He advocated the creation of a Hungarian port at Fiume.
The landowner to whom Nicholas went was a bachelor, an old cavalryman, a horse fancier, a sportsman, the possessor of some century-old brandy and some old Hungarian wine, who had a snuggery where he smoked, and who owned some splendid horses.
His complete works were published in Hungarian at Budapest in 1880-1895.
He became a good Hungarian scholar.
He also renewed the claim which had been made by his predecessor, Adolf, on Thuringia, and interfered in a quarrel over the succession to the Hungarian throne.
In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, he issued the celebrated declaration of Hungarian independence, in which he declared that "the house of HabsburgLorraine, perjured in the sight of God and man, had forfeited the Hungarian throne."
Other Hungarian exiles protested against the claim he appeared to make that he was the one national hero of the revolution.
An attempt to organize a Hungarian legion during the Crimean War was stopped; but in 1859 he entered into negotiations with Napoleon, left England for Italy, and began the organization of a Hungarian legion, which was to make a descent on the coast of Dalmatia.
Gaining his freedom at the instance of Hungarian magnates, he visited Melanchthon at Wittenberg, and in 152 4 became professor of Greek at the university of Heidelberg, being in addition professor of Latin from 1526.
Godollo is the summer residence of the Hungarian royal family, and the royal castle, built in the second half of the 18th century by Prince Anton Grassalkovich, was, with the beautiful domain, presented by the Hungarian nation to King Francis Joseph I.
The Roman king, who was an unsuccessful candidate, took up arms, drove the Hungarians from Austria, and regained Vienna, which had been in the possession of Matthias since 1485; but he was compelled by want of money to retreat, and on the 7th of November 14 9 1 signed the treaty of Pressburg with Ladislaus, king of Bohemia, who had obtained the Hungarian throne.
There are also numerous editions and translations of separate works, especially the Method, in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Hungarian.
It is situated between the Fischa and the Leitha and is close to the Hungarian frontier.
Hungarian Confession (1562).
GABRIEL BETHLEN (GABOR) (1580-1629), prince of Transylvania, the most famous representative of the Iktari branch of a very ancient Hungarian family, was born at Illye, and educated at Szarhegy, at the castle of his uncle Andras Lazar.
Bethlen no sooner felt firmly seated on his throne than he seized the opportunity presented to him by the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War to take up arms in defence of the liberties and the constitution of the extra-Transylvanian Hungarian provinces, with the view of more effectually assuring his own position.
A vivid but somewhat chauvinistic history of Bela's reign will be found in Acsady's History of the Hungarian Realm (Hung.), i.
On the 24th of January 1458, 40,000 Hungarian noblemen, assembled on the ice of the frozen Danube, unanimously elected Matthias Hunyadi king of Hungary, and on the 14th of February the new king made his state entry into Buda.
Nor did these complications prevent him from recovering the fortress of Galamboc from the Turks, successfully invading Servia, and reasserting the suzerainty of the Hungarian crown over Bosnia.
Having come to an understanding with his father-in-law Podébrad, he was able to turn his arms against the emperor Frederick, and in April 1462 Frederick restored the holy crown for 60,000 ducats and was allowed to retain certain Hungarian counties with the title of king; in return for which concessions, extorted from Matthias by the necessity of coping with a simultaneous rebellion of the Magyar noble in league with Podebrad's son Victorinus, the emperor recognized Matthias as the actual sovereign of Hungary.
Again in 1488, Matthias took Ancona under his protection for a time and occupied it with a Hungarian garrison.
Though Matthias's policy was so predominantly occidental that he soon abandoned his youthful idea of driving the Turks out of Europe, he at least succeeded in making them respect Hungarian territory.
See Vilmos Fraknoi, King Matthias Hunyadi (Hung., Budapest, 1890, German ed., Freiburg, 1891); Ignacz Acsady History of the Hungarian Realm (Hung.
himself at the head of the movement; at first he had refused, but reports of the progress of the insurrection soon determined him to risk all on a bold stroke, and on the 5th of May he embarked at Quarto, near Genoa, with Bixio, the Hungarian Trr and some 1000 picked followers, on two steamers.
Doubts, however, soon sprang up as to its effect upon the minds of Austrian statesmen, since on the 8th of November the language employed by Kllay and Count Andrssy to the Hungarian delegations on the subject of Irredentism was scarcely calculated to soothe Italian susceptibilities.
[[Thokoly, Imre (Emerich), Prince]] (1657-1705), Hungarian statesman, was born at Kesmark on the 25th of September 1657.
27, 1673) suspended the Hungarian constitution, appointed Johan Gaspar Ampringen dictator, deprived 450 Protestant clergy of their livings and condemned 67 more to the galleys.
He was excluded by name from the amnesty promised to the Hungarian rebels by the peace of Karlowitz (Jan.
"ALBIN CSAKY, COUNT (1841-1912), Hungarian statesman, was born on April 18 1841 at Krompach, in the county of Szepes, and studied law at Kassa (Kaschau) and Budapest.
Charlemagne's bones are preserved in an ornate shrine in the Hungarian Chapel, lying to the north of the octagon.
Eger is the see of an archbishopric, and owing to its numerous ecclesiastical buildings has received the name of "the Hungarian Rome."
1514), Hungarian revolutionist, was a Szekler squire and soldier of fortune, who won such a reputation for valour in the Turkish wars that the Hungarian chancellor, Tamas Bakocz, on his return from Rome in 1514 with a papal bull preaching a holy war in Hungary against the Moslems, appointed him to organize and direct the movement.
Founded, in 1262, by the Hungarian General Cotroman, under the name of Bosnavar or Vrhbosna, Serajevo was enlarged by Husref Bey two centuries later, and takes its name from the palace (Turkish, serai), which he founded.
During the revolutionary ferment of 1848-49 he urged the Prussian king to refuse the imperial crown, co-operated with the Austrian emperor in suppressing the Hungarian insurrection, and compelled the Prussians to withdraw their support from the insurgents in Schleswig-Holstein.
There is a Russian translation by Neviedomski (7 parts, Moscow, 1883-1886), and an Hungarian version of cc. 1-38 by K.
A further motive for their attitude was that Francis Joseph, unlike his predecessor, had not taken the oath to observe the Hungarian constitution, which it was the avowed object of Schwarzenberg to overthrow.
In 1853 a Hungarian named Lebenyi attempted to assassinate the emperor, and succeeded in inflicting a serious wound with a knife.
A law was passed by the Hungarian diet regularizing the libdication of Ferdinand; at the beginning of June Francis Joseph signed the inaugural diploma and took the oath in Magyar to observe the constitution; on the 8th he was solemnly crowned king of Hungary.
The agitation for the completely separate organization of the Hungarian army, and for the substitution of Magyar for German in words of command in Hungarian regiments, broke down the patience of the emperor, tenacious of his pr.~rogative as supreme war lord of the common aIlny.
This incident caused a considerable sensation, and was the prelude to a long crisis in Hungarian affairs, during which the emperor-king, while quick to repair the unfortunate impression produced by his momentary pique, held inflexibly to his resolve in the matter of the common army.
The Hungarian Jews did not consider themselves fully emancipated until the Synagogue was " duly recognized as one of the legally acknowledged religions of the country."
FERENCZ AUREL PULSZKY (1814-1897), Hungarian.
Elected to the Reichstag of 1840, he was in 1848 appointed to a financial post in the Hungarian government, and was transferred in like capacity to Vienna under Esterhazy.
Amnestied by the emperor of Austria in 1866, he returned home and reentered public life; was from 1867-1876, and again in 1884, a member of the Hungarian Diet, joining the Deak party.
In addition to his political activity, he was president of the literary section of the Hungarian Academy, and director of the National.
Among his writings are Die Jacobiner in Ungarn (Leipzig, 1851) and Eletem es Korom (Pest, 1880), and many treatises on Hungarian questions in the publications of the Academy of Pest.
1643), who figures in Turkish history, was by birth a Hungarian, who was enrolled in the Janissaries, rose to be Kapudan Pasha under Murad IV., and after the capture of Bagdad was made grand vizier.
Perhaps the most important act of his second term was obtaining the release of Kossuth and other Hungarian refugees who had fled to Turkey, and whose surrender had been demanded by the Austrian government.
Many of the houses are roofless and untenanted; for, after five centuries of prosperity under Venetian or Hungarian rule, an outbreak of plague in 1456 swept away the majority of the townsfolk, and ruined the survivors.
Nagykanizsa once ranked as the second fortress of Hungary, and consequently played an important part during the wars with the Turks, who, having gained possession of it in 1600, held it until, in 1690, after a siege of two years, it was recovered by the Austrian and Hungarian forces.
in a deep ravine in the Hungarian Ore Mountains, and is built in terraces.
The common story, that she appeared before the Hungarian magnates in the diet at Pressburg in 1741 with her infant son, afterwards Joseph II., in her arms, and so worked on their feelings that they shouted Moriamur pro rege nostro Maria Theresia, is only mythically true.
But during the delicate negotiations which were required to secure the support of the Hungarian nobles she undoubtedly did appeal to them with passionate eloquence, and, we may believe, with a very pardonable sense of the advantage she obtained from her youth, her beauty and her sex.
The imperial troops defeated the Hungarian insurgents in a battle fought here in October 1848.
Two railways were also built, in connexion with the Hungarian state system.
For six years he withstood the Hungarian crusaders, led by Kaloman, duke of Croatia; in 1241 the Tatar invasion of 1 De Administrando Imperio, 33 and 34.
On the death of Ninoslav in 1250, vigorous efforts were made to exterminate the Bogomil heresy; and to this end, Bela IV., who appeared as the champion of Roman Catholicism, Hungarian' secured the election of his nominee Prijesda to the banate.
Direct Hungarian suzerainty lasted until any 1299, the bans preserving only a shadow of their former power.
From 1463 the greater part of the country submitted to the Turks; but the districts of Jajce and Srebrenica were occupied by Hungarian garrisons, and organized as a separate "banate" or "kingdom of Bosnia," until 1526, when the Hungarian power was broken at Mohacs.
The conquest of Bosnia, rendered necessary by the war with Venice, was next completed, in spite of the reverses inflicted on the Turks by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus, the son of Janos Hunyadi.
During the Hungarian campaign the Shia sectaries had been encouraged to revolt, and the Persians had overrun Azerbaijan and recaptured Tabriz.
John Sigismund was recognized as independent prince of Transylvania and of sixteen adjacent Hungarian counties, Queen Isabella to act as regent during his minority.
In June 1593, with an army of 30,000 men, he laid siege to Sissek; the Austrian and Hungarian levies hurried to its relief; and on the 22nd the Turks were routed with immense slaughter on the banks of the Kulpa, Hassan himself, with many other beys and two of the imperial princes, being among the slain.
In August, Sinan Pasha, the grand vizier - now eighty years of age - took command of the troops for the Hungarian War and left Constantinople, dragging with him the Austrian ambassador in chains.
One after another the Hungarian forts were captured by the Austrians; the Venetians were equally successful in Greece and the Morea; the Russians pressed on the Crimea, and Sobieski besieged Kamenets.
by Turkey, with the support of England, to surrender the Hungarian and Polish insurgents who had taken refuge within her borders.
The first printing-press in Turkey was established by an Hungarian who had assumed the name of Ibrahim, and in 1728 (1141) appeared the first book printed in that country; it was Vanlpuli's Turkish translation of Jevheri's Arabic dictionary.
Bohemian, Hungarian and German dailies are published.
Only the multitude of small gardens, planted with limes, acacias and lilacs, and the bright costumes of the Servian or Hungarian peasants, remain to distinguish it from a western capital.
Just opposite the citadel, in a north-westerly direction, half-an-hour by steamer across the Danube, lies the Hungarian town of Semlin.
In front of the county hall is a bronze statue of the Hungarian poet Alexander Petofi (1823-1849), erected in 18 9 7.
Here, on the 31st of July 1849, the Hungarian army under Bern was defeated by the overwhelming numbers of the Russian General Liiders.
ALEXANDER SANTOR WEKERLE (1848-), Hungarian statesman, was born on the 14th of November 1848 at Moor, in the comitat of Stuhlweissenburg.
He immediately addressed himself to the task of improving the financial position of the country, carried out the conversion of the State loans, and succeeded, for the first time in the history of the Hungarian budget, in avoiding a deficit.
Bocskay, to save the independence of Transylvania, assisted the Turks; and in 1605, as a reward for his part in driving Basta out of Transylvania, the Hungarian diet, assembled at Modgyes, elected him prince (1605), on which occasion the Ottoman sultan sent a special embassy to congratulate him and a splendid jewelled crown made in Persia.
The Iter subterraneum has been three several times translated into Danish, ten times into German, thrice into Swedish, thrice into Dutch, thrice into English, twice into French, twice into Russian and once into Hungarian.
HUNGARY (Hungarian Magyarorszag), a country in the south-eastern pertion of central Europe, bounded E.
But by far the greater portion of the Hungarian highlands belongs to the Carpathian mountains, which begin, to the north, on the left bank of the Danube at Deveny near Pressburg (Pozsony), run in a north-easterly and easterly direction, sway round south-eastward and then westward in a vast irregular semicircle, and end near Orsova at the Iron Gates of the Danube, where they meet the Balkan mountains.
These groups are the Leitha mountains, the Styrian highlands, the Lower Hungarian highlands, which are a continuation of the former, and the Bakony Forest.
The Bakony Forest, which lies entirely within Hungarian territory, extend to the Danube in the neighbourhood of Budapest, the highest peak being KOroshegy (2320 ft.).
The Lower Hungarian highlands extend between the Danube, the Mur, and Lake Balaton, and attain in the] Mesek hills near Mohacs and Pecs an altitude of 2200 ft.
m., and lies to the west of the Bakony and Matra ranges, which separate it from the " Pest Basin " or " Great Hungarian Alfold."
The great Hungarian plain is covered by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, through which rise the Bakony-wald and the Mecsek ridge near Pecs (Funfkirchen).
Suess, during which the Hungarian plain was covered by the sea, and the deposits were purely marine.
The third period is represented by the Second Mediterranean stage of Suess,, during which the sea again entered the Hungarian plain and formed true marine deposits.
If Transylvania be excepted, three separate zones are roughly 'distinguishable: the " highland," comprising the counties in the vicinity of the Northern and Eastern Carpathians, where the winters are very severe and continue for half the year; the " intermediate " zone, embracing the country stretching northwards from the Drave and Mur, with the Little Hungarian Plain, and the region of the Upper Alfold, extending from Budapest to Nyiregyhaza and Sarospatak; and the " great lowland " zone, including the main portion of the Great Hungarian Plain, and the region of the lower Danube, where the heat during the summer months is almost tropical.
The vast sandy wastes mainly contribute to the dryness of the winds on the Great Hungarian Alfold.
This is also shown by the data relating to the percentage of members of other Hungarian races speaking this language.
The Germans differ from the other Hungarian races in that, save in the counties on the borders of Lower Austria and Styria, where they form a compact population in touch with their kin across the frontier, they are scattered in racial islets throughout the country.
Owing to the improvidence of the Hungarian landowners and the poverty of the peasants the soil of the country is also gradually passing into their hands.3 The Gipsies, according to the special census of 1893, numbered 2 74,94 0.
Much of this progress is due to the state, one of the principal aims of the Hungarian government being the creation of a large and independent native industry.
those related to agriculture, forestry, mining, &c. Lastly, encouragement is given to all branches of industry concerned with the manufacture of articles used in the more important Hungarian industries, i.e.
At all the Hungarian ports in 1900 there entered 19,223 vessels of 2,223,302 tons; cleared 19,218 vessels of 2,226,733 tons.
After the Compromise of 1867, the policy of the Hungarian government was to construct its own railways, and to take over the lines constructed and worked by private companies.'
In 1907 the total length of the Hungarian railways, in which over £145,000,000 had been invested, was 12,100 m., of which 5000 m.
The so-called zone tariff, adopted for the first time in Europe by the Hungarian state railways, was inaugurated in 1889 for passengers and in 1891 for goods.
Its commanding position at the head of the Gulf of Quarnero, and spacious new harbour works, as also its immediate connexions with both the Austrian and Hungarian railway systems, render it specially advantageous as a commercial port.
The whole of the short Hungarian seaboard is mountainous and subject to violent winds.
The Hungarian parliament has power to legislate on all matters concerning Hungary, but for Croatia-Slavonia only on matters which concern these provinces in common with Hungary.
Since 1867 the administrative and political divisions of the lands belonging to the Hungarian crown have been in great measure remodelled.
After the revolution of1848-1849the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, and it was only after the Compromise of 1867 that Hungary received a separate budget.
Owing to the amount spent on railways, the Fiume harbour works and other causes, the Hungarian budgets after 1867 showed big annual deficits, until in 1888 great reforms were introduced and the finances of the country were established on a more solid basis.
The Calvinists are composed mostly of Magyars, so that in the country the Lutherans are designated as the " German Church," and the Calvinists as the " Hungarian Church."
One of the first measures of newly established Hungarian government was to provide supplementary schools of a non-denominational character.
At the head of the learned and scientific societies stands the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1830; the Kisfaludy Society, the Petofi Society, and numerous societies of specialists, as the historical, geographical, &c., with their centre at Budapest.
There are besides a number of learned societies in the various provinces for the fostering of special provincial or national aims. There are also a number of societies for the propagation of culture, both amongst the Hungarian and the non-Hungarian nationalities.
Worth mentioning are also the two Carpathian societies: the Hungarian and the Transylvanian.
documents, mainly concerned with the Slovaks; Rene Gonnard, La Hongrie au XX e siecle (Paris, 1908), an admirable description of the country and its people, mainly from the point of view of economic development and social conditions; Geoffrey Drage, Austria-Hungary (London, 1909), a very useful book of reference; P. Alden (editor), Hungary of To-day, by members of the Hungarian Government (London, 1909); see also " The Problem of Hungary " in the Edinburgh Review (No.
During his reign, however, Hungarian Christianity did not extend much beyond the limits of his court.
His long and stre.nuous reign (997 1038) resulted in the firm establishment of the Hungarian church and the Hungarian state.
Less fortunate than his great exemplar, Charlemagne, Stephen had to depend entirely upon foreigners - men like the Saxon Asztrik 1 (c. 976-1010), the first Hungarian primate; the Lombard St Gellert (c. 977-1046); the Bosomanns, a German family, better known under the Magyarized form of their name Pazmany, and many others who came to Hungary in the suite of his enlightened consort Gisela of Bavaria.
By these men Hungary was divided into dioceses, with a metropolitan see at Esztergom (Gran), a city originally founded by Geza, but richly embellished by Stephen, whose Italian architects built for him there the first Hungarian cathedral dedicated to St Adalbert.
Of the institutions thus borrowed and adapted the most notable was the famous county system which still plays so conspicuous a part in Hungarian national life.
So firmly rooted in the land was this practice, that Coloman, much as he needed the assistance of the Holy See in his foreign policy, was only with the utmost difficulty induced, in 1106, to bring the Hungarian church into line with the rest of the Catholic world by enforcing clerical celibacy.
As the grandson of St Ladislaus, Manuel had Hungarian blood in his veins; his court was the ready and constant refuge of the numerous Magyar malcontents, and he aimed not so much at the conquest as at the suzerainty of Hungary, by placing one of his Magyar kinsmen on the throne of St Stephen.
In Dalmatia the Venetians III were too strong for her; but she helped materially to break up the Byzantine rule in the Balkan peninsula by assisting Stephen Nemanya to establish an independent Servian kingdom, originally under nominal Hungarian suzerainty.
(1342-1382), to rebuild the Hungarian state, and lead the Magyars back to civilization.
They brought from their native Italy a thorough knowledge of the science of government as the middle ages understood it, and the decimation of the Hungarian magnates during the civil wars enabled them to re-create the noble hierarchy on a feudal basis, in which full allowance was made for Magyar idiosyncracies.
He also appointed Hungarian consuls in foreign trade centres, and established a system of protective tariffs.
The Angevins were less successful towards the south, where the first signs were appearing of that storm which ultimately swept away the Hungarian monarchy.
This desolate region was subsequently peopled by Vlachs, whom the religious persecutions of Louis the Great had driven thither from other parts of his domains, and, between 1350 and 1360, their voivode Bogdan threw off the Hungarian yoke altogether.
No Hungarian king had so little trouble with the turbulent diet as Matthias.
He re-codified the Hungarian common law; strictly defined the jurisdiction of the whole official hierarchy from the palatine to the humblest village judge; cheapened and accelerated legal procedure, and in an age when might was right did his utmost to protect the weak from the strong.
His Silesian and Austrian acquisitions were also very beneficial to trade, throwing open as they did the western markets to Hungarian produce.
of France took the Hungarian mining system as the model for his metallurgical reforms, and Hungarian master-miners were also in great demand at the court of Ivan the Terrible.
Thus, at the very time when the modernization of the means of national defence had become the first principle, in every other part of Europe, of the strongly centralized monarchies which were rising on the ruins of feudalism, the Hungarian magnates deliberately plunged their country back into the chaos of medievalism.
During these miserable years everything like patriotism or public spirit seems to have died out of the hearts of the Hungarian aristocracy.
Compared even with the contemporary Polish diet the Hungarian national assembly was a tumultuous mob.
The Hungarian diet frantically opposed every Austrian alliance as endangering the national independence, but to any unprejudiced observer a union with the house of Habsburg, even with the contingent probability of a Habsburg king, was infinitely preferable to the condition into which Hungary, under native aristocratic misrule, was swiftly drifting.
The last reserves of the national wealth and strength were dissipated by the terrible peasant rising of GyOrgy Dozsa in 1514, of which the enslavement of the Hungarian peasantry was the immediate consequence.
the famous condification of the Hungarian customary law known as the Tripartitum, which, though never actually formally passed into law, continued until 1845 to be the only document defining the relations of king and people, of nobles and their peasants, and of Hungary and her dependent states.'
This was the archduke Ferdinand, who claimed the Hungarian crown by right of inheritance in the name of his wife, Anne, sister of the late king.
Indeed, Ferdinand regarded his narrow strip of Hungarian territory as simply a barrier behind which he could better defend the hereditary states.
The visible signs of this contemptuous point of view were (1) the suspension of the august dignity of palatine, which, after the death of Tamas Nadasdy, " the great palatine," in 1562, was left vacant for many years; (2) the abolition or attenuation of all the ancient Hungarian court dignitaries; (3) the degradation of the capital, Pressburg, into a mere provincial town; and (4) the more and more openly expressed determination to govern Hungary from Vienna by means of foreigners, principally German or Czech.
During the reign of Ferdinand, whose consort, Anne, was a Hungarian princess, things were at least tolerable; but under Maximilian (1564-1576) and Rudolph (1576-1612)1612) the antagonism of the Habsburgs towards their Magyar subjects was only too apparent.
This treaty is remarkable as being the first constitutional compact between the ruling dynasty and the Hungarian nation.
of Hungarian territory, Transylvania now possessed 2082, Turkish Hungary 1859, and royal Hungary only 1222.
It owed its ascendancy in to restore nearly a hundred churches to the sects and to acknowledge the sway of Rakoczy over the north Hungarian counties.
George Rakoczy II., who succeeded his father in 1648, the Turkish empire, misruled by a series of incompetent sultans and distracted by internal dissensions, was unable to intervene in Hungarian politics.
16, 1645), the last political triumph of Hungarian Protestantism, whereby the emperor was forced to confirm once more the oft-broken articles of the peace of Vienna, 1 The counties of Szatmar, Ugocsa and Bereg and the fortress of Tokaj were formally ceded to him.
During his primacy (1616-1637), when he had the whole influence of the court, and the sympathy and the assistance of the Catholic world behind him, he put the finishing touches to his life's labour by founding a great Catholic university at Nagyszombat (1635), and publishing a Hungarian translation of the Bible to counteract the influence of Gaspar Karoli's widely spread Protestant version.
The Habsburg kings were as jealous of the political as of the religious liberties of their Hungarian subjects.
The conduct of the Hungarian nobles in the past, indeed, somewhat justified this estimate, for the fall of the ancient monarchy was entirely due to their persistent disregard of authority, to their refusal to bear their share of the public burdens.
Throughout the latter part of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century, the Hungarian gentry underwent a cruel discipline at the hands of their Habsburg kings.
They were never fairly represented in the royal council, they were excluded as far as possible from commands in Hungarian regiments, and were treated, generally, as the members of an inferior and guilty race.
The border counties, now formed into a military zone, were planted exclusively with Croatian colonists as being more trustworthy defenders of the Hungarian frontier than the Hungarians themselves.
(q.v.), who was elected prince by the Hungarian estates on the 6th of July 1704, and during the next six years gave the emperor Joseph I., who had succeeded Leopold in May 1705, considerable anxiety.
A Hungarian court chancery was now established at Vienna, while the government of Hungary proper was committed to a royal stadholdership at Pressburg.
By the laws of 1723, which gave effect to the resolution of the diet in favour of accepting the principle of female succession, the Habsburg king entered into a fresh contract with his Hungarian subjects, a contract which remained the basis of the relations of the crown and nation until 1848.
On the other hand, Charles swore, on behalf of himself and his heirs, to preserve the Hungarian constitution intact, with all the rights, privileges, customs, laws, &c., of the kingdom and its dependencies.
She did not attack the Hungarian constitution; she simply put it on one side.
Unfortunately, the Hungarian constitution stood in the way of this political paradise, so Joseph resolved that the Hungarian constitution must be sacrificed.
Refusing to be crowned, or even to take the usual oaths of observance, he simply announced his accession to the Hungarian counties, and then deliberately proceeded to break down all the ancient Magyar institutions.
Ignaz Jozsef Martinovics (1755-1795) and his associates, the Hungarian Jacobins, vainly attempted a revolutionary propaganda (1795), and Napoleon's mutilations of the ancient kingdom of St Stephen did not predispose the Hungarian gentry in his favour.
The moderates, alarmed not so much by the motion itself as by its tone, again tried to intervene; but on the 13th of March the Vienna revolution broke out, and the king, yielding to pressure or panic, appointed Count Louis Batthyany premier of the first Hungarian responsible ministry, which included Kossuth, Szechenyi and Deak.
The Ten Points, or the March Laws as they were now called, were ' Up to 1848 the Hungarian diet was usually held at Pressburg.
The emperor and his ministers hoped that, having conceded the demands of the Magyars, they would receive the help of the Hungarian government in crushing the revolution elsewhere, a hope that seemed to be justified by the readiness with which Batthyany consented to send a contingent to the assistance of the imperialists in Italy.
That the encouragement of the Slav aspirations was soon deliberately adopted as a weapon against the Hungarian government was due, partly to the speedy predominance at Pest of Kossuth and the extreme party of which he was the mouthpiece, but mainly to the calculated policy of Baron Jellachich, who on the 14th of April was appointed ban of Croatia.
The Hungarian government, in fact, had played into his hands.
At a time when everything depended on the army, they had destroyed the main tie which bound the Austrian court to their interests by tampering with the relation of the Hungarian army to the crown.
In the Hungarian diet, which met on the 2nd of July, the influence of the conservative cabinet was wholly overshadowed by that of Kossuth, whose inflammatory orations - directed against the disruptive designs of the Sla y s and the treachery of the Austrian government - precipitated the crisis.
He was chosen for this particular mission as being himself a Hungarian magnate conversant with Hungarian affairs, but at the same time of the party devoted to the court.
On the 7th the Hungarian diet formally refused to acknowledge the title of the new king, " as without the knowledge and consent of the diet no one could sit on the Hungarian throne," and called the nation to arms. Constitutionally, in the Magyar opinion, Ferdinand was still king of Hungary, and this gave to the revolt an excuse of legality.
30), and on the 5th of January 1849 occupied Pest, while the Hungarian government and diet retired behind the Theiss and established themselves at Debreczen.
On the 25th of May the Hungarian capital was once more in the hands of the Hungarians.
The news of this manifesto, arriving as it did simultaneously with that of Gdrgei's successes, destroyed the last vestiges of a desire of the Hungarian revolutionists to compromise, and on the 14th of April, on the motion of Kossuth, the diet proclaimed the independence of Hungary, declared the house of Habsburg as false and perjured, for ever excluded from the throne, and elected Kossuth president of the Hungarian Republic. This was an execrable blunder in the circumstances, and the results were fatal to the national cause.
On the 2nd of July the Hungarian government abandoned Pest and transferred its capital first to Szeged and finally to Arad.
The project, elaborated by Anton von Schmerling, was submitted to a Hungarian 1861.
provisional Hungarian government was formed, on the 10th of September the February constitution was suspended, and on the 14th of December a diet was summoned to Buda-Pest.
On the retirement of Beust in 1871, Andrassy was appointed his successor, the first instance, since Hungary came beneath the dominion of the Habsburgs, of an Hungarian statesman being entrusted with the conduct of foreign affairs.
Yet Tisza's aim also was to convert the old polyglot Hungarian kingdom into a homogeneous Magyar state, and the methods which he employed - notably the enforced magyarization of the subject races, which formed part of the reformed educational system introduced by him - certainly did not err on the side of moderation.
The majority he obtained on this occasion enabled him, however, to carry through the Army Education Bill, which tended to magyarize the Hungarian portion of the joint army; and another period of comparative calm ensued, during which Banffy attempted to adjust various outstanding financial and economical differences with Austria.
1902) once more brought up the question of the common army, the parliament refusing to pass the bill, except in return for the introduction of the Hungarian national flag into the Hungarian regiments and the substitution of Magyar for German in the words of command.
The problem was to keep the army an Hungarian army without infringing on the prerogative of the king as commander-in-chief, for, unconstitutional as the new ordinance might be, it could not constitutionally be set aside without the royal assent.
The opposition thereupon proceeded to annul the Lex Daniel (April 7) and stubbornly to clamour for the adoption of the Magyar word of command in the Hungarian part of the common army.
They also laid stress on the fact that Magyar was not, any more than German, the language of many Hungarian regiments, consisting as these did mainly of Slovaks, Vlachs, Serbs and Croats.
In resisting the Magyar word of command, then, the king-emperor was able to appeal to the antiMagyar feeling of the other Hungarian races.
Had this attitude represented the temper of the whole Hungarian people, it would have been impossible for the crown to have coped with it.
Other proposals were: the maintenance of the system of the joint army as established in 1867, but with the concession that all Hungarian recruits were to receive their education in Magyar; the maintenance till 1917 of the actual customs convention with Austria; a reform of the land laws, with a view to assisting the poorer proprietors; complete religious equality; universal and compulsory primary education.
How far it was from satisfying the demands of the Hungarian peoples was at once apparent.
Every male Hungarian citizen, able to read and write, was to receive the vote at the beginning of his twenty-fifth year, subject to a residential qualification of twelve months.
the Liberals and Clericals, desired to maintain the compact with the crown; their colleagues of the Independence party were eager to advance the cause they have at heart by pressing on the question of a separate Hungarian bank.
So early as March 1908 Mr Hallo had laid a formal proposal before the House that the charter of the AustroHungarian bank, which was to expire on the 31st of December 19 10, should not be renewed; that negotiations should be opened with the Austrian government with a view to a convention between the banks of Austria and Hungary; and that, in the event of these negotiations failing, an entirely separate Hungarian bank should be established.
Finally, the prime minister, Dr Wekerle, mainly owing to the pressure put upon him by Mr Justh, the president of the Chamber, yielded to the importunity of the Independence party, and, in the name of the Hungarian government, laid the proposals for a separate bank before the king-emperor and the Austrian government.
Had the issues involved been purely Hungarian and 1 The Times, September 27, 1908.
The burning points of controversy were the magyarization of the Hungarian regiments and the question of the separate state bank.
A trial of strength took place between him and Mr de Justh, the champion of the extreme demands in the matter of Hungarian financial and economic autonomy; on the 7th of November rival banquets were held, one at Mako, Justh's constituency, over which he presided, one at Budapest with Kossuth in the chair; the attendance at each foreshadowed the outcome of the general meeting of the party held at Budapest on the 11th, when Kossuth found himself in a minority of 46.
On the previous day the Hungarian parliament had adopted a proposal in favour of an address to the crown asking for a separate state bank.
On the 28th the Hungarian parliament adjourned sine die, pending the settlement of the crisis, without having voted the estimates for 1910, and without there being any prospect of a meeting of the delegations.
Its deep underlying causes can only be understood in the light of the whole of Hungarian history.
In their efforts to establish Hungarian independence on the firm basis of national efficiency they had succeeded in changing their country from one of very backward economic conditions into one which promised to be in a position to hold its own on equal terms with any in the world.
The earliest important collection of sources of Hungarian history was Johann Georg Schrandtner's Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum (4th ed., Vienna, 1766-1768).
by Farkas Deal(and others (Pest, 1878-1891); Monumenta Vaticana historiam regni Hungariae illustrantia (8 vols., Budapest, 1885-1891), a valuable collection of materials from the Vatican archives, edited under the auspices of the Hungarian bishops; Principal Sources for the Magyar Conquest (Mag.), by Gyula Pauler and Sandor Szilagyi (ib.
Numerous documents have also been issued in the various publications of the Hungarian Academy and the Hungarian Historical Society.
This falls into three main groups: Diplomata (30 vols.); Scriptores (40 vols.); Monumenta Comitialia (records of the Hungarian and Transylvanian diets, 12 vols.
pubd.), and the Archives of the Hungarian subordinate countries (2 vols.
Of the earlier Hungarian historians two are still of some value: Katona, Hist.
Of modern histories written in Magyar the most imposing is the History of the Hungarian Nation (to vols., Budapest, 1898), issued to commemorate the celebration of the millennium of the foundation of the monarchy, by Sandor Szilagyi and numerous collaborators.
1900); Janos Majlath, Geschichte der Magyaren (5 vols., 3rd ed., Regensburg, 1852-1853)-somewhat out of date (it first appeared in 1828), but useful for those who like a little more detail; Count Julius Andrassy, The Development of Hungarian Constitutional Liberty, translated by C. Arthur and Ilona Ginever (London, 1908), containing an interesting comparison with English constitutional development; C. M.
Knatchbull-Hugessen, The Political Evolution of the Hungarian Nation (2 vols., London, 1908), strongly Magyar in sympathy; R.
(d) Biographical: In Magyar, the great serial entitled Hungarian Historical Biographies (Budapest, 1884, &c.), edited by Sandor Szilagyi, is a collection of lives of famous Hungarian men and women from the earliest times by many scholars of note, finely illustrated.
Language The Magyar or Hungarian language belongs to the northern or Finno-Ugric (q.v.) division of the Ural-Altaic family, and forms, along with Ostiak and Vogul, the Ugric branch of that division.
The first Hungarian grammar known is the Grammatica HungaroLatina of John Erdosi alias Sylvester Pannonius, printed at SarvarUjsziget in 1539.
The Vocabula Hungarica of Bernardino Baldi (1583), the original MS. of which is in the Biblioteca Nazionale at Naples, contains 2899 Hungarian words with renderings in Latin or Italian.
s In the Dictionarium undecim linguarum of Calepinus (Basel, 1590) are found also Polish, Hungarian and English words and phrases.
Of modern Hungarian dictionaries the best is that of the Academy of Sciences, containing 110,784 articles in 6 vols., by Czuczor and Fogarasi (Pest, 1862-1874).
Hungarian history, and may be assigned to the middle of the 12th century; the Carmen Miserabile of Rogerius; the Liber Cronicorum of Simon Kezai, belonging to the end of the 13th century, Early the so-called " Chronicon Budense," Cronica Hungarorum, printed at Buda in 1473 (Eichhorn, Geschichte der Litteratur, ii.
Foremost amongst the Italians was Antonio Bonfini, whose work, Rerum Hungaricarum Decades IV., comprising Hungarian history from the earliest times to the death of King Matthias, was published with a continuation by Sambucus (Basel, 1568).
It appears, moreover, that up to that date public business was transacted in period, Hungarian, for the decrees of King Coloman the Learned (1095-1114) were translated from that language into Latin.
Among the literary relics of the 12th century are the Latiatuc " or Halotti Beszed funeral discourse and prayer in Hungarian, to which Dobrentei in his Regi Magyar Nyelvemlekek assigns as a probable date the year 1171 (others, however, 1182 or 1183).
The period placed by Hungarian authors between 1 437 and 1530 marks the first development of Magyar literature.
Thomas and Valentine) adapted from older sources a large portion of the Bible for the use of the Hungarian refugees in Moldavia.
Of the three first-mentioned chronicles Hungarian translations by Charles Szabo appeared at Budapest in 1860, 1861 and 1862.
In 1626 a Hungarian 1711).
In polite literature the heroic poem Zrinyidsz (1651), descriptive of the fall of Sziget, by Nicholas Zrinyi, grandson of the defender of that fortress, marks a new era in Hungarian poetry.
Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
Among the didactic poets may be mentioned Lewis Nagy, George Kalmar, John Illey and Paul Bertalanfi, especially noted for his rhymed " Life of St Stephen, first Hungarian king," DicsOseges Sz.
Of Baroti's purely linguistic works the best known are his Ortographia es Prosodia (Komarom, 1800); and the Kisded Szotdr (Kassa, 2784 and 1792) or " Small Lexicon " of rare Hungarian words.
The most valuable of his productions is his collection of " Hungarian Proverbs and Famous Sayings," which appeared in 1820 at Szeged, under the title of Magyar peldabeszedek es jeles monddsok.
Daniel Berzsenyi, whose odes are among the finest in the Hungarian language, was the correspondent of Kazinczy, and like him a victim of the attacks of the Mondolat.
The articles of Francis Kolcsey in the same periodical are among the finest specimens of Hungarian aesthetical criticism.
Andrew Fay, sometimes styled the " Hungarian Aesop," is chiefly remembered for his Eredeti Mesek (Original Fables).
The establishment of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences 2 (17th November 1830) marks the commencement of a new period, in Academy the first eighteen years of which gigantic exertions were made as regards the literary and intellectual life of the period, nation.
During the earlier part of its existence the Hungarian academy devoted itself mainly to the scientific development of the language and philological research.
Among the earlier publications of the academy were the Tudomdnytdr (Treasury of Sciences, 1834-1844), with its supplement Literatura; the KUlfoldi jdtPkszin (Foreign Theatres); the Magyar nyelv rendszere (System of the Hungarian language, 1846; 2nd ed., 1847); various dictionaries of scientific, mathematical, philosophical and legal terms; a Hungarian - German dictionary (1835-1838), and a Glossary of Provincialisms (1838).
The subject, taken from the age of Hungarian chivalry, is artistically worked out from medieval legends, and gives an excellent description of the times of St Ladislaus of Hungary.
We may here note that for foreigners unacquainted with Hungarian there are, besides several special versions of Petofi and of Arany, numerous anthologies of Magyar poetry in German, by Count Majlath (1825), J.
Meanwhile dramatic literature found many champions, of whom the most energetic was Edward Szigligeti, proprie Joseph Szathmary, who enriched the Hungarian stage with more than a hundred pieces.
Among successful dramatic pieces may be mentioned the Falu rossza (Village Scamp) of Edward Toth (1875), which represents the life of the Hungarian peasantry, and shows both poetic sentiment and dramatic skill; A szerelem harcza (Combat of Love), by Count Geza Zichy; Iskdriot (1876) and the prize tragedy Tamora (1879), by Anthony Varady; Janus (1877), by Gregory Csiky; and the dramatized romance Szep Mikhal (Handsome Michal), by Maurus Jokai (1877).
The graphic descriptions of Hungarian life in the middle and lower classes by Lewis Kuthy won for him temporary renown; but his style, though flowery, is careless.
But by far the most prolific and talented novelist that Hungary can boast of is Maurus Jokai (q.v.), whose power of imagination and brilliancy of style, no less than his true representations of Hungarian life and character, have earned for him a European reputation.
In the Itthon (At Home), by Alois Degre (1877), the tale is made the medium for a satirical attack upon official corruption and Hungarian national vanity; and in the Almok dlmodoja (Dreamer of Dreams), by John Asboth (1878), other national defects are aimed at.
Indeed, before the foundation of the Hungarian academy in 1830, but few such works claiming general recognition had been published in the native language.
(1861-1866), is a most comprehensive work, showing more particularly the progress of Hungarian legislative development in past times.
Magyar history is indebted to Paul Jaszay for his careful working out of certain special periods, as, for instance, in his A Magyar nemzet napjai a legregibb idOtOl az arany bullaig (Days of the Hungarian nation from the earliest times to the date of the Golden Bull).
(Pozsony, 1847), John Czech, Gustavus Wenczel, Frederick Pesty and Paul Szlemenics as writers on legal history; Joseph Bajza, who in 1845 commenced a History of the World; Alexander Szilagyi, some of whose works, like those of Ladislaus KOvary, bear on the past of Transylvania, others on the Hungarian revolution of 1848-1849; Charles L, nyi and John Pauer, authors of treatises on Roman Catholic ecclesiastical history; John Szombathi, Emeric Revesz and Balogh, writers on Protestant church history; William Fraknoi, biographer of Cardinal Pazman, and historian of the Hungarian diets; and Anthony Gevay, Aaron Sziladi, Joseph Podhradczky, Charles Szabo, John Jerney and Francis Salamon, who have investigated and elucidated many special historical subjects.
After 1867 great activity was displayed in history and its allied branches, owing to the direct encouragement given by the Hungarian Historical Society, and by the historical, archaeological, and statistical committees of the academy.
After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.
In 1830 there were only 10 Magyar periodical publications; in 1880 we find 368; in 1885 their lit number rose to 494; in 1890 to 636; and at the beginning of 1895 no fewer than 806 periodical publica tions, written in the Hungarian language, appeared in Hungary.
Among Hungarian novels we may distinguish four dominant genres or tendencies.
The second class of Hungarian modern novelists is led by the well-known Koloman Mikszath, a poet endowed with originality, a charming naiveté, and a freshness of observation from life.
In the fourth class may be grouped such of the latest Hungarian novelists as have tried, and on the whole succeeded, in clothing their ideas and characters in a style peculiar to themselves.
Besides Stephen Petelei (Jetti, a name - "Henrietta " - Felhok, " Clouds ") and Zoltan Ambrus (Pokhdlo Kisasszony, " Miss Cobweb "; Gyanu, " Suspicion") must be mentioned especially Francis Herczeg, who has published a number of very interesting studies of Hungarian social life (Simon Zsuzsa, " Susanna Simon "; Fenn es lenn, " Above and Below "; Egy ledny tortenete, " The History of a Girl "; Idegenete kozott, " Amongst Strangers "); Alexander Brody, who brings a delicate yet resolute analysis to unfold the mysterious and fascinating inner life of persons suffering from overwrought nerves or overstrung mind (A kitlelkil asszony, " The Double-Souled Lady "; Don Quixote kisasszony, " Miss Don Quixote "; Faust orvos, " Faust the Physician "; Tiinder Ilona, Rejtelmek, "Mysteries"; Az eziest kecske, " The Silver Goat "); and Edward Kabos, whose sombre and powerful genius has already produced works, not popular by any means, but full of great promise.
To this list we must add the short but incomparable feuilletons (tdrezalevelek) of Dr Adolf Agai (writing under the nom de plume of Porz6), whose influence on the formation of modern Hungarian literary prose is hardly less important than the unique esprit and charm of his writings.
The next group of Hungarian dramatists is dominated by the master spirit of Gregor Csiky.
The Hungarian scholar Samuel Brassai published, in 1896, Az igazi pozitiv filozofia (" The True Positive Philosophy ").
On 1st January 1900 a new criminal code, thoroughly modern in spirit, was put in force; and in 1901 a Civil Code Bill, to replace the old Hungarian customary system, was introduced.
The millennial festivities in 1896 gave rise to the publication of what was then the most extensive history of the Hungarian nation (A magyar nemzet tortenete, 1895-1901), ten large and splendidly illustrated volumes, edited by Alexander Szilagyi, with the collaboration of the best specialists of modern Hungary, Robert Frohlich, B.
irok elete es munkdi (an extensive biographical dictionary of Hungarian authors); Irodalom torteneti Kozlemenyek (a periodical edited by Aron Szilady, for the history of literature); Emil Reich, Hungarian Literature (London, 1898).
- After the collapse of the Hungarian revolution in 1849, the Croats, in the words of Pulszky, received as reward the same absolutist regime which had been imposed upon the Magyars as punishment.
The Serbo-Croat coalition, formed on the basis of the Fiume Resolution, at once acquired the mastery in Croatia, and even when its short-lived alliance with the Hungarian coalition - in power in Hungary since April 1906 - was replaced by acute conflict in the summer of 1907, no amount of repression from Budapest could destroy its solid majority in the Croatian diet.
The accession of the Emperor Charles, and the ferment aroused by the Russian Revolution, led to considerable political changes in both halves of the Dual Monarchy, the most notable being the dismissal of Count Tisza from the Hungarian premiership (May 23 1917), the grant of a general political amnesty, and the summons of the Austrian Reichsrat, which had not been allowed to meet since March 1914.
The growing self-confidence of the Austrian Sla y s was shown by the bluntness of their refusal to cooperate with the new Premier, Doctor von Seidler, whose offer of portfolios to their leaders drew from Count Tisza a strong protest in the Hungarian Parliament.
During the late summer the authorities in Vienna and Budapest keenly debated rival plans for solving the southern Slav question - in every case, however, in accordance with Austrian or Hungarian rather than Yugoslav interests.
This only precipitated the collapse, and while Count Tisza voiced Hungarian public opinion in declaring the basis of the Dual system to be shattered, the Yugoslav National Council was transplanted from Ljubljana to Zagreb and strengthened by the inclusion of representatives of all parties (Oct.
On the 16th the Hungarian Government declared in favour of personal union, and next day Hussarek published an imperial proclamation, dividing Austria (not Austria-Hungary) into four federal units (German, Czech, Yugoslav and Ukrainian) and leaving the Poles to make their own decision.
On the 24th Count Andrassy was appointed joint foreign minister, but the machinery of State had ceased to work, and both the Austrian and Hungarian Cabinets were in statu demissionis.
Franchet d'Esperey received at Belgrade a Hungarian peace delegation under Count Karolyi, and concluded with them an armistice whose provisions still further complicated the situation.
BANAT (Hungarian Bdnsdg), a district in the south-east of Hungary, consisting of the counties of Torontal, Temes and Krasso-Szoreny.
The term, in Hungarian, means generally a frontier province governed by a ban and is equivalent to the German term Mark.
high, erected by the Emperor Francis Joseph in 1851 to commemorate the successful resistance of the town to the siege of 107 days laid by the Hungarian revolutionary army in 1849.
It endured another siege in 1849, when it resisted successfully the attacks of a Hungarian revolutionary army.
The finer structure of the animal has been investigated by Mrazek (to), whose account, however, is published in the Hungarian language.
It also lies on the frontier which separates from one another three races, the German, the Slavonic and the Hungarian.
Their violent anti-Magyar attitude has driven away a certain amount of Hungarian custom, and helped to increase the political difficulties of the cis-Leithan government.
It is not likely that the Avars, living in their "ring" encampments, destroyed the Roman municipium; and Becs, the Hungarian name for Vienna to this day, is susceptible of a Slavonic interpretation only, and would seem to indicate that the site had been occupied in Slavonic times.
Thus within eight years the range of territory from which Vienna drew its former throngs of wealthy pleasure-seeking visitors and more or less permanent inhabitants - Italian, German and Hungarian - was enormously restricted.
The formal recognition of Budapest as a royal residence and capital in 1892, and the appointment of independent Hungarian court functionaries in November 1893, mark new stages in its progress.
TATRA MOUNTAINS (Hungarian Tarczal) or the High Tatra, the highest group in the central Carpathians, and the central group of the whole Carpathian system.
The Tatra Mountains extend through the Hungarian counties of Lipt6 and Szepes, and with their northern extremities also through the Austrian crownland of Galicia, and have a length of 4 o m.
ALEXANDER WEKERLE (1848-), Hungarian statesman (see 28.500), was again appointed prime minister on Aug.
ARMIN VAMBERY (1832-), Hungarian Orientalist and traveller, was born of humble parentage at Duna-Szerdahely, a village on the island of Shiitt, in the Danube, on the 10th of March 183 2.
Meanwhile he supported himself by teaching on a very small scale, but his progress was such that at sixteen he had a good knowledge of Hungarian, Latin, French and German, and was rapidly acquiring English and the Scandinavian languages, and also Russian, Servian and other Slavonic tongues.
Returning to Hungary, he was appointed professor of Oriental languages in the university of Budapest: there he settled down, contributing largely to periodicals, and publishing a number of books, chiefly in German and Hungarian.
MOROSINI, a noble Venetian family, probably of Hungarian extraction, which gave many doges, statesmen, generals and admirals to the Venetian Republic, and cardinals to the Church.
This was due in the first place to the lack of adequate railway communication with the interior of Austria, to the loss of part of the Levant trade through the development of the Oriental railway system, to the diversion of traffic towards the Italian and German ports, and finally to the growing rivalry of the neighbouring port of Fiume, whose interests were vigorously promoted by the Hungarian government.
During the Italian and Hungarian revolutions Trieste remained faithful to Austria, and received the title of Citta Fedelissima.
It is the seat of a Greek-Orthodox bishop, and possesses a Greek-Orthodox theological seminary, two training schools for teachers - one Hungarian, and the other Rumanian - and a conservatoire for music. The town played an important part in the Hungarian revolution of 1848-49, and possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.
One of the public squares contains a martyrs' monument, erected in memory of the thirteen Hungarian generals shot here on the 6th of October 1849, by order of the Austrian general Haynau.
The new fortress, built in 1763, although small, was formidable, and played a great role during the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849.
Bravely defended by the Austrian general Berger until the 1st of July 1849, it was then captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the insurrection.
In Austria-Hungary, Germany, Poland, Sweden and some other countries, haiduk came to mean an attendant in a court of law, or a male servant, dressed in Hungarian semi-military costume.
1393), and after spending some time in family and other feuds, took service again with King Sigismund in 1409, whom he assisted in his struggle with the Hungarian rebels.
These were known originally as Hungarian riffles.
At Schemnitz, Kerpenyes, Kreuzberg and other localities in Hungary, quartz vein stuff containing a little gold, partly free and partly associated with pyrites and galena, is, after stamping in mills, similar to those described above, but without rotating stamps, passed through the so-called " Hungarian gold mill " or " quick-mill."
The Laszlo is an improved Hungarian mill, while the Piccard is of the same type.
In official Hungarian documents of the 13th and 14th centuries the Carpathians are named Thorchal or Tarczal, and also Monies Nivium.
Unlike the other wings of the great central system of Europe, the Carpathians, which form the watershed between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides by plains, namely the great Hungarian plain on the south-west, the plain of the Lower Danube (Rumania) on the south, and the Galician plain on the north-east.
As indicated by its name, which means " burnt," it is of volcanic origin, and plays an important part in the folklore and in the superstitious legends of the Hungarian people.
South of the central groups lies a widely extending mountain region, which fills the whole of northern Hungary, and is known as the Hungarian highland.
It is composed of several groups, which are intersected by the valleys of numerous rivers, and which descend in sloping terraces towards the Danube and the Hungarian plain.
West of the Low Tatra extend the Fatra group, with the highest peak, the Great Fatra (5825 ft.), to the south and east of which lie the Schemnitz group, the Ostrowsky group, and several other groups, all of which are also called the Hungarian Ore Mountains, on account of their richness in valuable ores.
The smaller groups of the Hungarian highland are: on the south-west the Neograd Mountains (2850), whose offshoots reach the Danube; to the east of them extends the Matra group, with the highest peak the Sasko (3285 ft.).
The Matra group is of volcanic origin, rising abruptly in the great Hungarian plain, and constitutes one of the most beautiful groups of the Carpathians; lastly, to its east extend the thicklywooded Biikk Mountains (3100 ft.).
Between the two zones lies a row of Klippen, while towards the Hungarian plain the inner zone is bordered by a fringe of volcanic eruptions of Tertiary age.
It is visible only in the west and in the east, while in the central Carpathians, between the Hernad and the headwaters of the Theiss, it is lost beneath the modern deposits of the Hungarian plain.
A great stimulus to the study of this mountain system was given by the foundation of the Hungarian Carpathian Society in 1873, and a great deal of information has been added to our knowledge since.
But his Hungarian allies hastened to his assistance, and the mediation of the Holy See restored peace in 1346.
Subsequently, however, he married the handsome and promising youth to Agnes of Chatillon, duchess of Antioch, and in 1173 placed him, by force of arms, on the Hungarian throne, first expelling Bela's younger brother Geza, who was supported by the Catholic party.
Though the poet Ede Szigligeti has immortalized his memory in the play Bela III., we have no historical monograph of him, but in Ignacz Acsady, History of the Hungarian Realm (Hung.), i.
GEORG KLAPKA (1820-1892), Hungarian soldier, was born at Temesvar on the 7th of April 1820, and entered the Austrian army in 1838.
After the war of 1866 (in which as a Prussian major-general he organized a Hungarian corps in Silesia) Klapka was permitted by the Austrian government to return to his native country, and in 1867 was elected a member of the Hungarian Chamber of Deputies, in which he belonged to the Deak party.
bis Ende Juli 1855 (Geneva, 1855); and Aus meinen Erinnerungen (translated from the Hungarian, Zurich, 1887).
It is situated in a deep valley in the Hungarian Ore Mountains region.
ANTON CSENGERY (1822-1880), Hungarian publicist, and a historical writer of great influence on his time, was born at Nagyvarad on the 2nd of June 1822.
He took, at an early date, a very active part in the literary and political movements immediately preceding the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.
After 1867 the greatest of modern Hungarian statesmen, Francis Peak, attached Csengery to his personal service, and many of the momentous state documents inspired or suggested by Peak were drawn up by Csengery.
AARON CHORIN (1766-1844), Hungarian rabbi and pioneer of religious reform.
He also interested himself in public affairs; and his son Francis was a Hungarian deputy.
In 1895 a case of clerical interference in the internal affairs of Hungary by the nuncio Agliardi aroused a strong protest in the Hungarian parliament, and consequent differences between Banffy, the Hungarian minister, and the minister for foreign affairs led to Kaln6ky's resignation.
Pop. (1895) 13,666, of whom about 7000 were Moslems. Banjaluka lies on the river Vrbas, and at the terminus of a military railway which meets the Hungarian state line at Jasenovac, 30 m.
1061), a king of the Hungarian Arpadian dynasty.
The temperature of the lake varies greatly, in a manner resembling that of the sea, and many connect its origin with a sea of the Miocene period, the waters of which are said to have covered the Hungarian plain.
The Hungarian Government could claim the right to take independent economic measures for her own territory in war-time; a joint arrangement was only possible for the territories of the Dual Monarchy - which were united for tariff purposes - by agreements between the Austrian and Hungarian Governments; and since neither Government was exclusively concerned to carry out an adjustment of economic conditions solely in accordance with what was necessary for waging war and holding out with the supplies at their disposal, but each had also to champion the interests of one half of the monarchy against the other, the negotiations between the two Governments were often attended with the greatest difficulties, and constantly ended unsatisfactorily.
Austria in foodstuffs, and the latter was constantly thrown back upon Hungarian supplies; and this superiority on the part of Hungary became more and more definitely pronounced in proportion as the provision of the necessities of life for the army and civil population became a steadily-increasing anxiety.
The Austrian and Hungarian ports were of little importance as ports of entry for raw materials, the goods stored there being mainly from the Levant.
In Hungary a strong majority, which the Government could not afford to ignore, insisted on the formation of an independent Hungarian bank; on the other hand the advantages accruing to Hungary through the community of the financial and banking organization were quite obvious.
But, besides this, the bank had also afforded credits to the State in other forms. In return for bonds given by the Austrian and Hungarian State they issued Treasury bills, and transferred the proceeds from them to the two finance departments.
FERENCZ LAJOS AKOS KOSSUTH (1841-), Hungarian statesman, the son of Lajos Kossuth, was born on the 16th of November 1841, and educated at the Paris Polytechnic and the London University, where in 1859 he won a prize for political economy.
After working as a civil engineer on the Dean Forest railway he went (1861) to Italy, where he resided for the next thirty-three years, taking a considerable part in the railway construction of the peninsula, and at the same time keeping alive the Hungarian independence question by a whole series of pamphlets and newspaper articles.
As early as 1867 he had been twice elected a member of the Hungarian diet, but on both occasions refused to accept the mandate.
On the 10th of April 1895 he was returned for Tapolca and in 1896 for Cegled, and from that time took an active part in Hungarian politics.
See Sturm, The Almanack of the Hungarian Diet (1905-1910), art.
The Hungarian census of 1910 purported to show that in Slovakia there were 1,697,552 Slovaks and 901,793 Hungarians.
When in July 1914 Austria commenced hostilities against Serbia, thus bringing about the World War, this act of aggression took place against the will of the Czechs and Slovaks, at that time subject to Austrian and Hungarian rule respectively.
Open protest or organized revolt, however, was impossible owing to the proximity and indeed the presence in overwhelming numbers of German and Hungarian troops, who were expressly garrisoned among the Czech population in order to stifle any possible outburst of national and pro-Ally sentiment.
In spite of the presence of Austrian and Hungarian garrisons in Prague and other towns, there was no bloodshed.
The Hungarians (Magyars) declined to surrender the territories inhabited by Slovaks, and it was necessary to call in the military help of the Czechs before the last Hungarian troops, who had initiated a reign of terror in Slovakia, could be driven out of the land.
In the extreme eastern corner of the Czechoslovak Republic, there is situated a little autonomous region of Russinia (or Sub-Carpathian Russia), which, together with Slovakia, was part and parcel of the Hungarian Kingdom till the Treaty of St.
Previous to 1918 the territories now composing the Czechoslovak Republic were of course subject to the Austrian or Hungarian code of laws respectively.
On the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy the Austrian code was adopted for the lands of the Bohemian crown and the Hungarian code for Slovakia.
The Slovaks under the Hungarian regime were kept in a backward state - they did not possess a single Slovak school - while still worse conditions prevailed in Russinia, some 75% of the population being unable to read or write.
The most important political event during the reign of Sigismund was the collapse of the ancient Hungarian monarchy at Mohacs in 1526.
In 1575, and again in 1587, it was put up for public auction, when the Hungarian Bathory and the Swede Sigismund respectively gained the prize.
The chief abbot has the rank of a bishop, and is a member of the Upper House of the Hungarian parliament, while in spiritual matters he is subordinate immediately to the Roman curia.
the Teleki Codex), a collection of old Hungarian poems, and a manuscript of Tacitus, besides a collection of antiquities and another of minerals.
The use of Latin in diplomacy died out towards the end of the 17th century; but, long after that date negotiations with the German empire were conducted in Latin, and Latin was the language of the debates in the Hungarian diet down to 1825.
SISSEK (Hungarian, Sziszek; Croatian, Sisak), a town of Croatia-Slavonia, in the county of Agram; situated at the confluence of the Save and Kulpa, 30 m.
Xantusia (so named after Xantus, a Hungarian collector), e.g.
Within fourteen years the following Bible societies were in active operation: the Basel Bible Society (founded at Nuremberg, 1804), the Prussian Bible Society (founded as the Berlin Bible Society, 1805), the Revel Bible Society (1807), the Swedish Evangelical Society (1808), the Dorpat Bible Society (1811), the Riga Bible Society (1812), the Finnish Bible Society (1812), the Hungarian Bible Institution (Pressburg, 1812), the Wurttemberg Bible Society (Stuttgart, 1812), the Swedish Bible Society (1814), the Danish Bible Society (1814), the Saxon Bible Society (Dresden, 1814), the Thuringian Bible Society (Erfurt, 1814), the Berg Bible Society (Eberfeld, 1814), the Hanover Bible Society (1814), the Hamburg-Altona Bible Society (1814), the Lubeck Bible Society (1814), the Netherlands Bible Society (Amsterdam, 1814).
Karman, Jozsef (1769-1795), Hungarian author, was born at Losoncz on the 14th of March 1769, the son of a Calvinist pastor.
He maintained that Pest, not Pressburg, should be the literary centre of Hungary, and in 1794 founded the first Hungarian quarterly, Urania, but it met with little support and ceased to exist in 1795, after three volumes had appeared.
The most important contribution to Urania was his sentimental novel, Fanni Hagyomanai, much in the style of La nouvelle Héloise and Werther, the most exquisite product of Hungarian prose in the 18th century and one of the finest psychological romances in the literature.
At six years of age he went to school at Szalonta, where he read everything he could lay his hands upon in Hungarian and Latin.
In the memorable year 1848 the people of Szalonta elected him their deputy to the Hungarian parliament.
In the following year Arany was elected professor of Hungarian literature and language at the Nagy-Kdrds gymnasium.
When the Hungarian Academy opened its doors again after a ten years' cessation, Arany was elected a member.
From 1865 to 1879 he was the secretary of the Hungarian Academy.
Arany reformed Hungarian literature.
Kepler immediately fled to the Hungarian frontier, but, by the favour of the Jesuits, was recalled and reinstated in his post.
Kolcsey, Ferencz (1790-1838), Hungarian poet, critic and orator, was born at Szodemeter, in Transylvania, on the 8th of August 1790.
From 1832 to 1835 he sat in the Hungarian Diet, where his extreme liberal views and his singular eloquence soon rendered him famous as a parliamentary leader.
Elected on the 17th of November 1830 a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he took part in its first grand meeting; in 1832, he delivered his famous oration on Kazinczy, and in 1836 that on his former opponent Daniel Berzsenyi.
It was frequently involved in the conflict between the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus and the emperor Frederick William III., and also during the Thirty Years' War.
Some years later he repudiated this lady and married a Hungarian princess.
During the early times of the Hungarian monarchy it was the most important mercantile centre in the country, and it was the meeting-place of the diets of 1016, 1111, 1114 and 1256.
By special grants from the Hungarian government silk-reeling has been fostered and encouraged.
The Hungarian government is regarded by the Slav, Ruman and German inhabitants of the monarchy as an oppressor for endeavouring to force everybody within the realm to learn the.
He claimed the Hungarian crown, as the grandson of Stephen V., under the banner of the pope, and in August 1300 proceeded from Naples to Dalmatia to make good his claim.
But in the meantime (1305) Wenceslaus transferred his rights to Duke Otto of Bavaria, who in his turn was taken prisoner by the Hungarian rebels.
See Bela Kerekgyarto, The Hungarian Royal Court under the House of Anjou (Hung.) (Budapest, 1881); Rationes Collectorum Pontif.
He gave away everything, money, villages, domains, whole counties, to the utter impoverishment of the treasury, thereby rendering the crown, for the first time in Hungarian history, dependent upon the great feudatories, who, in Hungary as elsewhere, took all they could get and gave as little as possible in return.
The great feudatories did not even respect the lives of the royal family, for Andrew was recalled from a futile attempt to reconquer Galicia (which really lay beyond the Hungarian sphere of influence), through the murder of his first wife Gertrude of Meran (September 24, 1213), by rebellious nobles jealous of the influence of her relatives.
The crusade excited no enthusiasm in Hungary, but Andrew contrived to collect 15,000 men together, whom he led to Venice; whence, not without much haggling and the surrender of all the Hungarian claims upon Zara, about two-thirds of them were conveyed to Acre.
Klaproth, on the other hand, supposed they were a mixture of Finns and Turks, and the Hungarian traveller Reguli discovered that the tatarized Meshchers of the Obi closely resembled Hungarians.
Though most of the Silesian dynasts seemed ready to acquiesce, the burghers of Breslau fiercely repudiated the new suzerain, and before he could enforce his claims to homage he was ousted by the Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus, who was readily recognized as overlord (1469) .
He was married betimes to Elizabeth of Anjou, who had been brought up at the Hungarian court.
The marriage was a purely political one, arranged by his father and a section of the Hungarian magnates to counterpoise hostile German and Czech influences.
See Karoly Szabo, Ladislaus the Cumanian (Hung.), (Budapest, 1886); and Acsady, History of the Hungarian Realm, i.
The first serious European student of Tibetan was Csoma de Koros (1784-1842), an indefatigable Hungarian, who devoted his life to the study of this language and the ancient Buddhist records enshrined in its unknown literature.
The Order of St Stephen of Hungary, the royal Hungarian order, founded in 5764 by the empress Maria Theresa, consists of the grand master (the sovereign), 20 knights grand cross, 30 knights commanders and 50 knights.
The badge is a green enamelled cross with gold borders, suspended from the Hungarian crown; the red enamelled medallion in the centre of the cross bears a white patriarchal cross issuing from a coroneted green mound; on either side of the cross are the letters M.T.
The collar, only worn by the knights grand cross, is of gold, and consists of Hungarian crowns linked together alternately by the monograms of St Stephen, S.S., and the foundress, M.T.; the centre of the collar is formed by a flying lark encircled by the motto Stringit amore.
He landed at Kalmar with 5000 men, mostly Hungarian mercenaries; the fortress opened its gates to him at once and the capital and the country people welcomed him.
1512), to marry, was Barbara Zapolya, whose family as represented first by her father Stephen and subsequently by her brother John, dominated Hungarian politics in the last quarter of the 15th and the first quarter of the 16th century.
The Hungarian peasants are very fond of their natural brown sheep coats, the leather side of which is not lined, but embellished by a very close fancy embroidery, worked upon the leather itself; these garments are reversible, the fur being worn inside when the weather is cold.
Hungarian grass, Setaria italica (also called Panicum italicum), a native of eastern Asia is one of the most wholesome and palatable Indian cereals.
Allowing himself to be involved in the ecclesiastical disputes by which Hungary was divided in 1895, he was made the subject of formal complaint by the Hungarian government and in 1896 was recalled.
So far as their administrative and legislative functions are concerned the GermanKreistage have been compared to the English county councils or the Hungarian comitatus.
This war was occasioned by the violence of the Hungarian usurper, Aba Samuel, and formed Henrys principal occupation from f041 to 1045.
After a second campaign ifl 1052 the Hungarian king, Andrew, was compelled to make pea~e and to own himself the vassal of the German king.
Maria Theresa, a woman of a noble and undaunted spirit, appealed, with her infant son, afterwards Joseph II., ~ in her arms, to the Hungarian diet, and the enthusiastic Magyars responded chivalrously to her call.
Bohemia and th Italian states were in revolt, and the Hungarian The strove with passionate earnestness for independenc ~ust~.
In the autumn of 1849 Austria had succeeded, by the help of Russia, in quelling the Hungarian insurrection, and she was then in no ~, ~ mood to let herself be thrust aside by Prussia.
AGRAM (Hungarian ZÃ¡grÃ¡b, Croatian Zagreb), the capital of Croatia-Slavonia, and a royal free town of Hungary; pleasantly situated between the north bank of the Save and the mountains which culminate in Sljeme (3396 ft.); 187 m.
Tobacco, leather, linen, carpets and war-material are manufactured in Agram, which also contains the works of the Hungarian state railways, and has a brisk trade in grain, wine, potash, honey, silk and porcelain.
in the fertile valley of the Cibin (Hungarian, Szeben), encircled on all sides by the Transylvanian Alps.
The minister of war is the head for the administration of all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landwehr and of the Hungarian Honveds, which are committed to the ministries for national defence of the two respective states.
The constitutional right of voting money applicable to the common affairs and of its political control is exercised by the Delegations, which consist each of sixty members, chosen for one year, one-third of them by the Austrian Herrenhaus (Upper House) and the Hungarian Table of Magnates (Upper House), and two-thirds of them by the Austrian and the Hungarian Houses of Representatives.
The yearly contingent of recruits for the army is fixed by the military bills voted by the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments, and is generally determined on the basis of the population, according to the last census returns.
Besides 10,000 men are annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12,500 to the Hungarian Honveds.
The Austrian Landwehr (which retains the old designation K.K., formerly applied to the Austrian regular army) is organized in 8 divisions of varying strength, the " Royal Hungarian " Landwehr or Honveds in 7 divisions, both Austrian and Hungarian Landwehr having in addition cavalry (Uhlans and hussars) and artillery.
guards, the Hungarian crown guards, the gendarmerie, &c. The numbers of the Landsturm and the war strength of the whole armed forces are not published.
The story of the Hungarian wars is a monotonous record of forays, of assistance given at times to the Babenbergs by the forces of the Empire, and ending in the gradual eastward advance of Austria.
The Hungarian rule was soon resented by the Styrians, and Ottakar, who had become king of Bohemia in 1253, took advantage of this resentment, and interfered in the affairs of the duchy.
Hungarian conquest of Austria.
In 1683, invited by Hungarian malcontents and spurred on by Louis XIV., the Turks burst into Hungary, overran the country and appeared before the walls of Vienna.
At the diet of Pressburg (1687-1688) the Hungarian crown had been made hereditary in the house of Habsburg, and the crown prince Joseph 'had been crowned hereditary king of Hungary.
In 1697 Transylvania was united to the Hungarian monarchy.
The disintegrating force of the ever-simmering racial rivalries could be kept in check by the army; Hungarian regiments garrisoned Italy, Italian regiments guarded Galicia, Poles occupied Austria, and Austrians Hungary.
On the 3rd of March, Kossuth, in the diet at Pressburg, delivered the famous speech which was the declaration of war of Hungarian Liberalism against the Austrian system.
He had apparently identified himself with the " Illyrian " party, had broken off all communications with the Hungarian government, and, in spite of an imperial edict issued in response to the urgency of Batthyani, had summoned a diet to Agram, which on the 9th of June decreed the separation of the " Triune Kingdom " from Hungary.
But his true motives were soon apparent; his object was to play off the nationalism of the " Illyrians " against the radicalism of Magyars and Germans, and thus to preserve his province for the monarchy; and the Hungarian radicals played into his hands.
The fate of the Habsburg empire depended upon the issue of the campaign in Italy, which would have been lost by the withdrawal of the Magyar and Croatian regiments; and the Hungarian government chose this critical moment to tamper with the relations of the army to the monarchy.
Every day the rift between the dominant radical element in the Hungarian parliament and imperial court was widened.
By the end of August the breach between the Austrian and Hungarian governments was open and complete; on the 4th of September Jellachich was reinstated in all his honours, and on the 11th he crossed the Drave to the invasion of Hungary.
The conservative leaders of the Hungarian nationalists, Etitv6s and Deak, retired from public life; and, though Batthyani consented to remain in office, the slender hope that this gave of peace was ruined by the flight of the palatine (September 24) and the murder of Count Lamberg, the newly appointed commissioner and commander-in-chief in Hungary, by the mob at Pest (September 27).
The German democrats appealed for aid to the Hungarian government; but the Magyar passion for constitutional legality led to delay, and before the Hungarian advance could be made effective, it was too late.
The Hungarian retreat after the bloody battle of Kapolna (February 26-27, 1849) was followed by the dissolution of the Kremsier assembly, and a proclamation in which the emperor announced his intention of granting a constitution to the whole monarchy " one and indivisible."
On the 4th of March the constitution was published; but it proved all but as distasteful to Czechs and Croats as to the Magyars, and the speedy successes of the Hungarian arms made it, for the while, a dead letter.
On the aoth of September the Reichsrath was prorogued, which was equivalent to the suspension of the constitution; and in December the emperor opened the Hungarian diet in person, with a speech from the throne that recognized the validity of the laws of 1848.
An agreement was made by which the emperor was to be crowned at Pest and take the ancient oath to the Golden Bull; Hungary (including Transylvania and Croatia) was to have its own parliament and its own ministry; Magyar was to be the official language; the emperor was to rule as king; there was to be complete separation of the finances; not even a common nationality was recognized between the Hungarians and the other subjects of the emperor; a Hungarian was to be a foreigner in Vienna, an Austrian a foreigner in Budapest.
It was to be fixed once every ten years by separate committees chosen for that purpose from the Austrian Reichsrath and the Hungarian parliament, the so-called Quota-Deputations.
For these, however, no common institutions were created; they must be arranged by agreement; the ministers must confer and then introduce identical acts in the Hungarian and the Austrian parliaments.
From both the Hungarian and the Austrian parliament there was to be elected a Delegation, consisting of sixty members; to these Delegations the common ministers were to be re g of the court of Vienna were entrusted to Beust, whom the emperor appointed chancellor of the empire and also minister-president of Austria.
His successor, Count Andrassy, a Hungarian, established a good understanding with Bismarck; and in 1872 the visit of the emperor Francis Joseph, accompanied by his minister, to Berlin, was the final sign of the reconciliation with his uncle.
This decided step was required by Hungarian feeling, but it was a policy in which Austria-Hungarycould not depend on the support of Germany, for - as Bismarck stated - Bulgaria was not worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier.
In May 1895 Count Kalnoky had to retire, owing to a difference with Banffy, the Hungarian premier, arising out of the struggle with Rome.
This, which is now the principal remnant of the old ascendancy of German, and the one point of unity for the whole monarchy, is a matter on which the government and the monarch allow no concession, but in the Hungarian parliament protests against it have been raised, and in 1899 and 1900 it was necessary to punish recruits from Bohemia, who answered the roll call in the Czechish zde instead of the German hier.
After the year 1873, a strong movement in favour of protective duties made itself felt among the Austrian manufacturers who were affected by the competition of German, English and Belgian goods, and Austria was influenced by the general movement in economic thought which about this time caused the reaction 2 Matlekovits, Die Zollpolitik der osterreichish-ungarischen Monarchie (Leipzig, 1891),., gives the Hungarian point of view; Bazant, Die Handelspolitik OsterreichUngarns (1875-1892, Leipzig, 1894).
The defeat of the old Austria by Prussia at Sadowa A in 1866, the establishment of the Dual Monarchy Hungarian in 1867 and the foundation of the new German empire crisis, in 1871, formed the starting-point of Austro-Hungarian /9°3history properly so called; but the Austro-Hungarian 1907.
At the end of 1902 the Hungarian premier, Szell, concluded with the Austrian premier, Kdrber, a new customs and trade alliance comprising a joint Austro-Hungarian tariff as a basis for the negotiation of new commercial treaties with Germany, Italy and other states.
In the autumn of 1902 the Austrian and the Hungarian governments, at the instance of the crown and in agreement with the joint minister for war and the Austrian and Hungarian ministers for national defence, laid before their respective parliaments bills providing for an increase of 21,000 men in the annual contingents of recruits.
16,700 men were needed for the joint army, and the remainder for the Austrian and Hungarian national defence troops (Landwehr and honved).