Holmes, Four Heroes of India (1892); G.
As regards their present distribution in India, elephants are found along the foot of the Himalaya as far west as the valley of Dehra-Dun, where the winter temperature falls to a comparatively low point.
The centre of interest now shifts to the India House and to the British parliament.
The manufacture is chiefly carried out in India, Persia and the Balkans; the last named supplying the bulk of the European demand.
Meanwhile, the affairs of the East India Company had come under the consideration of parliament.
Start with India, which has more chronically hungry people than any other country.
DINAPUR, a town and military station of British India, in the Patna district of Bengal, on the right bank of the Ganges, 12 m.
In India, the (still unexplained) rise of the doctrine of transmigration hindered belief.
Even in India we are told that he was held in honour by the native kings who took his farthest provinces in possession.
Peter, a merchant adventurer, who had migrated from Danzig to London about 1670, was also a director of the East India company.
Although in late Tertiary times widely spread over southern Europe and India, giraffes are now confined to Africa south of the Sahara.
Before the summer of 327 he had once more crossed the Hindu Kush on his way to India (for the campaigns in the N.E.
He had two brothers who served and died in India, and he never ceased to take a deep and practical interest in Indian affairs.
chaus) of India and Africa, and more dog-like habits.
CHANDAUSI, a town of British India, in the Moradabad district of the United Provinces, 28 m.
DHARWAR, a town and district of British India, in the southern division of Bombay.
service of the East India company and sailed for Fort St David; here he showed himself very industrious, made the acquaintance of Robert Clive and rose rapidly from one position to another.
death by Alexander in 327, whose history went up to the death of Darius, Alexander's general Ptolemy, afterwards king in Egypt, Nearchus who commanded the fleet that sailed from the Indus to the Persian Gulf, Onesicritus who served as pilot in the same fleet, Aristobulus who was with Alexander in India, Clitarchus, a contemporary, if not an eye-witness, important from the fact that his highly coloured version of the life of Alexander became the popular authority for the succeeding centuries.
INSEIN, a town of British India, in the Hanthawaddy district of Burma, Io m.
torquata of India is probably based on cats of this type which have reverted to the wild state.
ALLEPPI, or Aulapalay, a seaport of southern India, in the state of Travancore, 33 m.
Vive l'Empereur!... preur!--If they make me Governor of India, Gerard, I'll make you Minister of Kashmir-- that's settled.
At last, when he was reduced to actual destitution, it was arranged that the East India Company should grant him an annuity of 4000 for a term of years, with 90,000 paid down in advance.
William Gifford Palgrave (1826-1888) went to India as a soldier after a brilliant career at Charterhouse School and Trinity College, Oxford; but, having become a Roman Catholic, he was ordained priest and served as a Jesuit missionary in India, Syria, and Arabia.
of 1889), and the steamers of the British India Navigation Company call there once a week going and coming between Rangoon and Calcutta.
LOHARU, a native state of India, in the south-east corner of the Punjab, between Hissar district and Rajputana.
Alexander left the conquered portion of India east of the Indus to be governed under Porus, Omphis of Taxila, and Abisares, the country west of the Indus under Macedonian governors, and set out to explore the great river The g ?
Although there was cultural opposition in India to Borlaug's methods and seeds, the famine was so bad by 1965 that the government stepped in and urged the project forward.
Edmund Burke had taken the subject races of India under the protection of his eloquence.
It is said that he contemplated the conquest of India and that he was the first to conceive the idea of the Suez Canal.
Fox's India Bill led to the downfall of the Coalition ministry in 1783.
This spending of the best part of one's life earning money in order to enjoy a questionable liberty during the least valuable part of it reminds me of the Englishman who went to India to make a fortune first, in order that he might return to England and live the life of a poet.
WARREN HASTINGS (1732-1818), the first governor-general of British India, was born on the 6th of December 17 3 2 in the little hamlet of Churchill in Oxfordshire.
Consequently, during the hot season in Upper India, and at all times except during the rains in the more southern districts, elephants keep much to the denser parts of the forests.
BARWANI, a native state of India, in the Bhopawar agency in central India.
by India, N.
All the French settlements in India were promptly occupied.
The Asiatic elephant inhabits the forest-lands of India, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Cochin China, Ceylon and Sumatra.
In India, too, a dead person treated with funeral honours becomes a guardian spirit - if neglected, a tormenting demon.
When Hastings landed at Calcutta in October 1750 the affairs of the East India Company were at a low ebb.
However large the wealth he brought back from India, all was swallowed up in defraying the expenses of his trial.
Smith, Early History of India (1904), and the references there given to the researches of Sir T.
Cotton Production in British India.'
In India elephants seldom breed in captivity, though they do so more frequently in Burma and Siam; the domesticated stock is therefore replenished by fresh captures.
of Coins of Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria and India, Brit.
The second book continues the history of his conquests, and the third contains the victory over Porus, the relations with the Brahmins, the letter to Aristotle on the wonders of India, the histories of Candace and the Amazons, the letter to Olympias on the marvels of Farther Asia, and lastly the account of Alexander's death in Babylon.
He was now sent on an important mission to India; he left England in September 1769, but the ship in which he sailed was lost at sea late in 1770 or early in 1771.
That's right: India is a net food exporter to the tune of US$6 billion a year.
(1617); a lunatic asylum; the Van Renswoude orphanage, the theatre, a school of design, the powder magazine and the state arsenal, originally a warehouse of the East India Company, and now used as a manufactory of artillery stores.
AMRITSAR, or Umritsar, a city and district of British India, in the Lahore division of the Punjab.
In 1962, some of them were grown in India, and based on the results, Borlaug was invited to India.
Trotter, Warren Hastings (" Rulers of India" series) (1890); Sir Alfred Lyall, Warren Hastings (" English Men of Action" series) (1889); F.
From Akbar's accession to Aurangzeb's death, a period of 151 years, the Mogul was India's master.
The countries with which this trade is mainly carried on are: (imports) United Kingdom, Germany, United States, France, Russia and India; (exports) Switzerland, United States, Germany, France, United Kingdom and Argentina.
In April 1695 he was impeached once more by the Commons for having received a bribe of 5000 guineas to procure the new charter for the East India Company.
Still it seems advisable to furnish some connected account of the progress made in the ornithological knowledge of the British Islands and those parts of the European continent which lie nearest to them or are most commonly sought by travellers, the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America, South Africa, India, together with Australia and New Zealand.
The majority of the races of cotton cultivated in India are often referred to this species, which is closely allied to G.
Between the years 1788 and 1850 numerous attempts were made by the East India Company to improve the cultivation and to increase the supply of cotton in India, and botanists and American planters were engaged for the purpose.
The average annual production in India approximates to 3,000,000 bales.
The area under cotton in all British India is about 20,000,000 acres, the crop being grown in a very primitive manner.
Cotton has not been cultivated in China from such early times as in India, and although cotton cloths are mentioned in early writings it was not until about A.D.
Japan received cotton from India before China, and the plant is extensively grown, especially in West and Middle Japan.
The production is not sufficient to meet the home demand; during the five years of normal trade before the war with Russia Japan imported annually about 800,000 bales of cotton, chiefly from British India, China and the United States, and during the same period exported each year some 2000 bales, mainly to Korea.
The Abel-Pensky instrument, used in India and in Germany, differs only in being provided with a clockwork arrangement for moving the slide.
Not the Western Crusades but an Eastern rival, Timur (Tamerlane), king of Transoxiana and conqueror of southern Russia and India, was destined to arrest the progress of Bayezid; and from the battle of Angora (1402) till the days of Murad II.
Prior to their conversion to Mahommedanism the Malays were subjected to a considerable Hindu influence, which reached them by means of the traders who visited the archipelago from India.
Throughout, however, the superstitions of the Malays show indications of this Hindu influence, and many of the demons whom their medicine-men invoke in their magic practices are clearly borrowed from the pantheon of India.
FAKIR (from Arabic faqir, " poor"), a term equivalent to Dervish or Mahommedan religious mendicant, but which has come to be specially applied to the Hindu devotees and ascetics of India.
Temples in his honour are frequent throughout India.
See John Campbell Oman, The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India (1903), and Indian Census Reports.
When the other branches and the Alexandria canal silted up, Rosetta prospered like its sister port of Damietta on the eastern branch; the main trade of the overland route to India passed through it until Mehemet Ali cut a new canal joining Alexandria to the Nile.
BENARES, the Holy City of the Hindus, which gives its name to a district and division in the United Provinces of India.
Thousands from all parts of India make the pilgrimage every year.
The restaurant is a perfect place to try out different varieties of dosas (thin rice and lentil crepe), a widely acclaimed dish of South India.
On the final overthrow of the peshwa in 1817, Dharwar was incorporated with the territory of the East India Company.
BADNUR, a town of British India, the headquarters of the district of Betul in the Central Provinces.
The Church now has, besides these missions, others in India (1834), Siam (1840), China (1846),(1846), Colombia (1856), Brazil (1859),(1859), Japan (1859), Laos (1867),(1867), Mexico (transferred in 1872 by the American and Foreign Christian Union), Chile (transferred in 1873 by the same Union; first established in 1845), Guatemala (1882),(1882), Korea (1884)(1884) and the Philippine Islands (1899).
He devoted many years to carrying out a project for organizing the fur trade from the Great Lakes to the Pacific Ocean, and thence by way of the Hawaiian Islands to China and India.
The good sense and clearness of the views which he expressed caused attention to be paid to his desire to be again employed in India.
But in those troubled days their title was as good as any to be found in India.
No Englishman ever understood the native character so well as Hastings; none ever devoted himself more heartily to the promotion of every scheme, great and small, that could advance the prosperity of India.
CAPE COMORIN, a headland in the state of Travancore, forming the extreme southern point of the peninsula of India.
by Arabia, and S., approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somaliland, and Cape Comorin in India.
An interest and importance belong to this sea as forming part of the chief highway between Europe and India.
At Bajo de Velis, in San Luis, the plants belong to the " Glossopteris flora," which is so widely spread in South Africa, India and Australia, and the beds are correlated with the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Permo-Carboniferous).
In India the franchise is exercised without distinction of color or nationality; in Senegal the electors are the inhabitants (black and white) of the communes which have been given full powers.
Class (I) includes the American colonies, Reunion, French India, Senegal.
In Dec. 1920 he went to India as the representative of King George in order to inaugurate the provincial legislative councils of Madras, Bengal, and Bombay, arriving at Madras Jan.
In various speeches he sounded a note of conciliation with Indian progressive feelings, and it was agreed on his return to England that valuable help had been given by his utterances to the work of self-government in India under the new regime.
NILGAI, or Nylghau ("blue bull"), the largest antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus) found in India, where it represents the kudu and eland group of Agrica.
Not improbably this country was either "Gondwana-land," connecting Mesozoic India with Africa, or perhaps Africa itself.
ABBOTTABAD, a town of British India, 4120 ft.
Many of his numerous writings are collected in Poverty and Un-British Rule in India (Igor).
Much accumulated evidence, biological and geological, has pointed to a southern extension of India, an eastern extension of South Africa, and a western extension of Australia into the Indian Ocean.
The forms of life characteristic of India and the Malay peninsula come down to the island of Bali.
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
He urges that the similarities of some of the primitive races of India and Africa to the aborigines of Australia are indications that they were peopled from one common stock.
On 1 The Languages of India (1875).
Some twelve years afterwards the East India Company fitted out an expedition under the leadership of Commander William de Vlamingh, with the object of searching for any traces of the lost vessel on the western shores of New Holland.
PANDHARPUR, a town of British India, in Sholapur district of Bombay, on the right bank of the river Bhima, 38 m.
UJJAIN, or Ujain, a city of central India, in the state of Gwalior, on the right bank of the river Sipra, with a station on the branch of the Rajputana railway from Ratlam to Bhopal.
While in the interests of his canal Lesseps had resisted the opposition of British diplomacy to an enterprise which threatened to give to France control of the shortest route to India, he acted loyally towards Great Britain after Lord Beaconsfield had acquired the Suez shares belonging to the Khedive, by frankly admitting to the board of directors of the company three representatives of the British government.
de Lesseps was a member of the French Academy, of the Academy of Sciences, of numerous scientific societies, Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour and of the Star of India, and had received the freedom of the City of London.
In 1865 he was re-elected for Halifax, and in 1866 became undersecretary of state for India.
The Malay population of the peninsula, including immigrants from the eastern archipelago, number some 750,000 to Soo,000, while the Tamils and other natives of India number about ioo,000, the aboriginal natives of the peninsula perhaps 20,000, Europeans and Americans about 6500, and Eurasians about 9000.
Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
The importance of the Malay Peninsula, as has been noted, consisted in the privilege which its locality conferred upon it of being the distributing centre of the spices brought thither from the Moluccas en route for India and Europe.
As early as the 3rd century B.C. Megasthenes makes mention of spices brought to the shores of the Ganges from " the southern parts of India," and the trade in question was probably one of the most ancient in the world.
Instead they used every endeavour to establish friendly relations with the rulers of all the neighbouring kingdoms, and before d'Alboquerque returned to India he despatched embassies to China, Siam, and several kingdoms of Sumatra, and sent a small fleet, with orders to assume a highly conciliatory attitude toward all natives, in search of the Moluccas.
The Straits Settlements - Singapore, Malacca and Penang - were ruled from India until 1867, when they were erected into a crown colony under the charge of the Colonial Office.
Clifford, Further India (1904); Journal of the Malay Archipelago, Logan (Singapore); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore); Weld, Maxwell, Swettenham and Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute (London); Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London).
DEWAS, two native states of India, in the Malwa Political Charge of Central India, founded in the first half of the 18th century by two brothers, Punwar Mahrattas, who came into Malwa with the peshwa, Baji Rao, in 1728.
BERHAMPUR, a town of British India, the headquarters of Murshidabad district, in Bengal, situated on the left bank of the river Bhagirathi, 5 m.
Berhampur, Ganjam, India >>
BELA, a town of British India, administrative headquarters of the Partabgarh district of the United Provinces, with a railway station 80 m.
In front of the Royal Engineers' Institute is a statue (1890) of General Gordon, and near the railway station another (1888) to Thomas Waghorn, promoter of the overland route to India.
RAJPUTANA, a collection of native states in India, under the political charge of an agent to the governor-general, who resides at Abu in the Aravalli Hills.
The southern boundary runs in a very irregular line across the central region of India, dividing the Rajputana states from a number of native states in Central India and Gujarat.
Ore of cobalt is obtained in no other locality in India, and although zinc blende has been found elsewhere it is known to have been extracted only in this province.
Notwithstanding all its drawbacks, Rajputana is reckoned one of the healthiest countries in India, at least for the native inhabitants.
Only faint outlines can be traced of the condition of Rajputana previous to the invasion of Upper India by the Mahommedans, and these indicate that the country was subject for the most part to two or three powerful tribal dynasties.
Aurangzeb's death and the invasion of Nadir Shah led to a triple alliance among the three leading chiefs, which internal jealousy so weakened that the Mahrattas, having been called in by the Rahtors to aid them, took possession of Ajmere about 1756; thenceforward Rajputana became involved in the general disorganization of India.
On the other hand, his divine substratum, the impersonal Brahma, the world-spirit, the one and only reality, remains to this day the ultimate element of the religious belief of intelligent India of whatever sect.
But this theism is lifeless - a " pale and shallow deism, which India has often confessed with the lips, but which has never won the homage of her heart.'" The thought of India is upon the side of pantheism.
Barth, Religions of India, Eng.
The cosmological argument points to nature-pantheism, with the religions - especially those of India - which embody that attitude of mind.
Under the chief commissioner, who is the supreme head of the settlement, are a deputy and a staff of assistant superintendents and overseers, almost all Europeans, and sub-overseers, who are natives of India.
Portman, Record of the Andamanese (Ii volumes MS. in India Office, London, and Home Department, Calcutta), 18 931898, Andamanese Manual (1887), Notes on the Languages of the South Andaman Group of Tribes (1898), and History of our Relations with the Andamanese (1899); S.
Passing from mythology to speculation properly so called, we find in the early systems of philosophy of India theories of emanation which approach in some respects the idea of evolution.
In India the metropolitan of Calcutta and the bishops of Madras and Bombay have some very limited jurisdiction which is conferred by letters patent under the authority of the statutes 53 Geo.
The Presbyterian Church in India sends one minister and one elder.
PALI, the language used in daily intercourse between cultured people in the north of India from the 7th century B.C. It continued to be used throughout India and its confines as a literary language for about a thousand years, and is still, though in a continually decreasing degree, the literary language of Burma, Siam, and Ceylon.
Previous to this the Aryan settlements, along the three routes they followed in their penetration into India, had remained isolated, independent and small communities.
James Prinsep was then devoting his rare genius to the decipherment of the early inscriptions of northern India, especially those of Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. He derived the greatest assistance from Tumour's work not only in historical information, but also as regards the forms of words and grammatical inflexions.
He shows that in the 3rd century B.C. the language used throughout northern India was practically one, and that it was derived directly from the speech of the Vedic Aryans, retaining many Vedic forms lost in the later classical Sanskrit.
This figure of speech refers, not to a basket or box in which things can be stored, but to the baskets, used in India in excavations, as a means of handing on the earth from one worker to another.
Professor Rhys Davids has put forward similar views with respect to the Jatakas and the Sutta Nipata in his Buddhist India, and with respect to the Nikayas in general in the introduction to his Dialogues of the Buddha.
No evidence has yet been found of any alterations made, after that time, in Ceylon; but there were probably before that time, in India, other books, now lost, and other recensions of some of the above.
Of classical Pali in northern India subsequent to the canon there is but little evidence.
The former belongs to the north-west, the others to the centre of India, and all three may be dated vaguely in the first or second centuries A.D.
Vincent Smith, Early History of India, 2nd ed., 1908, and refs.).
At p. 66 of the Gandha Vamsa, a modern catalogue of Pali books and authors, written in Pali, there is given a list of ten authors who wrote Pali books in India, probably southern India.
The first is Dhammapala, who wrote in Kancipura, the modern Conjevaram in south India, in the 5th century of our era.
The whole of these Pali books composed in India have been lost there.
And to it students flocked from all parts of India.
The most famous of these was Buddhaghosa, from Behar in North India, who studied at the Minster in the 5th century A.D., and wrote there all his well-known works.
With the Jews of Cochin, they represent a very ancient Judaic invasion of India, and are to be entirely distinguished from those Jews who have come to India in modern days for purposes of trade.
of India, vol.
It is a native of North Africa and Western and Central Asia, including North-West India.
CAWNPORE, or Kanpur, a city and district of British India in the Allahabad division of the United Provinces.
In 1801, when the Ceded Provinces were acquired by the East India Company, it became the chief British frontier station.
Statistics.See Wyatt, Agricultural Ledger (Calcutta, 1895), p. 71; Balfour, The Agricuttural Pests of India (1887), p. 13; Eriksson and Henning, Die Getreideroste; the publications of the U.S. Agricultural Department; the Kew Bulletin; Zeitschrift fr Pjlanzeiikrankheiten, and elsewhere.
Cycads are represented by Cycas itself, which in several species ranges from southern India to Polynesia.
In India proper, with a dryer climate, grasses and Leguminosae take the lead in the number of species.
In the north-west it meets the Mediterraneo-Oriental and in the north-east the Chino-Ja~banese sub-regions, while south India and Ceylon have received a Malayan contribution.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
They traded also on the Red sea, and opened up regular traffic with India as well as with the ports of the south and west, so that it was natural for Solomon to employ the merchant navies of Tyre in his oversea trade.
His armies crossed the plains beyond the Caspian, penetrated the wild mountain passes northwest of India, and did not turn back until they had entered on the Indo-Gangetic plain.
The conqueror also intended to open up trade by sea between Europe and India, and the narrative of his general Nearchus records this famous voyage of discovery, the detailed accounts of the chief pilot Onesicritus being lost.
Seleucus Nicator established the GrecoBactrian empire and continued the intercourse with India.
The Ptolemies continued to send fleets annually from their Red Sea ports of Berenice and Myos Hormus to Arabia, as well as to ports on the coasts of Africa and India.
In Asia they held Asia Minor and Syria, had sent expeditions into Arabia, and were acquainted with the more distant countries formerly invaded by Alexander, including Persia, Scythia, Bactria and India.
Roman intercourse with India especially led to the extension of geographical knowledge.
79 Hippalus took advantage of the regular alternation of the monsoons to make the voyage from the Red Sea to India across the open ocean out of sight of land.
It was, however, in the reigns of Severus and his immediate successors that Roman intercourse with India was at its height, and from the writings of Pausanias (c. 174) it appears that direct communication between Rome and China had already taken place.
It was also in the reign of Justinian that Cosmas Indicopleustes, an Egyptian merchant, made several voyages, and afterwards composed his XpUTTcavuxr} Toaoypa(Pia (Christian Topography), containing, in addition to his absurd cosmogony, a tolerable description of India.
The earliest Arabian traveller whose observations have come down to us is the merchant Sulaiman, who embarked in the Persian Gulf and made several voyages to India and China, in the middle of the 9th century.
Abu Zaid also wrote on India, and his work is the most important that we possess before the epoch-making discoveries of Marco Polo.
Scandinavian merchants brought the products of India to England and Ireland.
From the 8th to the 11th century a commercial route from India passed through Novgorod to the Baltic, and Arabian coins found in Sweden, and particularly in the island of Gotland, prove how closely the enterprise of the Northmen and of the Arabs intertwined.
Among these was Benjamin of Tudela, who set out from Spain in i 160, travelled by land to Constantinople, and having visited India and some of the eastern islands, returned to Europe by way of Egypt after an absence of thirteen years.
While the republics of Italy, and above all the state of Venice, were engaged in distributing the rich products of India and the Far East over the Western world, it was impossible that motives of curiosity, as well as a desire of commercial advantage, should not be awakened to such a degree as to impel some of the merchants to visit those remote lands.
Among them were John of Monte Corvino, a Franciscan monk, Andrew of Perugia, John Marignioli and Friar Jordanus, who visited the west coast of India, and above all Friar Odoric of Pordenone.
Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.
The great westward projection of the coast of Africa, and the islands to the north-west of that continent, were the principal scene of the work of the mariners sent out at his expense; but his object was to push onward and reach India from the Atlantic. The progress of discovery received a check on his death, but only for a time.
Diaz succeeded in rounding the southern point of Africa, which he named Cabo Tormentoso - the Cape of Storms - but King Joao II., foreseeing the realization of the long-sought passage to India, gave it the stimulating and enduring name of the Cape of Good Hope.
The Portuguese, following the lead of Prince Henry, continued to look for the road to India by the Cape of Good Hope.
The direct line of Portuguese exploration resulted in the discovery of the Cape route to India by Vasco da Gama (1498), and in 1500 to the independent discovery of South America by Pedro Alvarez Cabral.
Until then the Venetians held the carrying trade of India, which was brought by the Persian Gulf and Red sea into Syria and Egypt, the Venetians receiving the products of the East at Alexandria and Beirut and distributing them over Europe.
In Further India and the Malay Archipelago the Portuguese acquired predominating influence at sea, establishing factories on the Malabar coast, in the Persian Gulf, at Malacca, and in the Spice Islands, and extending their commercial enterprises from the Red sea to China.
Nor was the trade to Muscovy and Turkey neglected; while latterly a resolute and successful attempt was made to establish direct commercial relations with India.
On the 31st of December 1 599 Queen Elizabeth granted the charter of incorporation to the East India Company, and Sir James Lancaster, one of the directors, was appointed general of their first fleet.
The second voyage was commanded by Sir Henry Middleton; but it was in the third voyage, under Keelinge and Hawkins, that the mainland of India was first reached in 1607.
From the tenth voyage of the East India Company, commanded by Captain Best, who left England in 1612, dates the establishment of permanent British factories on the coast of India.
From that time a fleet was despatched every year, and the company's operations greatly increased geographical knowledge of India and the Eastern Archipelago.
Journeys were also made by land, and, among others, the entertaining author of the Crudities, Thomas Coryate, of Odcombe in Somersetshire, wandered on foot from France to India, and died (1617) in the company's factory at Surat.
In like manner Sir Thomas Roe's mission to India resulted not only in a large collection of valuable reports and letters of his own, but also in the detailed account of his chaplain Terry.
He was in the Persian Gulf, India and Java, and resided for more than two years in Japan, of which he wrote a history.
The Arctic voyages of Barents were quickly followed by the establishment of p u a Dutch East India Company; and the Dutch, ousting the Portuguese, not only established factories on the mainland of India and in Japan, but acquired a preponderating influence throughout the Malay Archipelago.
In 1583 Jan Hugen van Linschoten made a voyage to India with a Portuguese fleet, and his full and graphic descriptions of India, Africa, China and the Malay Archipelago must have been of no small use to his countrymen in their distant voyages.
Several European missionaries had previously found their way from India to Tibet.
The next journey was that of Fathers Grueber and Dorville about 1660, who succeeded in passing from China, through Tibet, into India.
He left Holland in 1718, went by land through Persia to India, and eventually made his way to Lhasa, where he resided for a long time.
He went thence to China, returned to Lhasa, and was in India in time to be an eye-witness of the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737.
In 1743 he left India and died at Batavia on the 27th of September 1745.
In 1700 Guillaume Delisle published his map of the continents of the Old World; and his successor D'Anville produced his map of India in 1752.
In 1721 Jacob Roggewein was despatched on a voyage of some importance across the Pacific by the Dutch West India Company, during which he discovered Easter Island on the 6th of April 1722.
Early in 1795 the burghers of the town and district rose in revolt against the Dutch East India Company, proclaimed a "free republic," and elected a so-styled national assembly.
The presence of bustards (Eupodotis) is a curious example of interrupted distribution, since none other of the Otididae are found nearer than India.
- Excepting towards the north, where, in Mexico, it meets, and inosculates with the Nearctic subregion, the boundaries of the Neotropical region are simple enough to trace, comprehending as it does the whole of South America and all Central America; besides including the Falkland islands to the south-east and the Galapagos under the equator to the west, as well as the Antilles or West India islands up to the Florida channel.
The Palaearctic Subregion is, broadly speaking, Europe and Asia, with the exception of India and China.
Struthio in Africa and Arabia, fossil also in the Sivalik Hills, and Aepyornithidae in Madagascar; Pittzdae, Bucerotinae and Upupinae, of which Upupa itself in India, Madagascar and Africa; Coraciidae; Pycnonotidae or bulbuls; Trogonidae, of which the Asiatic genera are the less specialized in opposition to the Neotropical forms; Vulturidae; Leptoptilus, Anastomus and Ciconia among the storks; Pteroclidae; Treroninae among pigeons.
We have homely genera, even among the true Passeres, occurring there - such as Alauda, Acrocephalus, Motacilla and Pratincola, while the Cisticola madagascariensis is only distinguishable from the well-known fan-tailed warbler, C. schoenicola of Europe, Africa and India by its rather darker coloration.
Some of the Malagasy avifauna is certainly ancient, aboriginal, and even points to India; other forms indicate clearly their African FIG.
Struthio, ostrich, Pliocene of Samos and of north-west India, now Africa and Arabia.
Africa to India, and Siberia.
I, &c.) and other writers would limit it to the mountainous district to the east of Babylonia, lying between the Oroatis and the Tigris, and stretching from India to the Persian Gulf.
BABER, or Babar (1483-1530), a famous conqueror of India and founder of the so-called Mogul dynasty.
He seems now to have resigned all hopes of recovering Ferghana, and as he at the same time dreaded an invasion of the Uzbegs from the west, his attention was more and more drawn towards India.
He at once assembled his forces, 12,000 strong, with some pieces of artillery and marched into India.
At Kanwaha, on the 10th of March 1527, he won a great victory and made himself absolute master of northern India.
See also Lane-Poole, Baber (Rulers of India Series), 1899.
Some require the hot, moist temperature of a stove; such are C. amabile, a native of Sumatra, C. amoenum (India), C. Balfourii (Socotra), C. giganteum (West tropical Africa), C. Kirkii (Zanzibar), C. latifolium (India), C. zeylanicum (tropical Asia and Africa), and others.
Many localities in India yield amethyst; and it is found also in Ceylon, chiefly as pebbles.
Following on this first experiment, the East India Company, in 1841, proposed to maintain a permanent flotilla on the Tigris and Euphrates, and set two vessels, the " Nitocris " and the " Nimrod," under the command of Captain Campbell of the Indian navy, to attempt the ascent of the latter river.
ARRAH, a town of British India, headquarters of Shahabad district, in the Patna division of Bengal, situated on a navigable canal connecting the river Sone with the Ganges.
CALICUT, a city of British India, in the Malabar district of Madras; on the coast, 6 m.
The Portuguese traveller Pero de Covilham visited Calicut in 14,87 and described its possibilities for European trade; and in May 1498 Vasco da Gama, the first European navigator to reach India, arrived at Calicut.
In 1615 the town was visited by an English expedition under Captain Keeling, who concluded a treaty with the zamorin; but it was not until 1664 that an English trading settlement was established by the East India Company.
A service of the British India Steam Navigation Company's steamers has been established between Negapatam and Colombo through Palk Strait and this narrow passage.
On the Pamirs Russia has since 1885 been conterminous with British India (Kashmir); but the boundary then swings away N.
After proclaiming his intention of conferring on his subjects the blessings of peace, he joined in 1798 an Anglo-Austrian coalition against France; but when Austria paid more attention to her own interests than to the interests of monarchical institutions in general, and when England did not respect the independence of Malta, which he had taken under his protection, he succumbed to the artful blandishments of Napoleon and formed with him a plan for ruining the British empire by the conquest of India.
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
5,013 British India.
56,181 Although more than half of the total mileage of Asia is in British India, it is probable that the greatest proportionate gains in the near future will be in China, Siberia and Manchuria, and Central Russia in Asia.
0.8 o.68 Japan I I British India.
It has generally come to be that of Germany and, so far as the finances of the countries allow, of Austria and Russia; British India also affords not a few examples of the same method.
In India the prevailing gauge is 5 ft.
some extent in France and India, the rails have rounded bases and are supported by being wedged, with wooden keys, in castiron chairs which are bolted to the sleepers.
CAMBAY, a native state of India, within the Gujarat division of Bombay.
On April 7th, 1541, he sailed from Lisbon with Martim Alfonso de Sousa, governor designate of India, and lived amongst the common sailors, ministering to their religious and temporal needs, especially during an outbreak of scurvy.
But he first revisited India and then, returning to Malacca, took ship for Japan, accompanied by Yajiro, now known as Paul of the Holy Faith.
He devised the plan of persuading the viceroy of Portuguese India to despatch an embassy to China, in whose train he might enter, despite the law which then excluded foreigners from that empire.
Xavier left India on the 25th of April 1552 for Malacca, intending there to meet Pereira and to re-embark on the "Santa Cruz."
After a short stay at Singapore, whence he despatched several letters to India and Europe, the ship at the end of August 1552 reached Changchuen-shan (St John Island) off the coast of Kwang-tung, which served as port and rendezvous for Europeans, not then admitted to visit the Chinese mainland.
and his viceroy in India; he established and controlled the Society of Jesus in the East.
Whiteway, Rise of the Portuguese Power in India (London, 1898), appendix A.
It has a population of about 5000, almost wholly occupied with the manufacture and sale of rose-water, which is largely exported to many parts of Persia as well as to Arabia, India and Java.
Our data are nowhere so full as for India; where they are comparatively abundant they refer either to a civilized or semicivilized people, or to an area, like West Africa, where the influence of Islam has introduced a disturbing element.
If tradition is any guide, human sacrifice seems in many important areas to be of secondary character; in spite of the great development of the rite among the Aztecs, tradition says that it was unknown till two hundred years before the conquest; in Polynesia human sacrifices seem to be comparatively modern; and in India they appear to have been rare among the Vedic peoples.
This is perhaps mainly found in India but is not unknown in Africa and other parts of the world.
His life work began in 1880 when he acquired the Indian Spectator, which he edited for twenty years until it was merged in the Voice of India.
P. Karkaria, India, Forty Years of Progress and Reform, (London, 1896).
corner of India, but in the peninsula is replaced by the more jackal-like C. pallipes, which is probably a member of the jackal group, and not a wolf at all.
long, with the skin of its neck loose, so as to render it dilatable at the will of the animal, as in the cobra of India, a species from which it differs only in the absence of the spectacle-like mark on the back of the neck.
CUDDALORE, a town of British India, in the South Arcot district of Madras, on the coast 125 m.
In 1746 Fort St David became the British headquarters for the south of India, and Dupleix' attack was successfully repulsed.
The species C. torulosa of North India, so called from its twisted bark, attains an altitude of 150 ft.; its branches are erect or ascending, and grow so as to form a perfect cone.
At thirty, still a dependant, without a settled occupation, without a definite social status, he often regretted that he had not " embraced the lucrative pursuits of the law or of trade, the chances of civil office or India adventure, or even the fat slumbers of the church."
MAHSEER, or Mahaseer (Barbus mosal), a kind of barbel, abundant in the rivers of India, especially in pools of the upper and more rapid streams where they issue from the mountainous part of the country.
To the fisherman in India the mahseer affords the same kind of sport as the salmon in the British Isles, and it rivals that fish as regards size, strength and activity.
(Paris, 1812); Elliot, History of India, iv.
1834 he held office for a few months as first lord of the admiralty, and in 1835 he was appointed governor-general of India.
Trotter, The Earl of Auckland (" Rulers of India" series), 1893.
Megasthenes also describes the Jews as the philosophers of Syria and couples them with the Brahmins of India.
As early as 1668, Sir Josiah Child, the millionaire governor of the East India company, pleaded for their naturalization on the score of their commercial utility.
Of this total there were in the British Empire about 380,000 Jews (British Isles 240,000, London accounts for 150,000 of these; Canada and British Columbia 60,000; India 18,000; South Africa 40,000).
In India the nawab of Oudh was long known as the nawab wazir, the title of minister to the Mogul emperor having become hereditary in the family.
India consequently has always been the fertile mother of practical mystics and devotees.
BHOPAL, a native state of India, in the central India agency.
Bhopal is the principal Mussulman state in central India, ranking next to Hyderabad among the Mahommedan states of India.
The sultan Jahan Begum, succeeded on the death of her mother, Shah Jahan Begum, in June 1901, being the only female ruler in India.
ALIWAL, a village of British India, in the Ludhiana district of the Punjab, situated on the left bank of the Sutlej, and famous as the scene of one of the great battles of the 1st Sikh War.
South of this enclosed depression is another great hydrographic barrier which parts it from the low plains of the Amur, of China, Siam and India, bordered by the shallows of the Yellow Sea and the shoals which enclose the islands of Japan and Formosa, all of them once an integral part of the continent.
British India comprises approximately the area between the 95th and 10th meridians, and between the Tibetan table-land and the Indian Ocean.
south wards is a table-land, having its greatest elevation on the British west, where the highest points rise to over 8000 ft., though India.
The great plain extends, with an almost unbroken surface, from the most western to the most eastern extremity of British India, and is composed of deposits so finely comminuted, that it is no exaggeration to say that it is possible to go from the Bay of Bengal up the Ganges, through the Punjab, and down the Indus again to the sea, over a distance of 2000 m.
The great rivers of northern India - the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Indus - all derive their waters from the Tibetan mountain mass; and it is a remarkable circumstance that the northern water-parting of India should lie to the north of the Himalaya in the regions of central Tibet.
The population of India is very large, some of its districts being among the most densely peopled in the world.
The island of Ceylon is distinguished from the neighbouring parts of British India by little more than its separate administration and the Buddhistic religion of its population.
The portion of Asia west of British India, excluding Arabia and Syria, forms another extensive plateau covering an area as large as that of Tibet, though at a much lower altitude.
In India geodetic triangulation furnishes exact sur- the basis for exact surveys as far east as the eastern veys in boundaries of Burma in longitude about loo E.
The close of the 19th century witnessed the forging of the final links in the great geodetic triangulation of India, so far as the peninsula is concerned.
Failing to reach India through Upper Assam he returned to the neighbourhood of Lhasa, and crossed the Himalayas by a more westerly route.
Although the establishment of a lucrative trade between India and central Asia had been the dream of many successive Indian viceroys, and much had been done towards improving the approaches to Simla from the north, very little was in really known of the highlands of the Pamirs, or of the regions of the great central depression, before the mission of central Asia.
About the same time a mission, under Captain (afterwards Sir Willaim) Lockhart, crossed the Hindu Kush into Wakhan, and returned to India by the Bashgol valley of Kafiristan.
Turning our attention westwards, no advance in the progress of scientific geography is more remarkable than that recorded on the northern and north-western frontiers of India.
On the north the Chinese Turkestan explorations are now brought into survey connexion with Kashmir and India.
Russia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India and China have all revised their borders, and with the revision the political relations between these countries have acquired a new and more assured basis.
It thus places a broad width of independent territory between the boundaries of British India (which have remained practically, though not absolutely, untouched) and Afghanistan; and this independent belt includes Swat, Bajour and a part of the Nlohmand territory north of the Kabul river.
From the Gomal Baluchistan itself becomes an intervening state between British India and Afghanistan, and the dividing line between Baluchistan and Afghanistan is laid down with all the precision employed on the more northerly sections of the demarcation.
The agent to the governor-general of India, with a staff of political assistants, practically exercises supreme control.
While British India has so far avoided actual geographical contact with one great European power in Asia on the north and west, she has touched another on the east.
are At not a point int fully level dinemarcated latitude on with the Mogaung, territorenry ch Burma near the northern termination of the Burmese railway and India.
In the south, in Syria, Arabia and the peninsula of India, none but the oldest rocks are folded, and the Upper Palaeozoic, the Mesozoic and the Tertiary beds lie almost horizontally upon them.
But there is positive evidence that much of the north and east of Asia has been land since the Palaeozoic era, and it has been conclusively proved that the peninsula of India has never been beneath the sea since the Carboniferous period at least.
Between India and China there is a broad belt in which marine deposits of Mesozoic and Tertiary age are well developed.
Gondwanaland, however, did not long survive, and the portion which lay between India and South Africa sank beneath the waves in Tertiary times.
In the southern region of unfolded beds are found the lavas of the " harras " of Arabia, and in India the extensive flows of the Deccan Trap. In the central folded belt lie the great volcanoes, now mostly extinct, of Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia and Baluchistan.
In northern India the greatest difference does not exceed 40°; and it falls off to about 15 ° at Calcutta, and to about 10° or 12 °at Bombay and Madras.
The temperatures at the head of the Persian Gulf approximate to those of northern India, and those of Aden to Madras.
The winds which pass northward over India blow as south-easterly and easterly winds over the north-eastern part of the Gangetic plain, and as south winds up the Indus.
Such a reduction of temperature is brought about along the greater part of the coasts of India and of the BurmoSiamese peninsula by the interruption of the wind current by continuous ranges of mountains, which force the mass of air to rise over them, whereby the air being rarefied, its specific capacity for heat is increased and its temperature falls, with a corresponding condensation of the vapour originally held in suspension.
The heaviest falls of rain occur along lines of mountain of some extent directly facing the vapour-bearing winds, as on the Western Ghats of India and the west coast of the Malay peninsula.
The truly tropical flora of the hotter and wetter regions of eastern India is continuous with that of the Malayan peninsula and islands, and extends along the lower ranges of the Himalaya, gradually becoming less marked and rising to lower elevations as we go westward, where the rainfall diminishes and the winter cold increases.
Some of the Siberian forms, thus brought into proximity with the Indian flora, extend to the rainy parts of the mountains, and even to the plains of upper India.
The vegetation of the hot and dry region of the south-west of the continent consists largely of plants which are diffused over Africa, Baluchistan and Sind; many of these extend into the hotter parts of India, and not a few common Egyptian plants are to be met with in the Indian peninsula.
The whole number of species of plants indigenous in the region of south-eastern Asia, which includes India and the Malayan peninsula and islands, from about the 65th to the 105th meridian, was estimated by Sir J.
A similar forest flora extends along the mountains of eastern India to the Himalaya, where it ascends to elevations varying from 6000 to 7000 ft.
Of the orders most largely developed in south India, and more sparingly elsewhere, may be named Aurantiaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Balsaminaceae, Ebenaceae, Jasmineae, and Cyrtandraceae; but of these few contain as many as 100 peculiar Indian species.
Nepenthes may be mentioned as a genus specially developed in the Malayan area, and extending from New Caledonia to Madagascar; it is found as far north as the Khasi hills, and in Ceylon, but does not appear on the Himalaya or in the peninsula of India.
The impenetrable shady forests of the Malay peninsula and eastern Bengal, of the west coast of the Indian peninsula, and of Ceylon, offer a strong contrast to the more loosely-timbered districts of the drier regions of central India and the north-western Himalaya.
In southern India, and the other parts of Asia and of the islands having a similar climate, the difference of the winter and summer half-years is not sufficient to admit of the proper cultivation of wheat or barley.
The trees of India producing economically useful timber are comparatively few, owing to the want of durability of the wood, in the extremely hot and moist climate.
The sal, Shorea robusta, a very durable wood, is most abundant along the skirts of the Himalaya from Assam to the Punjab, and is found in central India, to which the teak also extends.
Besides these are the sandalwood, Santalum, of southern India, and many sorts of bamboo found in all parts of the country.
The cultivated plants of Arabia are much the same as those of northern India - wheat, barley, and the common Sorghum, with dates and lemons, cotton and indigo.
The cultivated plants of China are, with a few exceptions, the same as those of India.
The Ethiopian fauna plays but a subordinate part in Asia, intruding only into the south-western corner, and occupying the desert districts of Arabia and Syria, although some of the characteristic species reach still farther into Persia and Sind, and even into western India.
The insects of all southern Asia, including India south of the Himalaya, China, Siam and the Malayan Islands, belong to one.
The connexion with Africa is marked by the occurrence of many genera common to Africa and India, and confined to those two regions, and similarities of form are not uncommon there in cases in which the genera are not peculiar.
It does not breed in captivity, and is not found wild west of the Jumna river in northern India.
The horned cattle include the humped oxen and buffaloes of India, and the yak of Tibet.
Next in numerical importance to the Mongolians are the races which have been called by Professor Huxley Melanochroic and Xanthochroic. The former includes the dark-haired people of southern Europe, and extends over North Africa, Asia Minor, Syria to south-western Asia, and through Arabia and Persia to India.
This race is believed to form the basis of the people of the Indian peninsula, and of some of the hill tribes of central India, to whom the name Dravidian has been given, and by its admixture with the Melanochroic group to have given rise to the ordinary population of the Indian provinces.
Mongolian settlements have lately been found very much farther extended into the border countries of north-west India than has been hitherto recognized.
The name of Aryan has been given to the races speaking languages derived from, or akin to, the ancient form of Sanskrit, who now occupy the temperate zone extending from the Mediterranean, across the highlands of Asia Minor, Persia and Afghanistan, to India.
The Aryans of India are probably the most settled and civilized of all Asiatic races.
This type is found in its purest form in the north and north-west, while the mixed races and the population referred to the Australoid type predominate in the peninsula and southern India.
The spoken languages of northern India are very various, differing one from another in the sort of degree that English differs from German, though all are thoroughly Sanskritic in their vocables, but with an absence of Sanskrit grammar that has given rise to considerable discussion.
They are written from left to right, exception being made of Urdu or Hindostani, the mixed language of the Mahommedan conquerors of northern India, the character used for writing which is the Persian.
From the river Sutlej and the borders of the Sind desert, as far as Burma and to Ceylon, the religion of the great bulk of the people of India is Hindu or Brahminical, though the Mahommedans are often numerous, and in some places even in a majority.
The language of the Punjab does not differ very materially from that of Upper India.
The influence of Greek culture in northern India is fully recognized, and the distribution of Greek colonies previous to Alexander's time is attested by practical knowledge of the districts they were said to occupy.
The result of trans-border surveys to the north and west of India has been to establish the important geographical fact that it is by two gateways only, one on the north-west and one on the west of India, that the central Asiatic tides of immigration have flowed into the peninsula.
Some of them migrated from districts which belong to eastern Asia, but none of them penetrated into India by eastern passes.
Later most of the historic invasions of India from central Asia followed the route which leads directly from Kabul to Peshawar and Delhi.
By the western gates of Makran prehistoric irruptions from Mesopotamia broke into the plains of Lower Sind, and either passed on towards the central provinces of India or were absorbed in the highlands south of Kalat.
To such fields may be added the yet more complicated problems of those reflex waves which flowed backwards from India into the border highlands.
Modern missions have made no great conquests there, and in earlier times the Nestorians and Jacobites who penetrated to central Asia, China and India, received respectful hearing, but never had anything like the success which attended Buddhism and Islam.
Yet Buddhism has never made much impression west of India, and Islam is clearly repugnant to Europeans, for even when under Moslem rule (as in Turkey) they refuse to accept it in a far larger proportion than did the Hindus in similar circumstances.
But this originality cannot be absolute, for, whatever may have been the relations of Babylonia and the Aryans, the latter brought civilization to India from the west, and it is not always clear whether similarity of government and institutions is the result of borrowing or of parallel development.
Thus Greece excelled the Eastern countries from whom she may have derived her civilization, and Buddhism had a far more brilliant career outside India than in it.
It has profoundly affected and to a large extent subjugated all western Asia including India, all eastern and northern Africa as well as Spain, and all eastern Europe.
is the dividing line: Islam is strong in northern and central India, weaker in the south.
Beyond India it has spread to Malacca and the Malay Archipelago, where it overwhelmed Hindu civilization, and reached the southern Philippines.
(v.) The conquest of India by the Moguls.
To these may be added numerous lesser invasions of India, China and Persia.
the Moguls in India) have proved poor administrators.
Thus they are mainly responsible for the introduction of Islam with its Arabic or Persian civilization into India and Europe, and in earlier times their movements facilitated the infiltration of Graeco-Bactrian civilization into India, besides maintaining communication between China and the West.
The dominions of the latter extended across central Asia to northern India, but were dismembered by the attacks of the Kitans, whence the name Cathay.
The Mongol dynasty lasted less than a century, but the Ming, the native Chinese dynasty which succeeded it, reigned for nearly 300 years and despatched expeditions which reached India, Ceylon and East Africa.
The nation hardly came into existence till China and India had passed their prime, and remained secluded and free from the continual struggle against barbarian invaders, which drained the energies of its neighbours.
Unlike the Chinese and Indians, they have hitherto not had the smallest influence on the intellectual development of Asia, and though they have in the past sometimes shown themselves intensely nationalist and conservative, they have, compared with India and China, so little which is really their own that their assimilation of foreign ideas is explicable.
The population of India comprises at least three strata: firstly, uncivilized aborigines, such as the Kols and Santhals, and secondly, the Dravidians (Tamils, Kanarese, &c.), who perhaps represent the earliest northern invaders, and appear to have attained some degree of culture on their own account.
In prehistoric times they were spread over the whole of India, but were driven to the centre and south of the peninsula by the third stratum of Aryans, and perhaps also by invasions of so-called Mongolian races from the north-west.
The latter was finally absorbed, and disappeared in India itself, but has spread Indian influence over the whole of eastern Asia, where it still flourishes.
He was a zealous Buddhist and gave the first example of a missionary religion, for by his exertions the faith was spread over all India and Ceylon.
300) India was invaded from the north by tribes partly of Parthian and partly of Turki (Yue-chi, &c.) origin.
Owing to the absence of dated records, the chronology of these invasions has not yet been set beyond dispute, but the most important was that of the Kushans, whose king Kanishka founded a state which comprised northern India and Kashmir.
As early as 712 the Arabs conquered Sind, and by the end of the 11th century the whole of northern India was in Moslem hands.
In 1526 the Moguls descended on India from Transoxiana and seized the throne of Delhi.
After 1707 it began to decline: the governors became independent: a powerful Mahratta confederacy arose in central India; Nadir Shah of Persia sacked Delhi; and Ahmed Shah made repeated invasions.
Bactria soon became independent under an IndoGreek dynasty, and the blending of Greek, Persian, central Asiatic and Hindu influences had an important effect on the art and religion of India, and through India on all eastern Asia.
The Parthians appear to have been a Turanian tribe who had adopted many Persian customs. They successfully withstood the Romans, and at one time their power extended from India to Syria.
Owing to its position, the Persian state, when it from time to time became a conquering empire, overlapped Asia Minor, Babylon and India, and hence acted as an intermediary for transmitting art and ideas, sending for instance Greek sculpture to India and the cult of Mithra to western Europe.
They successfully invaded India and central Asia in the east, Spain and Morocco in the west.
Ceylon, though geographically an annex of India, has not followed its fortunes historically.
According to tradition it was invaded by an Aryan-speaking colony from the valley of the Ganges in the 6th century B.C. It received Buddhism from north India in the time of Asoka, and has had considerable importance as a centre of religious culture which has influenced Burma and Siam.
India has also a considerable medieval and modern literature in various languages.
Pali, though only a form of Hindu literature, has a separate history, for it died in India and was preserved in Ceylon, whence it was imported to Burma and Siam as the language of religion.
Grammar and prosody were studied in India with a marvellous accuracy and minuteness several centuries before Christ.
Though Europeans may be indebted to China for some mechanical inventions, she was too distant to produce much direct effect, and the influence of India has been mainly directed towards the East.
The resemblances between primitive Christianity and Buddhism appear to be coincidences, and though both early Greek philosophy and later Alexandrine ideas suggest Indian affinities, there is no clear connexion such as there is between certain aspects of Chinese thought and India.
Alexander's conquests resulted in the foundation of a Perso-Greek kingdoms in Asia, which not only hellenized their own area but influenced the art and religion of India and to some extent of China.
In the 16th century a new era began with the discovery by the Portuguese of the route to India round the Cape, and the naval powers of Europe started one after another on careers of oriental conquest.
Also the parts of Asia affected were chiefly India and the extreme East.
The countries west of India, being less exposed to naval invasion, remained comparatively untouched.
Portugal was first on the scene, and in the r6th century established a considerable littoral empire on the coasts of East Africa, India and China, fragments of which still remain, especially Goa, where Portuguese influence on the natives was considerable.
Both entered India as commercial companies, but the disorganized condition of the Mogul empire necessitated the use of military force to protect their interests, and allured them to conquest.
At the end of the Napoleonic wars Portugal had Macao and Goa, Holland Java, Sumatra and other islands, France some odds and ends in India, while England emerged with Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and a free hand in India.
Guided by such administrators as Warren Hastings, the East India Company had assumed more and more definitely the functions of government for a great part of India.
In 1809 its exclusive trading rights were taken away by Parliament, but its administrative status was thus made clearer, and when after the mutiny of 1857 it was desirable to define British authority in India there seemed nothing unnatural in declaring it to be a possession of the crown.
Clearly such alterations as the construction of railways in nearly all parts of the continent, and the establishment of peace over formerly disturbed areas like India, are of enormous importance, and must change the life of the people.
Geological Survey of India; Max Muller, The Sacred Books of the East (Oxford, 1890-1894); Elisee Reclus, The Earth and its Inhabitants (series, 1890); G.
Blanford, Elementary Geography of India, Burma, and Ceylon (London, 1890); Guide to the Climate and Weather of India (London, 1889); Lord Dunmore, The Pamirs (London, 1892); A.
d'Orleans, " Yunan to India," vol.
Hunter, History of British India, vol.
TANJORE, a city and district of British India in the Madras presidency.
the scene of the earliest labours of Protestant missionaries in India.
In October of that year the district was ceded to the East India Company in absolute sovereignty by Raja Sharabhoji, pupil of the missionary Schwarz.
On account of its fertility it has been called the "Garden of Southern India."
The delta of the Cauvery occupies the flat northern part, which is highly cultivated, dotted over with groves of coconut trees, and is one of the most densely populated tracts in India.
The plant is a native of India, but is now widely spread throughout the tropical zone.
It was founded by the British in 1826 on the restoration of the town of Martaban to the Burmese, and named in compliment to the governor-general of India of that day; but in 1827 the headquarters were transferred to Moulmein.
the missionary work of the Brethren, in Asia Minor and India,.
in Denmark, Sweden, France, Italy, India and China.
MAHRATTAS, a people of India, inhabiting the district known by the ancient name of Maharashtra (Sans.
This large tract, extending from the Arabian Sea on the west to the Satpura mountains in the north, comprises a good part of western and central India, including the modern provinces of the Konkan, Khandesh, Berar, the British Deccan, part of Nagpur, and about half the nizam's Deccan.
In 1901 the total number of speakers of Mahratti in all India exceeded 18 millions.
The Mahrattas have always been a separate nation or people, and still regard themselves as such, though nowadays they are almost all under British or Mahommedan jurisdiction; that is, they belong either to British India or to the nizam's dominions.
For instance, the peshwas, or heads of the Mahratta confederation which at one time dominated nearly all India, were Konkanast Brahmans.
The birthplaces of these persons are still known, and to this day there are sequestered villages, nestling near the western base of the Ghats, which are pointed to as being the ancestral homes of men who two centuries ago had political control over half India.
They probably are aborigines fundamentally, with a mixture of what are now called the Scythian tribes, which at a very early time overran India.
With this and perhaps some other exceptions, there are not in the Mahratta country many large landlords, nor many of the superior tenure-holders whose position relatively to that of the peasantry has caused much discussion ii: other parts of India.
It is often stated that in India British conquest or annexation succeeded Mahommedan rule; and to a considerable extent this was the case.
But, on the other hand, the principal power, the widest sovereignty, which the British overthrew in India was that of the Mahrattas.
The Moslems, having once overcome the Hindus in almost all parts of India, had not for centuries met with any noteworthy uprising.
Thus a confederation was formed of which the Brahman peshwa or head was at Poona, governing the adjacent territories, while the members, belonging to the lower castes, were scattered throughout the continent of India.
The Mahratta power grew and prospered till it embraced all western and most of central India.
Its armies drew soldiers from all parts of India.
The rapid and amazing success of the Mahratta confederation rendered it the largest Hindu power that ever existed in India.
The peshwas, on the other hand, as Brahmans, were men of the highest education then possible in India.
There were at the same time powers existing in India to keep the Mahrattas in check, and some parts of India were excepted from their depredations.
Ahmed Shah Abdali burst upon India from Afghanistan.
JAMES TOD (1782-1835), British officer and Oriental scholar, was born on the 20th of March 1782, and went to India as a cadet in the Bengal army in 1799.
Another book of value, Travels in Western India (1839), was published posthumously.
He returned from India in 1823, was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1826, and died in London on the 17th of November 1835.
Mr Brougham; Sir Samuel Romilly; Mr Mill, author of the well-known work on India; M.
BELLARY, or Ballari, a city and district of British India, in the Madras presidency.
In 1901 Bellary was chosen as one of the places of detention in India for Boer prisoners of war.
The climate of Bellary is characterized by extreme dryness, due to the passing of the air over a great extent of heated plains, and it has a smaller rainfall than any other district in south India.
The practice of cutting off the hair of the dead prevailed in India, though it does not appear in the Vedas (Monier-Williams, Religious Thought and Life in India, p. 281).
His father's History of India was published in 1818; immediately thereafter, about the age of twelve, John began a thorough study of the scholastic logic, at the same time reading Aristotle's logical treatises in the original.
In 1822, however, when he had just completed his seventeenth year, this intention was abandoned, and he entered as a clerk in the examiner's office of the India House, "with the understanding that he should be employed from the beginning in preparing drafts of despatches, and be thus trained up as a successor to those who then filled the highest departments of the office."
Mill's work at the India House, which was henceforth his livelihood, did, not come before the public; hence some have scouted his political writings as the work of an abstract philosopher, entirely unacquainted with affairs.
The duty of the so-called examiners was to examine the letters of the agents of the Company in India, and to draft instructions in reply.
About the time of his entering the India House Mill read Dumont's exposition of Bentham's doctrines in the Traite de Legislation, which made a lasting impression upon him.
His position in the India Office, where alone he did work enough for most men, cut him off from entering parliament; but he laboured hard though ineffectually to influence the legislature from without by combating the disposition to rest and be thankful.
In 1856 he became head of the examiner's office in the India House, and for two years, till the dissolution of the Company in 1858, his official work, never a light task, kept him fully occupied.
It fell to him as head of the office to write the defence of the Company's government of India when the transfer of its powers was proposed.
Thornton, an old colleague in the India House, "has carried out her long-cherished scheme (about which she tells me she consulted you) of a ` vibratory ' for me, and has made a pleasant covered walk, some 30 ft.
The pressing need for Seleucus once more to take the field against Antigonus was at any rate in large measure the cause of his abandonment of India.
At the Cape excellent works and papers are prepared and issued by the government entomologist, Dr Lounsbury, under the auspices of the Agricultural Department; while from India we have Cotes's Notes on Economic Entomology, published by the Indian Museum in 1888, and other works, especially on tea pests.
The British government, alarmed by Bonaparte's attempt to intrigue with Tippoo Sahib, put forth all its strength in India and destroyed the power of that ambitious ruler.
The new Franco-Russian entente helped on the formation of the Armed Neutrality League and led to the concoction of schemes for the driving of the British from India.
In everything which related to the continent of Europe and to the resumption of trade relations between Great Britain and France, Bonaparte had his way; and he abated his demands only in a few questions relating to India and Newfoundland.
But he needed time in order to build a navy and to prepare for the execution of the schemes for the overthrow of the British power in India, which he had lately outlined to General Decaen, the new governor of the French possessions in that land.
An expedition against India had recently occupied his thoughts, as may be seen by the instructions which he issued on the 10th of May 1807 to General Gardane for his mission to Persia.