Surely the gods of chance have favored my brilliance!
The gods couldn't have molded a more perfect woman.
In my fancy the pagan gods and goddesses still walked on earth and talked face to face with men, and in my heart I secretly built shrines to those I loved best.
Gods, what'd you do to her?
My gods, what happened to you?
Without a touch of remorse you drive the father from his land, clasping to his bosom his household gods and his half-naked children.
He was there to represent spectatordom, and help make this seemingly insignificant event one with the removal of the gods of Troy.
For the most part I escaped wonderfully from these dangers, either by proceeding at once boldly and without deliberation to the goal, as is recommended to those who run the gauntlet, or by keeping my thoughts on high things, like Orpheus, who, "loudly singing the praises of the gods to his lyre, drowned the voices of the Sirens, and kept out of danger."
In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat-Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
Gods. I'll add your name to the list of enemies.
In the ancient world, man wanted guidance from the gods on what he should do.
Plus, we have powers formerly attributed to the ancient gods; we can fly, talk to people in other places, and see what is happening elsewhere.
When the final work included extensive praise for the twin gods Castor and Pollux, Scopas complained.
The French are our Gods: Paris is our Kingdom of Heaven.
"My gods," she breathed, stopping in front of one stand.
Gods, he had a headache already.
"Gods, are you trying to test me?" he growled.
"Gods, Darkyn!" she belted.
"Gods. We don't know," Cora responded.
Gods, I hope she does.
"Gods, you're freezing," he said and rested his other hand on top of hers to try to warm her.
"Gods, woman," he said with a grunt.
"Gods, if I could send her home with that demon in your place, I -" "Gabriel!"
Gods help the girl, she trusted him of all people.
"Look, you little shit, why don't you –" "Gods, Rhyn, don't talk to him like that," the eldest surviving brother of the seven brothers, Kris, snapped as he approached.
Gods, but he could smell her sweet scent! Her large eyes seemed to see right through him. He feared reaching out, in case she slid through his fingers like smoke. He'd lost her in life; he wasn't going to risk losing her in his dreams. He could imagine closing the distance between them, sweeping her up into his arms, and making love to her on the beach.
Gods, Rhyn, take a minute to think before you act. What's gotten into you anyway?
"Oh, thank gods," Ully said from the cell across from Toby.
The eldest of any of the White Gods to mate, he'd been lauded with celebrations for days upon the announcement that he'd chosen a bride.
I trust you more than anyone, Jule, but these rumors of wars between immortals have been around for three generations of White Gods.
More importantly, she had to find out what Jonny's next step was, once the month-long truce between White and Black Gods was up.
The White Gods had a long tradition of finding and mating with Oracles.
Gods, Guardians, and Naturals can pass through, too.
What took two gods and two Original Beings to do in Ireland, Darian had done on his own.
Gods know I've done stupid shit in my life and seen people from all walks of life.
As the White and Black Gods of this earth, you are bound by the requirement to turn the violator over to us.
Darian asked, stepping into the center of the room beside the White and Black Gods.
In his time as White God, the obelisk had been the source and seat of power for the White Gods in the immortal world.
The plots and minds of two Black Gods in the palm of her hand!
"Yully, gods, can't you tell me what's going on?" he demanded, bounding up the stairs.
It would take the magic of the Original Beings and Gods to do it.
"If he feels like showing …" "Gods, not Xander.
My gods, Darian, the world is falling apart!
May the gods give you strength, dark lady.
From this point, Xander was able to see most of the city, including the white dome of the palace at its center that marked the home of one of the three Gods that ruled the immortal realm.
Gods, it was better than I imagined!
I will be stronger than all three Gods combined.
One of the Gods tripped the wards he had set around his territory in southern California.
The Black God, Jonny, was one of the three Gods dwelling in the mortal realm.
He had no loyalties to any of the Gods, a fact that rendered him useful to all three of them when they were in pissing contests.
Gods, but he hated Oracles.
His agenda was one born of experience: if the scales between the White and Black Gods tipped too far one way, life was bad.
He was able to count the number of people beyond his ability to manipulate on one hand: the Gods.
The two Gods kept each other in check.
The Gods now knew Xander's intention of claiming her; what they couldn't know was that he was also prepared to walk away, if she made the wrong decision.
His senses picked up on the Guardians and Gods gathered in the red barn.
In later times they were addressed not only to the gods, but to human beings.
The term properly implies a clear polytheistic conception of gods in contrast with men, while it recognizes that some men cross the dividing line.
Theocritus (Idyll 17) hails Ptolemy Philadelphus as a demigod, and speaks of his father as seated among the gods along with Alexander.
In China at the present day many Taoist gods are (or are given out as) men deified for service to the state.
Herbert Spencer) hold that most gods are deified men, and most myths historical traditions which have been grotesquely distorted.
According to the latter, some men may become gods.
According to the former, all gods are but men; or, some men have been erroneously supposed to become gods.
But whether the great gods of polytheism were really transfigured ancestors is very doubtful.
Thus (though earlier Indian and Bactrian coins do not show it) it is found with the gods on some of the coins of the Indian kings Kanishka, Huvishka and Vasudeva, 58 B.C. to A.D.
Violation of the duties of hospitality was likely to provoke the wrath of the gods; but it does not appear that anything beyond this religious sanction existed to guard the rights of a traveller.
To the native Egyptians Alexander appeared as a deliverer from the Persian tyranny, and he sacrificed piously to the gods of Memphis.
Not only is the whole atmosphere Christian in colouring, but we actually find the Greek gods in the guise of Enoch, Elijah, &c., while Philip is a Christian martyr, and Alexander himself a great apostle, even a saint; quotations from the Bible are frequent.
His strongest denunciation is directed against the religious practices of the time in Judea - the worship of the Canaanite local deities (the Baals), the Phoenician Tammuz, and the sun and other Babylonian and Assyrian gods (vi., viii., xvi., xxiii.); he maintained vigorously the prophetic struggle for the sole worship of Yahweh.
Probably he believed in the existence of other gods, though he does not express himself clearly on this point; in any case he held that the worship of other deities was destructive to Israel.
the people of the pagus or village, applied to the dwellers in the country where the worship of the old gods still lingered, when the people of the towns were Christians (but see Pagan for a more tenable explanation of that term).
VARUNA, in early Hindu mythology, the greatest, with Indra, of the gods of the Rig Veda.
In the Timaeus (41 A) the immortality even of the gods is made dependent on the will of the Supreme Creator; souls are not in their own nature indestructible, but persist because of His goodness.
It is to this period that we must trace such designations of the god as "father of the gods," "chief of the gods," "creator of all things," and the like.
The question, however, still remains to be answered how people came to the belief or to the assumption that through the soul, or the seat of life of the sacrificial animal, the intention of the gods could be divined.
One of the chief names for the priest was baru - literally the "inspector" - which was given to him because of the prominence of his function as an inspector of livers for the purpose of divining the intention of the gods.
By the time the third stage, which placed the seat of soul-life in the brain, was reached through the further advance of anatomical knowledge, the religious rites of Greece and Rome were too deeply incrusted to admit of further radical changes, and faith in the gods had already declined too far to bring new elements into the religion.
He was free, but had to accept monetary compensation for corporal injuries, paid smaller fees and fines, even paid less offerings to the gods.
In Rome the pope gave way to popular clamour, granting one concession after another, and on the 8th of February he publicly called down Gods blessing on Italythat Italy hated by the Austrians, whose name it had hitherto been a crime to mention.
Brahma (n.) is the designation generally applied to the Supreme Soul (paramatman), or impersonal, all-embracing divine essence, the original source and ultimate goal of all that exists; Brahma (m.), on the other hand, is only one of the three hypostases of that divinity whose creative activity he represents, as distinguished from its preservative and destructive aspects, ever apparent in life and nature, and represented by the gods Vishnu and Siva respectively.
8e6s, god), literally, and in its widest sense, the belief in a god or gods.
28), identifying (so far as preserved) thirteen other Gods with Marduk, has been hailed by Friedrich Delitzsch (Babel and Bibel) as the great fountain-head of monotheism, and has influenced the bold if highly precarious conjectures of H.
Theism can take but little interest in this peculiar type of free will doctrine, or again in Epicurus's professed admission of the existence of gods - made of atoms: inhabiting the spaces between the worlds; Stoicism.
God is the soul of the world, although the gods of popular belief are (at least by the later Stoics) respectfully if exoterically acknowledged.
He therefore appealed to the Indian goddess Aditi or Immensity, a deity connected with a set of personal gods called Adityas.
It suggests in every deed a personal but limited God, or a number of Gods - " Religions of spiritual Individuality," including, along with " Judaism," the anthropomorphic religions of Greece and Rome.
Marcus himself says, "To the gods I am indebted for having good grandfathers, good parents, a good sister, good teachers, good associates, good kinsmen and friends, nearly everything good."
8-10) ascribed the victory to the magic arts of an Egyptian named Arnuphis who prevailed on Mercury and other gods to 2 Aurelius has been severely criticized for sending Verus.
Other ancient writers, however, speak of his visit to the underworld; according to Plato, the infernal gods only " presented an apparition" of Eurydice to him.
Other accounts of his death are: that he killed himself from grief at the failure of his journey to Hades; that he was struck with lightning by Zeus for having revealed the mysteries of the gods to men; or he was torn to pieces by the Maenads for having abandoned the cult of Dionysus for that of Apollo.
They dealt with such subjects as the origin of the gods, the creation of the world, the ritual of purification and initiation, and oracular responses.
The Orphic poems also played an important part in the controversies between Christian and pagan writers in the 3rd and 4th centuries after Christ; pagan writers quoted them to show the real meaning of the multitude of gods, while Christians retorted by reference to the obscene and disgraceful fictions by which the former degraded their gods.
He was a favourite of the gods, and an intimate friend of Achilles, to whom he was commissioned to announce the death of Patroclus.
The whole country was reduced to a desert, Susa was plundered and razed to the ground, the royal sepulchres were desecrated, and the images of the gods and of 32 kings "in silver, gold, bronze and alabaster," were carried away.
Among the principal examples are " Roman Triumphs " (not the same compositions as the Hampton Court pictures), " A Bacchanal Festival," " Hercules and Antaeus," " Marine Gods," " Judith with the Head of Holophernes," the " Deposition from the Cross," the " Entombment," the " Resurrection," the " Man of Sorrows," the " Virgin in a Grotto."
If, in the Gnostic systems, these become daemonic or semi-daemonic forces, this points to the fact that a stronger monotheistic religion (the Iranian) had gained the upper hand over the Babylonian, and had degraded its gods to daemons.
Marillier sacrifice was, at its origin, essentially a magical rite - the liberation by the effusion of a victim's blood of a magical force which was to bend the gods to the will of man; from this arose, under the influence of cult of the dead, the gift theory of sacrifice.
Thus it appears that the gift theory may after all be primitive; the worship of, or care for, the dead may have supplied in other areas the motive for the transition from offering to sacrifice or the evolution may have been due to the spiritualization of the gods.
In the former case the sacrificer is raised to a higher level; he enters into closer communion with the gods.
In the most developed forms, such as the offering of soma, they assumed a great importance; (r) the sacrificer had to pass from the world of man into a world of the gods; consequently he was separated from the common herd of mankind and purified; he underwent ceremonies emblematic of rebirth and was then subject to numberless taboos imposed for the purpose of maintaining his ceremonial purity.
soothed, so that it might be more acceptable to the gods and less likely to do an injury after its death, when its spirit was set free.
The cord was drawn tight and the victim ceased to breathe; its spirit passed into the world of the gods.
Though the moralization of gods has only proceeded pari passu with the moralization of mankind, the deities of the more advanced nations are perhaps felt by them to be more terrible and more difficult of access than the divinities of lower races; herein lies one explanation of the power of the priesthood.
The corpse may be burnt, in part or as a whole; portions may be assigned to the priest, the sacrificer and the gods; the skull, bones, &c., may receive special treatment; the fat or blood may be set aside, and they or the ashes may be singled out as the share of the god, to be offered upon the altar; the skin of the victim may be employed as a covering for the idol or material representative of the god, either permanently or till the next annual sacrifice.
(e) Gods may be sacrificed (in theriomorphic form) to themselves as a means of renewing the life of the god.
The victim was often kept in captivity and well fed; to transfer their sins people laid their hands upon him as he was led in procession, his head covered with ashes; on the way to the place of sacrifice were three enclosures, the second open to chiefs and priest only, the third to the officiant and his helper alone; the blood of the victim was offered to the gods.
S5) that Elohim as a plural form for the name of the Hebrew deity " can hardly be understood otherwise than as a comprehensive expression for the multitude of gods embraced in the One God of Old Testament religion," in other words that it presupposes an original polytheism.
The most strongly distinguishing feature of the code is the rigid exclusion of the worship of other gods than Yahweh.
Abijah) to Ishtar-wasur, in which the following remarkable phrases are read: " May the Lord of the gods protect thy life.
The old gods were not to be at once discrowned of might.
Similarly in the earlier pre-exilian period of Israel's occupation of Canaanite territory the Hebrews were always subject to this tendency to worship the old Baal or `Ashtoreth (the goddess who made the cattle and flocks prolific).3 A few years of drought or of bad seasons would make a Hebrew settler betake himself to the old Canaanite gods.
But the prevalence of the worship of " other gods " and of graven images in these " high places," and the moral debasement of life which accompanied these cults, made it clear that the " high places " were sources of grave injury to Israel's social life.
18), of stone pillars to the Canaanite Baal, of the Asherah-pole, molten images and the worship of other gods than Yahweh (Ex.
Owing to its durability the wood was employed for mummy cases, and images of the gods; .....
She is rarely mentioned in Homer, nor is she included amongst the Olympian gods.
Dyer, The Gods in Greece (1891); J.
They believed in the existence of two gods, a good (whose son was Christ) and an evil (whose son was Satan); matter is the creation of the evil principle, and therefore essentially evil, and the greatest of all sins is sexual intercourse, even in marriage; sinful also is the possession of material goods, and the eating of flesh meat, and many other things.
In the approaching disruption writers saw the punishment for the king's apostasy, and they condemn the sanctuaries in Jerusalem which he erected to the gods of his heathen wives.
Cyrus on entering Babylon had even restored the gods to the cities to which they belonged.
In the Odyssey it is said that the gods disclosed the impiety.
7 6 5 ff., is a mixture of Greek traditions with a few oriental elements; here the first king is Medos (the Median empire); his nameless son is succeeded by Cyrus, a blessed ruler, beloved by the gods, who gave peace to all his friends and conquered Lydia, Phrygia, Ionia.
The famous story of Herodotus, that the conqueror condemned Croesus to the stake, from which he was saved by the intervention of the gods, is quite inconsistent with the Persian religion.
Man is able to derive a measure of enjoyment from life in spite of the nonexistence of the orthodox gods; yet this enjoyment is on the whole negative, the avoidance of pain.
ANU, a Babylonian deity, who, by virtue of being the first figure in a triad consisting of Anu, Bel and Ea, came to be regarded as the father and king of the gods.
The doctrine once established remained an inherent part of the Babylonian-Assyrian religion and led to the more or less complete disassociation of the three gods constituting the triad from their original local limitations.
An intermediate step between Anu viewed as the local deity of Erech (or some other centre), Bel as the god of Nippur, and Ea as the god of Eridu is represented by the prominence which each one of the centres associated with the three deities in question must have acquired, and which led to each one absorbing the qualities of other gods so as to give them a controlling position in an organized pantheon.
3 So it was arranged that she should spend two-thirds (according to later authors, one-half) of every year with her mother and the heavenly gods, and should pass the rest of the year with Pluto beneath the earth.
The lock so cut may have been that which was kept sacred to the gods and unshorn (Etym.
For examples of hair dedicated to gods, see B.
His wife besought the gods below that he might be permitted to return to earth for the space of three hours.
In works of art there is considerable resemblance between the representations of Zeus, king of the gods, and Agamemnon, king, of men.
DEMONOLOGY (DaL j ow, demon, genius, spirit), the branch of the science of religions which relates to superhuman beings which are not gods.
But just as gods are not necessarily spiritual, demons may also be regarded as corporeal; vampires for example are sometimes described as human heads with appended entrails, which issue from the tomb to attack the living during the night watches.
Another class of nocturnal demons are the incubi and succubi, who are said to consort with human beings in their sleep; in the Antilles these were the ghosts of the dead; in New Zealand likewise ancestral deities formed liaisons with females; in the Samoan Islands the inferior gods were regarded as the fathers of children otherwise unaccounted for; the Hindus have rites prescribed by which a companion nymph may be secured.
Side by side with the conception of the corn spirit as an animal is the anthropomorphic view of it; and this element must have predominated in the evolution of the cereal deities like Demeter; at the same time traces of the association of gods and goddesses of corn with animal embodiments of the corn spirit are found.
Sometimes the gods of an older religion degenerate into the demons of the belief which supersedes it.
In the folklore of European countries goblindom is peopled by gods and nature-spirits of an earlier heathendom.
Malak-bel has been explained as " messenger of Bel "; but more probably Malak is the common Babylonian epithet malik given to various gods, and means " counsellor "; Malak-bel will then be the sun as the visible representative of Bel.
" B of the heavens," = Zees µEycvros KepafYGoc, sometimes called " lord of eternity," but he was not included among the national gods of Palmyra, so far as we know, though he probably had a temple there.
Altogether about 22 names of gods are found in Palmyrene; some of them, however, only occur in compound proper names.
Diodorus informs us that a sacrifice acceptable to the gods must be attended by a Druid, for they are the intermediaries.
He was the traditional king of Sipylus in Lydia (or of Phrygia), and was the intimate friend of Zeus and the other gods, to whose table he was admitted.
and serving him up to the gods at table, in order to test their powers of observation (Ovid, Metam.
Tantalus's betrayal of the secrets of the gods refers to the sun unveiling the secrets of heaven; the slaying of Pelops denotes the going-down of the sun, Pelops meaning the "` gray one," an epithet of the gloomy sky in which the last rays of the sun are extinguished.
9), violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred mystic cakes, appear among the offences denounced by the Israelite prophets, and show that the cult of Baal (and Astarte) included the characteristic features of heathen worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic world, although attached to other names.5 By an easy transition the local gods of the streams and springs which fertilized the increase of the fields became identified with 2 Compounds with geographical terms (towns, mountains), e.g.
The idea which has long prevailed that Baal was properly a sky-god affords no explanation of the local character of the many baals; on the other hand, on the theory of a higher development where the gods become heavenly or astral beings, the fact that ruder conceptions of nature were still retained (often in the unofficial but more popular forms of cult) is more intelligible.
A specific Baal of the heavens appears to have been known among the Hittites in the time of Rameses II., and considerably later, at the beginning of the 7th century, it was the title of one of the gods of Phoenicia.
4) afford complete testimony for the prevalence of Baalism as late as the exile, but prove that the clearest distinction was then drawn between the pure worship of Yahweh the god of Israel and the inveterate and debased cults of the gods of the land.
Some of its enactments are purely pagan - thus one paragraph allows the mother to kill her new-born child, and another prescribes the immolation to the gods of the defiler of their temple; others are purely Christian, such as those which prohibit incestuous marriages and working on Sunday.
and described it as containing 30 Buddhist monasteries, with about 3000 monks, and about l00 temples of Hindu gods.
The Hindus are fond of painting the outside of their houses a deep red colour, and of covering the most conspicuous parts with pictures of flowers, men, women, bulls, elephants and gods and goddesses in all the many forms known in Hindu mythology.
All that kind of pre-established harmony Wagner left behind him the moment he deserted the heroes and villains of romantic opera for the visionary and true tragedy of gods and demi-gods, giants and gnomes, with beauty, nobility and love in the wrong, and the forces of destruction and hate set free by blind justice.
The gods, as the giants plaintively admit, " rule by beauty"; hence the " Walhalla-motif."
Osiris and Isis are closely connected with Syria and the Lebanon in legend; the Ded or sacred pillar of Osiris is doubtless really a representation of a great cedar with its horizontally outspreading branches; 8 another of the sacred Egyptian trees is obviously a cypress; corn and wine are traditionally associated with Osiris, and it is probable that corn and wine were first domesticated in Syria, and came thence with the gods Osiris and Re (the sun god of Heliopolis) into the Delta.
Peet, resulted in interesting discoveries, some of which tend to show that the cult of the Aten or Solardisk was not so rigidly enforced by the heretic king Akhenaton as has been supposed, and that ordinary people were allowed to worship other gods than the sun-disk, at any rate in connexion with funerary ceremonies.
Another stratum is represented by the story of a favourite of the gods known as Ut-Napishtim, who is saved from a destructive storm and flood that destroys 1 The name of the hero, written always ideographically, was for a long time provisionally read Izdubar; but a tablet discovered by T.
Especially to the gods of the conquered people Alexander showed respect.
None of the coins with Alexander's own image can be shown to have been issued during his reign; the traditional gods of the Greeks still admitted no living man to share their prerogative in this sphere.
As the consort of En -lil, the goddess Nin-lil or Belit belongs to Nippur and her titles as "ruler of heaven and earth," and "mother of the gods" are all due to her position as the wife of Bel.
In Homer, where they appear indifferently under the name of apirveac and 615EXAca, their function is to carry off those whose sudden disappearance is desired by the gods.
Having been deprived of his sight by the gods for his ill-treatment of his sons by his first wife (or for having revealed the future to mortals), he was condemned to be tormented by two Harpies, who carried off whatever food was placed before him.
Rohde (Rheinisches Museum, i., 1895) regards them as spirits of the storm, which at the bidding of the gods carry off human beings alive to the under-world or some spot beyond human ken.
He explained not only the gods but also the heroes Agamemnon, Achilles, Hector, as representing primary elements and natural phenomena.
A refuge from cruel treatment was afforded by the temples and altars of the gods and by the sacred groves.
Of the head nothing could be made but garlands for the shrines of the gods; but the wood of the root was employed in the manufacture of different utensils as well as for fuel.
According to the Avesta (Yasna, 9, 17),, Airyanem Vaejo, on the river Daitya, the old sacred country of the gods, was the home of Zoroaster, and the scene of his.
Asura-daiva represent originally two distinct races of gods (like the Northern Aser and Vaner) - two different aspects of the conception of deity, comparable to SaLpzov and 6E6s.
The daevas, unmasked and attacked by Zoroaster as the true enemies of mankind, are still, in the Gathas, without doubt the perfectly definite gods of old popular belief - the idols of the people.
He worships and serves false gods, being unable to distinguish between truth and lies.
For the great mass of the people Zoroaster's doctrine was too abstract and spiritualistic. The vulgar fancy requires sensuous, plastic deities, which admit of visible representation; and so the old gods received honour again and new gods won acceptance.
The worship of the Persian gods spread to Armenia and Cappadocia and over the whole of the Near East (Strabo, xv.
The Hortatory Address to the Greeks is an appeal to them to give up the worship of their gods, and to devote themselves to the worship of the one living and true God.
After eight years' wandering in the east, he landed on the island of Pharos, where Proteus revealed to him the means of appeasing the gods and securing his return.
OSIRIS, one of the principal gods of the ancient Egyptians.
TAUROBOLIUM, the sacrifice of a bull, usually in connexion with the worship of the Great Mother of the Gods, though not limited to it.
See Esperandieu, Inscriptions de Lectoure (1892), pp. 94 ff.; Zippel, Festschrift zum Doctorjubilaeum, Ludwig Friedlander, 1895, p. 489 f.; Showerman, The Great Mother of the Gods, Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, No.
Their bodies lay for nine days unburied, for Zeus had changed the people to stone; on the tenth day they were buried by the gods.
Out of pity for her grief, the gods changed Niobe herself into a rock on Mount Sipylus in Phrygia, in which form she continued to weep (Homer, Iliad, xxiv.
The tragedians used her story to point the moral of the instability of human happiness; Niobe became the representative of human nature, liable to pride in prosperity and forgetfulness of the respect and submission due to the gods.
According to him, the myths arose from definite local (especially atmospheric and aquatic) phenomena, and represented the annually recurring processes of nature as the acts of gods and heroes; thus, in Achill (1853), the Trojan War is the winter conflict of the elements in that district.
He was the favourite of Eos, the dawn-goddess, who loved him and carried him off to Delos; but the gods were angry, and would not be appeased till Artemis slew him with her arrows (Odyssey, V.
He has ever been the patron saint of Mediterranean sailors, who regard St Elmo's fire as the visible sign of his guardianship. The phenomenon was known to the ancient Greeks, and Pliny in his Natural History states that when there were two lights sailors called them Castor and Pollux and invoked them as gods.
Finally, philosophy as well as politics contributed to the success of Mithraism, for the outcome of the attempt to recognize in the Graeco-Roman gods only forces of nature was to make the Sun the most important of deities; and it was the Sun with whom Mithras was identified.
With this monument as a basis, Franz Cumont has arranged the small Mithraic reliefs into two groups, one illustrating the legend of the origin of the gods, and the other the legend of Mithras.
From Heaven and Earth sprang the remaining members of a circle analogous to the Olympic gods.
If we are not prepared to say that the three Persons are one thing - in which case the Father and the Holy Ghost must have been incarnate along with the Son - then, did usage permit, he says, we ought to speak of three Gods.
In Aeschylus fate is powerful even over the gods.
As a unity Gandharva has no special attributes but many duties, and is in close relation with the great I gods.
He is the keeper of heaven's secrets and acts as messenger between gods and men.
The origin of the obelisk may be sought in sacred upright stones set up in honour of gods and dead, like the menhirs, and the Semitic Massebahs and bethels.
His ambitious attempt to ascend to the heavens on Pegasus brought upon him the wrath of the gods.
59) gives a list of their gods, with the Greek deities corresponding, but we cannot tell what aspect of the Greek deity is in question.
It occupies the site of the ancient Adranon, which took its name from Adranos, a god probably of Phoenician origin, in Roman times identified with Vulcan, whose chief temple was situated here, and was guarded by a thousand huge gods; there are perhaps some substructures of this building still extant outside the town.
On the other hand, there is an epithet Asir or Ashir ("overseer") applied to several gods and particularly to the deity Asur, a fact which introduced a third element of confusion into the discussion of the name Assur.
of the gods, their representatives and their ministers - opens out several interesting lines of inquiry.
As worn by gods and men it was a long and rather loose kind of skirt suspended from a girdle.
It is worn by gods and men, and with the latter sometimes has ear-flaps (at Lachish, with other varieties, Ball, 190) or is surmounted by a feather or crest.
It resembles the sceptre curved at the end, which was carried by old Hittite gods.
The Pharaoh's characteristic crown (or crowns) symbolized his royal domains, the sacred uraeus marked his divine ancestry, and he sometimes appeared in the costume of the gods with their fillets adorned with double feathers and horns.
In Babylonia Naram-Sin in the guise of a god wears the pointed helmet and two great horns distinctive of the deities.3 This relationship between the gods and their human representatives is variously expressed.
Young Egyptian princes and youthful kings had 3 Comp. the horns of Bau (" mother of the gods "), Samas (Shamash), (H)adad, and (in Egypt) of the Asiatic god assimilated to Set (so, too, Rameses III.
Thus we perceive that ancient costume and toilet involves the relations between the gods and men, and also, what is extremely important, the political conditions among the latter.
Thus the temples required clothing not merely for the gods but also for the attendants (so at Samaria, 2 Kings x.
The " breastplate of judgment " was set with twelve jewels engraved with the names of the tribes; the foreordained covering of the semidivine being in the garden of the gods bore the same number of stones (Ezek.
21) have been plausibly compared with the Babylonian tablets of destiny worn by the gods and the mystic lots upon the bosom of Noah.
Of Xenophanes's utterances about (1) God, (2) the world, (3) knowledge, the following survive: (1) "There is one God, greatest among gods and men, neither in shape nor in thought like unto mortals..
Yet men imagine gods to be born, and to have raiment and voice and body, like themselves..
Even so the gods of the Ethiopians are swarthy and flat-nosed, the gods of the Thracians are fair-haired and blue eyed..
Even so oxen, lions and horses, if they had hands wherewith to grave images, would fashion gods after their own shapes and make them bodies like to their own.
(3) No man hath certainly known, nor shall certainly know, that which he saith about the gods and about all things; for, be that which he saith ever so perfect, yet doth he not know it; all things are matters of opinion.
The Greek gods being the powers of nature personified, pantheism lay nearer to hand than monotheism.
Thirdly, when Xenophanes himself says that theories about gods and about things are not knowledge, that his own utterances are not verities but verisimilitudes, and that, so far from learning things by revelation, man must laboriously seek a better opinion, he plainly renounces the "disinterested pursuit of truth."
Whilst it can hardly be allowed that Xenophanes, so far from denying, actually affirms a plurality of gods, it must be conceded to Freudenthal that Xenophanes's polemic was directed against the anthropomorphic tendencies and the mythological details of the contemporary polytheism rather than against the polytheistic principle, and that, apart from the treatise De Melisso Xenophane et Gorgia, now generally discredited, there is no direct evidence to prove him a consistent monotheist.
In his cosmogonic treatise on nature and the gods, called Hevr4tvxo (Preller's correction of Suidas, who has E7rTaµuXos) from the five elementary or original principles (aether, fire, air, water, earth; Gomperz substitutes smoke and darkness for aether and earth), he enunciated a system in which science, allegory and mythology were blended.
Chronos begat fire, air and water, and from these three sprang numerous other gods; Smoke and darkness appear in a later tradition.
Among the titles accorded to him are "king of lands," "king of heaven and earth" and "father of the gods."
Grouped around the main sanctuary there arose temples and chapels to the gods and goddesses who formed his court, so that E-Kur became the name for an entire sacred precinct in the city of Nippur.
Nippur continued to be a sacred city after it ceased to have any considerable political importance, while in addition the rise of the doctrine of a triad of gods symbolizing the three divisions - heavens, earth and water - assured to Bel, to whom the earth was assigned as his province, his place in the religious system.
Following Epicurus he sets before himself the aim of finally crushing that fear of the gods and that fear of death resulting from it which he regards as the source of all the human ills.
Although the title of the poem implies that it is a treatise on the "whole nature of things," the aim of Lucretius is to treat only those branches of science which are necessary to clear the mind from the fear of the gods and the terrors of a future state.
But his conception even of the ancient gods and of their indirect influence on human life is more worthy than the popular one.
The effect of unworthy conceptions of the divine nature is that they render a man incapable of visiting the temples of the gods in a calm spirit, or of receiving the emanations that "announce the divine peace" in peaceful tranquillity.
He appears to have had no great sense of natural beauty, in which point he resembled his generation (though one remarkable story is told of his being deeply affected by Alpine scenery); and, except in his passion for the stage, he does not seem to have cared much for any of the arts, Conversation and literature were, again as in Johnson's case, the sole gods of his idolatry.
86), for it was regarded as specially consecrated to the worship of the gods.
The Ramayana and Mahabharata afford evidence of the employment of incense by the Hindus, in the worship of the gods and the burning of the dead, from the remotest antiquity.
Frankincense, however, though the most common, never became the only kind of incense offered to the gods among the Greeks.
Tertullian also distinctly alludes to the use of aromatics in Christian burial: "the Sabaeans will testify that more of their merchandise, and that more costly, is lavished on the burial of Christians, than in burning incense to the gods."
Buddha lived in the centre of Hindu India and among the many gods of the Brahmans.
Elsewhere we see the victorious prince beating down a vanquished enemy, and superintending the execution of other prisoners who are being sacrificed to the gods, while in one curious scene he is striking with his mace a sort of wicker-work cage filled with naked men.
Six of the statues bore special names, and offerings were made to them as to the statues of the gods.
Boundary-Stone Sculptured With Emblems Of The Gods; Reign Of Nebuchadrezzar I.
Cyrus now claimed to be the legitimate successor of the ancient Babylonian kings and the avenger of Bel-Merodach, who was wrathful at the impiety of Nabonidus in removing the images of the local gods from their ancestral shrines to his capital Babylon.
One of the first acts of Cyrus accordingly was to allow these exiles to return to their own homes, carrying with them the images of their gods and their sacred vessels.
His palace was more sumptuous than the temples of the gods, from which it was quite separate.
In the first book an account is given of the creation of the world out of the primeval deep and the birth of the gods of light.
Then comes the story of the struggle between the gods of light and the powers of darkness, and the final victory of Merodach, who clove Tiamat asunder, forming the heaven out of one half of her body and the earth out of the other.
Hades, the abode of Nin-erisgal or Allat, had been entered by Nergal, who, angered by a message sent to her by the gods of the upper world, ordered Namtar to strike off her head.
Besides the conventional use of certain signs as the indications of names of gods, countries, cities, vessels, birds, trees, &c., which, known as " determinants," are the Sumerian signs of the terms in question and were added as a guide for the reader, proper names more particularly continued to be written to a large extent in purely " ideographic " fashion.
In most cases, however, these belong to the category of minor deities or represent old local gods assimilated to some more powerful god, who absorbed, as it were, the attributes and prerogatives of these minor ones.
In many cases they will probably turn out to be descriptive epithets of gods 3 The Assyrian language is practically identical with the Babylonian, just as the Assyrians are the same people as the Babylonians with some foreign admixtures.
Winckler has adduced evidence from names of local gods to show that there was an Indo-European racial element in Mitanni; but none for a similar element in the Hatti, whose chief god was Teshub.
According to tradition the male and female gods lived in mountains whence they descended to hear the prayers of the people.
Sacred things, according to Gaius, were those things that had been definitely consecrated to the gods - and so had come to partake of their holiness.
Very many of them are votive inscriptions and contain little more than the names of gods and princes or private men.
Among these remains are altars, and bases for statues of gods or for golden images of animals dedicated to gods.
At the same time the facts that the inscriptions are undated until a late period, that few are historical in their contents, and for the most part yield only names of gods and rulers and domestic and religious details, and that our collection is still very incomplete, have led to much serious disagreement among scholars as to the reconstruction of the history of Arabia in the pre-Christian centuries.
Besides Truth, and the book Of the Gods which caused his condemnation at Athens, Diogenes Laertius attributes to him treatises on political, ethical, educational and rhetorical subjects.
Pliny says that their wood was everlasting, and therefore images of the gods were made of it; he makes mention also of the oil of cedar, or cedrium, distilled from the wood, and used by the ancients for preserving their books from moths and damp; papyri anointed or rubbed with cedrium were on this account called ced ati libri.
A formal treaty was then concluded, which the Slavonians swore to observe in the names of their gods Perun and Volos.
15 seq.: " If any one, I do not say should blaspheme against the Lord of men and gods, but should even dare to utter his name unseasonably, let him expect the penalty of death."
Modern scholars have sometimes found in the name the expression of the aseity 14 of God; sometimes of his reality, in contrast to the imaginary gods of the heathen.
I); to this mountain he led the Israelites after their deliverance from Egypt; there his father-in-law met him, and extolling Yahweh as " greater than all the gods," offered (in his capacity as priest of the place?) sacrifices, at which the chief men of the Israelites were his guests; there the religion of Yahweh was revealed through Moses, and the Israelites pledged themselves to serve God according to its prescriptions.
The combination of Yah with Ea, one of the great Babylonian gods, seems to have a peculiar fascination for amateurs, by whom it is periodically " discovered."
During the persecution under Maximinus she sought an interview with the emperor, upbraided him for his cruelties, and adjured him to give up the worship of false gods.
The view most commonly held is that they were degraded or " depotentiated " gods, occupying a position intermediate between gods and men.
Instances no doubt occur of gods being degraded to the ranks of heroes, but these are not the real heroes, the heroes who are the object of a cult.
The cult-heroes were all persons who had lived the life of man on earth, and it was necessary for the degraded gods to pass through this stage.
The heroes are spirits of the dead, not demi-gods; their position is not intermediate between gods and men, but by the side of these they exist as a separate class.
22), Draco ordered the inhabitants of Attica to honour the gods and heroes of their country "in accordance with the usage of their fathers " with offerings of first fruits and sacrificial cakes every year, thereby clearly pointing to a custom of high antiquity.
Again, side by side with gods of superior rank, certain heroes were worshipped as protecting spirits of the country or state; such were the Aeacidae amongst the Aeginetans, Ajax son of Oileus amongst the Epizephyrian Locrians and Hector at Thebes.
Like the gods, the cult heroes were supposed to exercise an influence on human affairs, though not to the same extent, their sphere of action being confined to their own localities.
The cult of the heroes exhibits points of resemblance with that of the chthonian divinities and of the dead, but differs from that of the ordinary gods, a further indication that they were not " depotentiated " gods.
Of the latter the number has tended to diminish in the light of modern scholarship. The fashion during the 19th century set strongly in the other direction, and the " degraded gods " theory was applied not only to such conspicuous heroes as Siegfried, Dietrich and Beowulf, but to a host of minor characters, such as the good marquis Rudeger of the Nibelungenlied and our own Robin Hood (both identified with Woden Hruodperaht).
The reaction from one extreme has, indeed, tended to lead to another, until not only the heroes, but the very gods themselves, are being traced to very human, not to say commonplace, origins.
The Teutonic heroes are, in the main, historical personages, never gods; though, like the Greek heroes, they are sometimes endowed with semi-divine attributes or interpreted as symbolical representations of natural forces.
Every night Hilde revives the fallen, and " so will it continue till the twilight of the gods."
Alarmed at his lengthy absence the people clamoured for "gods" to lead them, and at the instigation of Aaron, they brought their jewelry and made the calf out of it.
When, later, they migrated, they despoiled the sacred place and carried off the gods and priest to their newly won home at Laish.
Subsequent sociologists may have conceivably to men's minds were in the theological state, political events, for example, were explained by the will of the gods, and political authority based on divine right.
During the medieval era of internecine strife the Buddhist priests were the sole depositaries of literary talent, and seeing that, from the close of the 14th century, the ShintO mime (Kagura) was largely employed by the military class to invo,~ce or acknowledge the assistance of the gods, the monks of Buddha set themselves to compose librettos for this mime, and the performance, thus modified, received the name of NO.
A majority of the artists are content to copy old pictures of Buddhas sixteen disciples, the seven gods of happiness, and other similar assemblages of mythical or historical personages, not only because such work offers large opportunity for the use of striking colors and the production of meretricious effects, dear to the eye of the average Western householder and tourist, but also because a complicated design, as compared with a simple one, has the advantage of hiding the technical imperfections of the ware.
If any person who has been educated in or has professed the Christian religion shall, by writing, printing, teaching, or advised speaking, assert or maintain that there are more Gods than one, or shall deny any of the persons of the Holy Trinity to be God, or shall deny the Christian religion to be true or the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be of divine authority, he shall for the first offence be declared incapable of holding any ecclesiastical, civil, or military office or employment, and for the second incapable of bringing any action, or of being guardian, executor, legatee, or grantee, and shall suffer three years' imprisonment without bail.
Its three roots go down into the three great realms - (I) of death, where, in the well Hvergelmer, the dragon Nidhug (Niandggr) and his brood are ever gnawing it; (2) of the giants, where, in the fountain of Mimer, is the source of wisdom; (3) of the gods, Asgard, where, at the sacred fountain of Urd, is the divine tribunal, and the dwelling of the Fates.
Such a theory must be mythical in form, and, after gods have arisen, is likely to be a theogony (0E6s, god) as well as a cosmogony (Babylonia, Egypt, Phoenicia, Polynesia).
The latter received mythical representation in that most interesting god (but originally rather culture-hero) Maui, who, in NewZealand practically supplants Tangaloa, and becomes the god of the air and of the heaven, the creator and the causer of the flood.2 Speculation opened the usual deep problem; whence came the gods?
A strange episode in the legend of the destruction of man by the gods tells how Ra (or Re), the first king of the world, finding in his old age that mankind ceased to respect him, first tried the remedy of massacre, and then ascended the heavenly cow, and organized a new world - that of heaven.9 8.
Some said that the gods had blinded him because he had revealed to men what they ought not to know.
Traces of this union of immigrants with older inhabitants have been detected in the combination of Zeus Herkeios with Apollo Patrons as the ancient gods of the phratry.
ANUBIS (in Egyptian Anup, written Inpw in hieroglyphs), the name of one of the most important of the Egyptian gods.
The former comprised two beneficent gods of the necropolis; the latter also were beneficent, but warlike, divinities.
The domestic dog would be brought into the sacred circle through the increased veneration for animals, and the more pronounced view in later times of Anubis as servant, messenger and custodian of the gods.
his aid was "compelled" by the magicians and necromancers to fetch the gods and entertain them with food (especially in the ceremony of gazing into the bowl of oil), and he is invoked by them sometimes as the "Good Ox-herd."
See Erman, Egyptian Religion; Budge, Gods of the Egyptians; Meyer, in Zeits.
On a stepped pedestal facing the open stood the statues of the gods and the admirals, perhaps in rows above one another.
So, too, is the character of the offering: male victims must be sacrificed to male deities; female victims to goddesses: white animals are the due of the di superi, the gods of the upper world, black animals of the gods below.
Here we have a series of celebrations representing the occupations of the successive seasons, addressed sometimes to numina who developed later on into the great gods of the state, such as Jupiter, Mars or Ceres, sometimes to vaguer divinities who remained always indefinite and rustic in character, such as Pales and Consus.
Organization showed itself in the fixing of the annual calendar and the development of the character and functions of the priesthood, and as we should expect, in a new conception of the legal relation of the gods to the state.
In the earlier stage - whose notions of course still persist alongside of the state religion - each household has its own relations to its numina: now the state approaches the gods through its duly appointed representatives, the magistrates and priests.
The consequence was the introduction of certain new deities, the di novensides, from external sources, and the birth of new conceptions of the gods and their worship. We may distinguish three main influences, to a certain extent historically successive.
In 493 B.C., at a time of serious famine, they ordered the building of a temple to the Greek triad Demeter, Dionysus and Persephone, who were identified with the old Roman divinities Ceres, Liber and Libera: Apollo must have come with or before the books themselves, though his temple was not built till 433 B.C.: Mercury followed, the representative of `Epµns 'E,uuroXaaos, Asclepius was brought from Epidaurus to the Tiber island in 293 B.C., and Dis and Proserpina, with their strange chthonic associations and night ritual, probably from Tarentum in 249 B.C. With new deities came new modes of worship: the graecus ritus, in which, contrary to Roman usage, the worshipper's head was unveiled, and the lectisternium, an elaborate form of the "banquet of the gods."
The same spirit continues to show itself in the almost reckless introduction of Greek deities even within the walls of the pomoerium and their ready identification with gods of the old religion, whose cult they in reality superseded.
Its first note is struck by Ennius in his translation of the Sceptl- Sicilian rationalist Euhemerus, who explained the genesis m, of the gods as apotheosized mortals.
She marched through the open door into the Roman state, and settled down there to Christianize the state by imparting to it the word of the Gospel, but at the same time leaving it everything except its gods.
e denotes heathen gods.
3 Plato regarding the world as an embodiment of eternal, archetypal ideas, which he groups under the central idea of Good, identified with the divine reason, at the same time uses the ordinary language of the day, and speaks of God and the gods, feeling his way towards the conception of a personal God, which, to quote Dr Illingworth again, neither he nor Aristotle could reach because they had not " a clear conception of human personality."
Some of them, who denied that they had ever been Christians, had consented to pray to the gods, to adore the image of the emperor, and to blaspheme Christ; these he had dismissed.
All of these worshipped images of the gods and of the emperor, and blasphemed Christ.
If, however, any one denied that he was a Christian, and ratified his denial by worshipping the gods of Rome, he was to receive pardon.
Here were represented Isis and Serapis, Helios, the Mother of the Gods, the Fates, Demeter and Persephone; but no trace of these temples remains.
The sacrifices made to Agni pass to the gods, for Agni is a messenger from and to the gods; but, at the same time, he is more than a mere messenger, he is an immortal, for another hymn runs: "No god indeed, no mortal is beyond the might of thee, the mighty One...
The other attitude, however, is that into which simple-minded Latin peasants actually lapse, as it is also that which characterizes other religions ancient or modern which use pictures or sculptures of gods, demons, men, brutes, or of particular parts and organs of the same.
This is not necessarily the case with the worshipper of aniconic or unshaped gods.
Equally contradictory of any such law of development is the circumstance that the Greeks of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C., although Pheidias and other artists were embodying their gods and goddesses in the most perfect of images, nevertheless continued to cherish the rude aniconic stocks and stones of their ancestors.
Possessing no images of Yahweh the Jews were also not exposed to the same risk as were idolaters of having their gods stolen by their foes and used against them.
But the tendency of his art is to give rise to new tales of the gods.
26), claims that his ancestors discovered the art of making gods, and since they could not create souls, they called up the souls of demons or angels and introduced them into the holy images and divine mysteries, that through these souls the idols might possess powers of doing good and harm.
In the Roman religion, on a feast of thanksgiving for a great victory, couches were spread in the temples for the gods, whose images were taken down from their pedestals and laid on the couches, and tables set before them loaded with delicate viands.
305), they made war upon the Olympian gods and endeavoured to pile Pelion upon Ossa in order to storm heaven itself; had they reached the age of manhood, their attempt would have been successful, but Apollo destroyed them before their beards began to grow.
The Aloidae (here connected with 6.Xon), threshing-floor) represent the spirits of the fertile earth and agriculture, conceived of by the Greeks as engaged in combat with the Olympian gods.
5.65) tells us that the Persians knew of no images of the gods until Artaxerxes II.
These two gods belonged to the old popular religion of the Iranians, but had until then been neglected by the true Zoroastrians; now they were introduced into the official worship much in the way in which the cult of the saints came into the Christian religion.
Xarpeia, service, esp. the service of the gods, worship), and (2) hyperdulia, the worship or adoration due to the Virgin Mary as the Mother of God (from Gr.
NECTAR, in ancient mythology generally coupled with ambrosia, the nourishment of the gods in Homer and in Greek literature generally.
The Ionian geographers looked on the circular disk of the habitable world as surrounded by a mighty stream named Oceanus, the name of the primeval god, father of gods and men, and thus the bond of union between heaven and earth.
This is the teacher of Asia,"they shouted," this is the father of the Christians: this is the destroyer of our gods: this is the man who has taught so many no longer to sacrifice and no longer to pray to the gods."13 And after the execution they refused to deliver up his bones to the Christians for burial on the ground that" the Christians would now forsake the Crucified and worship Polycarp."14 Polycarp was indeed, as Polycrates says," "one of the great luminaries" (peyitXa 6Tocxeia) of the time.
It means "gate of the god," not"gate of the gods," corresponding to the Assyrian Bab-ili.
The gods, however, destroyed it with fire and confounded the language of the builders.
Until recent years the Baganda and most of the other Bantu peoples of the protectorate worshipped ancestral and nature spirits who had become elevated to the rank of gods and goddesses.
Doubtless with the object of expanding the flourishing foreign trade of Samos, he entered into alliance with Amasis, king of Egypt, who, according to Herodotus, renounced his ally because he feared that the gods, in envy of Polycrates' excessive good fortune, would bring ruin upon him and his allies.
(734 B.C.) marched down and seized Gaza, removing its gods and goods.
Figures of the gods Quetzalcoatl and Tepeyollotli.
Even in Mexican and Mayan sculptures the gods are arrayed in gorgeous breech-clouts.
Beliefs and practices with reference to the heavenly world were inspired by zoic activities; its location, scenery and environment were the homes of beast gods.
The Areois travelled about, devoting their whole time to feasting, dancing (the chief dance of the women being the grossly indecent Timorodeementionedby Captain Cook), and debauchery, varied by elaborate realistic stage presentments of the lives and loves of gods and legendary heroes.
In late times the priests of Denderah claimed Khufu as a benefactor; he was reputed to have built temples to the gods near the Great Pyramids and Sphinx (where also a pyramid of his daughter Hentsen is spoken of), and there are incidental notices of him in the medical and religious literature.
The form Seaxneat is identical with Saxnot, one of three gods mentioned in a short continental document probably of Old Saxon origin.
the " Mother of the Gods seated on a Lion."
Achilles is a typical Greek hero; handsome, brave, celebrated for his fleetness of foot, prone to excess of wrath and grief, at the same time he is compassionate, hospitable, full of affection for his mother and respect for the gods.
He next helped the gods in the great battle against the giants.
In the later development of the religion of Israel, Elohim is almost entirely reserved for the one true God; but in earlier times Elohim (gods), bne 'Elohim, bne Elim (sons of gods, i.e.
The guardian angels of the nations in Daniel probably represent the gods of the heathen, and we have there the first step of the process by which these gods became evil angels, an idea expanded by Milton in Paradise Lost.
In Homer he is the origin of all things, even the father of the gods, and the equal in rank of all of them save Zeus.
high with double frieze, connected with the cella walls by a coffered ceiling, which contained slabs with heads of gods and emperors.
A properly understood worship of gods and demons is quite compatible with a purified monotheism, and they might as well give up the mad idea of winning the authorities over to their faith, or of hoping to attain anything like universal agreement on divine things.
In the `Ola inscriptions we read the names of Minaean kings and gods.
Most of the many names of gods are mere names that appear and vanish again in particular districts and temples.
Of the great national gods of the Sabaeans and Minaeans we know a little more.
Wadd and Nikrah, the gods of love and hate, are possibly only other forms of the two `Athtars.
Three gods of the inscriptions are named in the Koran - Wadd, Yaghuth and Nasr. In the god name Ta'lab there may be an indication of tree-worship. The many minor deities may be passed over; but we must mention the sanctuary of Riyam, with its images of the sun and moon, and, according to tradition, an oracle.
Sacrifices and incense were offered to the gods.
The gods received tithes of the produce of trade and of the field, in kind or in ingots and golden statues, and these tributes, with freewill offerings, erected and maintained the temples.
Their commerce brought the Sabaeans under Christian and Jewish influence; and, though the old gods were too closely connected with their life and trade to be readily abandoned, the great change in the trading policy, already spoken of, seems to have affected religion as well as the state.
The inland gods lost importance with the failure of the overland trade, and Judaism and Christianity seem for a time to have contended for the mastery in South Arabia.
Socrates was charged with " not believing in the gods the city believes in."
either one or many gods) in or above the physical universe.
In this work he for the first time systematized an old Oriental (perhaps Phoenician) method of interpreting the popular myths, asserting that the gods who formed the chief objects of popular worship had been originally heroes and conquerors, who had thus earned a claim to the veneration of their subjects.
There is no doubt that it contains an element of truth; as among the Romans the gradual deification of ancestors and the apotheosis of emperors were prominent features of religious development, so among primitive peoples it is possible to trace the evolution of family and tribal gods from great chiefs and warriors.
All theories of religion which give prominence to ancestor worship and the cult of the dead are to a certain extent Euhemeristic. But as the sole explanation of the origin of the idea of gods it is not accepted by students of comparative religion.
Einhard, the friend and biographer of Charles, sums up this struggle as follows: - " It is hard to say how often the Saxons, conquered and humbled, submitted to the king, promised to fulfil his commands, delivered over the required hostages without delay, received the officials sent to them, and were often rendered so tame and pliable that they gave up the service of their heathen gods and agreed to accept Christianity.
to seq.), worshipped strange gods, for which he was defeated by Joash of Israel, and subsequently met with his death (2 Chron.
90.5, of Soma) that it "cheers the heart of gods" (in the speech of the vine, Judg.
He bids them raise themselves in the scale of being by eating the forbidden fruit, which he declares to be not fatal to life but an opener of the eyes, and capable of equalizing men with gods (iii.
To the phrase" ye shall be as gods "a later writer may have added" knowing good and evil,"but" to be as gods "originally meant" to live the life of gods - wise, powerful, happy."The serpent was in the main right, but there is one point which he did not mention, viz.
Only thus could even the gods escape death.'
1 Note the food and drink of the gods in the Babylonian Adapa (or Adamu?) myth.
He had a chance, however, of obtaining the gift, or at least of eating the food and drinking the water which makes the gods ageless and immortal.
According to Jastrow, this attempted ascension was an offence against the gods, and his fall was his punishment.
But certainly the myth does help us to imagine a story in which, for some sin against the gods, some favoured hero was hurled down from the divine abode, and such a story may some day be discovered.
Some better monumental illustration may some day be found, for it is clear that the Babylonian sacred literature had much to tell of offences against the gods in the primeval age.
In the Odyssey, however, he appears mainly as the messenger of the gods, and the conductor of the dead to Hades.
Though athletic, he was one of the least militant of the gods; a title rpoµaxos, the Defender, is found only in connexion with a victory of young men ("ephebes") in a battle at Tanagra.
His strongest arguments are that the wind would easily develop into the messenger of the gods (Len oU pos), and that it was often thought to promote fertility in crops and cattle.
Sometimes he was represented in his pastoral character, as when he bears a sheep on his shoulders; at other times he appears as the messenger or herald of the gods with the KfpvKEiov, or herald's staff, which is his most frequent attribute.
He accordingly commissioned Hephaestus to fashion a woman out of earth, upon whom the gods bestowed their choicest gifts.
Before leaving, he led his troops to the coast opposite Britain, and ordered them to pick up shells on the seashore, to be dedicated to the gods at Rome as the spoils of ocean.
Babylonia and Assyria, however, seem to be out of the question: malik, " arbiter, decider," is there an epithet of various gods, and as an appellative means "prince" and not king; further, little ' In Hos.
The Chaldaeans chose three stars in each sign to be the " councillor gods" of the planets."
30, where, however, by an obvious mistake the number of " councillor gods " is stated at only thirty.
The superfluous asterism, named Abhijit, included the bright star a Lyrae, under whose influence the gods had vanquished the Asuras.
The name Kovpe&TCS is derived either from Koupos, that is, the day of the young, or less probably from Keipw, because on this occasion young people cut their hair and offered it to the gods.
DIAGORAS, of Melos, surnamed the Atheist, poet and sophist, flourished in the second half of the 5th century B.C. Religious in his youth and a writer of hymns and dithyrambs, he became an atheist because a great wrong done to him was left unpunished by the gods.
All the gods, even Zeus, hate him, but his bitterest enemy is Athena, who fells him to the ground with a huge stone.
In this last aspect he was one of the chief gods of the Thracians, amongst whom his home was placed even in the time of Homer.
In Homer Ares is the lover of Aphrodite, the wife of Hephaestus, who catches them together in a net and holds them up to the ridicule of the gods.
His worship was not so widely spread over Greece as that of other gods, although he was honoured here and there with festivals and sacrifices.
It was here, according to the legend, that he was tried and acquitted by a council of the gods for the murder of Halirrhothius, who had violated Alcippe, the daughter of Ares by Agraulos.
The worship of Ares being less general throughout Greece than that of the gods of peace, the number of statues of him is small; those of Ares-Mars, among the Romans, are more frequent.
Augustine's City of God, published in 426, was an apologetic, not an historical work, but it had great influence in our field, for in it he undertook to answer the common heathen accusation that the growing misfortunes of the empire were due to the prevalence of Christianity and the forsaking of the gods of Rome.
Thus we find that the Egyptian monarch was empowered to exercise priestly functions before all the gods.
We constantly see him in the wall-paintings portrayed as a priest in the conventional attitudes before the images of the gods.
On the other hand, gentes and phratriae, which had no natural head, had special priests chosen from their members; for every circle of ancient society, from the family up to the state, was a religious as well as a civil unity, and had its own gods and sacred rites.
The position was often lucrative and always honourable, and the priests were under the special protection of the gods they served.
As man approached the gods in sacrifice and prayers, so too the gods declared themselves to men by divers signs and tokens, which it was possible to read by the art of Divination (q.v.).
Priestly acts - that is, acts done by one and accepted by the gods on behalf of many - are common to all antique religions, and cannot be lacking where the primary subject of religion is not the individual but the natural community.
This position, we see, can be reached by various paths: the priest may become indispensable through the growth of ritual observances and precautions too complicated for a layman to master, or he may lay claim to special nearness to the gods on the ground, it may be, of his race, or, it may be, of habitual practices of purity and asceticism which cannot be combined with the duties of ordinary life, as, for example, celibacy was required of priestesses of Vesta at Rome.
In the Aramaic papyri discovered near Assouan (Syene) in= is priest of the gods (Cowley and Sayce, Pap. E.
The upright and considerate manner in which he treated the provincials won him their affection, but at the same time brought upon him the hatred of Nero, who felt specially aggrieved because Soranus had refused to punish a city which had defended the statues of its gods against the Imperial commissioners.
Occasionally he is didactic, as in Worek Judaszow (The Bag of Judas) and Victoria deorum, where, under the allegory of the gods of Olympus, he represents the struggles of parties in Poland, not without severely satirizing the nobility and ecclesiastics.
This is a colossal seated image cut in a niche of the rock, of "Hittite" origin, and perhaps that called by Pausanias the "very ancient statue of the Mother of the Gods," carved by Broteas, son of Tantalus, and sung by Homer.
in AMBROSIA ancient mythology, sometimes the food, sometimes the drink of the gods.
vrovbj, cirEvbety=libare,, whence virovbai, treaty), and particularly in honour of the gods (Gr.
iv.), His choice of Israel, and the love and faithfulness which He had shown towards it, by redeeming it from slavery in Egypt, and planting it in a free and fertile land; from which are deduced the great practical duties of loyal and loving devotion to Him, an uncompromising repudiation of all false gods, the rejection of all heathen practices, a cheerful and ready obedience to His will, and a warm-hearted and generous attitude towards man.
With the dress one may perhaps compare the apparel of the gods Marduk and Adad, for which see A.
The reason for this punishment is not mentioned in Homer, and is obscure; according to some, he had revealed the designs of the gods to mortals, according to others, he was in the habit of attacking and murdering travellers.
Diogenes Laertius says, "If the gods use dialectic, they can use none other than that of Chrysippus"; A yap v Xpuvciriros, oinc av i v Ewa, ("Without Chrysippus, there had been no Porch").
Zion is now not the centre of a mere national cult, but the centre of all true religion for the whole world; and more than once the prophet indicates not obscurely that the necessary issue of the great conflict between Yahweh and the gods of the heathen must be the conversion of all nations, the disappearance of every other religion before the faith of the God of Israel.
The gods Apollo and Poseidon served him for hire, Apollo tending his herds, while Poseidon built the walls of Troy.
The process of assimilation did not proceed so far in Babylonia and Assyria, but Shamash and Adad became in combination the gods of oracles and of divination in general.
Whether the will of the gods is determined through the inspection of the liver of the sacrificial animal, through observing the action of oil bubbles in a basin of water or through the observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, it is Shamash and Adad who, in the ritual connected with divination, are invariably invoked.
Similarly in the annals and votive inscriptions of the kings, when oracles are referred to, Shamash and Adad are always named as the gods addressed, and their ordinary designation in such instances is bele biri, " lords of divination."
Why did it not provide for its mixed multitude of divinities by founding a universal church, in which all the gods of all nations might be worshipped along with the one ineffable Deity?
The nous is a sort of second god, the X6yoc which are wrapped up in it are gods, the stars are gods, and so on.
He is not to be classed amongst the " deceived deceivers," and the restoration of the worship of the old gods was by no means his chief object.
But, outspoken as he was in his criticism of the popular religions, he had no wish to give them up. He stood up for a pure worship of the many gods, and maintained the cause of every old national religion and the ceremonial duties of its adherents.
Of more historical interest are the two books Contra Symmachum, of 658 and 1131 hexameter verses respectively, the first attacking the pagan gods, the second directed against the petition of Symmachus to the emperor for the restoration of the altar and statue of Victory which Gratian had cast down.
Fenrir grew so large that the gods were afraid of him and had him chained up. But he broke the first two chains.
His image was carried in the pompa circensis amongst those of the immortal gods, and his statue set up in the temple of Quirinus with the inscription "To the Unconquerable God."
Great Mother Of The Gods).
This Sophia then appears as the mother of the " seven " gods (see above).
This is a Gnostic interpretation of the various myths of the great mother-goddess's many loves and love-adventures with other gods and heroes.
The Roman Catholic religion was enforced at the time of the conquest, but a large percentage of the natives may still be considered semi-pagan, the gods of their ancestors being worshipped in secret, and the forms and tenets of the dominant faith, which they but faintly comprehend, being largely adulterated with superstitions and practices of pagan origin.
When the first Moteuczoma was crowned king of the Aztecs, the Mexican sway extended far beyond the valley plateau of its origin, and the gods of conquered nations around had their shrines set up in Tenochtitlan in manifest inferiority to the temple of Huitzilopochtli, the war-god of the Aztec conquerors.
It was not merely for conquest and tribute that the fierce Mexicans ravaged the neighbourlands, but they had a stronger motive than either in the desire to obtain multitudes of prisoners whose hearts were to be torn out by the sacrificing priests to propitiate a pantheon of gods who well personified their bloodthirsty worshippers.
been thought in some cases to bear this signification, but its meaning is that of deity in general, and it is applied not only to the sun-god but to very inferior gods.
These divinities, however, seem to have had little or no place in the popular faith, which was occupied by polytheistic gods of the ordinary barbaric type.
Tezcatlipoca was held to be the highest of these, and at the festival of all the gods his footsteps were expected to appear in the flour strewn to receive this sign of their coming.
As is related in the legends, Quetzalcoatl came into the land to teach men to till the soil, to work metals and to rule a well-ordered state; the two gods played their famous match at the ball-game, and Tezcatlipoca persuaded the weary Quetzalcoatl to drink the magic pulque that sent him roaming to the distant ocean, where he embarked in his boat and disappeared from among men.'
These deities are not easily ' One of the most important sources for the ancient Mexican traditions and myths is the so-called " Codex Chimalpopoca," a manuscript in the Mexican language discovered by the Abbe analysed, but on the other hand Tonatiuh and Metztli, the sun and moon, stand out distinctly as nature gods, and the traveller still sees in the huge adobe pyramids of Teotihuacan, with their sides oriented to the four quarters, an evidence of the importance of their worship. The war-god Huitzilopochtli was the real head of the Aztec pantheon; his idol remains in Mexico, a huge block of basalt on which is sculptured on the one side his hideous personage, adorned with the humming-bird feathers on the left hand which signify his name, while the not less frightful war-goddess Teoyaomiqui, or " divine wardeath," occupies the other side.
Centeotl, the goddess of the allnourishing maize, was patroness of the earth and mother of the gods, while Mictlanteuctli, lord of dead-land, ruled over the departed in the dim under-world.
A large fraction of the Mexican population were set apart as priests or attendants to the services of the gods.
In the month of the " diminishing of waters " the rain gods or Tlalocs were propitiated by a procession of priests with music of flutes and trumpets carrying on plumed litters infants with painted faces, in gay clothing with coloured paper wings, to be sacrificed on the mountains or in a whirlpool in the lake.
Gods are represented with their appropriate attributes - the fire-god hurling his spear, the moon-goddess with a shell, &c.; the scenes of human life are pictures of warriors fighting with club and spear, men paddling in canoes, women spinning and weaving, &c. An important step towards phonetic writing appears in the picture-names of places and persons.
After the birth of a child, the tonalpouhqui or;sun-calculator drew its horoscope from the signs it was born under, and fixed the time for its solemn lustration or baptism, performed by the nurse with appropriate prayers to the gods, when a toy shield and bow were provided if it was a boy, or a toy spindle and distaff if it was a girl, and the child received its name.
AILANTHUS (more correctly ailantus, from ailanto, an Amboyna word probably meaning "Tree of the Gods," or "Tree of Heaven"), a genus of trees belonging to the natural order Simarubaceae.
He is frequently mentioned in Lucian as the lampooner of the gods.
Atargatis is said to have had sacred fish at Askelon, and from Xenophon we read that the fish of the Chalus were regarded as gods.
==Horse== There is some reason to believe that Poseidon, like other water gods, was originally conceived under the form of a horse.
==Lion== The lion was associated with the Egyptian gods Re and Horus; there was a lion-god at Baalbek and a lion-headed goddess Sekhet.
In Europe the corn spirit sometimes immanent in the crop, sometimes a presiding deity whose life does not depend on that of the growing corn, is conceived in some districts in the form of an ox, hare or cock, in others as an old man or woman; in the East Indies and America the rice or maize mother is a corresponding figure; in classical Europe and the East we have in Ceres and Demeter, Adonis and Dionysus, and other deities, vegetation gods whose origin we can readily trace back to the rustic corn spirit.
Just as a process of syncretism has given rise to cults of animal gods, tree spirits tend to become detached from the trees, which are thenceforward only their abodes; and here again animism has begun to pass into polytheism.
The term may, however, be conveniently used to describe the early stage of religion in which man endeavours to set up relations between himself and the unseen powers, conceived as spirits, but differing in many particulars from the gods of polytheism.
Animistic in many of their features too are the temporary gods of fetishism, naguals or familiars, genii and even the dead who receive a cult.
With the rise of a belief in departmental gods comes the age of polytheism; the belief in elemental spirits may still persist, but they fall into the background and receive no cult.
Tylor, makes the foundation of all religion animistic, but recognizes the non-human character of polytheistic gods.
They may, it is true, be associated with ghost gods, but in Australia it cannot even be asserted that the gods are spirits at all, much less that they are the spirits of dead men; they are simply magnified magicians, super-men who have never died; we have no ground, therefore, for regarding the cult of the dead as the origin of religion in this area; this conclusion is the more probable, as ancestor-worship and the cult of the dead generally cannot be said to exist in Australia.
The more general view that polytheistic and other gods are the elemental and other spirits of the later stages of animistic creeds, is equally inapplicable to Australia, where the belief seems to be neither animistic nor even animatistic in character.
Where the soul is regarded as no more than a finer sort of matter, it will obviously be far from easy to decide whether the gods are spiritual or material.
Even, therefore, if we can say that at the present day the gods are entirely spiritual, it is clearly possible to maintain that they have been spiritualized pari passu with the increasing importance of the animistic view of nature and of the greater prominence of eschatological beliefs.
One of his teachers was the Cyrenaic Theodorus, called "the atheist," whose influence is clearly shown in Bion's attitude towards the gods.
While eulogizing poverty and philosophy, he attacked the gods, musicians, geometricians, astrologers, and the wealthy, and denied the efficacy of prayer.
Uranus and other Greek gods anterior to Zeus were probably deities worshipped by earlier barbarous inhabitants of the land.
4-6 to household gods, may suggest that cults of the dead preceded that of Yahweh, nevertheless in the classical age of their religion (see Hebrew Religion) as reflected in the Old Testament, ancestor-worship has already vanished.
Do men after death become gods?
Euhemerus of Messenia tried of old to rationalize the Greek myths by supposing that the Olympian gods were deified men.
Such a theory, like its modern rival of the sun-myth, may of course be pushed till it becomes absurd; yet in India critical observers, like Sir Alfred C. Lyall, attest innumerable examples of the gradual elevation into gods of human beings, the process even beginning in their lifetime.
"In the course of a very few years, as the recollection of the man's personality becomes misty, his origin grows mysterious, his career takes a legendary hue, his birth and death were both supernatural; in the next generation the names of the elder gods get introduced into the story, and so the marvellous tradition works itself into a myth, until nothing but a personal incarnation can account for such a series of prodigies.
In this hymn we read how the gods shall release us from this sinful time, from the oppression of this world.
176 Jesus is invoked: "Jesus, of the gods first new moon, thou art God....
The angels, the gods ...
messenger of the gods, mediator (or interpreter) of religion, of the elect one Jesus - virgin of light.
Platonism preceded it, and was the metaphysical doctrine that all things are supernatural - forms, gods, souls.
Are the things which surround me in what I call the environment, - the men, the animals, the plants, the ground, the stones, the water, the air, the moon, the sun, the stars and God - are they shadows, unsubstantial things, as formerly Platonism made all things to be except the supernatural world of forms, gods and souls?
The ancient Saxons had borrowed the week from some Eastern nation, and substituted the names of their own divinities for those of the gods of Greece.
The elemental character of Hephaestus is far more apparent than is the case with the majority of the Olympian gods; the word Hephaestus was used as a synonym for fire not only in poetry (Homer, Il.
In epic poetry Hephaestus is rather a comic figure, and his limping gait provokes "Homeric laughter" among the gods.
Once a year every fire was extinguished on the island for nine days, during which period sacrifice was offered to the gods of the underworld and the dead.
The relation between Hephaestus and Prometheus is in some respects close, though the distinction between these gods is clearly marked.
Olger Danske and Barbarossa, and depend ultimately on an identification with the gods of the Northern Pantheon, notably Thor.
6), was the author of a work called 'EErtyfrUca, dealing with the gods and their worship.
Beliefs regarding the gods and life after death were self-contradictory and variable, but none interfered with the custom of preserving the body.
When her overtures were rejected, she embraced him and entreated the gods that she might be for ever united with him.
In ancient Egyptian cultus the priest, after he has solemnly saluted the gods, begins the daily toilet of the god, which consists in sprinkling his image, clothing it with coloured cloths, and anointing it with oil (Erman, Die aegyptische Religion, p. 49).
In the magical texts of Babylonia a similar virtue was attached to oil: "bright oil, pure oil, resplendent oil that bestows magnificence on the Gods ...
403) he was called Aegaeon by men, and Briareus by the gods.
Homer mentions him as assisting Zeus when the other Olympian deities were plotting against the king of gods and men (Iliad i.
So entirely did even his immediate circle ignore his religion that a court skald composed a poem on his death representing his welcome by the heathen gods into Valhalla.
Particular sites, rivers, springs, hills, meadows, caves, rocks, trees or groves, are holy and from time immemorial have been so, as the natural homes or haunts of gods or spirits.
Such a post set up by the priests is a god, is thrice anointed with ghee (or holy butter), and being set up beside the fire is invoked to let the offering go up to the gods .2 It is not always easy to mark off consecration from inspiration.
Thus the downfall of the monarchy and of the ancient cults have been nearly fatal to some of the more beautiful birds; feather ornaments, formerly worn only by nobles, came to be a common decoration; and many species (for example the Hawaiian gallinule, Gallinula sandwicensis, which, because of its crimson frontal plate and bill, was said by the natives to have played the part of Prometheus, burning its head with fire stolen from the gods and bestowed on mortals) have been nearly destroyed by the mongoose, or have been driven from their lowland homes to the mountains, such being the fate of the mamo, mentioned above, and of the Sandwich Island goose (Bernicla sandwicensis), which is here a remarkable example of adaptation, as its present habitat is quite arid.
Though less superstitious than the Tahitians, the idolatry of the Sandwich Islanders was equally barbarous and sanguinary, as, in addition to the chief objects of worship included in the mythology of the other islands, the supernatural beings supposed to reside in the volcanoes and direct the action of subterranean fires rendered the gods objects of peculiar terror.
The lowwr orders expected to be slowly devoured by evil spirits, or to dwell with the gods in burning mountains.
Household gods were also kept, which the natives worshipped in their habitations.
nouensides (" gods of the nine seats "); (4) the river name Farfarus, beside pure Lat.
There can be little doubt that the heathen Angli worshipped certain gods, among them Ti (Tig), Woden, Thunor and a goddess Frigg, from whom the names Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday are derived.
Of anthropomorphic representations of the gods we have no clear evidence, though we do hear of shrines in sacred enclosures, at which sacrifices were offered.
Notices of sacred trees and groves, springs, stones, &c., are much more frequent than those referring to the gods.
, ATTIS, or Atys, a deity worshipped in Phrygia, and later throughout the Roman empire, in conjunction with the Great Mother of the Gods.
See GREAT MOTHER OF THE GODS; J.
It is quite in harmony with these statements that many Northern and probably all the Anglo-Saxon kingly families traced their origin to the gods.
A number of gods were certainly known both in England and among many, if not all, the Teutonic peoples of the continent, as well as in the North.
Heimdallr, the watchman of the gods and Ullr, the stepson of Thor, as well as Hoenir, Bragi and most of the other less prominent gods, Writing.
Some of these eponymous ancestors may be regarded as heroes rather than gods, and classed with such persons, as Skioldr, the eponymous.
If it is not always easy to distinguish between gods and heroes, there is still greater difficulty in drawing a line between the former and other classes of supernatural beings, such as the " giants " (O.N.
Loki also was of giant birth; but he is always reckoned among the gods, and we find him constantly in their company, in spite of his malevolent disposition.
In general it may be said that the giants were regarded as hostile to both gods and men.
Tacitus tells of horses consecrated to the service of the gods, and of omens drawn from them, and we meet again with such horses in Norway nearly a thousand years later.
In contrast with later Scandinavian usage Tacitus states that the ancient Germans had no images of the gods.
A space apparently partitioned off contained figures of Thor or Frey and perhaps other gods, together with an altar on which burned a perpetual fire.
Human sacrifices to Thor and the other gods are not often mentioned.
One barbarous custom which was regarded as a sacrifice was the dedication of an enemy's army to the gods, especially Odin.
In conclusion it must be mentioned that even the life of the gods was not to be for ever.
A day was to come when Odin and Thor would fall in conflict with the wolf and the world-serpent, when the abode of the gods would be destroyed by fire and the earth sink into the sea.
But the destruction was not to be final; in the future the gods of a younger generation would govern a better world.
Soma is the Indian Bacchus, and one of the most important of the Vedic gods.
The plant's true home is heaven, and soma is drunk by gods as well as men, and it is under its influence that Indra is related to have created the universe and fixed the earth and sky in their place.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.