The invention of the damper-pedal in the pianoforte epitomizes the difference between polyphony and symphonic art, for it is the earliest device by which sounds are produced and prolonged in a way contrary to the spirit of "real" part-writing.
The invention of the railroad was a milestone in the history of transportation.
Briggs was greatly excited by Napier's invention and visited him at Merchiston in 1615, staying with him a whole month; he repeated his visit in 1616 and, as he states, "would have been glad to make him a third visit if it had pleased God to spare him so long."
Every day in imagination I made a trip round the world, and I saw many wonders from the uttermost parts of the earth--marvels of invention, treasuries of industry and skill and all the activities of human life actually passed under my finger tips.
Ztg., 1815, May, p. 309, the first announcement of the invention in a paragraph by Captain G.
The didactic novel of Xenophon, the Cyropaedia, is a free invention adapted to the purposes of the author, based upon the account of Herodotus and occasionally influenced by Ctesias, without any independent traditional element.
The decision covered also future invention in regard to " every organized system of communication by means of wires according to any preconcerted system of signals."
When zoological records failed, Egypto-Hellenic ingenuity was never at a loss for a fanciful invention distilled from the text itself, but which to succeeding copyists appeared as part of the teaching of the original Physiologus.
Even when, on the invention of gunpowder and firearms, the bow had fallen into disuse as a weapon of war, the prohibition was continued.
He immediately began to complain to Hyde, earl of Clarendon, of the poverty of the see, and based claims for a better benefice on a certain secret service, which he explained on the 20th of January 1661 to be the sole invention of the Eikon Basilike, The Pourtraicture of his sacred Majestic in his Solitudes and Sufferings put forth within a few hours after the execution of Charles I.
Mantegna has sometimes been credited with the important invention of engraving with the burin on copper.
The more one considers the condition of science at the time, and the state of the country in which the discovery took place, the more wonderful does the invention of logarithms appear.
Within two years of the invention the authors announced the discovery of two metals, rubidium and caesium, closely allied to sodium, potassium and lithium in properties, in the mineral lepidolite and in the Diirkheim mineral water.
An instrument of higher interest, the stereoscope, which, though of much later date (1849-1850), may be mentioned here, since along with the kaleidoscope it did more than anything else to popularize his name, was not, as has often been asserted, the invention of Brewster.
This medieval fortress, strong by art as well as position before the invention of modern artillery, has since undergone numerous sieges.
It is said that, after the invention of printing, amongst others Queen Elizabeth translated it, and that the work was well known to Shakespeare.
The evolution of mathematical thought in the invention of the data of analysis has thus been completely traced in outline.
His most valuable contributions to science consist in the suggestion of the astatic combination of two needles for galvanometers, and in the invention of the so-called thermomultiplier used by him and M.
Immediately on its discovery intense interest was aroused in the new invention, and the chemical effects of electric currents were speedily detected.
The different editions of the Descriptio and Constructio, as well as the reception of logarithms on the continent of Europe, and especially by Kepler, whose admiration of the invention almost equalled that of Briggs, belong to the history of logarithms (q.v.).
In 1847 Morse was compelled to defend his invention in the courts, and successfully vindicated his claim to be called the original inventor of the electromagnetic recording telegraph.
1 During the twelve years that followed Morse was engaged in a painful struggle to perfect his invention and secure for it a proper presentation to the public. In poverty he pursued his new enterprise, making his own models, moulds and castings, denying himself the common necessaries of life.
It is to be noticed also that the invention was not the result of any happy accident.
As results of Roberval's labours outside the department of pure mathematics may be noted a work on the system of the universe, in which he supports the Copernican system and attributes a mutual attraction to all particles of matter; and also the invention of a special kind of balance which goes by his name.
Even to the present day the legend has 1 It is probable that the story of the piercing of his feet is a subsequent invention to explain the name, or is due to a false etymology (from oih&o), 01St rovs in reality meaning the "wise" (from oTSa), chiefly in reference to his having solved the riddle, the syllable - irovs having no significance.
After the publication of the Plaine Discovery, Napier seems to have occupied himself with the invention of secret instruments of war, for in the Bacon collection at Lambeth Palace there is a document, dated the 7th of.
An announcement of the invention and of a patent granted for the same for ten years, in which Blumel is for the first time associated with Stolzel as co-inventor.
To Heribert is attributed the invention of the Carroccio, which played so singular and important a part in the warfare of Italian cities.
By an invention probably due to Humfray Cole and published in 1 578 by William Bourne in his Inventions and Devices, it was proposed to register a ship's speed by means of a "little small close boat," with a wheel, or wheels, and an axle-tree to turn clockwork in the little boat, with dials and pointers indicating fathoms, leagues, scores of leagues and hundreds of leagues.
He mentions it as originally a Gallic invention for giving a bright hue to the hair (" rutilandis capillis ").
He is credited with the invention of the anchor escapement for clocks, and also with the application of spiral springs to the balances of watches, together with the explanation of their action by the principle Ut tensio sic vis (1676).
But the appeal to the verbally inspired Bible was stronger than that to a church hopelessly divided; the Bible, and not the consent of the universal church, became the touchstone of the reformed orthodoxy; in the nomenclature of the time, " evangelical " arose in contradistinction to " Catholic," while, in popular parlance, the " protest " of the Reformers against the " corruptions of Rome " led to the invention of the term " Protestant," which, though nowhere assumed in the official titles of the older reformed churches, was early used as a generic term to include them all.
In Reis's lecture an apparatus was described which has given rise to much discussion as to priority in the invention of the telephone.
His title of" the Catholic " itself may very well have been the invention of later chronicles.
There is no reason to doubt that most of the records have at least a basis of fact, for the cases are in accord with well-attested phenomena of a similar nature at the present day; but there are others, such as the miraculous mending of a broken vase, which suggest either invention or trickery.
Roberval was one of those mathematicians who, just before the invention of the infinitesimal calculus, occupied their attention with problems which are only soluble, or can be most easily solved, by some method involving limits or infinitesimals, and in the solution of which accordingly the calculus is always now employed.
When the pursuit of game becomes the chief occupation of a people there is of necessity a higher development of courage, skill, powers of observation and invention; and these qualities are still further enhanced in predatory tribes who take by force the food, clothing and other property prepared or collected by a feebler people.
428-429) distinguishes the Leleges (q.v.) from the Carians, to whom is ascribed the invention of helmet-crests, coats of arms, and shield handles.
The extraordinary architectural skill, the sanitary and hydraulic science revealed in details of the building, bring us at the same time face to face with the power of mechanical invention with which Daedalus was credited.
For his work in connexion with gunpowder, the invention of which has been claimed for him on the ground of a passage in his De mirabili potestate antis et naturae, see Gunpowder.
During this period logarithms were invented, trigonometry and algebra developed, analytical geometry invented, dynamics put upon a sound basis, and the period closed with the magnificent invention of (or at least the perfecting of) the differential calculus by Newton and Leibnitz and the discovery of gravitation.
Thus it was the Aeginetans who, within thirty or forty years of the invention of coinage by the Lydians (c. 700 B.C.), introduced to the western world a system of such incalculable value to trade.
Yet it would seem that this invention of Napoleon's was intuitive rather than reasoned; he never communicated it in its entirety to his marshals, and seems to have been only capable of exercising it either when in full possession of his health or under the excitement of action.
applied by him to the invention of the hydraulic press.
A patent thus allows its owner to stop others from exploiting the invention.
They are beyond the power of human invention.
The Marquis Malvasia in his Ephemerides (Bologna, 1662) describes a micrometer of his own invention.
The supposition that the hieroglyphic system belongs to a late age, because it is chiefly found in the 10th and 9th century monuments of Carchemish, is improbable, as it bears all the characteristic marks of Hethitic nationalism, and is evidently a native invention.
The grand design of Sully, the organization of a Christian Republic of the European nations for the preservation of peace, was but the invention of an irresponsible minister, soured by defeat and wishing to impress posterity.
invention of radar in 1935 and have remained untouched and unused for seventy-five years.
This wonderfully silly geek chic invention makes spoons obsolete!
And when all is said, the invention does not help us.
The embassy from Rome, however, is almost certainly a later, and an inevitable, invention.
The building and handling of vessels also, and the utilization of such uncontrollable powers of nature as wind and tide, helped forward mechanical invention.
To Brewster is due the merit of suggesting the use of lenses for the purpose of uniting the dissimilar pictures; and accordingly the lenticular stereoscope may fairly be said to be his invention.
The mature Wagner would not have carried out twenty bars in his flattest scenes with so little musical invention.
Musical public opinion now puts an extraordinary pressure on the young composer, urging him at all costs to abandon " outof-date " styles however stimulating they may be to his invention.
festival of the instruments of the Passion, of the Precious Blood, of the invention and elevation of the Cross; all festivals of apostles, except those above noted; festivals of martyrs; masses for a papal election; the Feast of the Holy Innocents, when it falls on a Sunday (violet if on a week-day), and its octave (always red).
(5) The Chalkeia (feast of smiths), at which the birth of Erechtheus and the invention.
The invention dates from 1656; on the 16th of June 1657 Huygens presented his first "pendulumclock" to the states-general; and the Horologium, containing a description of the requisite mechanism, was published in 1658.
The determination of the true relation between the length of a pendulum and the time of its oscillation; the invention of the theory of evolutes; the discovery, hence ensuing, that the cycloid is its own evolute, and is strictly isochronous; the ingenious although practically inoperative idea of correcting the "circular error" of the pendulum by applying cycloidal cheeks to clocks - were all contained in this remarkable treatise.
His invention of the spiral watch-spring was explained in the Journal des savants (Feb.
In 1842 Karsten discovered that lead could be desilverized by means of zinc. His invention, however, only took practical form in1850-1852through the researches of Parkes, who showed how the zinc-silver-lead alloy formed could be worked and the desilverized lead freed from the zinc it had taken up. In the Parkes process only 5% of the original lead need be cupelled.
It was eagerly welcomed by the Berlin mathematician, who had the generosity to withhold from publication his own further researches on the subject, until his youthful correspondent should have had time to complete and opportunity to claim the invention.
He seemed, not a professor amongst students, but a learner amongst learners; pauses for thought alternated with luminous exposition; invention accompanied demonstration; and thus originated his Theorie des fonctions analytiques (Paris, 1797).
In analytical invention, and mastery over the calculus, the Turin mathematician was admittedly unrivalled.
The Az utolso Bebek (The Last of the Bebeks), by the late Charles Petery, is a work rich in poetic invention, but meagre in historical matter.
It was formerly the custom to assign the invention of algebra to the Greeks, but since the decipherment of the Rhind papyrus by Eisenlohr this view has changed, for in this work there are distinct signs of an algebraic analysis.
The particular problem - a heap (hau) and its seventh makes 19 - is solved as we should now solve a simple equation; but Ahmes varies his methods in other similar problems. This discovery carries the invention of algebra back to about 1700 B.C., if not earlier.
Passing over the invention of logarithms by John Napier, and their development by Henry Briggs and others, the next author of moment was an Englishman, Thomas Harriot, whose algebra (Artis analyticae praxis) was published posthumously by Walter Warner in 1631.
Rowland to his brilliant invention of concave gratings, by which spectra can be photographed without any further optical appliance.
Laennec, it is hardly too much to say that this simple and purely mechanical invention has had more influence on the development of modern medicine than all the "systems" evolved by the most brilliant intellects of the 18th century.
On the other hand, they are constantly impressed by his power of reasoning both deductively and inductively, by the subtlety and fertility of invention with which he applies analogies, by the clearness and keenness of his observation, by the fulness of matter with which his mind is stored, and by the consecutive force, the precision and distinctness of his style, when employed in the processes of scientific exposition.
" The invention of ' bills of mortality ' is not so modern as has been generally supposed, for their proper designation may be found in the language of ancient Rome.
The invention of the mechanical air-pump is generally attributed to Otto von Guericke, consul of Magdeburg, who exhibited his instrument in 1654; it was first described in 1657 by Gaspar Schott, professor of mathematics at Wurttemberg, in his NI echanica hydraulico-pneumatica, and afterwards (in 1672) by Guericke in his Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacus spatia.
This was the only method known until the invention of the mechanical air-pumps; it was subsequently employed by Count Rumford, and as late as 1845, Edward A.
- Siemens's Continuous Tank of Dollond's invention of achromatic telescope objectives in 1 757, a demand first arose for optical glass, the industry was unable to furnish suitable material.
If glass-blowing had been a perfectly new invention of GraecoEgyptian or Roman times, some specimens illustrating the transition from core-moulding to blowing must have been discovered.
The invention of colourless Bohemian glass brought in its train the practice of cutting glass, a method of ornamentation for which Venetian glass, from its thinness, was ill adapted.
To the Germans must be credited the discovery, or development, of colourless potash-lime glass, the reintroduction of the crafts of cutting and engraving on glass, the invention by H.
Don Sigismundo Brun is credited with the invention of permanent gilding fixed by heat.
Mirror plates previous to the invention had been made from blown " sheet " glass, and were consequently very limited in size.
The invention, if it may be regarded as one, consisted in eliminating lime from the glass mixture, substituting refined potash for soda, and using a very large proportion of lead oxide.
The siphon is a simple instrument; but the forcing-pump is a complicated invention, which could scarcely have been expected in the infancy of hydraulics.
To him was due the invention of writing, and the first law-book was his creation.
The race who first developed it spoke an agglutinative language, and to them was due the invention of the pictorial hieroglyphs which became the running-hand or cuneiform characters of later days, as well as the foundation of the chief cities of the country and the elements of its civilization.
The zodiac was a Babylonian invention of great antiquity; and eclipses of the sun as well as of the moon could be foretold.
Are we not here obliged to assume that the visions are a literary invention and nothing more ?
Moreover, there will always be a difficulty in determining what belongs to his actual vision and what to the literary skill or free invention of the author, seeing that the visionary must be dependent on memory and past experience for the forms and much of the matter of the actual vision.
The substance of that knight's alleged travels in India and Cathay is stolen from Odoric, though amplified with fables from other sources and from his own invention, and garnished with his own unusually clear astronomical notions.
" I do further declare," he added, " that although in the application of heat to the refining of sugar in my said invention or process I have stated and mentioned the temperature of about 200° F.
Since Howard published his invention the vacuum pan has been greatly improved and altered in shape and power, and especially of recent years, and the advantages of concentrating in vacuo having been acknowledged, the system has been adopted in many other industries, and crowds of inventors have turned their attention to the principle.
In the middle ages Venice was the great European centre of the sugar trade, and towards the end of the 15th century a Venetian citizen received a reward of ioo,000 crowns for the invention of the art of making loaf sugar.
The quadratrix of Dinostratus was well known to the ancient Greek geometers, and is mentioned by Proclus, who ascribes the invention of the curve to a contemporary of Socrates, probably Hippias of Elis.
In a fit of jealousy the emperor commanded that this masterpiece should be thrown down, and sent commissioners to Amber charged with the execution of this order; whereupon Mirza, in order to save the structure, had the columns plastered over with stucco, so that the messengers from Agra should have to acknowledge to the emperor that the magnificence, which had been so much talked of, was after all pure invention.
The increase in favour of packet tobaccos has brought about the invention of elaborate packing machines.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
- The invention of this instrument has generally been ascribed, as in the ninth edition of this work, to the famous Neapolitan savant of the 16th century, Giovanni Battista della Porta, but as a matter of fact the principle of the simple camera obscura, or darkened chamber with a small aperture in a window or shutter, was well known and in practical use for observing eclipses long before his time.
On the strength of similar arrangements of lenses and mirrors the invention of the camera obscura has also been claimed for Leonard Digges, the author of Pantometria (1571), who is said to have constructed a telescope from information given in a book of Bacon's experiments.
The first practical step towards the development of the camera obscura seems to have been made by the famous painter and architect, Leon Battista Alberti, in 1437, contemporaneously with the invention of printing.
It is not clear, however, whether his invention was a camera obscura or a show box, but in a fragment of an anonymous biography of him, published in Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores (xxv.
Libri-Carucci dalla Sommaja (1803-1869), in his account of the invention of the camera obscura in Italy (Histoire des sciences mathematives en Italie, iv.
The statement still commonly repeated that it originated with Petrus 1 These details are scarcely the invention of the chronicler; see Chronicles, and Expositor, Aug.
He is even acquainted with the later invention of the "cifra" or cipher.
As high a degree of originality may be shown in transformation as in invention, as Moliere and Shakespeare have proved in the region of dramatic art.
The manufacture of jewelry, which was established in Providence in 1784, was greatly promoted ten years later by Nehemiah Dodge's invention of the process of " gold-filling," still further improved in 1846 by Thomas H.
Kenzan, adopted his style, and left a reputation as a decorator of pottery hardly less brilliant than Krins in that of lacquer; and a later follower, HOitsu (1762-1828), greatly excelled the master in delicacy and refinement, although inferior to him in vigour and invention.
Japanese tradition ascribes the invention of color-printing to Idzumiya GonshirO, who, about the end of the i7th century, first made use of a second block to apply a tint of red (beni) to his prints.
The designs for these decorations, like those of the sword ornaments, were adopted from the great schools of painting, but the invention of the sculptor was by no means idle.
Two years later he distinguished himself at the king's siege of Frederikshall by the invention of machines for the transport of boats and galleys overland from Stromstadt to Iddefjord, a distance of 14 m.
Logic falls, according to Ramus, into two parts - invention (treating of the notion and definition) and judgment (comprising the judgment proper, syllogism and method).
The imperfections of the thermopile, with which he began his work, led him, about 1880, to the invention of the bolometer, an instrument of extraordinary delicacy, which in its most refined form is believed to be capable of detecting a change of temperature amounting to less than one-hundred-millionth of a degree Centigrade.
His priority with regard to this useful invention was acknowledged by E.
p. 215), but Felice Fontana (1730-1805), professor of physics at the university of Pisa, and afterwards director of the museum at Florence, had already anticipated the invention in 1775, though no doubt this fact was unknown to Rittenhouse.
Nevertheless it was by the work of a number of Roman chroniclers during this period that the materials of early Roman history were systematized, and the record of the state, as it was finally given to the world in the artistic work of Livy, was extracted from the early annals, state documents and private memorials, combined into a coherent unity, and supplemented by invention and reflection.
Hydraulic mining has for the most part been confined to the country of its invention, California, and the western territories of America, where the conditions favourable for its use are more fully developed than elsewhere - notably the presence of thick banks of gravel that cannot be utilized by other methods, and abundance of water, even though considerable work may be required at times to make it available.
In modern times two factors have accelerated this process, viz.: (I) the building of railways, which have developed commerce to a very great degree and favoured the large towns at the expense of the small; and (2) the invention of machinery, which has greatly increased the possibility of division of labour and manufactures on a large scale.
Before' the invention of letters the memory of past transactions could not be preserved beyond a few years with any tolerable degree of accuracy.
The invention of the art of writing afforded the means of substituting precise and permanent records for vague and evanescent tradition; but in the infancy of the world, mankind had learned neither to estimate accurately the duration of time, nor to refer passing events to any fixed epoch.
The simplicity, moderate accuracy, and adaptability of this method to every class of substance which can be vaporized entitles it to rank as one of the most potent methods in analytical chemistry; its invention is indissolubly connected with the name of Victor Meyer, being termed "Meyer's method" to the exclusion of his other original methods.
The policy of opposing uncivilized tribes by the construction of the limes, a raised embankment of earth or other material, intersected here and there by fortifications, was not his invention, but it owed in great measure its development to him.
Some assume it to be Erichthonius, son of Athena and Hephaestus, who was translated to the skies by Zeus on account of his invention of chariots or coaches.
It would appear that to Servington Savary is due the first invention of a micrometer for measurement by double image.
p. 1058) claims the original invention and construction of such a micrometer in 1842.
Dollond claims the independent invention and first construction of a similar instrument (Pearson's Practical Astronomy, ii.
Trans., 1821, pp. 101-103) describes a doubleimage micrometer of his own invention, in which a sphere of rockcrystal is substituted for the eye-lens of an ordinary eye-piece.
Ludolf has asserted that this application was an invention of the Portuguese and arose only in the 15th century.
A humble, patient Bohemian priest, Hasak, set to work toward half a century ago to bring together the devotional works published during the seventy years immediately succeeding the invention of printing.
Vulcanized rubber is a Massachusetts invention.
This subject he was led to study by the experience of a colliery engineman, who noticed that he received a sharp shock on exposing one hand to a jet of steam issuing from a boiler with which his other hand was in contact, and the inquiry was followed by the invention of the "hydro-electric" machine, a powerful generator of electricity, which was thought worthy of careful investigation by Faraday.
This incident well illustrates the ground of his objection to the British system of patent law, which he looked upon as calculated to strifle invention and impede progress; the patentees in this case did not manage to make a practical success of their invention themselves, but the existence of prior patents was sufficient to turn him aside from a path which conducted him to valuable results when afterwards, owing to the expiry of those patents, he was free to pursue it as he pleased.
Besides the invention of the prism known by his name ("A method of increasing the divergence of the two rays in calcareous spar, so as to produce a single image," New Edin.
After the invention of printing a very considerable mass of literature concerning this subject was produced during the 16th and 17th centuries.
" Secondly, to have the Sacraments ministered purely, only and altogether according to the institution and good worde of the Lord Jesus, without any tradition or invention of man.
The syrinx or pan pipes owes its double name to ancient Greek tradition, ascribing its invention to Pan in connection with a well-known legend of the Arcadian water-nymph "Syrinx."
In 1895 began a marked commercial revival, mainly due to the steady conversion of the colony's waste lands into pasture; the development of frozen meat and dairy exports; the continuous increase of the output of coal; the invention of gold-dredging; the revival and improvement of hemp manufacture; the exploiting of the deposits of kauri gum; the reduction in the rates of interest on mortgage money; a general rise in wages, obtained without strikes, and partially secured by law, which has increased the spending power of the working classes.
Euripides was the first among the tragic poets to speak of it as a sea, but Herodotus before him ridiculed the notion of Oceanus as a river as an invention of the poets and described it as the great world sea.
The quartets in particular exhibit a wider range and variety of structural invention than those of any other composer except Beethoven.
This system spread widely, and the early Christians especially appealed to it as a confirmation of their belief that ancient mythology was merely an aggregate of fables of human invention.
But the Levitical system as it appears in its most complete form in ' But that this was not the invention of the chronicler appears possible from Jer.
The Specula Melitensis Encyclica (1638) gives an account of a kind of calculating machine of his invention.
Nursing, as a popular or fashionable occupation, is not a modern invention.
Libra was not of Greek invention.
Tradition ascribes their invention to Tajao, minister of the emperor Hwang-ti, who reigned c. 2697 B.e., and it can scarcely be placed later than the 7th century B.e.4 The Chinese circle of the " animals " obtained early a wide diffusion.
Yet not only were the latter an independent invention, but it is almost demonstrable that the nakshatras, in their more recent organization, were, as far as possible, assimilated to them.
Two old camps on the Welsh border are now called Caer Caradoc, but the names seem to be the invention of antiquaries and not genuinely ancient memorials of the Celtic hero.
In 1906 an international celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of his invention of mauve was held in London, and in the same year he was made a knight.
The story is probably a pure invention; the reference to Berytus shows that it is late.
This invention secured the success of the casting of a solid 3-foot speculum in 1840, and encouraged Lord Rosse to make a speculum of 6 ft.
It is impossible to decide how far this legend is due to Plato's invention, and how far it is based on facts of which no record remains.
The treatise containing this important invention was made public by Baron von Zach under the title Ueber die leichteste and bequemste Methode die Bahn eines Cometen zu berechnen (Weimar, 1797).
At various periods of his life he occupied himself with scientific invention.
The text soon began to deteriorate by admixture with the Old Latin, as well from the process of transcription, and several attempts at a revision were made before the invention of printing.
The invention of logarithms has been accorded to John Napier, baron of Merchiston in Scotland, with a unanimity which is rare with regard to important scientific discoveries: in fact, with the exception 01 the tables of Justus Byrgius, which will be referred to further on, there seems to have been no other mathematician of the time whose mind had conceived the principle on which logarithms depend, and no partial anticipations of the discovery are met with in previous writers.
The first announcement of the invention was made in Napier's Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio..
In 1 599 he published Certaine errors in Navigation detected and corrected, and he was the author of other works; to him also is chiefly due the invention of the method known as Mercator's sailing.
I purpose to discourse with him concerning eclipses, for what is there which we may not hope for at his hands," and he also states " that he was wholly taken up and employed about the noble invention of logarithms lately discovered."
In the preceding paragraphs an account has been given of the actual announcement of the invention of logarithms and of the calculation of the tables.
It now remains to refer in more detail to the invention itself and to examine the claims of Napier and Briggs to the capital improvement involved in the change from Napier's original logarithms to logarithms to the base ro.
In the preface Robert Napier says that he has been assured from undoubted authority that the new invention is much thought of by the ablest mathematicians, and that nothing would delight them more than the publication of the mode of construction of the canon.
Passing now to the invention of common or decimal logarithms, that is, to the transition from the logarithms originally invented by Napier to logarithms to the base io, the first allusion to a change of system occurs in the "Admonitio " on the last page of the Descriptio (1614), the concluding paragraph of which is " Verum si huius inventi usum eruditis gratum fore intellexero, dabo fortasse brevi (Deo aspirante) rationem ac methodum aut hunc canonem emendandi, aut emendatiorem de novo condendi, ut ita plurium Logistarum diligentia,limatior tandem et accuratior, quam unius opera fieri potuit, in lucem prodeat.
When the Descriptio was published Briggs was fiftyseven years of age, and the remaining seventeen years of his life were devoted with steady enthusiasm to extend the utility of Napier's great invention.
Neper, Baron of Mercheston, near Edinburgh, and told him, among other discourses, of a new invention in Denmark (by Longomontanus, as 'tis said), to save the tedious multiplication and division in astronomical calculations.
The " new invention in Denmark " to which Anthony Wood refers as having given the hint to Napier was probably the method of calculation called prosthaphaeresis (often written in Greek letters irpooOa4aipeats), which had its origin in the solution of spherical triangles.
This erroneous estimate was formed when he had seen the Descriptio but had not read it; and his opinion was very different when he became acquainted with the nature of logarithms. The dedication of his Ephemeris for 1620 consists of a letter to Napier dated the 28th of July 1619, and he there congratulates him warmly on his invention and on the benefit he has conferred upon astronomy generally and upon Kepler's own Rudolphine tables.
The invention of logarithms and the calculation of the earlier tables form a very striking episode in the history of exact science, and, with the exception of the Principia of Newton, there is no mathematical work published in the country which has produced such important consequences, or to which so much interest attaches as to Napier's Descriptio.
For more detailed information relating to Napier, Briggs and Vlacq, and the invention of logarithms, the reader is referred to the life of Briggs in Ward's Lives of the Professors of Gresham College (London, 1740); Thomas Smith's Vitae quorundam eruditissimorum et illustrium virorum (Vita Henrici Briggii) (London, 1707); Mark Napier's Memoirs of John Napier already referred to, and the same author's Naperi libri qui supersunt (1839); Hutton's History; de Morgan's article already referred to; Delambre's Histoire de l'Astronomie moderne; the report on mathematical tables in the Report of the British Association for 1873; and the Philosophical Magazine for October and December 1872 and May 1873.
The age of the Reformation gave a great stimulus to the production of catechisms. This was but natural at a time when the invention of printing had thrown the Bible open to all, and carried the war of religious opinion from the schools into the streets.
His best known productions are Adams and Liberty, a once popular song written in 1798, The Invention of Letters (1795), and The Ruling Passion, the Harvard Phi Beta Kappa poem of 1797.
Written as this name is in pictures or rebus, it probably suggested the invention of the well-known legend of a prophecy that the war-god's temple should be built where a prickly pear was found growing on a rock, and perched on it an eagle holding a serpent; this legend is still commemorated on the coins of Mexico.
Attempts to trace the architecture of Central America directly from Old-Woad types have not been successful, while on the other hand its decoration shows proof of original invention, especially in the imitations of woodwork which passed into sculptured ornament when the material became stone instead of wood.
Readers of Dante know the idea that the dead have no shadows; this was no invention of the poet's but a piece of traditionary lore; at the present day among the Basutos it is held that a man walking by the brink of a river may lose his life if his shadow falls on the water, for a crocodile may seize it and draw him in; in Tasmania, North and South America and classical Europe is found the conception that the soul - o-tab., umbra - is somehow identical with the shadow of a man.
The first of a series of ephemerides, calculated on these principles, was published by him at Linz in 1617; and in that for 1620, dedicated to Baron Napier, he for the first time employed logarithms. This important invention was eagerly welcomed by him, and its theory formed the subject of a treatise entitled Chilias Logarithmorum, printed in 1624, but circulated in manuscript three years earlier, which largely contributed to bring the new method into general use in Germany.
The marble caps are each richly carved with figures and foliage executed with great skill and wonderful fertility of invention - no two being alike.
But his best work by far was in the invention of complicated and delicate mechanism for various purposes, in the construction of which he employed a staff of workmen trained to the highest degree of excellence.
In acoustics his principal work was a research on the transmission of sound through solids, the explanation of Chladni's figures of vibrating solids, various investigations of the principles of acoustics and the mechanism of hearing, and the invention of new musical instruments, e.g.
The invention of printing has naturally limited the province of textual criticism, and modified its operations.
The divine smith naturally became a "culture-god"; in Crete the invention of forging in iron was attributed to him, and he was honoured by all metal-workers.
The class of artisans was under their special protection; and the joint festival of the two divinities - the Chalceia - commemorated the invention of bronze-working by Hephaestus.
This empress is said to have devoted herself personally to the care of silkworms, and she is by the Chinese credited with the invention of the loom.
The clauses of the will governing the distribution of these prizes are as follows: " The entire sum shall be divided into five equal parts, one to go to the man who shall have made the most important discovery or invention in the domain of physical science; another to the man who shall have made the most important discovery or introduced the greatest improvement in chemistry; the third to the author of the most important discovery in the domain of physiology or medicine; the fourth to the man who shall have produced the most remarkable work of an idealistic nature; and, finally, the fifth to the man who shall have done the most or best work for the fraternity of nations, the suppression or reduction of standing armies, and the formation and propagation of peace congresses.
That category is probably the invention of 'N? ??kOUTERGORRIDOR ` " ???????? ? ?? ? ?
In 1511 Baptista Pio in his Commentary repeats the opinion as to the invention of the use of the magnet at Amalfi as related by Flavius.
The invention of these various arts and industries was popularly ascribed to the Phoenicians, no doubt merely because Phoenician traders brought the products into the market.
Other matrices are slag cement, a comparatively recent invention, and some other natural and artificial cements which find occasional advocates.
That steel concrete can be used for piles is perhaps the most astonishing feature in this invention.
Forty columns support the roof, but no two are alike, and great fertility of invention is manifested in the execution of the ornaments.
From these indications it is no doubt difficult to determine what Thales brought from Egypt and what was due to his own invention.
His contemporaries were most struck by his invention of a carriage with sails, a little model of which was preserved at Scheveningen till 1802.
The point separating the integers from the decimal fractions seems to be the invention of Bartholomaeus Pitiscus, in whose trigonometrical tables (1612) it occurs and it was accepted by John Napier in his logarithmic papers (1614 and 1619).
The first suggestion for a machine of the above kind seems to have grown out of the invention of Volta's electrophorus.
P. Hachette and others in the invention of various forms of rotating doubler.
All the above described machines, however, have been thrown into the shade by the invention of a greatly improved type of influence machine first constructed by James Wimshurst about 1878.
It is highly doubtful, however, whether he had anything to do either with the Antiphonary or with the invention or revival of the cantus planes; it is certain that he was not the founder of the Roman singing-school, though he may have interested himself in its endowment and extension.
Between 1860 and 1870 the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes introduced a new class of iron to-day called " mild " or " carbon wcarbon steel," which lacked the essential property of steel, the hardening power, yet differed from the existing forms of wrought iron in freedom from slag, and from cast iron in being very malleable.
The first period began in extremely remote prehistoric times; the second in the 14th century; and the third with the invention of the Bessemer process in 1856.
Neilson's invention in 1828 of heating the blast, which increased the production and lessened the fuel-consumption of the furnace wonderfully.
The third period has for its great distinction the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, which are like Huntsman's crucible process in that their essence is their freeing wrought iron and low carbon steel from mechanically entangled cinder, by developing the hitherto unattainable temperature, rising to above 1500° C., needed for melting these relatively infusible products.
Though all this is elementary to-day, not only was it unknown, indeed unguessed, at the time of the invention of the Bessemer process, but even when, nearly a quarter of a century later, a young English metallurgical chemist, Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (1850-1885), offered to the British Iron and Steel Institute a paper describing his success in dephosphoriz ing by the Bessemer process with a basic-lined converter and a basic slag, that body rejected it.
The crucible process remained the only one by which slagless steel could be made, till Bessemer, by his astonishing invention, discovered at once low-carbon steel and a process for making both it and highcarbon steel extremely cheaply.
The first of the United States decennial censuses to show a decrease in the production of wrought iron was that in 1890, 35 years after the invention of the Bessemer process.
The increased importance of Germany and Luxemburg may be referred in large part to the invention of the basic Bessemer and open-hearth processes by Thomas, who by them gave an inestimable value to the phosphoric ores of these countries.
At the end of the 18th century the trade was still important, but it began to decline after the invention of machinery, probably owing to the poverty of the manufacturers.
Linnaeus' invention of binomial nomenclature for designating species served systematic biology admirably, but at the same time, by attaching preponderating importance to a particular grade in classification, crystallized the doctrine of fixity.
The idea of the pressure of the air and the invention of the instrument for measuring it were both new when he made his famous experiment, showing that the height of the mercury column in a barometer decreases when it is carried upwards through the atmosphere.
The discovery of America, the invention of printing, the revival of learning and many other causes had contributed to effect a radical change in the point of view from which the world was regarded; and the strongest of all medieval relations, that of the nation to the Church, was about to pass through the fiery trial of the Reformation.
The monastic writers remain our chief authorities until the great change brought about by the invention.
In 1876 he exhibited an apparatus embodying the results of his studies in the transmission of sound by electricity, and this invention, with improvements and modifications, constitutes the modern commercial telephone.
found, or established, in Egypt is disputed; the familiar type of the god is the invention of a Greek artist, but the name and religion came from somewhere in the East (see discussion under Serapis).
The invention of vowel-signs of diacritic points to distinguish similarly formed consonants, and of other orthographic signs, soon put a stop to arbitrary conjectures on the part of the readers.
A papyrus of the Roman period in the British Museum attributes the invention of horoscopes to the Egyptians, but no early instance is known.
His production consists of two elaborate complementary lists: the one describing sign-pictures and giving their meanings, the other cataloguing ideas in order to show how they could be expressed in hieroglyphic. Each seems to us to be made up of curious but perverted reminiscences eked out by invention; but they might someday prove to represent more truly the usages of mystics and magicians in designing amulets, &c., at a time approaching the middle ages.
Shears are only known of Roman age and appear to have been an Italian invention: there is a type in Egypt with one blade detachable, so that each can be sharpened apart.
Barsbai appears to have excelled his predecessors in the invention of devices for exacting money from merchants and pilgrims, and in juggling with the exchange.
This discreetness contributed not a little to his election to the papacy on the 24th of April 1585; but the story of his having feigned decrepitude in the Conclave, in order to win votes, is a pure invention.
This was probably an invention of the Persians; Cyrus the younger employed these chariots in large numbers.
Of Christianity he always spoke in the mocking tone of the "enlightened" philosophers, regarding it as the invention of priests; but it is noteworthy that after the Seven Years' War, the trials of which steadied his character, he sought to strengthen the church for the sake of its elevating moral influence.
A later legend, probably an invention, represents M.
From Flanders to Rome his distinction was acknowledged, and artists of less invention, among them some of the foremost on both sides of the Alps, were not ashamed to borrow from his work this or that striking combination or expressive type.
To 1508 belongs the life-sized "Virgin with the Iris," a piece remarkable for the fine romantic invention of its background, but plainly showing the hand of an assistant, perhaps Hans Baldung, in its execution: the best version is in the Cook collection at Richmond, an inferior one in the Rudolphinum at Prague.
Nothing can exceed the fulness and variety of invention, or the searching force and precision of detail in this picture; nor does it leave so much to desire as several of the master's other paintings in point of colour-harmony and pleasurable general effect.
In thus repeating over and over on wood and copper nearly the same incidents of the Passion, or again in rehandling them in yet another medium, as in the highly finished series of drawings known as the "Green Passion" in the Albertina at Vienna, Darer shows an inexhaustible variety of dramatic and graphic invention, and is never betrayed into repeating an identical action or motive.
This unequalled treasure of German art and invention has in later times been broken up, the part executed by Diirer being preserved at Munich, the later sheets, which were decorated by other hands, having been transported to Besancon.
Diirer's designs, drawn with the pen in pale lilac, pink and green, show an inexhaustible richness of invention and an airy freedom and playfulness of hand beyond what could be surmised from the sternness of those studies which he made direct from life and nature.
He published, both alone and jointly with others, a large number of papers on physical, and in particular electrical, subjects, and his name was especially associated, together with that of Professor John Perry, with the invention of a long series of electrical measuring instruments.
What they produce is not their invention, but the invention of the whole nation; or rather, what they find is that the whole nation has found its true nature.
Exquisite as he is in his special mode of execution, he undoubtedly falls far short, not only of his great naturalist contemporaries such as 1Vlasaccio and Lippo Lippi, but even of so distant a precursor as Giotto, in all that pertains to bold or life-like invention of a subject or the realization of ordinary appearances, expressions and actions - the facts of nature, as distinguished from the aspirations or contemplations of the spirit.
He flourished about 625 B.C. Several of the ancients ascribe to him the invention of the dithyramb and of dithyrambic poetry; it is probable, however, that his real service was confined to the organization of that verse, and the conversion of it from a mere drunken song, used in the Dionysiac revels, to a measured antistrophic hymn, sung by a trained body of performers.
For his demonstration in 1851 of the diurnal motion of the earth by the rotation of the plane of oscillation of a freely suspended, long and heavy pendulum exhibited by him at the Pantheon in Paris, and again in the following year by means of his invention the gyroscope, he received the Copley medal of the Royal Society in 1855, and in the same year he was made physical assistant in the imperial observatory at Paris.
The authenticity of the " holy places " was first attacked seriously in the 18th century by a bookseller of Altona named Korte; and since he led the way, a steady fire of criticism has been poured at this huge mass of invention.
Of the two chief methods of working bronze, gold and silver, it is probable that the hammer process was first practised, at least for statues, among the Greeks, who themselves attributed the invention of the art of hollow casting to Theodorus and Rhoecus, both Samian sculptors, about the middle of the 6th century B.C. Pausanias specially mentions that one of the oldest statues he had ever seen was a large figure of Zeus in Sparta, made of hammered bronze plates riveted together.
full play to the fancy and invention of the smith.
The introduction of gas as an illuminant, about 1816, at once induced a large demand and a novel description of metal fitting; and the craft fell under the control of a new commercial class, intent on breaking with past traditions, and utilizing steam power, electro-deposition, and every mechanical and scientific invention tending to economize metal or labour.
His invention was, however, at once utilized by others in France; and in Great Britain, after a few previous attempts on a small scale, it was definitely introduced by James Muspratt in 1823.
But the Deacon process, the invention of Henry Deacon (who was greatly aided by his chemist Dr Ferdinand Hurter), carried out since 1868, has attained to better, although nothing like complete, success in that direction.
They are now mostly replaced by an apparatus, the invention of R.
Hence, although for many centuries (up to Leblanc's invention) hardly any soda was available except from this source, and although we now know that millions of tons of it exist, especially in the west of the United States, there is as yet very little of it practically employed, and that only locally.
THOTH is the Greek name of the Egyptian god of letters, invention and wisdom.
The origin of the Deva-Nagari alphabet is lost in antiquity, though that is generally admitted not to be of indigenous invention.
The industry suffered depression owing to the indigo riots of 1860 and the emancipation of the peasantry by the Land Act of 1859; but in the closing decade of the century it received a much more disastrous blow from the invention of the German chemists.
The name of nawdb, corrupted by Europeans into " nabob," appears to be an invention of the Moguls to express delegated authority, and as such it is the highest title conferred upon Mahommedans at the present day, as maharaja is the highest title conferred upon Hindus.
Jansen and his father were the real inventors of the telescope in 1610, and that Lippershey only made a telescope after hints accidentally communicated to him of the details of Jansen's invention.
of Huygens there is an original copy of a document (dated 17th October 1608) addressed to the states general by Jacob Andrianzoon (the same individual who is called James Metius by Descartes), petitioning for the exclusive right of selling an instrument of his invention by which distant objects.
Further, on the 15th December of the same year they examined an instrument invented by Lippershey at their request to see with both eyes, and gave him orders to execute two similar instruments at goo florins each; but, as many other persons had knowledge of this new invention to see at a distance, they did not deem it expedient to grant him an exclusive privilege to sell such instruments.
he makes no pretension that Lippershey borrowed the invention from him.
The inverting telescope, composed of two, convex lenses, was a later invention; still it is not impossible that the original experiment was made with two convex lenses.
Telescopes seem to have been made in Holland in considerable numbers soon after the date of their invention, and rapidly found their way over Europe.
the first, he took it to Venice, where he communicated the details of his invention to the public, and presented the instrument itself to the doge Leonardo Donato, sitting in full council.
In these very long telescopes This last power could not be exceeded with advantage in this form of telescope till after the invention of the achromatic objectglass.
After remarking that Newton's telescope "had lain neglected these fifty years," they stated that Hadley had sufficiently shown "that this noble invention does not consist in bare theory."
Hall was a man of independent means, and seems to have been careless of fame; at least he took no trouble to communicate his invention to the world.
It was known that, about seven years after the patent for making achromatic object-glasses was granted to Dollond, his claim to the invention was disputed by other instrument-makers, amongst them by a Mr Champness, an instrument-maker of Cornhill, who began to infringe the patent, alleging that John Dollond was not the real inventor, and that such telescopes had been made twentyfive years before the granting of his patent by Mr Moor Hall.
John Dollond, to whom the Copley medal of the Royal Society had been the first inventor of the achromatic telescope; but it was ruled by Lord Mansfield that" it was not the person who locked his invention in his scrutoire that ought to profit for such invention, but he who brought it forth for the benefit of mankind."3 In 1747 Leonhard Euler communicated to the Berlin Academy of Sciences a memoir in which he endeavoured to prove the possibility of correcting both the chromatic and.
We have thus followed somewhat minutely the history of the gradual process by which Dollond arrived independently at his invention of the refracting telescope, because it has been asserted that he borrowed the idea from others.
Montucla, given for his invention, was the dead, and his son brought an action for infringing the patent against Champness.
It is very curious the conflicting evidence we have to reconcile, but I think the balance of evidence is in favour of there having been a prior invention of achromatic object-glasses before the date of Dollond's patent" (Astron.
It is clearly established that Hall was the first inventor of the achromatic telescope; but Dollond did not borrow the invention from Hall without acknowledgment in the manner suggested by Lalande.
His name is best known for his invention of the Daniell cell (Phil.
This difficulty was overcome by the invention of the Bunsen calorimeter, in which the quantity of ice melted is measured by observing the diminution of volume, but the successful employment of this instrument requires considerable skill in manipulation.
This was the germ of the nearly universal principle of individual confinement, and the origin of what some advanced thinkers have denounced as the greatest crime of the present age, the invention of the separate cell.
The question will arise some day whether it is really necessary to maintain fifty-six local prisons, with all their elaborate paraphernalia, their imposing buildings and expensive staff, to maintain discipline in daily life and insist upon the proper observance of customs and usages, many of them of purely modern invention.
By the former council his arguments were described as Pultes Scotorum (" Scots porridge") and commentum diaboli (" an invention of the devil").
Analysis is the sole way of invention or discovery.
Hamilton was led to his great invention by keeping geometrical applications constantly before him while he endeavoured to give a real significance to .,I - i.
Hamilton, still keeping prominently before him as his great object the invention of a method applicable to space of three dimensions, proceeded to study the properties of triplets of the form x+iy+jz, by which he proposed to represent the directed line in space whose projections on the co-ordinate axes are x, y, z.
The composition of the history displays much ability; but Boece's imagination was, however, stronger than his judgment: of the extent of the historian's credulity, his narrative exhibits many unequivocal proofs; and of deliberate invention or distortion of facts not a few, though the latter are less flagrant and intentional than early 19th-century criticism has assumed.
Professor Rhys, who at one time considered runes and ogam to be connected, now thinks that ogam was the invention of a grammarian in South Wales who was familiar with Latin letters.
In its later forms it is so unlike other alphabets that many scholars have regarded it as an invention within India itself.
The next improvement was the invention of simple forms of repulsion electroscope.
It is therefore evident that the personality of Hygelac, and the expedition in which, according to Beowulf, he died, belong not to the region of legend or poetic invention, but to that of historic fact.
The thread spun by the jenny could not, however, be used except as weft, being destitute of the firmness or hardness required in the longitudinal threads or warp. Arkwright supplied this deficiency by the invention of the spinning-frame, which spins a vast number of threads of any degree of fineness and hardness.
The precise date of the invention is not known; but in 1767 he employed John Kay, a watchmaker at Warrington, to assist him in the preparation of the parts of his machine, and he took out a patent for it in 1769.
This invention having been brought to a fairly advanced stage, he removed to Nottingham in 1768, accompanied by Kay and John Smalley of Preston, and there erected his first spinning mill, which was worked by horses.
On this, as on the former trial, nothing was stated against the originality of the invention.
On a motion for a new trial on the 10th of November of the same year it was stated that he was furnished with affidavits contradicting the evidence that had been given by Kay and others with respect to the originality of the invention; but the court refused to grant a new trial, on the ground that, whatever might be the fact as to the question of originality, the deficiency in the specification was enough to sustain the verdict, and the cancellation of the patents was ordered a few days afterwards.
Though a man of great personal strength, Arkwright never enjoyed good health, and throughout his career of invention and discovery he laboured under a severe asthmatic affection.
These are, briefly speaking, the decay of those great fabrics, church and empire, which ruled the middle ages both as ideas and as realities; the development of nationalities and languages; the enfeeblement of the feudal system throughout Europe; the invention and application of paper, the mariner's compass, gunpowder, and printing; the exploration of continents beyond the ocean; and the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy.
Acquisition supplanted invention; imitation of classical authors suppressed originality of style.
It still remains a monument of fertile invention, exuberant facility and energetic handling of material.
Every doubt, however, was met by the invention of a new and still more improbable detail.
It is very likely that the discovery of the utility of cork for stoppering led to the invention of effervescent wine, the most plausible explanation being that Dom Perignon closed some bottles filled with partially fermented wine, with the new material, and on opening them later observed, the effects produced by the confined carbonic acid gas.
It is not a great 1 The invention of these names was perhaps suggested by Pericope Oollae et Oolibae, which may have been a current title for the 23rd chapter of Ezekiel.
Vasari's account of this invention, given in his lives of Pollaiuolo and Maso Finiguerra, is very interesting, but he is wrong in asserting that Maso was the first worker in niello who took proofs or impressions of his plates.
The story of the bull cannot be dismissed as pure invention.
The invention of the apparatus, legalized in 1879, for the determination of the flash-point of petroleum, was another piece of work which fell to him by virtue of his official position.
The history of utilitarianism (if we may use the term for the earlier history of a philosophic tendency which appeared long before the invention of the term) falls into three divisions, which may be termed theological, political and evolutional respectively.
The first extends from the date of publication of Gilbert's great treatise in 1600 to the invention by Volta of the voltaic pile and the first production of the electric current in 1799.
The third covers the period between 1831 and Clerk Maxwell's enunciation of the electromagnetic theory of light in 1865 and the invention of the self-exciting dynamo, which marks another great epoch in the development of the subject; and the fourth comprises the modern development of electric theory and of absolute quantitative measurements, and above all, of the applications of this knowledge in electrical engineering.
In 1745 the important invention of the Leyden jar or condenser was made by E.
Coulomb has made his name for ever famous by his invention and application of his torsion balance to the experimental verification of the fundamental law of electric attraction, in which, however, he was anticipated by Cavendish, namely, that the force of attraction between two small electrified spherical bodies varies as the product of their charges and inversely as the square of the distance of their centres.
- Noticing an analogy between the polarity of the voltaic pile and that of the magnet, philosophers had long been anxious to discover a relation between the two, but twenty years elapsed after the invention of the pile before Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851), professor of natural philosophy in the university of Copenhagen, made in 1819 the discovery which has immortalized his name.
His most important contribution at this date was the invention of the voltameter and his enunciation of the laws of electrolysis.
- About 1842 Lord Kelvin (then William Thomson) began that long career of theoretical and practical discovery and invention in electrical science which revolutionized every department of pure and applied electricity.
Scientific and practical questions connected with the possibility of laying an Atlantic submarine cable then began to be discussed, and Lord Kelvin was foremost in developing true scientific knowledge on this subject, and in the invention of appliances for utilizing it.
One of his earliest and most useful contributions (in 1858) was the invention of the mirror galvanometer.
On the technical side the invention of a new form of armature for dynamo electric machines by Z.
This invention in conjunction with an alternating current dynamo provided a new and simple form of electric arc lighting.
Going back a few years we find the technical applications of electrical invention had developed themselves in other directions.
Thus in twenty years from the invention of the Gramme dynamo, electrical engineering had developed from small beginnings into a vast industry.
Siemens on the electric furnace was continued and greatly extended by Henri Moissan and others on its scientific side, and electro-chemistry took its place as one of the most promising departments of technical research and invention.
This involved almost a revolution in the nature of the tools used, and in the methods of working, and may ultimately even greatly affect the factory system and the concentration of population in large towns which was brought about in the early part of the 19th century by the invention of the steam engine.
- After the survey of all that has yet been done in the way of discovery or invention, comes the new method, by which the mind of man is to be trained and directed in its progress towards the renovation of science.
In place of these straggling efforts of the unassisted human mind, a graduated system of helps was to be supplied, by the use of which the mind, when placed on the right road, would proceed with unerring and mechanical certainty to the invention of new arts and sciences.
In physics, however, these matters are treated only as regards their material or efficient causes, and the result of inquiry into any one case gives no general rule, but only facilitates invention in some similar instance.
The one by Messrs Doumer and Deswarte appears to have been well received in France, but in Ireland the invention of Messrs Loppens and Deswarte has recently received the most attention.
New Quay, High Mead, Oakford, &c.; but many of such names are of modern invention, dating chiefly from the 18th and 19th centuries.
Before the invention of typography, pages of books, or anything of a broadside nature, were printed from woodcuts, i.e.
His invention was to print type placed on a flat bed, the impression being given by a large cylinder, under which the type passed, but his inking appliances were not satisfactory.
Konig's invention was a reciprocating one.
stop cylinder was really a French invention, but it has Machines been more commonly adopted in Great Britain, where the machines are known as " Wharfedales " (fig.
de Vinne, The Invention of Printing (New York, 1876).
His invention was adopted by the Vivians, at the Eguilles works near Sargues, Vaucluse, France, and at Leghorn in Italy.
The year 1851, while he was lecturing on physiology at Konigsberg, saw the brilliant invention of the ophthalmoscope, an instrument which has been of inestimable value to medicine.
He investigated the optical constants of the eye, measured by his invention, the ophthalmometer, the radii of curvature of the crystalline lens for near and far vision, explained the mechanism of accommodation by which the eye can focus within certain limits, discussed the phenomena of colour vision, and gave a luminous account of the movements of the eyeballs so as to secure single vision with two eyes.
In later times the story of a Phoenician immigrant of that name became current, to whom was ascribed the introduction of the alphabet, the invention of agriculture and working in bronze and of civilization generally.
It is five times the size of the bush.'" The invention, or at least the earliest general use of this form, is attributed to Edward Lear, who, when a tutor in the family of the earl of Derby at Knowsley, composed, about 1834, a large number of nonsense-limericks to amuse the little grandchildren of the house.
A vast improvement in this instrument was made by the invention of the quadrant electrometer by Lord Kelvin, which is the most sensitive form of electrometer yet devised.
was heard wherever the fray waxed most fiercely, and the Jethart axe of their invention - a steel axe on a 4-ft.
She was on the point of being absorbed in that Northern System, the invention of the Russian minister of foreign affairs, Nikita Panin, which that patient statesman had made it the ambition of his life to realize.
Buraeus studied all the sciences then known to mankind, and confounded them all in a sort of Rabbinical cultus of his own invention, a universal philosophy in a multitude of unreadable volumes.
The invention of continued fractions is ascribed generally to Pietro Antonia Cataldi, an Italian mathematician who died in 1626.
Now this name was the invention of Zoroaster himself; and he who names himself after Mazda thereby makes a confe~sion of faith in the religion of Zoroaster whose followers, as we know, termed themselves Mazdayasna, worshippers of Mazda.
(420439), the invention of i Grammars of New Persian, by M.
Jones calls it, which, if ever it should be generally understood in its original language, will contest the merit of invention with Homer itself.
The political or state police was the invention of Nicholas I.
Daguerre for the invention of photography, the grant for the publication of the works of P. Fermat and Laplace, the acquisition of the museum of Cluny, the development of railways and electric telegraphs, the improvement of the navigation of the Seine, and the boring of the artesian wells at Grenelle.
She was on the point of being absorbed in that northern system, the invention of the Russian vice-chancellor, Count Nikita Panin, which that patient statesman had made it the ambition of his life to realize.
The Moors introduced many improvements, especially in the system of irrigation; the characteristic Portuguese wells with their perpetual chains or buckets are of Moorish invention, and retain their Moorish name of noras.
Except Camoens, all these men, though disciples of Gil Vicente, are decidedly inferior to him in dramatic invention, fecundity and power of expression, and they were generally of humble social position.
So decisive was the success of Jorge Ferreira's new invention, notwithstanding its anonymity, that it decided SA de Miranda to attempt the prose comedy.
The ascription to Wykeham of the invention of the Perpendicular style of medieval architecture is now an abandoned theory.
The Umbrians, who were part of the Alpine Celts, had been pressing down into Italy from the Bronze Age, though checked completely by the rise of the Etruscan power in the ioth century B.C. The invention of iron weapons made the Celts henceforth irresistible.
Some earlier stories, such as The Wheels of Chance (1896) and Love and Mr Lewisham (1900), had proved his talent for drawing character, and pure phantasies like The War of the Worlds (1898) his abundant invention; but Kipps (1905) and Tono-Bungay (1909) showed a great advance in artistic power.
In 1647 Petty obtained a patent for the invention of double writing, i.e.
In 1663 he attracted much notice by the success of his invention of a doublebottomed ship, which twice made the passage between Dublin and Holyhead, but was afterwards lost in a violent storm.
His interest in the evolution of the rifle early extended itself to other weapons and instruments in the history of man, and he became a collector of articles illustrating the development of human invention.
of date prior to the invention of printing.
The omniscient God, by means of His "scientia media" (the phrase is Molina's invention, though the idea is also to be found in his older contemporary Fonseca), or power of knowing future contingent events, foresees how we shall employ our own free-will and treat His proffered grace, and upon this foreknowledge He can found His predestinating decrees.
He took out no patent for his invention, and in recognition of his disinterestedness the Newcastle coal-owners in September 1817 presented him with a dinner-service of silver plate.'
The dominating ambition of his life was to achieve fame, but though that sometimes betrayed him into petty jealousy, it did not leave him insensible to the claims on his knowledge of the "cause of humanity," to use a phrase often employed by him in connexion with his invention of the miners' lamp. Of the smaller observances of etiquette he was careless, and his frankness of disposition sometimes exposed him to annoyances which he might have avoided by the exercise of ordinary tact.
History itself, this double subject, the science and the art combined, begins with the dawn of memory and the invention of speech.
Ranke's application of the principles of "higher criticism" to works written since the invention of printing (Kritik neuerer Geschichtsschreiber) was an epoch-making challenge of narrative sources.
Penaud succeeded in overcoming the difficulty in question by the invention of what he designated an automatic rudder.
" The chief feature of the invention was the very great expanse of its sustaining planes, which were larger in proportion to the weight it had to carry than those of many birds.
The prosperity and great population of the Pennine region date from the discovery that pit-coal could smelt iron as well as charcoal; and this source of power once discovered, the people bred in the dales developed a remarkable genius for mechanical invention and commercial enterprise, which revolutionized the economic life of the world and changed England from an agricultural to an industrial country.
The invention of the steam engine, following quickly upon that of the carding machine, the spinning jenny, and other ingenious machinery employed in textile manufactures, gave an extraordinary impulse to their development, and, with them, that of kindred branches of industry.
Francis Schooten (Commentary on Descartes) assigns the invention of the curve to Rene Descartes and the first publication on this subject after Descartes to Marin Mersenne.
DIALOGUE, properly the conversation between two or more persons, reported in writing, a form of literature invented by the Greeks for purposes of rhetorical entertainment and instruction, and scarcely modified since the days of its invention.
This last statement is probably a late invention, and there is considerable difficulty as to "councillor."
It would be rash summarily to dismiss this old tradition of the twenty-one nasks as pure invention.
Even the statement as to the one or two complete copies of the Avesta may be given up as the invention of a later day.
Induced by the encouragement of his mathematical friends in England, Plucker in 1865 returned to the field in which he first became famous, and adorned it by one more great achievement - the invention of what is now called "line geometry."
In pure mathematics he enlarged the resources of analysis by the invention of Bessel's Functions.
This pause is no new invention, being exceedingly common in Homer.
With this comes the whole vast and ever-widening range of inventive and adaptive art, where the uniform hereditary instinct of the cell-forming bee and the nest-building bird is supplanted by multiform processes and constructions, often at first rude and clumsy in comparison to those of the lower instinct, but carried on by the faculty of improvement and new invention into ever higher stages.
Along such stages of improvement and invention the bridge is fairly made between savage and barbaric culture; and this once attained to, the remainder of the series of stages of civilization lies within the range of common knowledge.
The teaching of history, during the three to four thousand years of which contemporary chronicles have been preserved, is that civilization is gradually developed in the course of ages by enlargement and increased precision of knowledge, invention and improvement of arts, and the progression of social and political habits and institutions towards general well-being.
The inference that these tribes represent the stage of culture before the invention of pottery is confirmed by the absence of buried fragments of pottery in the districts they inhabit.
Queen Mary's charter instituted a Wednesday market and fairs at the feasts of the Annunciation and the Invention of the Holy Cross.
In 3579 John Pakington obtained a grant of two annual fairs to be held on the day before Palm Sunday and on the feast of the Invention of the Holy Cross, and a Monday market for the sale of horses and other animals, grain and merchandise.
From the beginning of his residence with Ludovico his combination of unprecedented mechanical ingenuity with apt allegoric invention and courtly charm and eloquence had made him the directing spirit in all court ceremonies and festivities.
Nevertheless, in its dimmed and blackened state, the portrait casts an irresistible spell alike by subtlety of expression, by refinement and precision of drawing, and by the romantic invention of its background.
The humour, if less cogent and cumulative, is richer and more varied; the invention, too, is more daringly original and more completely out of the reach of ordinary faculties.
The third part, equally masterly in composition, is less felicitous in invention; and in the fourth Swift has indeed carried out his design of vexing the world at his own cost.
Within certain limits, his imagination and invention are as active as those of the most creative poets.
The story was, of course, a subsequent invention.
His title of the Catholic itself may very well have been the invention of later chronicles.
Indigo used to be an important crop carried on with European capital in Behar, but of late years the industry has almost been destroyed by the invention of artificial indigo.
In the drawing of character, in the invention of felicitous phrase, in the contrivance of verbal music, he is deficient.
has been supplied by the invention of spots consecrated by recollections of Abraham, Ishmael and Hagar, or held to be acceptable places of prayer.
In 1774 he published two volumes De cantu et musica sacra; in 1 777, Monumenta veteris liturgiae Alemannicae; and in 1784, in three volumes, Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra, a collection of the principal writers on church music from the 3rd century till the invention of printing.
The other great contribution made by Hamilton to mathematical science, the invention of Quaternions, is treated under that heading.
There is also the extremely ingenious invention of the hodograph.
This is done, not always with any deliberate consciousness of fraud (although it must be clearly recognized that truth is not one of the "natural virtues," and that the sense of the obligations of truthfulness was far from strong), but rather to emphasize the importance of what was written, and the fact that it was no new invention of the writer's.
The Delphian poetess Boeo attributed to him the introducion of the cult of Apollo and the invention of the epic metre.
But this important invention was of little use until John Glover, about 1866, found that the nitrous vitriol could be most easily reintroduced into the process by subjecting it to the action of burner-gas before this enters into the lead chambers, preferably after diluting it with chamber acid, that is, acid of from 65 to 70%, H 2 SO 4, as formed in the lead chambers.
The principal features of this invention are, first, a much more thorough purification of the burner-gas than had been practised up to that time, both in a chemical and a mechanical sense, and second, the prevention of superheating of the contact substance, which formerly always occurred by the heat generated in the process itself.
At the meeting at which Newton was elected a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented was read, and " it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society, and to thank him for the communication of his telescope, and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention."
" Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself, till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it," and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so.
Halley only communicated to Newton the fact " that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre," acknowledging at the same time that, though Newton had the notion from him, " yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton."
Newton's desire to have no hand in writing the preface seems. to have proceeded from a knowledge that Cotes was proposing to allude to the dispute about the invention of fluxions.
The modern system of placing the numerator above the denominator is due to the Hindus; but the dividing line is a later invention.
It is worthy of notice that the invention of this notation appears to have been due to practical needs, being required for the purpose of computation of compound interest.
Hence the invention of Galahad, son to Lancelot by the Grail king's daughter; predestined by his lineage to achieve the quest, foredoomed, the quest achieved, to vanish, a sacrifice to his father's fame, which, enhanced by connexion with the Grailwinner, could not risk eclipse by his presence.
William had not so understood the new invention of a united ministry as binding him to take into his service a united ministry of men whom he regarded as fools and knaves.
The invention of machinery and the jadesthe concentration of the working population in manufacturing centres had all but destroyed the old village industries, and great populations were growing up outside the traditional restraints of the old system of class dependence.
Finally, the invention of a new rifle led to the introduction of a cartridge which, though it was officially denied at the moment, was in fact lubricated with a mixture of cows fat and lard.
Material progress was largely facilitated by industry and invention.
Electricity had even a greater effect on communication than steam oii locomotion; and electricity, as a practical invention, had its origin in the reign.
Angelo, Tyran de Padoue (1835), the last of the tragic triad to which their creator denied the transfiguration of tragic verse, is inferior to neither in power of imagination and of style, in skill of invention and construction, and in mastery over all natural and noble sources of pity and of terror.
(The straight line and the point are not for the moment regarded as curves.) Next to the circle we have the conic sections, the invention of them attributed to Plato (who lived 430-347 B.C.); the original definition of them as the sections of a cone was by the Greek geometers who studied them soon replaced by a proper definition in piano like that for the circle, viz.
A sample of De Morgan's bibliographical learning is to be found in his account of Arithmetical Books, from the Invention of Printing (1847), and finally in his [[Budget]] of Paradoxes.
This application was opposed by Murdoch on the ground of his priority in invention, and the bill was thrown out, but coming to parliament for a second time in 1810, Winsor succeeded in getting it passed in a very much curtailed form, and, a charter being granted later in 181 2, the company was called the Chartered Gas Light and Coke Company, and was the direct forerunner of the present London Gas Light and Coke Company.
But no art of discovery, such as Bacon anticipated, follows, for "invention, sagacity, genius" are needed at each step. He analyses induction into three steps: - (I) the selection of the (fundamental) idea, such as space, number, cause or likeness; (2) the formation of the conception, or more special modification of those ideas, as a circle, a uniform force, &c.; and (3) the determination of magnitudes.
But neither Tertullian nor any other of the fathers seems to have been aware of the existence of any such institution among the Jews; and very probably the story about it may have been a comparatively late invention.
longirostris, with a very long bill as its name intimates, and no white on its 1 It seems, however, very possible, judging from its equivalents in other European languages, such as the Frisian Oestervisscher, the German Augsterman, Austernfischer, and the like, that the name "Oyster-catcher" may have been not a colonial invention but indigenous to the mother-country, though it had not found its way into print before.
He, however, "regarded Mark not only as the first narrator, but even as the creator of the gospel history, thus making the latter a fiction and Christianity the invention of a single original evangelist" (Pfleiderer).
They took shape most likely, not through one stroke of invention, but incidentally, as legends developed and astrological persuasions became defined.
The invention of logarithms, the rise of analytical geometry, and the evolution of B.
William Gascoigne's invention of the filar micrometer and of the adaptation of telescopes to graduated instruments remained submerged for a quarter of a century in consequence of his untimely death at Marston Moor (1644).
The invention, perfected by John ly ne.
Its distinctive method is spectrum analysis, the invention and development of which in the 19th century have fundamentally altered the purpose and prospects of celestial inquiries.
problems, but also by the invention of dialectic provided a new and powerful instrument against the time when the One and the Many should be reunited in the philosophy of Plato.
In 1833 his caloric engine was made public. In 1836 he took out a patent for a screw-propeller, and though the priority of his invention could not be maintained, he was afterwards awarded a one-fifth share of the £20,000 given by the Admiralty for it.
Milchhdfer believes that the story was a mere invention of Greek fancy, an attempt to interpret the mysterious figure which Greek art had borrowed from the East.
" The question starts the invention of the savage on a deluge-myth, of which, perhaps, the idea has never before entered his mind.
If this invention is a late priestly one, the person who introduced it into the Satapatha-Brahmana must have reverted to the intellectual condition of Bushmen.
evinced very great activity in restoring order and very great poverty of invention in his methods.
adds is mainly oratorical elaboration or pure invention.
From his earliest childhood Galileo, the eldest of the family, was remarkable for intellectual aptitude as well as for mechanical invention.
In musical skill and invention he already vied with the best professors of the art in Italy; his personal taste would have led him to choose painting as his profession, and one of the most eminent artists of his day, Lodovico Cigoli, owned that to his judgment and counsel he was mainly indebted for the success of his works.
A rumour of the new invention, which reached Venice in June 1609, sufficed to set Galileo on the track; and after one night's profound meditation on the principles of refraction, he succeeded in producing a telescope of threefold magnifying power.
The invention of the microscope, attributed to Galileo by his first biographer, Vincenzio Viviani, does not in truth belong to him.
The pecuniary rewards of Bessemer's great invention came to him with comparative quickness; but it was not till 1879 that the Royal Society admitted him as a fellow and the government honoured him with a knighthood.
lhis was the discovery, or, in strict ecclesiastical language, the invention of the body of St James the Apostle in the reign of Aiphonso II.
Hence much pure invention, bolstered up by forgery of charters, falsification of genuine ones, and construction of imaginary pedigrees.
Langstroth was experimenting on the same lines in America, and in 1852 his important invention was made known, giving to the world of Lang.
One of the first to take advantage of Hruschka's invention was Mr A.
Next in importance, to bee-keepers, is the enormous advance made in late years through the invention of a machine for manufacturing the impressed wax sheets known as " comb foundation," aptly so named, because upon it the bees build the cells wherein they store their food.
Thus Mehring is justly claimed as the originator of comb-foundation, though the value of his invention was less eagerly taken advantage of even in Germany than its merits deserved.
Probably it was ahead of the times, for not until nearly twenty years later was any prominence given to it, when Samuel Wagner, founder and editor of the American Bee Journal, became impressed with Mehring's invention and warmly advocated it in his paper.
The prediction was believed far and wide, and President Aurial, at Toulouse, built himself a Noah's ark - a curious realization, in fact, of Chaucer's merry invention in the Miller's Tale.
The introduction of carriages and the invention of gunpowder thus opened out a new industry in breeding; and a decided change was gradually creeping on by the time that James I.
With reference to his invention (in 1810) of a process of artificial congelation, he published in 1813 A Short Account of Experiments and Instruments depending on the relations of Air to Heat and Moisture; and in 1818 a paper by him "On certain impressions of cold transmitted from the higher atmosphere, with an instrument (the aethrioscope) adapted to measure them," appeared in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.