johnson was a water-drinker and Boswell was a winebibber, and indeed little better than an habitual sot.
During those visits his chief business was to watch Johnson, to discover all Johnson's habits, to turn the conversation to subjects about which Johnson was likely to say something remarkable, and to fill quarto notebooks with minutes of what Johnson had said.
Soon after the club began to exist, Johnson formed a connexion less important indeed to his fame, but much more important to his happiness, than his connexion with Boswell.
In 1765 the Thrales became acquainted with Johnson, and the acquaintance ripened fast into friendship. They were astonished and delighted by the brilliancy of his conversation.
Johnson soon had an apartment at the brewery in Southwark, and a still more pleasant apartment at the villa of his friends on Streatham Common.
It would seem that a full half of Johnson's life during about sixteen years was passed under the roof of the Thrales.
At the head of the establishment Johnson had placed an old lady named Williams, whose chief recommendations were her blindness and her poverty.
An old quack doctor named Levett, who had a wide practice, but among the very poorest class, poured out Johnson's tea in the morning and completed this strange menagerie.
All these poor creatures were at constant war with each other, and with Johnson's negro servant Frank.
The course of life which has been described was interrupted in Johnson's sixty-fourth year by an important event.
At length, in August 1773, Johnson crossed the Highland line, and plunged courageously into what was then considered, by most Englishmen, as a dreary and perilous wilderness.
But even in censure Johnson's tone is not unfriendly.
One scribbler abused Johnson for being blear-eyed, another for being a pensioner; a third informed the world that one of the doctor's uncles had been convicted of felony in Scotland, and had found that there was in that country one tree capable of supportin the weight of an Englishman.
The only effect of this threat was that Johnson reiterated the charge of forgery in the most contemptuous terms, and walked about, during some time, with a cudgel.
Of other assailants Johnson took no notice whatever.
But Johnson took no notice of the challenge.
War was evidently impending; and the ministers seem to have thought that the eloquence of Johnson might with advantage be employed to inflame the nation against the opposition at home, and against the rebels beyond the Atlantic. He had already written two or three tracts in defence of the foreign and domestic policy of the government; and those tracts, though hardly worthy of him, were much superior to the crowd of pamphlets which lay on the counters of Almon and Stockdale.
Johnson had failed, not because his mind was less vigorous than when he wrote Rasselas in the evenings of a week, but because he had foolishly chosen, or suffered others to choose for him, a subject such as he would at no time have been competent to treat.
Happily, Johnson soon had an opportunity of proving most signally that his failure was not to be ascribed to intellectual decay.
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