Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
He rapidly overran Galatia, Phrygia and Asia, defeated the Roman armies, and ordered a general massacre of the Romans in Asia.
MARCUS LOLLIUS, Roman general, the first governor of Galatia (25 B.C.), consul in 21.
M.) DEiOTARUS, a tetrarch of Galatia (Gallo-Graecia) in Asia Minor, and a faithful ally of the Romans.
Other tetrarchs also pressed their claims; and, further, DeIotarus was accused by his grandson Castor of having attempted to assassinate Caesar when the latter was his guest in Galatia.
The Greek form of Gallia was FaXaria, but Galatia in Latin denoted another Celtic region in central Asia Minor, sometimes styled Gallograecia.
Syria, Pontus, Lydia, Galatia, and above all Thrace were sources of supply.
There was a regular importation to Rome of slaves, brought to some extent from Africa, Spain and Gaul, but chiefly from Asiatic countries - Bithynia, Galatia, Cappadocia and Syria.
Angora, q.v.), an ancient city of Galatia in Asia Minor, situated on a tributary of the Sangarius.
In 63 B.C. Pompey placed it (together with the Tectosagan territory) under one chief, and it continued under native rule till it became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia in 25 B.C. By this time the population included Greeks, Jews, Romans and Romanized Gauls, but the town was not yet Hellenized, though Greek was spoken.
192) was founded by St Paul or that he ever visited northern Galatia.
Museum Catal., Galatia (1899); Babelon-Reinach, Recueil general d'A.
See also under Galatia.
- An important ecclesiastical synod was held at Ancyra, the seat of the Roman administration for the province of Galatia, in A.D.
Pamphylia was for a short time included in the dominions of Amyntas, king of Galatia, but after his death lapsed into a district of a Roman province, and its name is not again mentioned in history.
Other rock-sculptures at Giaur Kalessi, in Galatia, and in the Karabel pass near Smyrna, he suspected of belonging to the same class 2; and visiting the last-named locality in the autumn, he found Hittite pictographs accompanying one of the two figures.
6, it was in a political sense the chief city of the Lycaonian tetrarchy added to the Galatian country about 165 B.C., and it was part of the Roman province Galatia from 25 B.C. to about A.D.
But it was also frequently used to denote (in whole or part) that portion of the old Mithradatic kingdom which lay between the Halys (roughly) and the borders of Colchis, Lesser Armenia, Cappadocia and Galatia - the region properly designated by the title "Cappadocia towards the Pontus," which was always the nucleus of the Pontic kingdom.
But presently the process of annexation began and the Pontic districts were gradually incorporated in the empire, each being attached to the province of Galatia, then the centre of Roman forward policy.
To distinguish this district from the province Pontus and Polemon's Pontus, it was henceforth called Pontus galaticus (as being the first part attached to Galatia).
- (ED.) Meanwhile in Phrygia and its neighbourhood - especially in Galatia, and also in Thrace - a controversy was raging between the adherents and the opponents of the new prophecy.
From these treatises we learn that the adherents of the new prophecy were very numerous in Phrygia, Asia and Galatia (Ancyra), that they had tried to defend themselves in writing from the charges brought against them (by Miltiades), that they possessed a fully developed independent organization, that they boasted of many martyrs, and that they were still formidable to the Church in Asia Minor.
He finds that materials fail for Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt.
They went through Thrace, visiting Athens, Bithynia, Galatia, Pontus, Cappadocia and Cilicia, to Antioch, Jerome observing and making notes as they went.
He was interested in the theological disputes and schisms in Galatia, in the two languages spoken in Cilicia, &c. At Antioch the party remained some time.
Before 6 B.C. Augustus made it a colony, with the title Caesarea, and it became the centre of civil and military administration in south Galatia, the romanization of which was progressing rapidly in the time of Claudius, A.D.
Such were the tetrarchies of Thessaly as reconstructed by Philip of Macedon and of Galatia before its conquest by the Romans (169 B.C.).
it adjoined Phrygia Epictetus and Galatia.
A crisis had arisen in Galatia owing to the invasion of the churches, which St Paul had founded there, by reactionary Jews.
In the strict sense (Galatia Proper, Roman Gallograecia) this is the name applied by Greek-speaking peoples to a large inland district of Asia Minor since its occupation by Gaulish tribes in the 3rd century B.C. Bounded on the N.
Galatia is part of the great central plateau of Asia Minor, here ranging from 2000 to 3000 ft.
side Galatia consists of a series of plains with fairly fertile soil, lying between bare hills.
Probably they already occupied parts of Galatia, but definite limits were now fixed and their right to the district was formally recognized.
In the settlement of 64 B.C. Galatia became a client-state of the empire, the old constitution disappeared, and three chiefs (wrongly styled "tetrarchs") were appointed, one for each tribe.
But this arrangement soon gave way before the ambition of one of these tetrarchs, Deiotarus, the contemporary of Cicero and Caesar, who made himself master of the other two tetrarchies and was finally recognized by the Romans as king of Galatia.
On the death of the third king Amyntas in 25 B.C., Galatia was incorporated by Augustus in the Roman empire, and few of the provinces were more enthusiastically loyal.
In the rustic parts a knowledge of Greek begins to spread in the 3 rd century; but only in the 4th and 5th centuries, after the transference of the centre of government first to Nicomedia and then to Constantinople placed Galatia on the highway of imperial communication, was Hellenism in its Christian form gradually diffused over the country.
The Roman province of Galatia, constituted 25 B.C., included the greater part of the country ruled by Amyntas, viz.
Galatia Proper, part of Phrygia towards Pisidia (Apollonia, Antioch and Iconium), Pisidia, part of Lycaonia (including Lystra and Derbe) and Isauria.
17) with Armenia Minor became the centre of the forward movement and Galatia lost its importance, being merged with Cappadocia in a vast double governorship until A.D.
114 (probably), when Trajan separated the two parts, making Galatia an inferior province of diminished size, while Cappadocia with Armenia Minor and Pontus became a great consular military province, charged with the defence of the frontier.
Under Diocletian's reorganization Galatia was divided, about 295, into two parts and the name retained for the northern (now nearly identical with the Galatia of Deiotarus); and about 390 this province, amplified by the addition of a few towns in the west, was divided.
into Galatia Prima and Secunda or Salutaris, the division indicating the renewed importance of Galatia in the Byzantine empire.
After suffering from Persian and Arabic raids, Galatia was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the 11th century and passed to the Ottoman Turks in the middle of the t4th.
The question whether the "Churches of Galatia," to which St Paul addressed his Epistle, were situated in the northern or southern part of the province has been much discussed, and in England Prof. Sir W.
Galater (1897); Perrot, De Galatia 1 In the unsettled state of this controversy, weight naturally attaches to the opinion of experts on either side; and the above statement, while opposed to the view taken in the following article on the epistle, must be taken on its merits.
i Paul bids the Corinthians, as he had bidden the churches of Galatia, lay up in store on the first of the week, each one of them, money for the poor saints of Jerusalem.
The Marcionites, the Ebionites, or Judaeo-Christians of Palestine, the Montanists of Phrygia, Africa and Galatia, the confessor Alcibiades of Lyons, c. A.D.
23, that Paul and Barnabas appointed elders in the churches of South Galatia, is more open to objection perhaps, owing to the silence of the Epistle to the Galatians.
In the Pauline churches the name is not found except at Ephesus and possibly in south Galatia, though there are traces of the office, at any rate in germ, under different titles in other churches.
The Volcae Arecomici in the south of France and the Tectosages of Galatia were in all probability offshoots of this people.
the case of Paul of Samosata, c. 265, and the Synod of Ancyra in Galatia, c. 314).
PESSINUS (HE (Tatvo13, HEawovs), an ancient city of Galatia in Asia Minor, situated on the lowest southern slope of Mt Dindymus, on the left bank of the river Sangarius, not far from its source.
386-395) Pessinus was made the capital of Galatia Secunda or Salutaris, and it became a metropolitan bishopric. After the 16th century it disappears from history, being supplanted, from the beginning of the period of Saracen invasion, by the impregnable fortress Justinianopolis (Sivri-Hissar), which became the capital and the residence of the bishop, thenceforward called "archbishop of Pessinus or of Justinianopolis."
In that part of Phrygia, which by the settlement of the Celtic invaders became Galatia, the larger towns seem to have become Hellenized by the time of the Christian era, whilst the Celtic speech maintained itself in the country villages till the 4th century A.D.
settled the Gauls permanently in eastern Phrygia, and a large part of the country was henceforth known as Galatia.
Great part of the Axylon was assigned to Galatia.
In Asia Minor Palmyrene garrisons were established as far west as Ancyra in Galatia and Chalcedon opposite Byzantium, and Zenobia still professed to be acting in the interests of the Roman rule.
ASTERIUS, of Cappadocia, sophist and teacher of rhetoric in Galatia, was converted to Christianity about the year 300, and became the disciple of Lucian, the founder of the school of Antioch.
It included, in addition to Cilicia proper, Isauria, Lycaonia, Pisidia, Pamphylia and Cyprus, as well as a protectorate over the client kingdoms of Cappadocia and Galatia.
Claudius Marcellus (pro Marcello), to plead in the same year before Caesar for Quintus Ligarius, and in 45 on behalf of Deiotarus, tetrarch of Galatia, also before Caesar.
Paphlagonia is an ancient district of Asia Minor, situated on the Euxine Sea between Bithynia and Pontus, separated from Galatia by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.
The most considerable towns of the interior were Gangra, in ancient times the capital of the Paphlagonian kings, afterwards called Germanicopolis, situated near the frontier of Galatia, and Pompeiopolis, in the valley of the Amnias (a tributary of the Halys), near which were extensive mines of the mineral called by Strabo sandarake (red arsenic), which was largely exported from Sinope.
The most important rivers which flow to the Black Sea are the following: - the Boas (Churuk Su) which rises near Baiburt, and flows out near Batum; the Iris (Yeshil Irmak), with its tributaries the Lycus (Kelkit Irmak), which rises on the Armenian plateau, the Chekerek Irmak, which has its source near Yuzgat, and the Tersakan Su; the Halys (Kizil Irmak) is the longest river in Asia Minor, with its tributaries the Delije Irmak (Cappadox), which flows through the eastern part of Galatia, and the Geuk Irmak, which has its sources in the mountains above Kastamuni.
Thus in Cappadocia the facial type of the nonAryan race is common, and in Galatia there are traces of Gallic blood.
Errors in policy and in government facilitated the rise of Pontus into a formidable power under Mithradates, who was finally driven out of the country by Pompey, and died 63 B.C. Under the settlement of Asia Minor by Pompey, Bithynia-Pontus and Cilicia became provinces, whilst Galatia and Cappadocia were allowed to retain nominal independence for over half a century more under native kings, and Lycia continued an autonomous League.
Galatia), not later than about the middle of the 2nd century.
It was said that there was an early settlement of Volcae Tectosages near the Hercynia Silva in Germany; Tectosages was also the name of one of the three great communities of Gauls who invaded and settled in Asia Minor in the country called after them Galatia.
Least of all does the historical evidence at our disposal justify the inference that the civilization of north Galatia, during the 1st century A.D., was Romano-Gallic rather than Hellenic; for, as the coins and inscriptions indicate, the Anatolian culture which predominated throughout the province did not exclude the infusion either of Greek religious conceptions or of the Greek language.
The degree of elementary Greek culture needful for the understanding of Galatians cannot be shown to have been foreign to the inhabitants of north Galatia.
The epistle was not written until Paul had visited Thessalonica, 2 The historical and geographical facts concerning Galatia, which lead other writers to support the south Galatian theory, are stated in the preceding article on Galatia; and the question is still a matter of controversy, the division of opinion being to some extent dependent on whether it is approached from the point of view of the archaeologist or the Biblical critic. The ablest re-statements of the north Galatian theory, in the light of recent pleas for south Galatia as the destination of this epistle, may be found by the English reader in P. W.
s Not only is the address "to the churches of Galatia" unusually bare, but Paul associates no one with himself, either because he was on a journey or because, as the attacked party, he desired to concentrate attention upon his personal commission.
At last Attila, king of Pergamum, defeated them in a series of battles commemorated on the Pergamene sculptures, and henceforth they were confined to a strip of land in the interior of Asia Minor, the Galatia of history.
Their three tribes - Trocmi, Tolistobogians and Tectosages--submitted to Rome (189 B.C.), but they remained autonomous till the death of their king Amyntas, when Augustus erected Galatia into a province.
Early in his reign the Gauls of Galatia invaded his territory.
Galatia, Troas, Philippi (where he was imprisoned), Thessalonica and Beroea, where Silas was left with Timothy, though he afterwards rejoined Paul at Corinth.
(2) A Turkish vilayet in north-central Asia Minor, which includes most of the ancient Galatia.
He occupied Colchis, Paphlagonia and part of Galatia; set his son Ariarathes on the throne of Cappadocia and drove out Nicomedes III., the young king of Bithynia.
2 The elders were appointed to teach and rule; 3 the deacons to minister to the poor.4 There were elders in the church at Jerusalem,' and in the church at Ephesus; 6 Paul and Barnabas appointed elders in the cities of Lycaonia and Pisidia; 7 Paul left Titus in Crete to appoint elders in every city; 8 the elders amongst the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia received a special exhortation by Peter.Ã‚° These elders were rulers, and the only rulers in the New Testament Church.
Originally a large and prosperous Phrygian city on the Persian Royal Road, Ancyra became the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes that settled permanently in Galatia about 232 B.C. The barbarian occupation dislocated civilization, and the town sank to a mere village inhabited chiefly by the old native population who carried on the arts and crafts of peaceful life, while the Gauls devoted themselves to war and pastoral life (see Galatia).
(1) A vilayet of Asia Minor which includes Paphlagonia and parts of Pontus and Galatia.
According to Demosthenes he and his three sons received from the Athenians the honour of citizenship. (2) The son of Mithradates III., who reigned c. 266-240 B.C., and was one of those who enlisted the help of the invading Gauls (see Galatia).
The population of Galatia was not entirely Gallic. Before the arrival of the Gauls, western Galatia up to the Halys was inhabited by Phrygians, and eastern Galatia by Cappadocians and other native races.
When Galatia was divided into two provinces (A.D.
Besides these, certain cities beyond the bounds of the Byzantine Phrygias belonged under the Roman empire to the province of Asia and are usually considered Phrygian: (i) in Byzantine Pisidia, Philomelium (Ak Shehr), Hadrianopolis; (2) in Byzantine Galatia, Amorium (Assar near Hamza Hadji), Orcistus (Alikel or Alekian), Tricomia or Trocmada or Trocnada (Kaimaz); (3) in Byzantine Lycia, Cibyra (Horzum).
PAPHLAGONIA, an ancient district of Asia Minor, situated 40n the Euxine Sea between Bithynia and Pontus, separated from Galatia by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.
of Pergamum, c. 232 B.C., to a district on the Sangarius and Halys to which the name Galatia was applied; and after their defeat by Manlius, 189 B.C., they were subjected to the suzerainty of Pergamum (see Galatia).
Their descendants were probably the " foolish Galatians " to whom St Paul wrote (see Galatia).
He invaded Cappadocia, and married his daughter to the young king, Ariarathes Epiphanes; bought the succession from the last king of Paphlagonia, and obtained a kind of protectorate over Galatia.
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