Unlike Amos and Micah, Isaiah was not only the prophet of denunciation but also the prophet of hope.
Even more insistently does Isaiah present the great truth of God's universal sovereignty.
In addition to these complete commentaries, we have fragments of some others (of that on Isaiah, for example), principally met with in catenae.
To the same period belong the book of Micah, the earlier parts of the books of Samuel, of Isaiah and of Proverbs, and perhaps some Psalms. In 722 B.C. Samaria was taken and the Northern kingdom ceased to exist.
In the exile, but probably after 50o B.C., an important section of the Hexateuch, usually called the Priest's Code (P), was drawn up. At various times in the same century are to be placed the book of Job, the post-exilic parts of Isaiah, the books of Joel, Jonah, Malachi and the Song of Songs.
In Isaiah both aspects - divine universal sovereignty and justice, taught by Amos, and divine loving-kindness to Israel and God's claims on His people's allegiance, taught by Hosea - are fully expressed.
The religion of the Hebrew race - properly the Jews - now enters on a new stage, for it should be observed that it was Amos, Isaiah and Micah - prophets of Judah - who laid the actual foundations.
9-10) in the dark days of Ahaz (735-734 B.C.) were among the oracles which God commanded Isaiah " to seal up among his disciples " (verse 16), and that they were quoted once more with effect as the armies of Sennacherib closed around Jerusalem.
The talismanic name Immanuel became the nucleus out of which the later Messianic prophecies of Isaiah grew.
Thus Isaiah became in that troubled age the true founder of Messianic prophecy.
The Messianic prophecies of Isaiah, the prophet of faith and deliverance, were destined to reverberate through all subsequent centuries.
The next notable contribution to the permanent growth of Hebrew prophetic religion was made about a century after the lifetime of Isaiah by Jeremiah and Ezekiel.
It is not to be supposed that either Amos or Isaiah would have countenanced the total suppression of all sacrificial observance.
The outlook appeared indeed far darker to Jeremiah than it seemed more than a century before to Isaiah in the evil days of Jotham and Ahaz, " when the whole head was sick and the whole heart faint " (Isa.
The Deutero-Isaiah closes a great prophetic succession, which begins with Amos, continues in Isaiah in even greater splendour with the added elements of hope and Messianic expectation, and receives further accession in Jeremiah with his special teaching on inward spiritual and personal religion which constituted the new covenant of divine grace.
increased and her vigilance was relaxed, and might receive from Babylon and other lands both refugees and some account at least of the writings of Ezekiel and the Second Isaiah.
As with his elder contemporary, the foreign peoples - (but in Isaiah's oracles Assyria and Egypt as well as the Palestinian races) - come within his survey.
This involved an entire reconstruction of theological ideas which went beyond even the reconstructions of Amos and Isaiah.
The closing years of the Judaean kingdom and the final destruction of the temple (586 B.C.) shattered the Messianic ideals cherished in the evening of Isaiah's lifetime and again in the opening years of the reign of Josiah.
The seraphim were burning serpentine forms who hovered above the enthroned Yahweh and chanted the Trisagion in Isaiah's consecration vision (Isa.
It is mentioned by Isaiah (x.
In this crisis we meet with Isaiah (q.v.), one of the finest of Hebrew prophets.
If the impression left upon current thought can be estimated from certain of the utterances of the court-prophet Isaiah and the Judaean countryman Micah, the light which these throw upon internal conditions must also be used to gauge the real extent of the religious changes ascribed to Hezekiah.
to Isaiah (1895); Jew.
21, as well as in Isaiah ix.
12), and with the wrathful intervention of Yahweh referred to by Isaiah (xxviii.
The term "day star" (so rendered in the Revised Version) was used poetically by Isaiah for the king of Babylon: "How art thou fallen from heaven, 0 Lucifer, son of the morning!
1), were interpreted by the Christian Fathers as referring to the passage in Isaiah; whence, in Christian theology, Lucifer came to be regarded as the name of Satan before his fill.
It is to boats of this description that Isaiah probably refers in the " vessels of bulrushes upon the waters " (xviii.
Martyrdom of Isaiah.
- This Jewish work has been in part preserved in the Ascension of Isaiah.
We do not forget Jeremiah, but Jeremiah's literary and religious influence is secondary compared with that of Isaiah.
For Isaiah cannot be studied by himself.
The same heading already referred to gives us our only traditional information as to the period during which Isaiah prophesied; it refers to Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah as the contemporary kings.
- Let us now briefly sketch the progress of Isaiah's prophesying on the basis of philological exegesis, and a comparison of the sound results of the study of the inscriptions.
Chap. vi., which describes a vision of Isaiah "in the death-year of King Uzziah" (740 or 734 B.C.?) may possibly have arisen out of notes put down in the reign of Jotham; but for several reasons it is not an acceptable view that, in its present form, this striking chapter is earlier than the reign of Ahaz.
to the Book of Isaiah, 18 95, pp. 44, 45 and 62-66.
13, 14, was attached by Isaiah to an oracle on archaic style by another prophet (Isaiah's hand has, however, been traced by some in xvi.
- We must now enter more fully into the question whether the whole of the so-called Book of Isaiah was really written by that prophet.
It was of the utmost importance to declare that (especially) Isaiah xl.-lxvi.
was a prophetic work of the highest order; this was reason sufficient (apart from any presumed phraseological affinities in xl.-lxvi.) for ascribing them to the royal prophet Isaiah.
I, 1-2), to the Septuagint version of the book (produced between 260 and 130 B.C.), in which the disputed prophecies are already found, and to the Greek translation of the Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach, which distinctly refers to Isaiah as the comforter of those that mourned in Zion (Eccles.
to Book of Isaiah (1895), which also point forward, like Stade's Geschichte in Germany, to a bolder criticism of Isaiah.
There is only one of these prophecies which may, with any degree of apparent plausibility, be referred to the age of Isaiah, and that is chaps.
- of those passages which irresistibly rise in the memory when we think of "Isaiah."
Prophetic Contrasts in Isaiah.
- From a religious point of view there is a wide difference, not only between the acknowledged and the disputed prophecies of the book of Isaiah, but also between those of the latter which occur in chaps.
And if we cannot without much hesitation admit that Isaiah was really the first preacher of a personal Messiah whose record has come down to us, yet his editors certainly had good reason for thinking him capable of such a lofty height of prophecy.
It is not because Isaiah could not have conceived of a personal Messiah, but because the Messiahpassages are not plainly Isaiah's either in style or in thought.
If Isaiah had had those bright visions, they would have affected him more.
14); (2) the conception of the "Servant of Yahweh"; (3) the ironical descriptions of idolatry (Isaiah in the acknowledged prophecies only refers incidentally to idolatry) xl.
Truly "in many parts and many manners did God speak" in this composite book of Isaiah!
Isaiah has been the discovery of two cuneiform texts relative to the fall of Babylon and the religious policy of Cyrus.
- Lowth, Isaiah: a new translation, with a preliminary dissertation and notes (1778); Gesenius, Der Proph.
(4th ed., 1889); Dillmann-Kittel, Isaiah (1898); Duhm (1892; 2nd ed., 1902); Marti (1900); Cheyne, The Prophecies of Isaiah (2 vols., 1880-1881); Introd.
to Book of Isaiah (1898); "The Book of the Prophet Isaiah," in Paul Haupt's Polychrome Bible (1898); S.
Driver, Isaiah, his life and times (1888); J.
Skinner, "The Book of Isaiah," in Cambridge Bible (2 vols., 1896, 1898); G.
Box (1908); Article on Isaiah in Ency.
Kennett's Schweich Lecture (1909), The Composition of the Book of Isaiah in thelLight of Archaeology and History, an interesting attempt at a synthesis of results, is a brightly written b'ut scholarly sketch of the growth of the book of Isaiah, which went on till thegreat success of the Jews under Judas Maccabaeus.
The most original statement is perhaps the view that the words of Isaiah were preserved orally by his disciples, and did not see the light (in a revised form) till a considerable time after the crystallization of the reforms of Josiah into laws.
Ascension of Isaiah >>
The Notes on Job, the Psalms, Isaiah and Daniel, found scarcely less acceptance.
In various passages in the latter portion of Isaiah (x1.
Apocalyptical elements disclose themselves in the prophetical books of Ezekiel, Joel, Zechariah, while in Isaiah xxiv.
8, in LXX.; Isaiah xxiv.
13, 20, &c.), the mountain of God in the north (Isaiah xiv.
Canonical: Isaiah xxiv.
about 160 B.C., Isaiah xxiv.
Vision of Isaiah.
This writing is fragmentary, and has been preserved merely as a constituent of the Ascension of Isaiah.
For a full account see Isaiah, Ascension Of.
This writing has been preserved in its entirety in the Ascension of Isaiah, of which it constitutes chaps.
The first volume of his well-known commentary on Isaiah (Der Prophet Jesaja), with a translation, appeared in 1821; but the work was not completed until 1829.
Frederick Smith (2 vols., London, 1876-1877); Isaiah the Prophet, chaps.
The predictions of these chapters have no affinity either with the prophecy of Amos, Hosea and Isaiah, or with that of Jeremiah.
Isaiah, p. 9 seq.; Skinner, Kings, p. 359).
He was a contemporary and fellow-worker of Isaiah.
The internal disorders of the realm depicted by Micah are also prominent in Isaiah's prophecies; they were closely connected, not only with the foreign complications due to the approach of the Assyrians, but with the break-up of the old agrarian system within Israel, and with the rapid and uncompensated aggrandisement of the nobles during those prosperous years when the conquest of Edom by Amaziah and the occupation of the port of Elath by his son (2 Kings xiv.
On the other hand the democratic tone which distinguishes Micah from Isaiah, and his announcement of the impending fall of the capital (the deliverance of which from the Assyrian appears to Isaiah as the necessary condition for the preservation of the seed of a new and better kingdom), are explained by the fact that, while Isaiah lived in the centre of affairs, Micah, a provincial prophet, sees the capital and the aristocracy entirely from the side of a man of the oppressed people, and foretells the utter ruin of both.
Amongst his published works were a commentary on the Book of Job (1850), a translation of the Song of Songs (1852), an exposition of Isaiah xl.-lxvi.
He prophesied in London as Isaiah prophesied to the little towns of Palestine and Syria, "often with dark foreboding, but seeing through all unrest and convulsion the working out of a sure divine purpose."
Ezekiel, and of nine homilies of Origen on the visions of Isaiah.
Others, like the Ascension of Isaiah, betray the handiwork of successive editors, and are accordingly to be explained on the "redaction hypothesis."
- This section describes in prophetic language borrowed almost wholly from Isaiah and Jeremiah the coming judgment of Rome, and gives the ten lamentations of the kings and the merchants and the seamen over her, and the thanksgivings in heaven for her overthrow.
ISAIAH BERLIN (1725-1799), an eminent rabbi of Breslau; he was the author of acute notes on the Talmud which had their influence in advancing the critical study of that work.
The name is often applied to the Trisagion (tersanctus), or "Holy, Holy, Holy," the scriptural basis of which is found in Isaiah vi.
Among his works are The Book of Isaiah (2 vols., 1888-1890); The Book of the Twelve Prophets (2 vols., 1876-1877); Historical Geography of the Holy Land (1894); Jerusalem (2 vols., 1907); The Preaching of the Old Testament to the Age (1893); The Life of Henry Drummond (1898).
14 In Isaiah vi.
The doctrine of monotheism was formally expressed in the period immediately before and during the Exile, in Deuteronomy" and Isaiah; and at the same time we find angels prominent in Ezekiel who, as a prophet of the Exile, may have been influenced by the hierarchy of supernatural beings in the Babylonian religion, and perhaps even by the angelology of Zoroastrianism."
17 Isaiah xliii.
the Ascension of Isaiah supply much information on this subject.
7; Asc. of Isaiah, iv.
15 it would seem to represent the crocodile, in Isaiah xxvii.
Returning to Heidelberg he became Privatdozent in theology in 1829, and in 1831 published his Begriff der Kritik am Allen Testamente praktisch erartert, a study of Old Testament criticism in which he explained the critical principles of the grammatico-historical school, and his Des Propheten Jonas Orakel uber Moab, an exposition of the 1 5th and 16th chapters of the book of Isaiah attributed by him to the prophet Jonah mentioned in 2 Kings xiv.
His next work was a commentary on Isaiah with a translation (Ubersetzung u.
34) and possibly the vision of Isaiah (2 Chron.
It is therefore probable that in other cases than those of Isaiah and Jehu the writings of, or rather, about the prophets which are cited in Chronicles were known only as parts of the great "book of the Kings."
ISAIAH HOROWITZ (c. 1 555 - c. 1630), Jewish rabbi and mystic, was born at Prague, and died at Safed, then the home of Jewish Kabbala.
Ahaz's sacrifice of his son (which indeed rests on a somewhat late authority) was apparently an isolated act of despair, since human sacrifices are not among the corruptions of the popular religion spoken of by Isaiah and Micah.
13, 14 (David) Isaiah xl.
16-19; Isaiah i.
3, 4.9 Isaiah liii.
10 Isaiah xix.
Soothsaying was no modern importation in Arabia; its characteristic form - a monotonous croon of short rhyming clauses - is the same as was practised by the Hebrew " wizards who peeped and muttered " in the days of Isaiah, and that this form was native in Arabia is clear from its having a technical name (saj`), which in Hebrew survives only in derivative words with modified sense.'
ASCENSION OF ISAIAH, an apocryphal book of the Old Testament.
The Ascension of Isaiah is a composite work of very great interest.
Its various constituents, however, and of these there were three - the Martyrdom of Isaiah, the Testament of Hezekiah and the Vision of Isaiah - circulated independently as early as the 1st century.
The Vision of Isaiah is important for the knowledge it affords us of 1st-century beliefs in certain circles as to the doctrines of the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Resurrection, the Seven Heavens, &c. The long lost Testament of Hezekiah, which is, in the opinion of R.
4, 9) calls it A pocryph of Isaiah - 'AlrOKpucbov `Haalov, Epiphanius (Haer.
2) terms it the Ascension of Isaiah - TO ava(3arcxov 'Haalou, and similarly Jerome - A scensio Isaiae.
(i.) Martyrdom of Isaiah, of Jewish origin; 11.
(ii.) The Vision of Isaiah, of Christian origin, vi.
(i.) The Martyrdom of Isaiah = i.
(iii.) The Vision of Isaiah = vi.-xi.
We may, in short, put this complex matter as follows: The conditions of the problem are sufficiently satisfied by supposing a single editor, who had three works at his disposal, the Martyrdom of Isaiah, of Jewish origin, and the Testament of Hezekiah and the Vision of Isaiah, of Christian origin.
(c) The Vision of Isaiah.
"Isaiah, Ascension of," in Smith's Diet.
298-301; Robinson, "The Ascension of Isaiah" in Hastings Bible Diet.
Isaiah Horowitz >>
In the Ascension of Isaiah (1st century A.D.) Seth is seen in heaven.
(b) The " Latter Prophets "; Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, the Minor Prophets (called by the Jews " the Twelve," and counted by them as one book).
The different order of the books in the English Bible is due to the fact that when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek between the 3rd and 1st centuries B.C., the Hebrew tripartite division was disregarded, and the books (including those now known as the " Apocrypha ") were grouped mostly by subjects, the historical books being placed first (Genesis - Esther), the poetical books next (Job - Song of Songs), and the prophetical books last (Isaiah - Malachi).
A number of narratives, evidently written by prophets, and in many of which also (as those relating to Elijah, Elisha and Isaiah) prophets play a prominent part, and a series of short statistical notices, relating to political events, and derived probably from the official annals of the two kingdoms (which are usually cited at the end of a king's reign), have been arranged together, and sometimes expanded at the same time, in a framework supplied by the compiler.
The book of Isaiah falls into two clearly distinguished parts, viz.
- lxvi., however, are not by Isaiah, but are the work of a prophet who wrote about 540 B.C., shortly before the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, and whose aim was to encourage the Israelites in exile, and assure them of the certainty of their approaching restoration to Canaan.
being added subsequently, some time after the return.) The genuine prophecies of Isaiah are contained in chs.
The opinion has, however, latterly gained ground that parts even of these chapters are of later origin than Isaiah's own time.
It is evident from these facts that the book of Isaiah did not assume its present form till considerably after the return of the Jews from exile in 537, when a compiler, or series of compilers, arranged the genuine prophecies of Isaiah which had come to his hands, together with others which at the time were attributed to Isaiah, and gave the book its present form.
The book of Ezekiel bears throughout the stamp of a single mind; the prophecies contained in it are arranged methodically; and to all appearance - in striking contrast to the books of Isaiah and Jeremiah - it received the form in which we still have it from the prophet himself.
19 and Isaiah xxxvi.
T., 169), raises the question why the sixth chapter of Isaiah, containing the inaugural vision, does not stand at the beginning of the book.
Except in strangely making Zephaniah contemporary with Isaiah, Hobbes' conclusions, in so far as they differ from the traditional views, have been confirmed by the more thorough criticism of subsequent scholars.
Lowth published a new translation of Isaiah with Lowth.
He analyses significant stylistic peculiarities such as occur, e.g., in Isaiah xxiv.-xxvii.
For various reasons (here following Koppe, who just previously in additions to his translation of Lowth's Isaiah had shown himself the pioneer of the higher criticism of the book of Isaiah) he argues that " in our Isaiah are many oracles not the work of this prophet."
The starting-point of this newer criticism of the prophets is the clearer practical recognition of the fact that all pre-exilic prophecy has come down to us in the works of post-exilic editors, and that for the old statement of the problem of the prophetic books - What prophecies or elements in Isaiah, Jeremiah and the rest are later than these prophets ?
Cheyne, Introduction to the Book of Isaiah (1895); K.
The change in the former period with regard to a single point, which is however typical of many, is briefly summed up by Dr Cheyne: " In 1880 it was still a heresy to accept with all its consequences the plurality of authorship of the Book of Isaiah; in 1890 to a growing school of churchstudents this has become an indubitable fact " (Origin of the Psalter, xv.).
For example, among the generally or largely accepted critical conclusions are these: (1) Moses is not the author of the whole Pentateuch; (2) Isaiah is not the author of Is.
19 = Isaiah lxi.
dealing with Adam, Moses or Isaiah) will always be a matter of dispute, the teaching to which it is applied stands on an independent footing as also does the application of that teaching to other ages.
ha-Makiri, perhaps later, covers only certain books, is useful for older sources and their criticism; portions have been edited by Spira (1894, on Isaiah); Buber (1899, on Psalms); Gri nhut (1902, on Proverbs).
2, 3, that in Isaiah's time the kosem still held an important place in society as well as the prophet and the magician.
The rise and progress of the new school of prophecy, ' beginning with Amos and continued in the succession of canonical prophets, which broke through this religious stagnation, is Amos discussed in the article Hebrew Religion; for from Amos, and still more from Isaiah downwards, the Successors.
But the false prophets were by no means mere common impostors; they were the accredited exponents of the common orthodoxy of their day, for the prophets who opposed Jeremiah took their stand on the ground of the prophetic traditions of Isaiah, whose doctrine of the inviolability of Yahweh's seat on Zion was the starting-point of their opposition to Jeremiah's predictions of captivity.
From this we can see the enormous importance of the work of Isaiah as it has been exhibited in the article Hebrew Religion;.
Yahweh's kingdom cannot perish even for a time; nay, Isaiah argues that it must remain visible, and visible not merely in the circle of the like-minded whom he had gathered round him and who formed the first germ of the notion of the church, but in the political form of a kingdom also.
Thus, with Isaiah in the days of Sennacherib's invasion, the prophetic word became again, as it had been in the days of the Syrian wars, "the chariots and horsemen of Israel," the stay and strength of all patriotic hope.
Yet even at this crisis the resemblance between Isaiah and Elisha, between the new prophecy and the old, is more apparent than real.
But Isaiah's ideal of religion was one for which he himself demands as a preliminary condition an outpouring of Yahweh's spirit on king (Isa.
And so too it is not through the material organization of the Judaean kingdom that Isaiah looks for deliverance from Assyria.
The interpretation which Isaiah puts on this fact depends on the circumstance that at that date religion had never been conceived as a relation between God and individuals, or as a relation between God and a purely spiritual society, but always as a relation between a deity and some natural social group - a stock, a tribe, a nation.
involved in Isaiah's conclusion of faith we see that it has no absolute validity.
But till this was realized Isaiah was right in teaching that the law of continuity demanded that the nation within which Yahweh had made Himself known to His spiritual prophets must be maintained as a nation for the sake of the glory of God and the preservation of the "remnant."
The withdrawal of Sennacherib's army, in which the doctrine of the inviolability of Zion received the most striking practical confirmation, was welcomed by Isaiah and his disciples as an earnest of the speedy inbringing of the new spiritual era.
The prophetic teaching had indeed produced a profound effect; to the party of reaction, as the persecution under Manasseh shows, it seemed to threaten to subvert all society; and we can still measure the range and depth of its influence in the literary remains of the period from Isaiah to the captivity, which include Micah vi.
Thus it was that, though beyond question there had been a real advance in the average ethical and spiritual ideas of the people since the time of Isaiah, Jeremiah found himself more isolated than Isaiah had ever been.
In Isaiah's days the answer had been affirmative; there appeared to be at least a potentiality of national regeneration in the holy seed when once it should be cleansed from the chaff by a work of judgment.
But meantime the relation of God to the prophet had acquired an independent significance; the inner life of Isaiah during the long years when his teaching seemed.
Lecturing on Isaiah he condemned current ecclesiastical abuses, and in a public disputation (loth of August 1523) was so successful that Erasmus writing to Zurich said "Oecolampadius has the upper hand amongst us."
As a rule the prophets directly connect the final restoration with the removal of the sins of their own age; to Isaiah the last troubles are those of Assyrian invasion, to Jeremiah the restoration follows on the exile to Babylon, to Daniel on the overthrow of the Greek monarchy.
This conception, however, is not one of the constant elements of prophecy; other prophecies of Isaiah look for the decisive interposition of Yahweh in the crisis of history without a kingly deliverer.
In brief they were as follows: that he had taught that reason and the Church are each a " fountain of divine authority which apart from Holy Scripture may and does savingly enlighten men "; that " errors may have existed in the original text of the Holy Scripture "; that " many of the Old Testament predictions have been reversed by history " and that " the great body of Messianic prediction has not and cannot be fulfilled "; that " Moses is not the author of the Pentateuch," and that " Isaiah is not the author of half of the book which bears his name "; that " the processes of redemption extend to the world to come " - he had considered it a fault of Protestant theology that it limits redemption to this world - and that" sanctification is not complete at death."
But even Isaiah tended to think of the spiritual life and worship of the nation as a department of political organization only, controlled by the king and his princes.
4), implying but not absolutely stating that there was a fixed order of such lessons just as there was of the Psalms. St Basil the Great mentions fixed lessons on certain occasions taken from Isaiah, Proverbs, St Matthew and Acts (Horn.
In the Vulgate it immediately precedes Isaiah.
Though never an advanced critic, his article on Daniel in the second edition of Herzog's Realencyklopeidie, his New Commentary on Genesis and the fourth edition of his Isaiah show that as years went on his sympathy with higher criticism increased-so much so indeed that Prof. Cheyne has included him among its founders.
1886, &c.), Job (2nd ed., 1876), Isaiah (4th ed.
No one complains of the civil laws in Exodus or the sacrificial ritual in Leviticus, because they want the fire of Isaiah or the tenderness of Deuteronomy.
The first Jew to suggest emendations to the text of the Hebrew Bible, he edited Isaiah (1856-1867), and wrote a commentary on the Pentateuch (1871).
8; the Targum also, in its comment on the passage of Isaiah, applies "the wicked" to Antichrist.
xvii.; and Charles, Ascension of Isaiah, lvii.
Charles, Ascension of Isaiah, Introduction, li.-lxxiii.
If so, Isaiah has transformed and ennobled these supernatural guardians of sacred things and persons.
Among these we may venture, quite tentatively, to mention the sermon at Nazareth which opened with a passage from the Book of Isaiah, the raising of the widow's son at Nain, and the parable of the good Samaritan.
The opening scene of the Galilean ministry is the discourse at Nazareth, in which our Lord claims to fulfil Isaiah's prophecy of the proclamation of good tidings to the poor.
Hezekiah's time may have been selected by the author of the title (or by the tradition which he represents) as being the next great literary period in Judah after Solomon, the time of Micah and Isaiah, or the selection may have been suggested by the military glory of the period (the repulse of the Assyrian army) and by the fame of Hezekiah as a pious monarch and a vigorous reformer of the national religion.
especially Isaiah), the character of the reforms ascribed to Josiah (2 Kings xxiii.), the pictures drawn by Jeremiah and Ezekiel, and the latter's condemnation of the half-Hittite, half-Amorite capital, combine with the events of later history to prove that the religion of the national sanctuary must not be too narrowly estimated from the denunciations of more spiritual minds or from a priori views of the inevitable concomitants of either henotheism or monotheism or of a lofty ethical teaching.
After reaching an astonishing height (roughly2500-1500B.C.) these civilizing powers slowly decayed, and we reach the middle of the first millennium B.C. - the age which is associated with the " Deutero - Isaiah " (Isa.
4; the "waters of Noah" occur in Isaiah liv.
The impending fate of Damascus is illustrated by Isaiah (vii.
For other allusions to this period see Hosea, Isaiah.
If the latter, Hoshea's policy becomes more intelligible; see Whitehouse, Isaiah, p. 17 seq.; JEWS: History; PHILISTINES.
37; Isaiah xxxvii.
This company of faithful but not always sufficiently charitable men represented their people, so that it might be said that Israel itself (the second Isaiah's "Servant of Yahweh" - see IsAIAH) had taken up its duty, but in an ungenial spirit which grieved the All-merciful One.
Amongst them are homilies "on the burden of Babylon in Isaiah"; three books "on spiritual friendship"; a life of Edward the Confessor; an account of miracles wrought at Hexham, and the tract called Relatio de Standardo.
C. Whitehouse, Isaiah, pp. 20 sqq., 372; J.
Both these stories appear to belong to a biography of Isaiah, and, like the similar biographies of Elijah and Elisha, are open to the suspicion that historical facts have been subordinated to idealize the work of the prophet.
But see further Isaiah (BooK).
17-19 (which suggests that Micah had a greater influence than Isaiah) throws another light upon the conditions during his reign.
(on 2 Kings, Lc.); Driver, Isaiah, his Life and Times, pp. 43-83; A.
Agypten (Leipzig, 1909); also the bibliography to ISAIAH.
Under Sennacherib's rule, Yatnana figures (as in Isaiah) as the refuge of a disloyal Sidonian in 702; but in 668 ten kings of Cypriote cities joined Assur-bani-pal's expedition to Egypt; most of them bear recognizable Greek names, e.g.
Shortly after, in 1792, the Baptist Missionary Society was formed at Kettering in Northamptonshire, after a sermon on Isaiah lii.
4to, 1 7791785); On the Prosodies of the Greek and Latin Languages (1796); Disquisitions on Isaiah xviii.
Among his more general works are: Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew (1892); Isaiah, his Life and Times (1893); Introd.
When in 734-733 B.C. Ahaz, king of Judah, alarmed at the preparations made against him by the Syro-Ephraimitish alliance, was inclined to seek aid from Tiglath-pileser of Assyria, the prophet Isaiah endeavoured to allay his fear by telling him that the danger would pass away, and as a sign from Yahweh that this should be so, any young woman who should within the year bear a son, might call his name Immanuel in token of the divine protection accorded to Judah.
For before the infant should come to even the immature intelligence of childhood the lands of the foe would be laid waste (Isaiah vii.
At the close of Isaiah viii.
So we read of "the plant (Church) which the twelve apostles of the Beloved shall plant" (Ascension of Isaiah, iv.
Ascension of Isaiah and the Preaching of Peter), or to them and Paul (e.g.
At Salisbury Street and Park Avenue are the library and museum (1910) of the American Antiquarian Society, established in 1812 by Isaiah Thomas, with a collection of interesting portraits, a library of 99,000 vols.
From 1775 to 1848 was published here the weekly edition of the Worcester Spy, established by Isaiah Thomas in 1770 in Boston as the Massachusetts Spy and removed by him to Worcester at the outbreak of the War of Independence; a daily edition was published from 1845 to 1904.
He was indeed not at first a complete pessimist, but to be a preacher of Deuteronomy required a sanguine temper which a prophet of the school of Isaiah could not possess.
And yet he does not really go beyond the great city-prophet Isaiah who calls the men of Jerusalem " a people of Gomorrah " (i.
(Isaiah and Jeremiah).
Still, some adherents of the old Israelitish moral and religious standards must have survived, only they were not to be found in the chief places of concourse, but as a rule in coteries which handed on the traditions of Amos and Isaiah in sorrowful retirement.
In Jeremiah, as in Isaiah, we must constantly ask to what age do the phraseology, the ideas and the implied circumstances most naturally point?
Had the work been composed during the Babylonian era, it would be more natural to expect prophecies of the return of the exiled Jews to Palestine, as in Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Isaiah, rather than the acclamation of an ideal Messianic kingdom such as is emphasized in the second part of Daniel.
He translated and edited Gesenius's Hebrew Grammar (1839; 1877), and published revised versions with notes of Job (1856), Genesis (1868), Psalms (1871), Proverbs (1872), Isaiah i.
The authors of the Ascension of Isaiah, the Apoc. of Baruch and the Epistle of Barnabas were probably acquainted with it.
20), as possessed of almost personal qualities (Isaiah lv.
often in Isaiah, i.
i.) are not so real or prominent on the political horizon as, for example, in Isaiah, Jeremiah or Habakkuk.
In Isaiah and Zechariah, notably, older and later groups of prophecies are preserved, whereas here the new preludes and new sequels suggest that the original nucleus has passed through the hands of writers in touch with those vicissitudes of thought which can be studied more completely elsewhere.
Brit., 9th ed., who points out that " in the scheme of Isaiah it is made clear that the fall of the power that shatters the nations cannot fail to be recognized as Yahweh's work."
"Isaiah" in the Temple Bible was finished, but not revised, when he died; and he also had in hand the volume on Isaiah for the International Critical Commentary; to which must be added a mass of articles contributed to The Imperial Bible Dictionary, The Encyclopaedia Britannica, and the chief religious reviews.
In the deathless volume of Chatiments, which appeared in 1853, his indignation, his genius, and his faith found such utterance and such expression as must recall to the student alternately the lyric inspiration of Coleridge and Shelley, the prophetic inspiration of Dante and Isaiah, the satiric inspiration of Juvenal and Dryden.
Notwithstanding the counsel of Isaiah (Is.
See further Isaiah and Jews.
1; Isaiah vii.
That ascribed to Mordecai has the verses Isaiah lix.
In Amos, Hosea and Isaiah there are no traces of D's ideas, whereas in Jeremiah and Ezekiel their influence is everywhere manifest.
Hence this school of thought arose between the age of Isaiah and that of Jeremiah; but how long D itself may have been in existence before it was read in 622 to Josiah cannot be determined with certainty.
Oehler admitted the composite authorship of the Pentateuch and the Book of Isaiah, and did much to counteract the antipathy against the Old Testament that had been fostered by Schleiermacher.
25), and denounced by Isaiah under the name Kir of Moab (xv.
unbiased discussion of the related biblical history (especially the writings of Isaiah and Hosea) and the Egyptian data.
He saw that the second part of Isaiah differs from the first not only in style but in date; that the grammar and the history of the Pentateuch are posterior to the time of Moses; that the book of Daniel is clearly apocryphal.
Far from prophesying the Advent of the Quran, Isaiah is simply referring to the Assyrian takeover of Ephraim.
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, and the Psalmist have a kindred burthen for Edom.
Do you remember how Philip meets the Ethiopian eunuch who is reading from the prophet Isaiah about the servant.
grape vine Almond blossom Fig leaves Olive fruit 11: In Isaiah's prophesy, what flower will bloom in the desert?
Isaiah dahlman for the health of a second.
Isaiah Isaiah is called the prophet of divine mercy.
Isaiah is confident that the strong arm of the Lord has lost none of its ancient power.
These range from the creation account in Genesis to the anti-idol polemic of Isaiah.
prophesying the advent of the Quran, Isaiah is simply referring to the Assyrian takeover of Ephraim.
Jesus is the secret that the Old testament prophets like Isaiah had been telling all people about.
These last chapters of Isaiah relate to the period following the arrival of the first returnees from exile in Babylon.
skipped over by opening the Bible at Isaiah 55?
Sixth, and pointing ahead to next time, the parallel between Job and YHWH's Servant in Isaiah remains striking.
testament prophets like Isaiah had been telling all people about.
Finally, a narrative reading of Isaiah 53 was offered, with a focus on the literary trope of personification.
" Tenderness " she had abundantly, and it revealed itself not only in effusive sentimentality, as with Rousseau and Chateaubriand, but in active benevolence; " justice " too she had in so far as she sincerely wished that all men should share alike her happiness; but of " holiness," that sense of awe and reverence that was felt in divers kinds and degrees by Isaiah, Sophocles, Virgil and St Paul, she had not a rudimenatry conception.
His book was accepted early as part of the sacred literature: Ben-Sira (c. 180 B.C.) mentions him along with Isaiah and Jeremiah (Ecclus.
Full of enthusiasm, they set about rebuilding the temple and realizing the glowing promises about the prosperity and dominance of Zion that had fallen from the lips of the Second Isaiah (xlix.
Haggai's reproofs touched the conscience of the Jews, and the book of Zechariah enables us in some measure to follow the course of a religious revival which, starting with the restoration of the temple, did not confine itself to matters of ceremony and ritual worship. On the other hand, Haggai's treatment of his theme, practical and effective as it was for the purpose in hand, moves on a far lower level than the aspirations of the prophet who wrote the closing chapters of Isaiah.
Charles Augustus Briggs, tried for heresy for his inaugural address in 1891 as professor of biblical theology at Union Seminary (in which he attacked the inerrancy of the Bible, held the composite character of the Hexateuch and of the Book of Isaiah and taught that sanctification is not complete at death), was acquitted by the presbytery of New York, but was declared guilty and was suspended from its ministry by the General Assembly of 1893.
Somewhat later (c. 550) the combined document JE was edited by a writer under the influence of Deuteronomy, the later parts of the books of Samuel were written, parts of Isaiah, the books of Obadiah, Haggai, Zeyhariah and perhaps the later Proverbs.
He also composed liturgical poems. At the end of the Ilth century Judah ibn Bal'am wrote grammatical works and commentaries (on the Pentateuch, Isaiah, &c.) in Arabic; the liturgist Isaac Gayyath (d.
and xiv.), and Judah in the time of Isaiah turned a deaf ear (Isa.
In words which evidently impressed his younger contemporary Isaiah (cf.
" The use which was made in Apocalyptic literature of the traditions of Moses, Isaiah and others finds its analogy within the Old Testament itself; cf.
(See under Baruch.) Martyrdom of Isaiah.
(See Isaiah, Ascension Of.) Pseudo-Philo's Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum.
It is true that the preposition " to " O may denote authorship, as it does apparently in Isaiah xxxviii.
Hence the taunt to Bashan, the stronghold of the Seleucid government; hence the mention of Judah and Benjamin with the two Galilaean tribes Zebulon and Naphtali (as in Isaiah ix.
Isaiah xi., xix.).
I) of what we may call the occasional prophecies of Isaiah (i.e.
sons, whose names he regarded as, together with his own, symbolic by divine appointment of certain decisive events or religious truths - Isaiah (Yesha'-yahu), meaning "Salvation - Yahweh"; Shear-Yashub, "a remnant shall return"; and Maher-shalal-hash-baz, "swift (swiftly cometh) spoil, speedy (speedily cometh) prey" (vii.
Skinner "Isaiah i.-xxxix."
xxix.-xxxiii.) point in the main to Sennacherib's invasion, 701 B.C., which evidently stirred Isaiah's deepest feelings and was the occasion of some of his greatest prophecies.
18-24 is, if possible, even more doubtful, because of the precise, circumstantial details of the prophecy which are not like Isaiah's work.
i.-xxxix.--We have said nothing hitherto, except by way of allusion, of the disputed prophecies scattered up and down the first half of the book of Isaiah.
We may say, upon the whole, with Duhm, that Isaiah represents a synthesis of Amos and Hosea, though not without important additions of his own.
Isaiah and the Inscriptions" in Cheyne's Prophecies of Isaiah, vol.
There are independent versions of these chapters in Latin and Slavonic. (See Isaiah, Ascension Of.) Shepherd of Hermas.
of great wars against Philistines, Arabians and Meunim, of building operations in Jerusalem (probably after the attack by Joash), and of political and social reforms. The prosperity which Judah enjoyed during this period (middle of 8th century) is illustrated by the writings of Amos and by the earliest prophecies of Isaiah (e.g.
But the words have little connexion with the context in Isaiah, and may be the quotation of a copyist suggested by ver.
Indeed, as Marti points out (p. 259) the triple division of the book of Micah (i.-iii.; iv., v.; vi., vii.) corresponds with that of the book of Isaiah (i.-xxxix.; xl.-lv.; lvi.-lxvi.) in the character of the three divisions (judgment; coming restoration; prayer for help in adversity) respectively, and in the fact that the first alone gives us pre-exilic writing in the actual words of the prophet to whom the whole book is ascribed.
Of the chief monument of his scholarship - the Philoxenian version of the Bible - only the Gospels and certain portions of Isaiah are known to survive (see Wright, Syr.
At the same place, too, he wrote Quaestiones Hebraicae on Genesis, 2 and a series of commentaries on Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Matthew and the Epistles of St Paul.
It is doubtful how far Ezekiel's account of the cherubim and Isaiah's account of the seraphim are to be taken as descriptions of actual beings; they are probably figurative, or else subjective visions.
It was also known as the Vision of Isaiah and finally as the Testament of Hezekiah (see Charles, The Ascension of Isaiah, pp. xii.-xv.).
- xxxix., describing incidents in which Isaiah took a part, consist of narratives excerpted from 2 Kings xviii.
Thus it is to Luther a matter of indifference whether or not Moses wrote the Pentateuch; the books of Chronicles he definitely pronounces less credible than those of Kings, and he considers that the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Hosea probably owe their present form to later hands.
Numerous instructive examples of the active tendency to develop tradition may be observed in the relationship between Genesis and the " Book of Jubilees," or in the embellishments of Old Testament history in the Antiquities of Josephus, or in the widening gaps in the diverse traditions of the famous figures of the Old Testament (Adam, Noah, Enoch, Abraham, Moses, Isaiah, Ezra, &c.), as they appear in noncanonical writings.
It may be here stated that Winckler's conception of the Hebrew prophet Isaiah as the mouthpiece of the Assyrian court (K.A.T.
On the other hand Lowth's Lectures on Hebrew Poetry, and the same author's Commentary on Isaiah (1778), show the beginnings of a tendency to look mainly at the aesthetic aspects of the prophetical books, and to view the prophets as enlightened religious poets.
give pardus, a reminiscence of Isaiah xi.
Etheridge, The Targums on the Pentateuch (2 vols., 1862 and 1865); and Pauli, The Chaldee Paraphrase of the Prophet Isaiah (London, 1871).
The identity of Shinar and Shumer is also demon= strated by the Septuagint renderindof Shinar in Isaiah xi.
The destruction of the Adversary is drawn from Isaiah xi.
139 sqq., Burney, Kings, 350 sq.; Driver; Kuchler, &c.; for the later, Whitehouse, Isaiah, 29 sq., in agreement with Schrader, Wellhausen, W.
to Isaiah, 222 sq.), but is further proof of the manner in which the Judaean king was idealized in subsequent ages, partly, perhaps, in the belief that the deliverance of Jerusalem was the reward for his piety.
The Proprium de Tempore contains the office of the seasons of the Christian year (Advent to Trinity), a conception that only gradually grew up. There is here given the whole service for every Sunday and week-day, the proper antiphons, responsories, hymns, and especially the course of daily Scripture-reading, averaging about twenty verses a day, and (roughly) arranged thus: for Advent, Isaiah; Epiphany to Septuagesima, Pauline Epistles; Lent, patristic homilies (Genesis on Sundays); Passion-tide, Jeremiah; Easter to Whitsun, Acts, Catholic epistles and Apocalypse; Whitsun to August, Samuel and Kings; August to Advent, Wisdom books, Maccabees, Prophets.
ii.), the prayer of Habakkuk (iii.), the prayer of Hezekiah (Isaiah xxxviii.) and other similar Old Testament passages, and, from the New Testament, the Magnificat, the Benedictus and the Nunc dimittis, are admitted as psalms.
Of Biblical and exegetical works we have a considerable part of Eusebius' Commentaries on the Psalms and on Isaiah, which are monuments of learning, industry and critical acumen, though marred by the use of the allegorical method characteristic of the school of Origen; also a work on the names of places mentioned in Scripture, or the Onomasticon, the only one extant of a number of writings on Old Testament topography; and an epitome and some fragments of a work in two parts on Gospel Questions and Solutions, the first part dealing with the genealogies of Christ given in Matthew and Luke, the second with the apparent discrepancies between the various gospel accounts of the resurrection.
Before answering we must again point out (see also IsAIAH) that the records of the pre-exilic prophets came down in a fragmentary form, and that these fragments needed much supplementing to adapt them to the use of post-exilic readers.
It is cited without acknowledgment in the Book of Adam and Eve, the Apocalypses of Moses and Paul, the Sibylline Oracles, the Ascension of Isaiah, the Epistle of Barnabas, and referred to by Origen and Irenaeus (see Charles, The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, 1895, pp. xvii-xxiv).
With Ecclesi- them the triad of Christian graces, Faith, Hoe and astical g P morality Love, and the seven gifts of the Spirit (Isaiah xi.
What have we skipped over by opening the Bible at Isaiah 55?
Sixth, and pointing ahead to next time, the parallel between Job and YHWH 's Servant in Isaiah remains striking.
Isaiah 43:11 * Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself, O God of Israel, the Savior.
Isaiah laments the fact that he is a man of unclean lips.
Isaiah had the audacity to talk back to his mother, making her upset with him.
Located on Oglethorpe Square, it was built in 1820 by Isaiah Davenport.
The name Destiny's Child is a Biblical reference to the Book of Isaiah.
In October 2006, a fight erupted between Dempsey and Isaiah Washington after Dempsey arrived five minutes late for shooting.
The fight ended with Isaiah making a homophobic remark about gay cast member T.R.
Back in October 2006, Isaiah Washington of Grey's Anatomy made headlines for making a homophobic slur about a fellow cast member.
In October, it was reported that a fight broke out between Isaiah Washington and Patrick Dempsey, following Washington's use of a homophobic slur about co-star T.R.
Isaiah Washington, who portrayed Dr. Preston Burke on the hit television series Grey's Anatomy, is not returning to work in the fall.
Isaiah Washington made headlines in the fall of 2006 when it was reported that a fight started between he and Grey's co-star Patrick Dempsey after Washington used a homophobic slur about T.R.
While Heigl was not directly involved with the controversy that erupted on the set of Grey's Anatomy, when Isaiah Washington used a gay slur toward T.R.
Knight versus Isaiah Washington debacle happened, in which Katherine Heigl placed herself smack dab in the middle of the controversy.
More recent Texas-born actors include Owen Wilson, Matthew McConaughey, Isaiah Washington and Jim Parsons.
Maggie's father, Stephen Gyllenhaal, is a film and television director known for movies such as Losing Isaiah and A Dangerous Woman.
At the end of the third season, Isaiah Washington was let go, leaving fans to wonder who would fill the void left by Burke.
Burke (Isaiah Washington) was his physician and the interns were all eager to be a part of the surgery.
Series regulars Kate Walsh and Isaiah Washington both left the series, with Walsh moving to Private Practice.
Burke left Seattle Grace and Cristina after his portrayer (Isaiah Washington) had made homophobic comments about the actor who played George (T.
Burke (Isaiah Washington) has sex with Cristina (Sandra Oh) in an on-call room.
For Amos and Isaiah were able to single out those loftier spiritual and ethical elements which lay implicit in Mosaism and to lift them into their due place of prominence.
(Giessen, 1900); Karl Marti in his well-known commentary on Isaiah, and F.
Another and more drastic reform than that which had been previously initiated (probably at the instigation of Isaiah and Micah) now became necessary to save the state.
It is, of course, true that the ethical conception of sin as violation of righteousness and an act of rebellion against the divine righteous will had been developed since the days of Amos and Isaiah; but, as we have already observed, cultus and prophetic teaching were separated by an immense gulf, and in spite of the reformation of 621 B.C. still remain separated.
The pre-exilian prophets (especially Isaiah) spoke of the forthcoming crisis in the world's history as a " day of the Lord."
On apocalyptic generally the introductions to Charles's Book of Enoch, Apocalypse of Baruch, Ascension of Isaiah and Book of Jubilees, should be carefully noted.
Among the most widely circulated were the commentaries on Jeremiah, Isaiah and Ezekiel, the Vaticinia pontificum and the De oneribus ecclesiae.
Discussing the thrice holy in Isaiah vi.
Procopius's theological writings consist of commentaries on the Octateuch, the books of Kings and Chronicles, Isaiah, the Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.
It is of Jewish origin, and recounts the martyrdom of Isaiah at the hands of Manasseh.
12, Isaiah li.
the speaker, who is not an individual but speaks in the name of a community, bears a remarkable resemblance to the " suffering servant " of Isaiah lii.
It is at least remarkable that the names Zebulon and Naphtali in Isaiah ix.
- Isaiah is the name of the greatest, and both in life and in death the most influential of the Old Testament prophets.
We know but little of Isaiah's predecessors and models in the prophetic art (it were fanaticism to exclude the element of human preparation); but certainly even the acknowledged prophecies of Isaiah (and much more the disputed ones) could no more have come into existence suddenly and without warning than the masterpieces of Shakespeare.
Cheyne's Prophecies of Isaiah, ii.
218) lists are generally given of the points of contact both in phraseology and in ideas between Isaiah and the prophets nearly contemporary with him.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.