The African elephant is a very different animal from its Asiatic cousin, both as regards structure and habits; and were it not for the existence of intermediate extinct species, might well be regarded as the representative of a distinct genus.
Some of the main differences in the habits of the African as distinct from those of the Asiatic elephant have been mentioned under the heading of the latter species.
What are the habits of the military?
The habits of Scarabaeus have been described in detail by J.
Neither nature nor acquired habits qualified him to be an orator; his late entrance on public life, his natural timidity, his feeble voice, his limited command of idiomatic English, and even, as he candidly confesses, his literary fame, were all obstacles to success.
Serving them was another of his annoying habits.
It's the rambling of a disturbed woman but you'd better bury it somewhere before you have to start explaining your upstairs cleaning habits.
She was sensitive to any change in his habits.
At the comparatively remote epoch when the Deccan was a forest tract, they were probably also met with there, but the swamps of the Bengal Sundarbans appear unsuited to their habits.
Simple in his habits, conciliatory in his bearing, and catholic in his tastes, he enjoyed great popularity and rarely made a personal enemy.
chaus) of India and Africa, and more dog-like habits.
The realization of the fact that the value to France of her colonies was mainly commercial, led at length to the abandonment of the attempt to impose on a great number of diverse peoples—some possessing (as in Indo-China and parts of West Africa) ancient and highly complex civilizations—French laws, habits of mind, tastes and manners.
It burrows in the ground, but in other respects resembles bandicoots in habits.
Its general habits and food appear to resemble those of other bandicoots.
On the other hand, the considerably smaller Nototherium, characterized by its sharp and broad skull and smaller incisors, seems to have been much more wombat-like, and may perhaps have possessed similar burrowing habits.
The last of the three is Thylacoleo carnifex, so named on account of its supposed carnivorous habits.
The mound-raising megapodes, the bower-building satin-birds, and several others, display peculiar habits.
The "Turco," Hylactes megapodius, is larger, with greatly developed feet and claws, but is very similar in colour and habits.
It has been sometimes misspelt "Tapacolo," as by C. Darwin, who gave (Journal of Researches, chap. xii.) a brief but entertaining account of the habits of this bird and its relative, Hylactes megapodius, called by the Chilenos "El Turco."
On the latter hypothesis it has been generally assumed that the wild camels are the descendants of droves of the domesticated breed which escaped when certain central Asian cities were overwhelmed by sand-storms. This theory, according to Professor Leche, is rendered improbable by Dr Sven Hedin's observations on the habits and mode of life of the wild camel.
They fortified their houses, retained their military habits, defied the consuls, and carried on feuds in the streets and squares.
It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites.
Though all descended from one stock, there are twelve distinct tribes of the Andamanese, each with its own clearly-defined locality, its own distinct variety of the one fundamental language and to a certain extent its own separate habits.
The observation that large groups of species of widely different habits present the same fundamental plan of structure; and that parts of the same animal or plant, the functions of which are very different, likewise exhibit modifications of a common plan.
In habits some of the species are nocturnal and others diurnal; but all subsist on a mixed diet, which includes birds, reptiles, eggs, insects and fruits.
Like so many lemurs, it is completely nocturnal in its habits, living either alone or in pairs, chiefly in the bamboo forests.
Luria himself wrote no mystical works; what we know of his doctrines and habits comes chiefly from his Boswell, Ilayim Vital.
Owing to more or less herbivorous habits, the intestine is exceedingly elongate and much convoluted, being several times larger and of a greater calibre than after the metamorphosis.
He became very expensive in his habits, fell at times into difficulties, and had to urge his valid claims upon the marquis's attention.
The dace is a lively, active fish, of gregarious habits, and exceedingly prolific, depositing its eggs in May and June at the roots of aquatic plants or in the gravelly beds of the streams it frequents.
Their habits were simple, and they were disfigured neither by the worst crimes nor by the primitive superstitition of savages.
Perhaps, however, the name may only signify a large terrestrial biting apterous insect, surpassing the ant in size and predatory habits.
The distribution of many groups of beetles is restricted in correspondence with their habits; the Cerambycidae (longhorns), whose larvae are wood-borers, are absent from timberless regions, and most abundant in the great tropical forests.
Such are the habits of the cockchafer (Melolontha vulgaris) and other species that often cause great injury to farm and a FIG.
43) are well adapted for their burrowing habits under the bark of trees.
The nest, contrary to the habits of most Limicolae, is generally placed under a ledge of rock which shelters the bird from observation,' and therein are laid four eggs, of a light olive-green, closely blotched with brown, and hardly to be mistaken for those of any other bird.
While the Muscovites of the upper classes were thus beginning to abandon their old oriental habits, their government was preparing to make a political evolution of a similar kind.
The innovations, it must be admitted, did not prove so efficient as he expected, because human nature and traditional habits cannot be changed as quickly as institutions.
She proclaimed, therefore, as heir-apparent the son of her deceased elder sister Anna, Charles Peter Ulrich, duke of HolsteinGottorp, a German in character, habits and religion, and tried to Russianize him by making him adopt the Eastern Orthodox faith and live in St Petersburg during the whole of her reign; but her well-meant efforts were singularly unsuccessful.
Waiting for professional business, he was content to act as court crier for two dollars and a half a day; but he soon gave indications of his talent, and his studious habits and attention to his cases rapidly brought him clients.
Its habits are similar everywhere and it is still, and has been from time immemorial, especially known to man in all the countries it inhabits as the devastator of sheep flocks.
And indeed his huge wallet of scraps stood him in little stead at the trim banquets to which he was invited at Oxford, while the wandering habits by which he had filled it absolutely unfitted him to be a guest.
" Unprovided with original learning, unformed in the habits of thinking, unskilled in the arts of composition, I resolved to write a book "; but the discovery of his own weakness, he adds, was the first symptom of taste.
After a painful struggle I yielded to my fate; I sighed as a lover, I obeyed as a son; my wound was insensibly healed by time, absence, and the habits of a new life."
In London he seems to have seen but little select society - partly from his father's taste, "which had always preferred the highest and lowest company," and partly from his own reserve and timidity, increased by his foreign education, which had made English habits unfamiliar, and the very language 2 The affair, however, was not finally broken off till 1763.
He endeavoured to combine his habits of theological study with the practical work of administration.
The Marsi were a hardy mountain people, famed for their simple habits and indomitable courage.
The broad facts on which it is based are sufficiently accounted for by the habits of mosquitoes.
For instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the breeding-grounds and not flying far.
To a geographical distribution of the widest extent, Diptera add a range of habits of the most diversified nature; they are both animal and vegetable feeders, an enormous number of species acting, especially in the larval state, as scavengers in consuming putrescent or decomposing matter of both kinds.
Tribes, chiefly of pastoral habits, settled down among others who were so nearly of their own type that a complete amalgamation could be effected, and this without any marked modification of the general characteristics of the earlier inhabitants.
i); while further and fuller details of its habits were made known by O.
The prosperity of the island depends on the development of agriculture, the acquirement of industrious habits by the people, and the abandonment of political agitation.
Indeed, the Cretan system, like that of Sparta, appears to have aimed at training up the young, and controlling them, as well as the citizens of more mature age, in all their habits and relations of life.
It is doubtless to be regarded as a revival of ancient habits of thought and feeling among a people who had adopted the Koran, not by affinity, but by compulsion.
The social instincts and industrious habits of ants have always made them favourite objects of study, and a vast amount of literature has accumulated on the subject of their structure and their modes of life.
The harvesting habits of certain ants have long been known,the subterranean store-houses of Mediterranean species of Aphaenogaster having been described by J.
- That ants possess highly developed senses and the power of communicating with one another has long been known to students of their habits; the researches of P. Huber and Sir J.
Wasmann considers that ants are neither miniature human beings nor mere reflex automata, and most students of their habits will probably accept this intermediate position as the most satisfactory.
Other common modifications arise from the union of certain parts of the perianth to each other, and from the varied and often very remarkable outgrowths from the lip. These modifications are associated with the structure and habits of insects and their visits to the flowers.
The population is sparse, frequently nomadic and addicted to plunder; progress in the arts and habits of civilization is small.
Of the Physostomi, the siluroids are abundant in the estuaries and muddy waters; the habits of some of these fishes are remarkable, such as that of the males carrying the ova in their mouths till the young are hatched.
The Manchus and Mongols are chiefly Buddhist, with letters derived from the ancient Syriac. The Manchus are now said to be gradually falling under the influence of Chinese civilization, and to be losing their old nomadic habits, and even their peculiar language.
The predatory habits of the Turkish, Mongolian and Manchu population of northern Asia, and their irruptions into other parts of the continent and into Europe, have produced very remarkable results in the history of the world.
This may be associated with mud-eating habits; but it is not wholly certain that this is the case; for in Chaetogaster and Agriodrilus, which are predaceous worms, there is no protrusible pharynx, though in the latter the oesophagus is thickened through its extent with muscular fibres.
Henrietta; but it may have been strengthened by his known connexion with Laud, as well as by his ascetic habits.
Large districts still clung to the old common-field system, to the old habits of ploughing with teams of four or eight, and to slovenly methods of cultivation.
Nevertheless there are distinctions of result dependent on differences in the habits of the two plants, and in the conditions of their cultivation accordingly.
The field experiments on leguminous plants at Rothamsted have shown that land which is, so to speak, exhausted so far as the growth of one leguminous crop is concerned, may still grow very luxuriant crops of another plant of the same natural order, but of different habits of growth, and especially of different character and range of roots.
Away from his father he maintained his laborious habits.
"And whither," he adds, "can mankind so advantageously turn, in order to learn the proper means, and to form their minds to the proper habits, as to that branch of knowledge in which by universal acknowledgment the greatest number of truths have been ascertained, and the greatest possible degree of certainty arrived at ?"
Yet he did not relax his laborious habits nor his ardent outlook on human affairs.
In this treatment we have to bear in mind what the entomologist teaches us, that is, the nature, habits and structure of the pest.
By this expression we do not mean an ideal mode of living, but the habits and requirements of life generally current in a community or grade of society at a given period.
The standard of life of the ordinary well-to-do middle class in England, for example, includes not only food, clothing and shelter of a kind different in many respects from that of a similar class in other countries and of other classes in England, but a highly complicated mechanism, both public and private, for ministering to these primary needs, habits of social intercourse, educational and sanitary organization, recreative arrangements and many other elements.
The significance of the amount of money involved varies greatly for different trades, and can only be understood by reference to the character and habits of the people concerned.
As shown by the number and variety of species, the Orthoptera are the most dominant order of this group. Eminently terrestrial in habit, the differentiation of their fore-wings and hindwings can be traced from Carboniferous, isopteroid ancestors through intermediate Mesozoic forms. The Plecoptera resemble the Ephemeroptera and Odonata in the aquatic habits of their larvae, and by the occasional presence of tufted thoracic gills in the imago exhibit an aquatic character unknown in any other winged insects.
P. Giraud, remarkable for its excellent account of the habits of shore-birds.
He states that Gould suspected the alliance of these two forms " from external structure and habits alone "; otherwise one might suppose that he had obtained an intimation to that effect on one of his Continental journeys.
Thus he (prompted very likely by Macgillivray) wrote: " I believe the time to be approaching when much of the results obtained from the inspection of the exterior alone will be laid aside; when museums filled with stuffed skins will be considered insufficient to afford a knowledge of birds; and when the student will go forth, not only to observe the habits and haunts of animals, but to preserve specimens of them to be carefully dissected" (Ornith.
Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.
Blanchard's animadversions on the employment of external characters, and on trusting to observations on the habits of birds, called forth a rejoinder from A.
They could even discern dimly some generalized stock whence had descended whole groups that now differed strangely in habits and appearance - their discernment aided, may be, by some isolated form which yet retained undeniable traces of a primitive structure.
But those who know the habits and demeanour of many of the Limicolae would no doubt rightly claim for them much more " vivacity and activity " than is possessed by most Passeres.
His temper was irritable, his habits penurious and solitary.
The extreme length of the limbs and the absence of a tail are other features of these small apes, which are thoroughly arboreal in their habits, and make the woods resound with their unearthly cries at night.
Large foreign colonies, like adjoining but unmixing nations, divide among themselves a large part of the city, and give to its life a cosmopolitan colour of varied speech, opinion, habits, traditions, social relations and religions.
The Arabian tribes began to take possession of the partly cultivated lands east of Canaan, became masters of the Eastern trade, gradually acquired settled habits, and learned to speak and write in Aramaic, the language which was most widely current throughout the region west of the Euphrates in the time of the Persian Empire (6th-4th century B.C.).
If an aperture for ingress and egress, for purposes of feeding, were left in the wall of such a chamber, there would arise in a rudimentary form what is known as the tubular nest or web; and the next important step was possibly the adoption of such a nest as a permanent abode for the spider., Some spiders, like the Drassidae and Salticidae, have not advanced beyond this stage in architectural industry; but next to the cocoon this simple tubular retreat - whether spun in a crevice or burrow or simply attached to the lower side of a stone - is the most constant feature to be observed in the spinning habits of spiders.
Although there is no direct genetic affinity between the spiders of these two groups, an interesting parallelism in their habits may be traced.
Sometimes it is woolly and flocculent, sometimes smooth like parchment, and its shape depends in a large measure upon the habits of the female towards her offspring.
Other species of wandering habits carry the cocoon about with them, sometimes attached to the spinnerets, as in the Lycosidae, sometimes tucked under the thorax, as in the large tropical house-spider, Heteropoda regia, one of the Clubionidae.
Other webspinning spiders (Tegenaria) have somewhat similar habits; and the male of the park-web spider (Atypus), one of the Mygalomorphae, taps the walls of the tubular web of the female before daring to bite a hole in it and descend into her burrow.
Hence it is probable that no factor has had a greater influence than these wasps in moulding the protective instincts and habits of spiders.
In several families of spiders, but principally in those like the Clubionidae and Salticidae, which are terrestrial in habits, there are species which not only live amongst ants, but so closely resemble them in their shape, size, colour and actions that it requires a practised eye to distinguish the Arachnid from the insect.
The exact extent, however, to which each particular class of enemy has affected the protective habits and attributes of spiders is by no means always evident; and it is impossible to discuss the question in detail within the limits of a short article.
The habits of certain other spiders suggest the origin of the perfect adaptation to aquatic conditions exhibited by Desis and Argyroneta.
C. Piepers; the bearing of insect habits on theories of selection and use-inheritance by A.
Born at Rome, she was the daughter of Francesco Cenci (1549-1598), the bastard son of a priest, and a man of great wealth but dissolute habits and violent temper.
The best means of combating these attacks depends on a knowledge of the life-histories and habits of the pests.
54) If we conceive God as personal, and His will as related to the course of nature analogously to the relation of the human will to the human body, then the laws of nature may be regarded as habits of the divine activity, and miracles as unusual acts which, while consistent with the divine character, mark a new stage in the fulfilment of the purpose of God.
3 After 1143 one may therefore speak of the period of the Epigonithe native Franks, ready to view the Moslems as joint occupants of Syria, and to imitate the dress and habits of their neighbours.
Whatever were his qualities as a fighter, the Cid was but indifferent material out of which to make a saint, - a man who battled against Christian and against Moslem with equal zeal, who burnt churches and mosques with equal zest, who ravaged, plundered and slew as much for a livelihood as for any patriotic or religious purpose, and was in truth almost as much of a Mussulman as a Christian in his habits and his character.
To dwell upon such literary infamies would be below the dignity of the historian, were it not that these habits of the early Italian humanists imposed a fashion upon Europe which extended to the later age of Scaliger's contentions with Scioppius and Milton's with Salmasius.
In accordance with these more sedentary habits during the first phases of life, the characteristic pilidium larva, which is so eminently adapted for a pelagic existence, appears to have been reduced to a close-fitting exterior layer of cells, which is stripped off after the definite body-wall of the Nemertine has similarly originated out of four ingrowths from the primary epiblast.
The fact that the semi-wild tribes, which are ethnologically Malayan and distinct from the aboriginal Semang and Sakai, are met with almost invariably in the neighbourhood of the coast would seem to indicate that they reached the peninsula by a sea, not by a land route, a supposition which is strengthened by their almost amphibious habits.
In habits the animal was cursorial and herbivorous, or possibly carnivorous.
(December 25, 1792-January 20, 1793) was characteristic of his habits of thought.
Browne was a man of abstemious habits, charitable disposition, and impressive eloquence.
His clear mind and industrious habits drew him to questions of finance.
The purpose served by the tusk - or "horn" - is not known; and little is known of the habits of narwhals.
He served in the Curia under five popes and acquired much administrative experience, influence and wealth, although no great power; he was economical in his habits; on occasion he displayed great splendour and lived in a fine palace.
Its general habits are too well known to need detailed description.
Youatt says there is also a marked difference in the temper and habits of the two.
Their ferocious appearance, and not infrequently the habits of their owners, have given this breed a reputation for ferocity and low intelligence.
In his habits he was punctual and regular, transacting his business early in the morning, and enjoying his siesta after a drive.
It is in proportion as a sedentary life prevails, and agricultural exploitation is practised on a larger scale, whilst warlike habits continue to exist, that the labour of slaves is increasingly introduced to provide food for the master, and at the same time save him from irksome toil.
As regards the latter consideration, it is enough to say that nowhere has productive industry developed itself in the form of voluntary effort; in every country of which we have any knowledge it was imposed by the strong upon the weak, and was wrought into the habits of the people only by the stern discipline of constraint.
The purpose of this was doubtless to resist by a strong internal consolidation the shock of the invasions, to secure public order, to enforce industrious habits, and to guarantee the financial resources of the state.
and Mrs Peckham's minute observations on the habits and instincts of the solitary wasps.
and C. Peckham, Instincts and Habits of Solitary Wasps (1898); see also the bibliography (section "Instinct and Impulse") in Baldwin's Dict.
Among the latter are species of curious habits and remarkable colouring.
While posing as the messiah of the poor, Lassalle was a man of decidedly fashionable and luxurious habits.
They differ greatly from all other members of the family (Macropodidae), being chiefly arboreal in their habits, and feeding on bark, leaves and fruit.
He was now labouring, with extreme assiduity, to ground himself in the forms and habits of literary style.
Contrary to the habits of all other insects, there yet remains a pellicle that has to be shed, covering every part of the body.
wagneri), with the habits of a house-mouse, both of which are closely allied to M.
Though not uncommonly frequenting gardens and orchards, in which as well as in woods it builds its nest, it is exceedingly shy in its habits, so as seldom to afford opportunities for observation.
Ethnologically the Galicians (Gallegos) are allied to the Portuguese, whom they resemble in dialect, in appearance and in habits more than the other inhabitants of the peninsula.
In the early years of British occupation, about 1829, they gave much trouble; and in 1883 they broke out once more into their old habits.
In the bibliography at the close of this article (referred to by leaded arabic numerals in brackets throughout these pages), the titles of works are given which contain detailed information as to the genera and species of each order or sub-order, their geographical distribution and their habits and economy so far as they have been ascertained.
- The Acari include a number of forms which are of importance and special interest on account of their parasitic habits.
Lankester, " Notes on some Habits of Scorpions," Journ.
It is noteworthy, also, for the large number of species having arboreal habits, the density and extent of the Amazon forests favouring their development rather than the development of those of terrestrial habits.
One of the Brazilian birds whose habits have attracted much interest is the Joao de Barro (Clay John) or oven bird (Furnarius rufus), which builds a house of reddish clay for its nest and attaches it to the branch of a tree, usually in a fork.
Dipterous insects are also very numerous in species, especially in those of sanguinary habits, such as the mosquito, ilium, maroim, carapana, borochudo, &c. In some places these insects constitute a veritable plague, and the infested regions are practically uninhabitable.
The northern provinces had fallen into the power of Holland; the southern, peopled in a great measure by the hardy descendants of the successive colonists who had issued on all sides from the central establishment of Sao Paulo, had learned from their habits of unaided and successful enterprise to court independence.
While the population of Brazil continued to increase, the moral and intellectual culture of its inhabitants was left in great measure to chance; they grew up with those robust and healthy sentiments which are engendered by the absence of false teachers, but with a repugnance to legal ordinances, and encouraged in their ascendancy over the Indians to habits of violence and oppression.
Unostentatious in his habits, Dom Pedro always had at heart the true interests of the Brazilians.
In a profligate age William was distinguished by the purity of his married life, by temperate habits and by a sincere piety.
He was amiable and kind-hearted, and greatly liked by his neighbours, but not a man of business habits, and he did not succeed in his farming enterprise.
Thus, while of German periodicals ap p earing in Hungary there were in 1871 only 85, they increased in 1880 to 114, in 1885 to 141; and they were, at the beginning of 1895, still 128, in spite of the constant spread of that process of Magyarization which has, since 1880, considerably changed the linguistic habits of the people of Hungary.
It cannot be said that previously to Darwin there had been any very profound study of teleology, but it had been the delight of a certain type of mind - that of the lovers of nature or naturalists par excellence, as they were sometimes termed - to watch the habits of living animals and plants, and to point out the remarkable ways in which the structure of each variety of organic life was adapted to the special circumstances of life of the variety or species.
the explanation of animal (and vegetable) mechanism, colouring, habits, &c., as advantageous to the species or to its ancestors, are only gradually being carried further.
At first sight it appears difficult to understand how g PP the complicated series of actions which are definitely exhibited as so-called " instincts " by a variety of animals can have been due to the selection of congenital variations, or can be otherwise explained than by the transmission of habits acquired by the parent as the result of experience, and continuously elaborated and added to in successive generations.
Such cases are the habits of " shamming dead " and the combined posturing and colour peculiarities of certain caterpillars (Lepidopterous larvae) which cause them to resemble dead twigs or similar surrounding objects.
Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.
When a man finds himself in this condition he assumes the women's dress and habits.
The existence of a tradition in the last three centuries before Christ as to the authorship of any book is (to those acquainted with the habits of thought of that age) of but little critical moment; the Sopherim, i.e.
According to their own annals and traditions they once inhabited southern China, a theory which is confirmed by many of their habits and physical characteristics; the race has, however, been modified by crossings with the Chams and other of the previous inhabitants of Indo-China.
On the llanos the dry season destroys the pasturage completely, dries up the small streams and lagoons, and compels many animals of semi-aquatic habits to aestivate.
The manakins are peculiar to the Neotropical Region and have many of the habits of the titmouse family (Paridae), living in deep forests, associating in small bands, and keeping continually in motion, but feeding almost wholly on the large soft berries of the different kinds of Melastoma.
Their habits are very similar to those of agoutis, but when pursued they invariably take to the water.
In the fourth place, these views of the "natural history of disease" (in modern language) led to habits of minute observation and accurate interpretation of symptoms, in which the Hippocratic school was unrivalled in antiquity, and has been the model for all succeeding ages, so that even in these days, with our enormous advances in knowledge, the true method of clinical medicine may be said to be the method of Hippocrates.
This false precision can have had no practical value, but may have enforced habits of minute observation.
Unfortunately it was neither this nor his zeal for research that chiefly won him followers, but the completeness of his theoretical explanations, which fell in with the mental habits of succeeding centuries, and were such as have flattered the intellectual indolence of all ages.
There can be no doubt that it was in the main Greek medicine, modified to suit other climates, habits and national tastes, and with some important additions from Oriental sources.
Certainly not pure empiricism, or habits of objective observation.
But the development of mathematical and physical science soon introduced a fundamental change in the habits of thought with respect to medical doctrine.
The founding of new teaching universities, in which England, and even France, had been at some disadvantage as compared with Scotland and Germany, strengthened the movement in favour of enlarging and liberalizing technical training, and of anticipating technical instruction by some broader scientific discipline; though, as in all times of transition, something was lost temporarily by a departure from the old discipline of the grammar school before a new scheme of training the mind in scientific habits and conceptions was established or fully apprehended.
The settled character of the later years of Elizabeth's reign appears to have caused a considerable change in the habits of the people.
Gentleness and docility are specially characteristic of the species, even when full-grown; while in the native state its habits are thoroughly arboreal.
Though often spoken of as the American lion, chiefly on account of its colour, it rather resembles the leopard of the Old World in size and habits: usually measuring from nose to root of tail about 40 in., the tail being rather more than half that length.
Its habits much resemble those of the rest of the group to which it belongs; and, like the leopard, when it happens to come within reach of an abundant and easy prey, as the sheep or calves of an outlying farming station, it kills far more than it can eat, either for the sake of the blood only or to gratify its propensity for destruction.
The typical genus Tragulus, which is Asiatic, contains the smallest representatives of the family, the animals having more of the general aspects and habits of some rodents, such as the agoutis, than of other ruminants.
Though known since the middle of the 17th century, its habits have come very little under the notice of naturalists, and what is said of them by the older writers must be received with some Harpy.
John's appearance, costume and habits of life, together with the tone of his preaching, all suggest the prophetic character.
In Strabo's time they had passed under the Roman dominion, though still governed by their own petty chiefs and retaining to a considerable extent their predatory habits (giving rise to such wars as that carried on by Quirinius, about 8-6 B.C.).
The transition of the larva from the intermediate to the final host is accomplished by the habits of carnivorous animals.
of the cattle are affected with cysticerci owing to the filthy habits of the people.
In habits they are partly diurnal; and live either in burrows among the crevices of rocks, beneath the leaves of aquatic plants in marshy districts, or underneath the floors of outbuildings.
The animal is about the size of a hare, to which it approximates in form and habits.
They counsel abstemious habits, but set no time for the coming of Christ, and so are spared the perpetual disappointments that overtake the ordinary adventist.
Typical spiny squirrels differ from true squirrels in being completely terrestrial in their habits, and live either in clefts or holes of rocks, or in burrows which they dig themselves.
His religious exercises and temperate habits gave him, in popular estimation, a great superiority over his brothers, but he was too politic to put forward his claims openly.
All North Africa was ravaged by the invaders, who, though unable to found an empire or overthrow the settled government in the towns, forced the agricultural Berbers into the mountains, and, retaining from generation to generation their lawless and predatory habits, made order and prosperity almost impossible in the open parts of the country until its effective occupations by the French.
Their number is estimated at 150,000 to 300,000, divided into 112 tribes, and differing widely in habits, customs and material condition.
Hermas sees that mere repentance is not enough to meet the backsliding condition in which so many Christians then were, owing to the recoil of inveterate habits of worldliness 4 entrenched in society around and within.
Little is known of its habits in a wild state, beyond the fact that it is a forest-dweller, active in movement and fierce in disposition.
It is one of a small cluster named by the Portuguese "Ladrones" or Thieves, on account of the notorious habits of their old inhabitants.
There is no evidence to show that the Vincent who was sub-prior of this foundation in 1246 is the encyclopaedist; nor indeed is it likely that a man of such abnormally studious habits could have found time to attend to the daily business routine of a monastic establishment.
It is fair to assume that Grant would have followed other unsuccessful generals into retirement, had he not shown that, whatever his mistakes or failures, and whether he was or was not sober and temperate in his habits, he possessed the iron determination and energy which in the eyes of Lincoln and Stanton,' and of the whole Northern people, was the first requisite of their generals.
The platypus is pretty generally distributed in situations suitable to its aquatic habits throughout the island of Tasmania and the southern and eastern portions of Australia.
The platypus is aquatic in its habits, passing most of its time in the water or close to the margin of lakes and streams, swimming and diving with the greatest ease, and forming for the purpose of sleeping and breeding deep burrows in the banks, which generally have two orifices, one just above the water level, concealed among long grass and leaves, and the other below the surface.
Crowther, who supplemented the often quoted observations of Dr George Bennett upon the habits of these animals in confinement, states: "They soon become very tame in captivity; in a few days the young ones appeared to recognize a call, swimming rapidly to the hand paddling the water; and it is curious to see their attempts to procure a worm enclosed in the hand, which they greedily take when offered to them.
It appears, however, that in this respect the habits of the different species show a certain amount of variation; thus, while G.
The sub-aquatic habits of the present species probably render such a function impossible, hence the absence of the glands.
He looked at poetry as a kind of " proteus among the people, which changes its form according to language, manners, habits, according to temperament and climate, nay, even according to the accent of different nations."
Its main argument is that speech is a necessary outcome of that special arrangement of mental forces which distinguishes man, and more particularly from his habits of reflection.
The finances were squandered in gratifying the king's unbridled prodigality, and the treasury was drained by his luxurious habits, by the innumerable gifts and pensions he distributed among his mistresses and courtiers, by his war expenses and by his magnificent buildings.
C. Selous gives the following description of its habits: "The square-mouthed rhinoceros is a huge, ungainly looking beast, with a disproportionately large head, a large male standing 6 ft.
His public career did not supply him with a check on habits of dissipation in the shape of the responsibilities of office.
It is entirely terrestrial in habits, at least on Gibraltar, and goes about in droves.
In accordance with this general distribution snakes show a great amount of differentiation with regard to their mode of life and general organization; and from the appearance alone of a snake a safe conclusion can be drawn as to its habits.
Likewise primitive, but in various respects degraded, mainly owing to burrowing habits, are the Typhlopidae with the Ilysiidae, and Uropeltidae as a terminal branch, and on the other hand the Glauconiidae.
The features by which the treesnakes are distinguished are still more developed in the whip-snakes (Dryophis), whose excessively slender body has been compared to the cord of a whip. Although arboreal, like the former, they are nocturnal in their habits, having a horizontal instead of a round pupil of the eye.
Since the establishment of the privileged province they have lost the Ottoman support which used to compensate for their numerical inferiority as compared with the Christians; and they are fast losing also their old habits and distinctiveness.
The birds were regarded as originally human beings, whose acts and characters were supposed to account for certain habits of the birds into which they had been changed.
The species appear to be similar in their habits.
The pekan or Pennant's marten, also called fisher marten, though there appears to be nothing in its habits to justify the appellation, is the largest of the group, the head and body measuring from 24 to 30 in., and the tail 14 to 18 in.
The addax is a desert antelope, and in habits probably resembles the gemsbuck.
Physically the Bhutias are a fine race, although dirty in their habits and persons.
In the different families of the Hymenoptera, there are various modifications of the ovipositor, in accord with the habits of the insects and the purposes to which the organ is put.
The feeding habits of the adult may agree with that of the larva, or differ, as in the case of wasps which feed their grubs on flies, but eat principally vegetable food themselves.
These insects are adorned with bands of black and yellow, or with bright metallic colours, and on account of their large size and formidable ovipositors they often cause needless alarm to persons unfamiliar with their habits.
(For the habits of these insects see Wasp.) The Chrysididae or ruby wasps are small insects with a very hard cuticle exhibiting brilliant metallic colours - blue, green and crimson.
Valuable observations on the habits of these insects are due to J.
Great diversity is shown in the details of structure, habits and nature of the prey.
The habits of Bembex are of especial interest.
In this instinct we have a correspondence with the habits of social wasps and bees.
For habits and life histories of Hymenoptera see J.
Peckham, Instincts and Habits of Solitary Wasps (Madison, Wis.
Distribution and Habits.
It would be unfair to charge what is repulsive in their letters wholly on the habits of the times, for wide familiarity with the published correspondence of similar men at the same epoch brings one acquainted with little that is so disagreeable.
At first she listened to the moderate counsels of l'Hopital in so far as to avoid siding definitely with either party, but her character and the habits of policy to which she had been accustomed, rendered her incapable of any noble aim.
Structurally it would seem to have some relation to the siskins (Chrysomitris), though the members of the two groups have very different habits, and perhaps its nearest kinship lies with the hawfinches (Coccothraustes).
The mocking-bird is moreover of familiar habits, haunting the neighbourhood of houses, and is therefore a general favourite.
Of the various other genera allied to Mimus, the best known are the thrashers (genus Harporhynchus) of which six or eight species are found in North America, which are thrush-like and shy in their habits and do not mimic; and the cat-bird (Galeoscoptes carolinensis), which in addition to having an attractive song, utters clucks, whistles and mewing sounds.
The larger species, as might be expected from their heavier build, are somewhat less strictly arboreal in their habits than the smaller ones.
The common squirrel, whose habits are too well known to need special description, ranges over the whole of Europe and Northern Asia, from Ireland to Japan, and from Lapland to North Italy; but specimens from different parts of this wide range differ so much in colour as to constitute distinct races.
It is true that Gentile converts carried over into the new religion many ideas and habits of cult contracted under the old; this was inevitable, for no one lightly changes his religious habits and categories.
It is equally true that the will is relative to the world of objects and interests to which it is attached through instincts and feelings, habits and sentiments.
Farther east, Nantucket, a smaller island of triangular shape, is likewise the home of a seafaring folk who still retain in some degree primitive habits, though summer visitors are more and more affecting its life.
In the Sciuridae the two main bones (tibia and fibula) of the lower half of the leg are quite separate, the tail is round and hairy, and the habits are arboreal and terrestrial.
In the beavers or Castoridae these bones are in close contact at their lower ends, the tail is depressed, expanded and scaly, and the habits are aquatic. Beavers have webbed hind-feet, and the claw of the second hind-toe double.
Beavers are essentially aquatic in their habits, never travelling by land unless driven by necessity.
Layard, the habits of the Cape Promerops, its mode of nidification, and the character of its eggs are very unlike those of the ordinary Nectariniidae.
Society was organized in most cases on animal clans, and religion was largely zoomorphic. The hunting tribes knew well the nature and habits of animals, their anatomy, their migrations, and could interpret their voices.
In habits all tapirs appear to be very similar.
This was a work for which his experience, habits of observation, and scientific training peculiarly fitted him, and in which his popularity as a teacher, no less than his power as a practical physician, became more than ever conspicuous.
3), is part of the high-priestly prayer; yet Pere Calmes, with the papal censor's approbation, says, It seems to us impossible not to admit that we have here dogmatic developments explicable rather by the evangelist's habits of mind than by the actual words of Jesus."
It must, in fact, be remembered that men make their gods after their own likeness; and, whatever his origin, Hermes in particular was endowed with many of the qualities and habits of the Greek race.
Here, the times being uneventful and his duties light, he occupied much of his leisure in reading classical and general literature, and acquired those studious habits which clung to him throughout life.
Though Erasmus led a very hard-working and far from luxurious life, and had no extravagant habits, yet he could not live upon little.
Erasmus proposed only to remain at Freiburg for a few months, but found the place so suited to his habits that he bought a house of his own, and remained there six years.
The sacrifices and offerings were acknowledgments of divine bounty and means used to insure its continuance; the Arab was the " slave " of his god and paid him tribute, as slaves used to do to their masters, or subjects to their lords; and the free Bedouin, trained in the solitude of the desert to habits of absolute self-reliance, knew no master except his god, and acknowledged no other will before which his own should bend.
Laurenti) are close allies of the newts, but of exclusively terrestrial habits, indicated by the shape of the tail, which is not distinctly compressed.
The breeding habits of the two well-known European species are highly interesting.
The proportions are continually varying, owing to the new migratory habits of almost every class of the population.
Many animals of great zoological interest, from their nocturnal habits, or natural disposition, display themselves so seldom that their possession is valueless from the point of view of the public, whilst closely allied species are not distinguished except by trained observers.
Knowledge of the habits of animals and experience are the best guides to the nature of food to be supplied, but the keepers should be required to observe the droppings of their charges and to judge from these of the extent to which any particular substances are being digested.
Their habits are strictly terrestrial.
They are less strictly nocturnal in their habits; and with one exception live entirely in trees, having in correspondence with this long and powerful prehensile tails.
For the distinguishing marks of all these, the number of their genera and species, their habits and transformations and dwellings, the reader must be referred to the writings of specialists.
After a few days, when the mantle bearing the shell valves has developed so much as to enclose the whole body, the young cockle sinks to the bottom and commences to follow the habits of the adult..
The remarkable didunculus occurs in Samoa, and after the introduction of cats and rats, which preyed upon it, was compelled to change its habits, dwelling in trees instead of on the ground.
FERRET, a domesticated, and frequently albino breed of quadruped, derived from the wild polecat (Putorius foetidus, or P. putorius), which it closely resembles in size, form, and habits, and with which it interbreeds.
He is notable for having constructed the underground halls at Welbeck Abbey, and for his retiring habits of life, which gave occasion for some singular stories.'
The common species is specially interesting on account of its habits.
In habits some are partially arboreal, others wholly terrestrial, and a few more or less aquatic. Among the latter, the most remarkable are the fish-eating rats (Ichthyomys) of North-western South America, which frequent streams and feed on small fish.
According to the very varied habits, their external appearance varies within wide limits, there being amongst the 300 species, with 50 genera, arboreal, terrestrial, burrowing and semi-aquatic forms, and even one semi-marine kind.
In the genus Tejus the teeth of the adult become molar-like; and in Dracaena they are transformed into large, oval crushers, indicating strictly herbivorous habits, while most members of the family live upon animal food.
The first stage is filled with the mercantile system, which was rather a practical policy than a speculative doctrine, and which came into existence as the spontaneous growth of social conditions acting on minds not trained to scientific habits.
Both as regards structure and habits, the leopard may be reckoned as one of the more typical representatives of the genus Felis, belonging to that section in which the hyoid bone is loosely connected with the skull, owing to imperfect ossification of its anterior arch, and the pupil of the eye when contracted under the influence of light is circular, not linear as in the smaller cats.
In habits the leopard resembles the other large cat-like animals, yielding to none in the ferocity of its disposition.
In pleasing contrast to such pests are the butterflies of all sizes and colours, beetles of an inconceivable variety of size, shape and colouration, and ants of widely dissimilar appearance and habits.
This struggle for existence has completely changed the habits of some plants, turning the palm and the cactus into climbers, and even some normal species into epiphytes.
Neglect of their children, unsanitary habits and surroundings, tribal intermarriage and peonage are the principal causes of the decreasing Indian population.
Suspicion and jealousy of the foreigner is disappearing, and habits of industry are displacing the indolence and lawlessness that were once universally prevalent.
Settled government, settled habits, remunerative employment and opportunities for the improvement of their condition are developing in them the virtues of the two parent races.
The geographical distribution is cosmopolitan, as is the case with Protozoa and Protophyta of similar habits.
Hudson and Gosse containing a new classification, an illustrated description of all the then known species and much information on habits and structure, provided students with an easy access to the domain and stimulated many to work hard at the group. Of these new-corners we may cite C. F.
Rousselet, who has found many new species and many unknown males of known species, elucidated habits and faithfully kept record of the publications on the class in the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society.
He was able to maintain his strenuous habits of study till he reached the advanced age of seventy-two, when he was, forced, by paralysis of the optic nerve, to give up work almost.
By his luxurious habits and his lavish expenditure on public buildings he piled up a great accumulation of debt, which was partly discharged by the estates of the land in return for important concessions.
Their habits are nocturnal, and during the daytime they cling to the trunks or limbs of trees head downwards in a state of repose.
In habits it is very similar to its congener of the Old World, and in winter it migrates to the Antilles and to Central and South America.
This species occurs in England the whole year round, and is presumed to have bred there, though the fact has never been satisfactorily proved, and knowledge of its erratic habits comes from naturalists in Pomerania and Sweden.
He was simply a fair representative of the Italian piety of his day - amiable, ascetic in his personal habits, indefatigable in many forms of activity, and of more than respectable abilities; though the emotional side of his character had the predominance over his intellect.
Except in British Columbia and the unorganized territories, nearly all of these are on reservations, where they are under government supervision, receiving an annuity in money and a certain amount of provisions; and where, by means of industrial schools and other methods, civilized habits are slowly superseding their former mode of life.
Industrial and boarding schools, established in several of the provinces, by separating the children from the degrading influences of their home life, have proved more effectual than day schools for training them in the habits and ideas of a higher civilization.
The Embiidae live in warm countries, and are very retiring in their habits, hiding under stones where they spin webs formed of silk produced by glands in the basal segments of the fore-feet.
Burmeister (1832) and has reference to the biting habits of the insects.
Muskdeer are hardy, solitary and retiring animals, chiefly nocturnal in habits, and almost always found alone, rarely in pairs and never in herds.
But, friends or foes, the Ghuzz became a serious danger to the adjoining Mahommedan provinces from their predatory habits and continual raids, and the more so as they were very numerous.
Bergler led a wild and irregular life, and offended his friends and made many enemies by his dissipated habits and cynical disposition.
p. 656) attributes its bad reputation to the attempt of the inhabitants of the country to find some excuse for the demoralization caused by their own luxurious and effeminate habits of life.
Unfortunately his extemporaneous speeches were commonplace, in very bad taste, fervently intemperate and denunciatory; and though this was probably due largely to temperament and habits of stump-speaking formed in early life, it was attributed by his enemies to drink.
In the settlement and administration of the conquered territory he rapidly acquired the habits and experience of a statesman, while his military operations against Doondiah, a robber chief, were conducted with extraordinary energy and success, Doondiah being killed and his army scattered.
In Assam there is a small spiny hare (Caprolagus hispidus), with the habits of a rabbit; and an allied species (Nesolagus nitscheri) inhabits Sumatra, and a third (Pentalagus furnessi) the Liu-kiu Islands.
In general habits and appearance these animals recall large jerboas, from which group they are, however, distinguished by the four pairs of rooted cheek-teeth, the premolars being as large as the molars, and the latter having one outer and one inner enamel-fold.
norvegicus) or smaller than the harvest mouse; and they all 'have habits generally similar to those of one or other of the English species, although some live in trees like squirrels, or in the water; among the latter being the brown-footed rat (M.
Other allied African genera are Steatomys and Lophuromys, which include several species of small mouse-like rodents, with the habits of dormice generally, though some burrow in cornfields.
All the New World porcupines, representing the family Erethizontidae (or Coendidae) are arboreal in their habits, and have the upper lip undivided, the cheek-teeth rooted, the clavicles complete, the soles of the feet tuberculated and three pairs of teats.
The members of both Coelogenys and Dasyprocta are terrestrial in their habits, and have the foreand hind-limbs subequal, hoof-like claws,.
coypu, which is aquatic in its habits, and measures about 2 ft.
The hutia (Capromys pilorides) is nearly as large, arboreal in habits, and a native of Cuba, where it is the largest indigenous mammal.
Among these, the tuco-tucos (Ctenomys) are characterized by their burrowing habits, almost rudimentary ears, small eyes, short tails and the kidneyshaped grinding-surfaces of their cheek-teeth.
The gundi is a diurnal species, inhabiting rocky districts, and having habits very similar to those of a jerboa.
All are terrestrial, and in many cases burrowing, in their habits, and some of them are of extreme fleetness.
It was a concrete expansion of the ideas of The Seven Lamps - that the buildings and art of a people are the expression of their religion, their morality, their national aspirations and social habits.
unnatural, seeing his defiance of the ordinary habits and standards of the world.
The form and habits of the group vary widely.
The Turbellaria undoubtedly form the most primitive division, as is shown by their free-living habits, ciliation and sense-organs.
This would be in accordance with the habits of mind of the early preachers of the Gospel.
In the first place, it would be natural that the habits of thought of the period when the Gospel was delivered orally should have continued to exert influence even after the tradition had been committed to writing.
Dealing with the formation of habits, he is compelled to note that passive impressions, however transformed, do not furnish a complete or adequate explanation.
With Laromiguiere he distinguishes attention as an active effort, of no less importance than the passive receptivity of sense, and with Butler distinguishes passively formed customs from active habits.
If he is to be believed, at the bottom of all organic evolution organic impulses becoming habits produce structural changes, which are transmitted by heredity; and as an impulse thus gradually becomes secondarily automatic, the will passes to higher activities, which in their turn become secondarily automatic, and so on.
mantelli, and some careful observations on its habits in captivity were published by John Wolley and another (Zoologist, pp. 3409, 3605).
For habits of lemmings, see R.
Collett, Myodes lemmus, its habits and migrations in Norway (Christiania Videnskabs-Selskabs Forhandlinger, 1895).
There can be scarcely any doubt as to the propriety of considering this genus the type of a separate family of Psittaci; but whether it stands alone or some other forms (Pezoporus or Geopsittacus, for example, which in coloration and habits present some curious analogies) should be placed with it, must await future determination.
The assiduity with which Huc devoted himself to the study of the dialects and customs of the Tatars, for whom at the cost of much labour he translated various religious works, was an admirable preparation for undertaking in 1844, at the instigation of the vicar apostolic of Mongolia, an expedition whose object was to dissipate the obscurity which hung over the country and habits of the Tibetans.
In size these animals may be compared roughly to rabbits and hares; and they have rodent-like habits, hunching up their backs after the fashion of some foreign members of the hare-family, more especially the Liu-Kiu rabbit.
The more typical members of the genus are terrestrial in their habits, and their cheek-teeth have nearly the same pattern as in rhinoceroses; while the interval between the upper incisors is less than the width of the teeth; and the lower incisors are only slightly notched at the cutting edge.
All over the world shearwaters seem to have precisely the same habits, laying their single purely white egg in a hole under ground.
The purchase of ready-made shirts, underclothing, &c., corresponds to a change in the habits of the people.
He had many struggles to pass through in early life, which tended to discipline his character and to form the habits of severe study and the mental independence for which he came to be distinguished.
The gynaecratic habits of the race are manifested in the names of all these kings, which were formed by a combination of those of their parents, the mother's generally preceding that of the father.
One member of the Cyprinidae is at present known to be viviparous, but no observations have as yet been made on its habits.
There he remained for eighteen months, but shortly after his return to England he accompanied Groves and other friends on a private missionary enterprise to Bagdad, where he obtained personal knowledge of Oriental life and habits which he afterwards applied with tact and skill in the illustration of biblical scenes and incidents.
It shares the roving habits of the latter, frequenting ships and by these means reaching various parts of the world.
Both species agree in their predaceous habits, omnivorous diet and great fecundity.
Nature had made him mean, the smallpox had made him hideous, and his degraded habits made him loathsome.
Chappe d'Auteroche had discovered that Siberia was not a paradise, and had observed that the Russians were dirty in their habits, and that masters whipped their servants, male and female.
On the other hand, it has been recorded by Cicero" that a certain physiognomist, Zopyrus, who professed to know the habits and manners of men from their bodies, eyes, face and forehead, characterized Socrates as stupid, sensual and dull (bardus), " in quo Alcibiades cachinnum dicitur sustulisse."
While discussing noses, he says that those with thick bulbous ends belong to persons who are insensitive, swinish; sharp-tipped belong to the irascible, those easily provoked, like dogs; rounded, large, obtuse noses to the magnanimous, the lion-like; slender hooked noses to the eagle-like, the noble but grasping; round-tipped retrousse noses to the luxurious, like barndoor fowl; noses with a very slight notch at the root belong to the impudent, the crow-like; while snub noses belong to persons of luxurious habits, whom he compares to deer; open nostrils are signs of passion, &c.
possible to tell habits from the aspect (cf.
The northern form of wild turkey, whose habits have been described in much detail by all the chief writers on North American birds, is now extinct in the settled parts of Canada and the eastern states of the Union, where it was once so numerous; and in Mexico the southern form, which would seem to have been never abundant since the conquest, has been for many years rare.
His sympathy with men of other ways and thought, and with the truth in other ecclesiastical systems gained for him the confidence and affection of men of varied habits of mind and religious traditions, and was thus a great factor in gaining increasing support for the Episcopal Church.
The evidence may be examined at length in Nicolas and Beltz; it is indisputable that in the wardrobe account from September 1347 to January 1349, the 21st and 23rd Edward III., the issue of certain habits with garters and the motto embroidered on them is marked for St George's Day; that the letters patent relating to the preparation of the royal chapel of Windsor are dated in August 1348; and that in the treasury accounts of the prince of Wales there is an entry in November 1348 of the gift by him of " twenty-four garters to the knights of the Society of the Garter."
Such a circumstance occurring at a time of general festivity, when devices, mottoes and conceits of all kinds were adopted as ornaments or badges of the habits worn at jousts and tournaments, would naturally have been commemorated as other royal expressions seem to have been by its conversion into a device and motto for the dresses at an approaching hastilude."
His habits of life were telling on him.
Swainson, who had opportunities of observing both, the alleged resemblance in their habits has no existence.
Chaetoderma, of which nine species have been described, has similar habits and distribution, but feeds chiefly on Protozoa.
1802), whom he had first met at Bannockburn House while conducting the siege of Stirling, his imperious fretful temper, his drunken habits and debauched life, could no longer be concealed.
The account of its habits by Alexander Wilson is known to every student of ornithology, and Wilson's followers have had little to do but supplement his history with unimportant details.
It has fur similar to otter, is of aquatic habits, being web-footed with spurs of a cock and the bill of a duck.
Is a native of South America, similar to a lion in habits and colour of coat.
The Dutch and Belgian provinces of the Netherlands had for one hundred and thirty years passed through totally different experiences, and had drifted farther and farther apart from one another in character, in habits, in ideas and above all in religion.
Little is known with regard to the habits of the okapi.
Civilization has not made much progress, and the habits of the people are more primitive than those in the more advanced neighbouring republics.
In habits it may be taken as typical of the subfamily.
It is nowhere abundant, but is found over the northern parts of Europe and Asia, and is a quiet, inoffensive animal, nocturnal and solitary in its habits, sleeping by day in its burrow, and issuing forth at night to feed on roots, beech-mast, fruits, the eggs of birds, small quadrupeds, frogs and insects.
The American badger (Taxidea americans) ranges over the greater part of the United States, and in habits closely resembles the European species, but seems to be more carnivorous.
The habits and dress of the various orders may be seen in Helyot's Histoire, which abounds in plates, coloured, in the ed.
He was noted for his hospitality, and was somewhat ostentatious in his habits, sometimes visiting Canterbury and other towns attended by a retinue of 800 horsemen.
Great as is the interest attached to the various public buildings of Pompeii, and valuable as is the light that they have in some instances thrown upon similar edifices in other ruined cities, far more curious and interesting is the insight afforded us by the numerous private houses and shops into the ordinary life and habits of the population of an ancient town.
Of their habits not much has been told.
The stories of the Stoics, who sought to refute the views of Epicurus by an appeal to his alleged antecedents and habits, were no doubt in the main, as Diogenes Laertius says, the stories of maniacs.
During those visits his chief business was to watch Johnson, to discover all Johnson's habits, to turn the conversation to subjects about which Johnson was likely to say something remarkable, and to fill quarto notebooks with minutes of what Johnson had said.
With a friend, William Berry, he then bought a small country store, which soon failed chiefly because of the drunken habits of Berry and because Lincoln preferred to read and to tell stories - he early gained local celebrity as a story-teller - rather than sell; about this time he got hold of a set of Blackstone.
Abstemious in his habits, he possessed great physical endurance.
Before the Reformation, and even for some time after it, the princes were thorough Germans in sympathies and habits; they now began to be separated by a wide gulf from their people.
Parallel with this event the revival of learning was producing a great number of men who could write, and, more important still, of men who were throwing off the monastic habits of thought and passing into a new intellectual atmosphere.
There is much discrepancy as to the ordinary food of the lammergeyer, some observers maintaining that it lives almost entirely on carrion, offal and even ordure; but there is no question of its frequently taking living prey, and it is reasonable to suppose that this bird, like so many others, is not everywhere uniform in its habits.
In habits it resembles the northern bird, from which it differs in little more than wanting the black stripe below the eye and having the lower part of the tarsus bare of feathers.
To such its romantic setting would be specially adapted, as falling in with the literary habits and tastes of the period; while its doctrinal peculiarities would least give offence in a work of the aim and character just described.
He is described as "a very strong lusty man," of uncouth manners and appearance, not so deaf as he pretended, of reserved and temperate habits, not avaricious and a despiser of honours.
Both princes were unpopular, and in 1462 Frederick was attacked by the inhabitants of Vienna, and was forced to surrender lower Austria to Albert, whose spendthrift habits soon made his rule disliked.
Escobar himself is said to have been simple in his habits, a strict observer of the rules of his order, and unweariedly zealous in his efforts to reform the lives of those with whom he had to deal.
Their religious teachers detested the native Mahommedan princes for their religious indifference, and gave Yusef a fetwa - or legal opinion - to the effect that he had good moral and religious right to dethrone the heterodox rulers who did not scruple to seek help from the Christians whose bad habits they had adopted.
syriaca, with somewhat different habits, as it haunts rocks rather than trees; and four or five representatives of the European arboreal species have their respective ranges from Asia Minor to the Himalayas and Northern China.
In some respects character- the manner of life of the natives has been modified by lstics of contact with Europeans, and what follows depicts in the ~ general the habits of the people where little affected by Dl ails, western culture.
The amusements of the people are generally not of a violent kind, being in keeping with their sedentary habits and the beat of the climate.
Their habits of life resemble those of the North Germans even more than those of the Swedes.
The townspeople show a bias in favour of French habits and fashions.
It had struck deep roots into the habits and feelings of the people, and traces of its survival were distinguishable a whole century after the triumph of the Reformation.
The chariot was unsuited to the uneven soil of Greece and Italy, and it is not improbable that these nations had brought it with them as part of their original habits from their former seats in the East.
These animals are of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and generally to be found near ant-hills.
He was rather below the middle size, in youth inclined to stoutness, lean in old age, but of vigorous and active habits.
It is futile to endeavour to disregard the long-established habits and customs of the people.
MINK, a name for certain large species of the zoological genus Putorius (Polecat), distinguished by slight structural modifications and semi-aquatic habits.
The two best-known species, so much alike in size, form, colour and habits that, although they are widely separated geographically, some zoologists question their specific distinction, are P. lutreola, the Norz or Sumpfotter (marsh-otter) of eastern Europe, and P. visors, the mink of North America.
The latter is found in places which suit its habits throughout the whole of North America.
It is to the water what the other weasels are to the land, or martens to the trees, being as essentially aquatic in its habits as the otter, beaver, or musk-rat, and spending perhaps more of its time in the water than it does on land.
Thus there have always been two kinds of Sufis, and, though the course of history and the wandering habits which various orders borrowed from Buddhism Zaid and `Amr are the Caius and Sempronius of Arabian law.
The copy, together with the many careful and highly finished preparatory studies for the heads, limbs and draperies which have been preserved, shows that this must have been the one of DUrer's pictures in which he best combined the broader vision and simpler habits of design which had impressed him in the works of Italian art with his own inherited and ingrained love of unflinchingly grasped fact and rugged, accentuated character.
The water-rat is perhaps the most often seen of all English mammals, owing to its diurnal habits.
The habits of this species are in every way similar to those of the one first on the list.
The emperor's rough and severe habits and his rigid administration prompted Antiochene lampoons, to which he replied in the curious satiric apologia, still extant, which he called Misopogon.
Habits of foreign adventure and of thrift were evolved, which were of advantage to the empire when, too long after the union of 1707, Scottish men were admitted to participate in its privileges and in its administration.
The Scot, whatever dialectal habits marked his speech, wrote the English of Englishmen.
The addiction of the Franks in later centuries to the chase is evidenced by the frequency with which not only the laity but also the clergy were warned by provincial councils against expending so much of their time and money on hounds, hawks and falcons; and we have similar proof with regard to the habits of other Teutonic nations subsequent to the introduction of Christianity.
Doubtless the early inhabitants of Britain shared to a large extent in the habits of the other Celtic peoples; the fact that they kept good hunting dogs is vouched for by Strabo; and an interesting illustration of the manner in which these were used is given in the inscription quoted by Orelli (n.
And with that feeling as a basis we will ever be suffusing the whole wide world with thought of love far-reaching, grown great, beyond measure, void of anger or ill-will."6 The relative importance of love, as compared with other habits, is thus described."
Polynesians generally are of singularly cleanly habits, love bathing, and have a taste for neatness and order.
From their extremely slow movements and lethargic habits in the daytime these weird little creatures are commonly called sloths by Anglo-Indians.
An eagle with buzzard-like habits, the Leucopternis plumbea, is likewise common in Ecuador.
It is possible that Solomon uttered or collected a number of such sayings, based in part on observation of the habits of beasts and plants (I Kings iv.
He abruptly hurls us into a world where old habits of thought fail us.
It is idle to speculate on the habits of this earliest of known birds.
The clawed slender fingers did not make Archaeopteryx any more quadrupedal or bat-like in its habits than is a kestrel hawk, with its equally large, or even larger thumb-claw.
The habits of X.
Among the solitary bees none has more remarkable nesting habits than the mason bee (Chalicodoma) represented in the south of France and described at length by Fabre.
The habits of the Brazilian species of these bees have been described in detail by H.
Such ruthless habits of the bee-commonwealth, no less than the altruistic labours of the workers, are adapted for the survival and dominance of the species.
Contrary to what might be anticipated from its size and from the habits of its African cousin, the Indian elephant is now, at any rate, an inhabitant, not of the plains, but of the hills; and even on the hills it is usually found among the higher ridges and plateaus, and not in the valleys.
During a stay of ten days an effort was made to study the nesting habits of the emperor penguin.
By the eighth article of capitulation it was agreed that the inhabitants should retain their own laws, customs, and religion; and thus the island is still largely French in language, habits, and predilections; but its name has again been changed to that given by the Dutch.
In habits it is chiefly nocturnal, and by preference carnivorous, feeding on birds and the smaller quadrupeds, in pursuit of which it climbs trees, but it is said also to eat fruits, roots and other vegetable matters.
12); the habits of the original natives may have influenced the Nabataean custom of burying the dead and offering worship in half-excavated caves.'
He took advantage of the amnesty granted by the treaty of Misenum (39) to return to Rome, where he took no part in public affairs, but resumed his former dissipated habits.
The larger species prey fiercely on other kinds of birds, while the smaller content themselves with a diet of small animals, often insects and worms. But however diverse be the appearance, structure or habits of the extremities of the series of species, they are so closely connected by intermediate forms that it is hard to find a gap between them that would justify a generic division.
Cloistered seclusion is an artificial condition quite at variance with human instincts and habits, and the treatment, long continued, has proved injurious to health, inducing mental breakdown.
Only those never previously convicted, or known as of not habitually criminal or corrupt habits, are eligible for the "star" class.
It has been said by a trustworthy authority,' "We are convinced also that severe labour on public works is most beneficial in teaching criminals habits of industry and training them to such employments as digging, road-making and brick-making - work of a kind which cannot be carried on in separate confinement."
At first sight this singular structure appears so like a deformity that writers have not been wanting to account it such, 2 ignorant of its being a piece of mechanism most beautifully adapted to the habits of the bird, enabling it to extract with the greatest ease, from fir-cones or fleshy fruits, the seeds which form its usual and almost invariable food.
In Venice, on the contrary, its businesslike habits of mind led the ruling class to make what concessions might seem needful, while both the masses and the head of the state were kept in due subjection to the laws.
Of their habits nothing is known.
Numerous species of monkey are found in Borneo, including the wahwah, a kind of gibbon, a creature far more human in appearance and habits than the orang-utan, and several Semnopitheci, such as the long-nosed ape and the golden-black or chrysomelas.
The character of the country and the nomadic habits of many of the natives of the interior, who rarely occupy their villages for more than a few years in succession, have not proved favourable to pastoral modes of life.
The inhabitants are distinguished from those of the mainland by peculiarities of dialect, costume and habits; and even the various peninsulas differ from each other in these particulars.
Stefansson, who was nominally a member of the expedition, spent his time with the Eskimo in the Mackenzie delta, learning their habits and language in order to equip himself for future explorations.
Now the poison is contained, as we have already seen, in the discharges from patients, and in such infected localities the standing conditions and the habits of the people combine to retain the discharges on the premises.
There is little information as to the habits of this animal in a wild state.
In° India, on the other hand, the institution of caste - even if artificially contrived and imposed by the Indo-Aryan priest and ruler - had at least ample time allowed it to become firmly established in the social habits, and even in the affections, of the people.
Further down, where the test of water no longer applies, the status of the caste depends on the nature of its occupation and its habits in respect of diet.
With regard to its habits, all that need be said here is that while Amphioxus is an expert swimmer when occasion requires, yet it spends most of its time burrowing in the sand, in which, when at rest, it lies buried with head protruding and mouth wide agape.
Throughout the whole, the researches made since 1860 have not only added a great throng of new species, genera and families, but have thrown a flood of light upon questions of their phylogeny, systematic arrangement, horizontal and bathymetric distribution, organization, habits of life and economic importance.
In these tribes the bold and active habits, the striking colours, or the fantastic diversities of structure,have so long attracted remark that recent investigations, while adding a multitude of new species and supplying the specialist with an infinity of new details, have not materially altered the scientific standpoint.
For the habits and peculiarities of these and many other Crustaceans, A.
Countries of Oriental and semi-Oriental habits have not been shown, owing to the difference in their marriage system from that of western Europe.
In December 1741, Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, who, from her habits, was a favourite with the soldiers, excited the guards to revolt, overcame the slight opposition that was offered, and was proclaimed empress.
The Nabataeans were forbidden to cultivate the vine, the object being to prevent any departure from their traditional nomadic habits.
The thrifty and methodical habits of the French peasantry, and also the system of small holdings which prevails in France, have, there is little doubt, done much to raise the French wine industry to the pre-eminent position which it holds.
Although the diana monkey is commonly seen in menageries, little is known of its habits in the wild state.
The people had been less interfered with; the change of church government involved no change in the conduct of worship. But the articles passed by the packed assembly of Perth in 1618 touched on the religious habits and postures of the people, and in this it soon appeared that a crisis had been reached.
His services were found to be of great value, and he not only obtained admirable training in habits of composition, but was led to investigate for himself some of the most interesting portions of English history.
His biographer's statement as to his habits and appearance is worth quoting, and is probably true: - " From the time he became a monk to the end of his life his only food was barley bread and sometimes pulse and vegetables: his drink was water.
Fayrer's Royal Tiger of Bengal (1875) may complete this notice of the tiger's habits.
In habits these rodents are very like marmots, the typical species inhabiting the open prairies, while the others are found in mountains.
They were the last conquerors of Assam before the Burmese, and they long preserved their ancient traditions, habits and institutions.
Under the peaceful influences of British rule, he has completely lost his ancient warlike instincts, and forgotten his predatory habits.
The habits of life of the Assamese peasantry are pre-eminently domestic. Great respect is paid to old age; when parents are no longer capable of labour they are supported by their children, and scarcely any one is allowed to become a burden to the public. They have also in general a very tender regard for their offspring, and are generous and kind to their relations.
And this doctrine was generally understood to mean that human thought, limited as it was by its own weakness and acquired habits, could hardly hope to cope successfully with the problem of apprehending the real things.
2 The fact that Spinoza nowhere mentions Bruno would not imply, according to the literary habits of those days, that he was not acquainted with his speculations and even indebted to them.
The climate is healthy and agreeable, though the death-rate among the common people is abnormally high on account of personal habits and unsanitary surroundings.
This unfavourable state of affairs is due to the poverty, ignorance and insanitary habits of the lower classes.
In habits the animal appears to resemble the Indian buffalo.
The degeneration produced by sedentary habits in all lamellibranchs has in the oyster reached its most advanced stage.
Costume.The costume of the Persians may be shortly described as fitted to their active habits.
Chardin, whose testimony is all the more valuable from the fact that he was contemporary with him, relates many stories characteristic of his temper and habits.
He remained at the ministry, preserving the habits of the diplomacy of the old regime, until December 1792, when he was sent to Belgium as agent of the republic, but he was involved in the treason of Dumouriez and was arrested on the 2nd of April 1793.
But warm, moist climates rather favour sedentary habits and tend to lessen appetite, so that the nutrition of the patient is apt to suffer; and although phthisical patients may live in comparative comfort in such climates, their tendency to recovery in them is small.
The building of the railway and the consequent development of trade and the introduction of European ideas tended largely to modify native habits.
The underlying fact which made the trek possible is that the Dutchdescended colonists in the eastern and north-eastern parts of the colony were not cultivators of the soil, but of purely pastoral and nomad habits, ever ready to seek new pastures for their flocks and herds, and possessing no special affection for any particular locality.
They were, besides, the departments of the study to which Ricardo's early training and practical habits led him to give special attention; and they have a lasting value independent of his systematic construction.
Mentor proposes to "change the tastes and habits of the whole people, and build up again from the very foundations."
The poverty and natural strength of the country, combined with the ferocious habits of the natives, seem to have equally repelled the friendly visits of inquisitive strangers and the hostile incursions of invading armies.
These kangaroos are largely arboreal in their habits, but they descend to the ground to feed.
By nature she was of simple character, and by habits acquired during the early portion of her husband's career almost a recluse.
He is said to have been parsimonious, and certainly he was quicker to receive than to reciprocate hospitalities; but his mean establishment and mode of life are explained by the retired habits of his wife, and her dislike of company.
The first stage is the eradication of vicious habits: evil tendencies are to be corrected, and a guard kept on the corrupt propensities of the reason.
The poorer classes, above all the fishermen and small farmers, are physically much finer than the wellto-do, who are prone to excessive stoutness owing to their more sedentary habits.
In habits agoutis are nocturnal, dwelling in forests, where they conceal themselves during the day in hollow tree-trunks, or in burrows among roots.
Ever since the campaigns of Alexander the Great, Greek habits and ideas had been widely adopted in Palestine.
There is a high rate of mortality among the natives, due to unsanitary habits and diet, and not to the climate.
vicugna), belonging to the Camelidae, with the structure and habits of the African camel, but smaller, having no hump, and inhabiting a mountainous and not a level sandy region.
The rearing of llamas and alpacas is a recognized industry in the Bolivian highlands and is wholly in the hands of the Indians, who alone seem to understand the habits and peculiarities of these interesting animals.
The remaining native tribes under the supervision of the state have made little progress, and their number is said to be decreasing (notwithstanding the favourable climatic conditions under which most of them live) because of unsanitary and intemperate habits, and for other causes not well understood, one being the custom noticed by early travellers among some of the tribes of the La Plata region of avoiding the rearing of children.
the Treveri, closely resembled the latter in their habits, while in later times were to come Goths and Franks from beyond the great river.
But Latin influences were not strong enough to extinguish the Lombard name and destroy altogether the recollections and habits of the Lombard rule; Lombard law was still recognized, and survived in the schools of Pavia.
In their habits and geographical distribution also the two shads are similar.
It does not, like Villehardouin, give us a picture of the temper and habits of a whole order or cast of men during a heroic period of human history; it falls far short of Froissart in vivid portraying of the picturesque and external aspects of social life; but it is a more personal book than either.
The singularity of its structure, its curious habits, and its peculiar economical value have naturally attracted no little attention from zoologists.
In habits the guacharo is wholly nocturnal, slumbering by day in deep and dark caverns which it frequents in vast numbers.
Not much is known of the mandrill's habits in the wild state, nor of the exact limits of its geographical distribution; the specimens brought to Europe coming from the west coast of tropical Africa, from Guinea to the Gaboon.
Notwithstanding some rumours of violence it is probable that his death was natural and due to his own intemperate habits.
Jackals resemble wolves and dogs in their dentition, the round eye-pupils, the period of gestation, and to a large extent also in habits.
Those of the south coast, mixed with Greeks and Italians, are well known for their skill in gardening, their honesty and their laborious habits, as well as for their fine features, presenting the Tatar type at its best.
Its large size, aquatic habits, partially webbed hind-toes, and the smooth, broad, orange-coloured incisors, are sufficient to distinguish this rodent from the other members of the family Capromyidae.
Besides these the group also includes a multitude of related forms which, from their aquatic habits and generally inconspicuous size, and from the fact that they are commonly neither edible nor noxious, are little known except to naturalists and are undistinguished by any popular names.
It will be sufficient here to define them as Arthropoda for the most part of aquatic habits, having typically two pairs of antenniform appendages in front of the mouth and at least three pairs of post-oral limbs acting as jaws.
The habits of the Crustacea are no less diversified than their structure.
Habits and Distribution.
This is effected not so much by their numbers and their powers of con - sumption, as amongst caterpillars, but by their habits of attack - ing the essential parts of a plant, and causing by their injuries the death of the plant affected.
Contrary to his expectations Darnley did not receive the crown matrimonial, and his foolish and haughty behaviour, his vicious habits, and his boisterous companions did not improve matters.
He was without doubt one of the greatest statesmen of his age, concealing beneath a simple exterior and homely habits a profound political sagacity and an unerring common-sense, and possessing in a high degree those useful qualities of patience, moderation, and tenacity, which characterized nearly all the princes of the house of Jagiello.
They are a branch of the Esquimauan family, but differ greatly from the Eskimo of the mainland in language, habits, disposition and mental ability.
While the missionaries of the Greek Church have nominally converted the natives to Christianity, white adventurers have more effectually converted them to various bad habits.
Nocturnal in habits, FIG.
This species appears to be solitary in habits, and it is rare to meet with more than two together.
The grounds for divorce in the state are adultery, impotence, extreme cruelty, desertion for three consecutive years next preceding the application, gross and confirmed habits of intoxication, cruel and abusive treatment, or a husband's gross or wanton refusal or neglect to provide a suitable maintenance for his wife.
In habits the binturong is nocturnal and arboreal, inhabiting forests, and living on small vertebrates, worms, insects and fruits.
By his vast expenditure, ascribable not only to his wars in Italy, his incessant embassies, and the necessity of defending himself in the Comtat Venaissin against the incursions of the adventurous Raymond of Turenne, but also to his luxurious tastes and princely habits, as well as by his persistent refusal to refer the question of the schism to a council, he incurred general reproach.
Their habits are exactly those of the other wild cats.
The phenomena of memory, as to both persons and places, is strong in animals, as is manifest by their recognition of their masters, and their returning at once to habits of which, though disused for many years, their brain has not lost the stored-up impressions.
Now, when naturalists observe a close agreement in numerous small details of habits, tastes and dispositions between two or more domestic races, or between nearly allied natural forms, they use this fact as an argument that all are descended from a common progenitor who was thus endowed; and, consequently, that all should be classed under the same species.
The teaching of history, during the three to four thousand years of which contemporary chronicles have been preserved, is that civilization is gradually developed in the course of ages by enlargement and increased precision of knowledge, invention and improvement of arts, and the progression of social and political habits and institutions towards general well-being.
Evidence of this class, proving the derivation of modern civilization, not only from ancient barbarism, but beyond this, from primeval savagery, is immensely plentiful, especially in rites and ceremonies, where the survival of ancient habits is peculiarly favoured.
The accounts, imperfect as they are, which have been preserved of their arts, beliefs and habits, thus present a picture of the arts, beliefs and habits of tribes.
When ten years old he wrote a semi-humorous tract on the immateriality of the soul; he was interested in natural history, and at the age of twelve wrote a remarkable essay on the habits of the " flying spider."
When the Romans became masters of the world, many of their upper classes, both before the close of the republic and under the empire, from a love of Greek manners and literature or from indolent and effeminate habits, resorted to Neapolis, either for the education and the cultivation of gymnastic exercises or for the enjoyment of music and of a soft and luxurious climate.
Leonardo's special friend at the papal court was the pope's youngest brother, Giuliano de' Medici, a youth who combined dissipated habits with thoughtful culture and a genuine interest in arts and sciences.
Apart from the Tartarides, the Pedipalpi are large or medium-sized Arachnida, nocturnal in habits and spending the day under stones, logs of wood or loosened bark.
As regards indirect taxes, again, there appears no small difficulty in ascertaining the relative consumption of different classes, for the simple reason that in the same class so called the habits of consumption differ widely.
On the other hand, the consumption by the income tax paying classes of customs and excise articles must vary indefinitely amongst themselves, according to personal habits, size of families, and even their geographical distribution.
As bishop of Hereford Dr Hampden made no change in his long-formed habits of studious seclusion, and though he showed no special ecclesiastical activity or zeal, the diocese certainly prospered in his charge.
The names "alligator" and "crocodile" are often confounded in popular speech; and the structure and habits of the two animals are so similar that both are most conveniently considered under the heading Crocodile.
On the Pacific coast of America, in New Zealand and in Japan a pilchard occurs (Clupea sagax) which in its characters and habits is so similar to the European pilchard that its general utilization is deserving of attention.
Of the original inhabitants there remain only a few scattered tribes in the forests, who refuse to submit to civilized requirements, and a much larger number who live in organized communities and have adopted the language, customs and habits of the dominant race.
Even their trivialities have their use; their endless anecdotes respecting the personal habits of the subjects of their biographies, if valueless to the historian, are most acceptable to the archaeologist, and not unimportant to the economist and moralist.
Ferdinand grew up athletic, but ignorant, ill-bred, addicted to the lowest amusements; he delighted in the company of the lazzaroni (the most degraded class of the Neapolitan people), whose dialect and habits he affected, and he even sold fish in the market, haggling over the price.
The prevailing colour of the iguanas is green; and, as the majority of them are arboreal in their habits, such colouring is generally regarded as pro FIG.
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