She felt too bad for the former goddess to walk away.
The story of Ishtar's descent is told to illustrate the possibility of an escape from Irkalla, while the other myth is intended to reconcile the existei:ce of two rulers of Irkalla - a goddess and a god.
A goddess! he added in French.
This was an airy and unplastered cabin, fit to entertain a travelling god, and where a goddess might trail her garments.
She wasn't ready to face the former goddess again.
She faced the goddess, rage streaking through her along with the terror of being mated to the Dark One.
I also saw poor Niobe with her youngest child clinging close to her while she implored the cruel goddess not to kill her last darling.
It is evident that it was originally a goddess who was supposed to be in control of Irkalla, corresponding to Ishtar in control of fertility and vegetation on earth.
From this town we have a very interesting though brief inscription dating probably from early in the 3rd century B.C.; it is cut upon a small bronze plate (now in the Naples Museum), which must have once been fixed to some votive object, dedicated to the god Declunus (or the goddess Decluna).
FREYIA, the sister of Frey, and the most prominent goddess in Northern mythology.
[the city] Bast" (B;s-t), a city better known by its later name, P-ubasti, "place of Ubasti"; thus the goddess derived her name Ubasti from her city (Bast), and in turn the city derived its name P-ubasti from that of the goddess; the Greeks, confusing the name of the city with that of the goddess, called the latter Bubastis, and the former also Bubastis (later Bubastos).
Inscriptions found by the recent excavations seem to prove that it must be identified as the shrine of the local goddess Aphaea, identified by Pausanias with Britomartis and Dictynna.
BUBASTIS, the Graecized name of the Egyptian goddess Ubasti, meaning "she of.
In 1646 she accompanied her husband to Minster, where he was sent by Mazarin as chief envoy, and where she charmed the German diplomatists who were making the treaty of Westphalia, and was addressed as the "goddess of peace and concord."
CERES, an old Italian goddess of agriculture.
One of these myths is the famous story of Ishtar's descent to Irkalla or Aralu, as the lower world was called, and her reception by her sister who presides over it; the other is the story of Nergal's offence against Ereshkigal, his banishment to the kingdom controlled by the goddess and the reconciliation between Nergal and Ereshkigal through the latter's offer to have Nergal share the honours of the rule over Irkalla.
The village of Comorin, with the temple of Kanniyambal, the " virgin goddess," on the coast at the apex of the headland, is a frequented place of pilgrimage.
His vehicle (vahana) is a goose or swan (hamsa), whence he is also called Harnsavahana; and his consort is Sarasvati, the goddess of learning.
ERESHKIGAL, also known as Allatu, the name of the chief Babylonian goddess of the nether-world where the dead are gathered.
But he could hardly be said seriously to have oppressed the subject cities, and technically all the League money was spent on League business, for Athena, to whom the chief monuments in Athens were reared, was the patron goddess of the League.
But when Greek deities were introduced into Rome on the advice of the Sibylline books (in 495 B.C., on the occasion of a severe drought), Demeter, the Greek goddess of seed and harvest, whose worship was already common in Sicily and Lower Italy, usurped the place of Ceres in Rome, or rather, to Ceres were added the religious rites which the Greeks paid to Demeter, and the mythological incidents which originated with her.
Would the Deidre that was his mate snap one day and turn into the goddess he remembered?
The name Marica (" goddess of the salt-marshes") among the Aurunci appears also both on the coast of Picenum and among the Ligurians; and Stephanus of Byzantium identified the Osci with the Siculi, whom there is reason to suspect were kinsmen of the Ligures.
He therefore appealed to the Indian goddess Aditi or Immensity, a deity connected with a set of personal gods called Adityas.
Before the rise of the First Dynasty of Babylon, however, Elam had recovered its independence, and in 2280 B.C. the Elamite king Kutur-Nakhkhunte made a raid in Babylonia and carried away from Erech the image of the goddess Nana.
Of these Alus is evidently the ancient Auzara or Uzzanesopolis, the city of the old Arabic goddess `Uzza; Haditha, an important town under the Abbasids, was earlier known 'as Baia Malcha; while Jibba has not been identified.
`Ana itself, a very ancient town, of Babylonian origin, once sacred probably to the goddess of the same name, lay originally on several islands in the stream, where ruins, principally of the Arabic and late Persian period, are visible.
Seeing her mirror image was a reminder that Deidre was created by a goddess with the sole intention of using and discarding the human she made.
It wasn't out of the realm of the possible that the information he needed was hidden in some sort of sadistic treasure hunt created by the sociopathic goddess who held the title of Death before him.
392 ff.); a second festival, in August, to celebrate the reunion of Ceres and Proserpine, in which women, dressed in white, after a fast of nine days offered the goddess the first-fruits of the harvest (Livy xxii.
Suspecting it had belonged to the goddess who was Death, Wynn still wasn't expecting anyone in their right mind to revive the most dreaded of the deities.
He listened, though, curious what kind of deal human-Deidre had made with the only goddess to ever outsmart the Dark One and Immortal Laws.
The thought of letting him run those hands wherever he wanted thrilled the human in her and terrified the former goddess.
She'd never cried as a goddess.
As a goddess, she had no need for those around her to trust her.
That was the tone of the goddess.
The goddess never appreciated anything around her, or anyone.
And yet, he couldn't deny that Deidre was back or at least, a woman who had the knowledge of the goddess and the body and heart of a human.
The goddess she had been would mock her for choosing to become what she'd always despised.
Unfortunately, he realized he would rather have told the goddess version of her the truth than the fragile human.
These were the words of the goddess not the human.
What she recalled was a pittance of what she had known as a goddess.
She did her best to stay cool and detached, the way she would have if she were still a goddess.
A huge, triumphant grin with the satisfaction of the goddess and the beautiful flush of a human.
It was a far cry from the woman who ran away screaming from the soul she accidentally touched last week or the goddess who would've commanded him rather than risk getting her hands dirty.
She didn't just have the body of a human and the knowledge of the goddess; she wanted to help him enough that she was willing to overcome her fear.
In the course of three days, the goddess had almost learned to see him as an equal while her human side no longer in denial about her destiny.
Sometimes, he thought there was none of the human left at all, just an incarnated goddess whose fascination with her new world extended to him.
He wore her – a goddess! – out with his lovemaking and passion.
He was certain to take her to climax each time before seeking his own release, a practice she'd never participated, when she was a goddess who felt nothing.
At one point, Fate had told him a story about how he tricked the goddess into a series of agreements that landed her out of a job.
In desperation, the goddess made a series of deals with the former Dark One, Fate, Darkyn and others to alter the series of events that might see her with anyone but Gabriel.
"Believe it or not, I'm less a fan of Darkyn than I am of your goddess," Fate said.
Gabriel was reminded of the many times he'd expressed something human to the goddess he'd loved for thousands of years.
I cared enough to let Darkyn strip the powers of a goddess when every other deity in the worlds wanted her dead-dead.
He couldn't help feeling angry with the goddess who set this all up or escape the emotion he felt knowing his mate was the woman he'd loved for thousands of years.
What if Darkyn slaughtered the innocent life dragged into this mess for no other purpose than to make the goddess' transition easier.
He hadn't been able to during their time together when she was a goddess and he her servant.
He'd been in the middle of deciding which of his collection of knives he was going to use to kill the goddess once and for all when the noise started.
Come tuck me in, my Greek goddess.
"She's almost as old as time itself and older even than the Ancients. I think she was a goddess at one point," Gabe answered.
What do you mean? Isn't she a god? Goddess, I mean.
Concordia (Goddess) >>
Many days are indicated in the calendar as nubattu, a term which signifies rest, pause, and especially a god's connubial rest with his consort goddess.
The tablet of Canopus shows that there were two festivals of Bubastis, the great and the lesser: perhaps the lesser festival was!held at Memphis, where the quarter called Ankhto contained a temple to this goddess.
FLORA, in Roman mythology, goddess of spring-time and flowers, later identified with the Greek Chloris.
40.61), it was the custom of the ancient Egyptians to beat themselves during the annual festival in honour of their goddess Isis.
The priests of Cybele, or archigalli, submitted to the discipline in the temple of the goddess (Plutarch, Adv.
A beautiful woman, it is said, by name Phya, was disguised as Athena and drove into the Agora with Peisistratus at her side, while proclamations were made that the goddess herself was restoring Peisistratus to Athens.
The remains were dismembered and carried to the fields, excepting the portion offered to the earth goddess, which was buried.
The tribal names Gad and Asher are suggestive of the worship of a deity of fortune (Gad) and of the male counterpart of the goddess, Asherah.
Indeed, Hebrew, unlike Assyrian or Phoenician, has no distinctive form for " goddess."
But the symbol carried with it the numen of the goddess symbolized, and there can be little doubt that Asherah came to be regarded as Yahweh's consort.
Similarly in the earlier pre-exilian period of Israel's occupation of Canaanite territory the Hebrews were always subject to this tendency to worship the old Baal or `Ashtoreth (the goddess who made the cattle and flocks prolific).3 A few years of drought or of bad seasons would make a Hebrew settler betake himself to the old Canaanite gods.
DEMETER, in Greek mythology, daughter of Cronus and Rhea and sister of Zeus, goddess of agriculture and civilized life.
Erysichthon (" tearer up of the earth "), son of Triopas or Myrmidon, having cut down the trees in a grove sacred to the goddess, was punished by her with terrible hunger (Callimachus, Hymn to Demeter; Ovid, Metam.
at Delos), from 'lovAos, " corn-sheaf," has been regarded as identifying the goddess with the sheaf, and as proving that the cult of Demeter originated in the worship of the corn-mother or corn-spirit, the last sheaf having a more or less divine character for the primitive husbandman.
Although the goddess of agriculture is naturally inclined to peace and averse from war, the memory of the time when her land was won and kept by the sword still lingers in the epithets xpvuaopos and 1.4n7 pos and in the name Triptolemus, which probably means " thrice fighter " rather than " thrice plougher."
The cave, still called Mavrospelya ("black cave"), was ever afterwards regarded as sacred to Demeter, and in'it, according to information given to Pausanias, there had been set up an image of the goddess, a female form seated on a rock, but with a horse's head and mane, to which were attached snakes and other wild animals.
Various interpretations have been given of the horse-headed form of the Black Demeter: (I) that the horse was one of the forms of the corn-spirit in ancient Greece; (2) that it was an animal " devoted " to the chthonian goddess; (3) that it is totemistic; (4) that the form was adopted from Poseidon Hippios, who is frequently associated with the earth-goddess and is said to have received the name Hippios first at Thelpusa, in order that Demeter might figure as the mother of Areion (for a discussion of the whole subject see Farnell, Cults, iii.
This is to be distinguished from the later sacrifice of a ram to the same goddess on the 6th of the month Thargelion, probably intended as an act of propitiation.
The attributes of Demeter are chiefly connected with her character as goddess of agriculture and vegetation - ears of corn, the poppy, the mystic basket (calathus) filled with flowers, corn and fruit of all kinds, the pomegranate being especially common.
BONA DEA, the "good goddess," an old Roman deity of fruitfulness, both in the earth and in women.
Her victim was a porca, as in the cults of other deities of fertility, and was called damium, and we are told that the goddess herself was known as Damia and her priestess as damiatrix.
It is thus highly probable that on the cult of the original Roman goddess was engrafted the Greek C one of Damia, perhaps after the conquest of Tarentum (272 B.C.).
The chief record of the dialect or patois we owe to the goddess Angitia, whose chief temple and grove stood at the south-west corner of Lake Fucinus, near the inlet to the emissarius of Claudius (restored by Prince Torlonia), and the modern village of Luco.
3515) as a goddess of healing, especially skilled to cure serpent bites by charms and the herbs of the Marsian woods.
The evidence supplied by this and other Cretan sites shows that the principal Minoan divinity was a kind of Magna Mater, a Great Mother or nature goddess, with whom was associated a male satellite.
Under her native name, Britomartis (= the sweet maiden) or Dictynna, she approaches Artemis and Leto, again associated with an infant god, and this Cretan virgin goddess was worshipped in Aegina under the name of Aphaea.
It is noteworthy that whereas, in Greece proper, Zeus attains a supreme position, the old superiority of the Mother Goddess is still visible in the Cretan traditions of Rhea and Dictynna and the infant Zeus.
His name is preserved in the Sicilian Minoa, and his tomb was pointed out in the neighbourhood of Agrigentum, with a shrine above dedicated to his native Aphrodite, the lady of the dove; and in this connexion it must be observed that the cult of Eryx perpetuates to much later times the characteristic features of the worship of the Cretan Nature goddess, as now revealed to us in the palace of Cnossus and elsewhere.
Here too were found the repositories of an early shrine containing exquisite faience figures and reliefs, including a snake goddess - another aspect of the native divinity - and her votaries.
The buildings themselves, with the usual halls, bath-rooms and magazines, together with a shrine of the Mother Goddess, occupy two sides of a rectangle, enclosing a court at a higher level approached by flights of stairs.
It contained a shrine of the Cretan snake goddess, and was rich in minor relics, chiefly in the shape of bronze implements and pottery for household use.
c. xv.) it is derived from Eostre, or Ostdra, the Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring, to whom the month answering to our April, and called Eostur-monath, was dedicated.
The goddess, who embodied the idea of the city, was seated on a rock, crowned with towers, and having the river Orontes at her feet.
The Mahrattas generally follow Siva and his wife, a dread goddess known under many names.
If this be correct, then the goddess Nand (or Ishtar) of Erech was presumably regarded as his consort.
It represented the goddess, standing in the stiff archaic style, holding a spear in her right hand, in her left a distaff and spindle or a shield.
PROSERPINE (Proserpina), the Latin form of Persephone,' a Greek goddess, daughter of Zeus and the earth-goddess Demeter.
On the other hand in her character of goddess of the spring she was honoured with flower-festivals in Sicily and at Hipponium in Italy.
Sicily was a favourite haunt of the two 1 Some, however, regard Proserpina as a native Latin form, not borrowed from the Greek, and connected with proserpere, meaning the goddess who aided the germination of the seed.
At Rome Proserpine was associated with Ceres (the Roman representative of Demeter) in the festival of the Cerealia (April 12 to 19), she was represented as the wife of Dis Pater (the Roman Pluto), and was sometimes identified with the native Latin goddess Libera.
Corresponding to Proserpine as goddess of the dead is the old Norse goddess Hel (Gothic Halja), whom Saxo Grammaticus calls Proserpine.
The god was probably son and mate of the goddess, and the divine pair represented the genius of Reproductive Fertility in its relations with humanity.
The goddess sometimes appears with doves, as uranic, at others with snakes, as chthonic. In the ritual fetishes, often of miniature form, played a great part: all sorts of plants and animals were sacred: sacrifice (not burnt, and human very doubtful), dedication of all sorts of offerings and simulacra, invocation, &c., were practised.
I.-Lion-Guarded Goddess And Shrine, On A Clay Sealing From Cnossus.
7.-Faience Figure Of The Goddess, With Serpent Attributes, Cnossus.
BRITOMARTIS (" sweet maiden"), an old Cretan goddess, later identified with Artemis.
She was afterwards made a goddess by Artemis under the name of Dictynna (Blktvov, " a net").
She was the patroness of hunters, fishermen and sailors, and also a goddess of birth and health.
But Agamemnon had offended the goddess Artemis by slaying a hind sacred to her, and boasting himself a better hunter.
Calchas announced that the wrath of the goddess could only be appeased by the sacrifice of Iphigeneia.
Less specialized in their functions are many of the figures of modern folklore, some of whom have perhaps replaced some ancient goddess, e.g.
The great goddess of the Aramaeans, `Athar-`atheh, in Greek Atargatis 1 Transcribed MaXax,37)Aos, Malagbelus, &c., and in the Palm.
(q.v.), and Allath, the chief goddess of the ancient Arabs, were also worshipped at Palmyra.
Paphos owes its ancient fame to the cult of the "Paphian goddess" llacNaFavavaa, or 7) IIacaia, in inscriptions, or simply n 8ea), a nature-worship of the same type as the cults of Phoenician Astarte, maintained by a college of orgiastic ministers, practising sensual excess and self-mutilation.'
Modern etymologists connect it with lu-crum, and explain it as meaning the goddess of gain.
In this new country it was her duty to sacrifice to the goddess all strangers; and as her brother Orestes came to search for her and to carry off to Attica the image of the goddess, she was about to sacrifice him, when a happy recognition took place.
According to other versions of the legend, when saved from sacrifice Iphigeneia was transported to the island of Leuke, where she was wedded to Achilles under the name of Orsilochia (Antoninus Liberalis 27); or she was transformed by Artemis into the goddess Hecate (Pausanias _i.
According to the Spartans, the image of Artemis was transported by Orestes and Iphigeneia to Laconia, where the goddess was worshipped as Artemis Orthia, the human sacrifices originally offered to her being abolished by Lycurgus and replaced by the flogging of youths (diamastigosis, Pausan.
At Hermione, Artemis was worshipped under the name of Iphigeneia, thus showing the heroine in the last resort to be a form of that goddess (Pausanias ii.
Originally, Iphigeneia, the "mighty born," is probably merely an epithet of Artemis, in which the notion of a priestess of the goddess had its origin.
ASTARTE, a Semitic goddess whose name appears in the Bible as Ashtoreth.'
To nomads, Astarte may well have been a sheep-goddess, but this, if her earliest, was not her only type, as is clear from the sacred fish of Atargatis, the doves of Ascalon (and of the Phoenician sanctuary of Eryx), and the gazelle or antelope of the goddess of love (associated also with the Arabian Athtar).
According to the accepted story, it was here that the goddess first landed when she emerged from the sea.
It is obvious from the tales of Hecuba's transformation and death that she is a form of some goddess to whom dogs were sacred; and the analogy with Scylla is striking.
Originally a nature goddess (like Venus the garden goddess, with whom she was sometimes identified), she represented at first the hope of fruitful gardens and fields, then of abundant offspring, and lastly of prosperity to come and good fortune in general, being hence invoked on birthdays and at weddings.
Wissowa, Religion and Kultus der Romer (1902), according to whom Spes was originally not a garden goddess, but simply the divinity to whom one prayed for the fulfilment of one's desires.
The goddess Irnina (a form of Ishtar, q.v.) in revenge kills Eabani, and the balance of the epic is taken up with Gilgamesh's lament for his friend, his wanderings in quest of a remote ancestor, Ut-Napishtim, from whom he hopes to learn how he may escape the fate of Eabani, and his finally learning from his friend of the sad fate in store for all mortals except the favourites of the god, like Ut-Napishtim, to whom immortal life is vouchsafed as a special boon.
Firenze, Florence); the patron goddess, Athena, was probably called after the place of her cult.
549), in which the cult of the goddess was associated with that of Erechtheus; the Homeric temple is identified by Furtw.ngler with the " compact house of Erechtheus " (Od.
According to DBrpfeld, this was the " old temple " of Athena Polias, frequently mentioned in literature and inscriptions, in which was housed the most holy image (oavov) of the goddess which fell from heaven; it was burnt, but not completely destroyed, during the Persian War, and some of its external decorations were afterwards built into the north wall of the Acropolis; it was subsequently restored, he thinks, with or without its colonnade - in the former case a portion of the peristyle must have been removed when the Erechtheum was built so as to make room for the porch of the maidens; the building was set on fire in 406 B.C. (Xen.
high, represented the goddess as fully armed; the gleam of her helmet and spear could be seen by the mariners approaching from Cape Sunium (Pausanias i.
43), but the home of the goddess was unquestionably not Palestine, but Syria proper, expecially at Hierapolis, where she had a great temple.
Lucian and Apuleius give descriptions of the beggar-priests who went round the great cities with an image of the goddess on an ass and collected money.
Atargatis, in the capacity of fro?uovxos, wears a mural crown, is the ancestor of the royal house, the founder of social and religious life, the goddess of generation and fertility (hence the prevalence of phallic emblems), and the inventor of useful appliances.
She receives a crown as a bridal gift, which is placed amongst the stars, while she herself is honoured as a goddess (Ovid, Metam.
PALES, an old Italian goddess of flocks and shepherds.
The people sigh under the burden imposed, and call upon the goddess Aruru to create a being who might act as a rival to Gilgamesh, curb his strength, and dispute his tyrannous control.
The goddess consents, and creates Eabani, who is described as a wild man, living with the gazelles and the beasts of the field.
With the decision of the two friends to proceed to the forest of cedars in which the goddess Irnina - a form of Ishtar - dwells, and which is guarded by Khumbaba, the 2nd tablet ends.
The basis of the 6th tablet is the familiar nature-myth of the change of seasons, in which Gilgamesh plays the part of the youthful solar god of the springtime, who is wooed by the goddess of fertility, Ishtar.
Gilgamesh, recalling to the goddess the sad fate of those who fall a victim to her charms, rejects the offer.
The goddess, enraged at the insult, asks her father Anu to avenge her.
In the 10th tablet the goddess Sabitu, who, as guardian of the sea, first bolts her gate against Gilgamesh, after learning of his quest, helps him to pass in a ship across the sea.
As the consort of En -lil, the goddess Nin-lil or Belit belongs to Nippur and her titles as "ruler of heaven and earth," and "mother of the gods" are all due to her position as the wife of Bel.
trans., 1906), where he comes to the conclusion that "instead of being the sixth rex of Rome, he was originally the rex serous, the priest of the cult of Diana Aricina transferred to the Aventine, the priest of the protecting goddess of fugitive slaves"; C. Pascal, Patti e legende di Roma antica (Florence, 1903); also O.
His original home was supposed to have been Arcadia, where he married Chryse, who brought him as dowry the Palladium or image of Pallas, presented to her by the goddess herself.
Thus, in the later Avesta, we find not only Mithra but also purely popular divinities such as the angel of victory, Verethraghna, Anahita (Anaitis), the goddess of the water, Tishrya (Sirius), and other heavenly bodies, invoked with special preference.
the shrine of the goddess of Rummin, a name no doubt derived from the ancient name Lumbini.
At first she was suckled by a she-bear, and then saved by huntsmen, among whom she grew up to be skilled with the bow, swift, and fond of the chase, like the virgin goddess Artemis.
Both were happy at the result; but forgetting to thank the goddess for the apples, they were led by her to a religious crime, and were transformed into lions by the goddess Cybele (Ovid, Metam.
Jason's uncle Athamas had two children, Phrixus and Helle, by his wife Nephele, the cloud goddess.
The goddess Athena herself superintended its construction, and inserted in the prow a piece of oak from Dodona, which was endowed with the power of speaking and delivering oracles.
Muller, it had its origin in the worship of Zeus Laphystius; the fleece is the pledge of reconciliation; Jason is a propitiating god of health, Medea a goddess akin to Hera; Aeetes is connected with the Colchian sun-worship. Forchhammer saw in it an old nature symbolism; Jason, the god of healing and fruitfulness, brought the fleece - the fertilizing rain-cloud - to the western land that was parched by the heat of the sun.
It was also performed as the fulfilment of a vow, or by command of the goddess herself, and the privilege was limited to no sex nor class.
p. 1194) thinks that it probably means "without mother's milk," either in an active or in a passive sense - "not giving suck," or "unsuckled," in her character as the virgin goddess, or as springing from the head of Zeus.
In Homer Athena already appears as the goddess of counsel, of war, of female arts and industries, and the protectress of Greek cities, this last aspect of her character being the most important and pronounced.
The inhabitants claimed that the goddess was born there and brought up by a local hero Alalcomeneus.
2) suggests a derivation from L vat, the goddess of the "onset."
She already appears as the goddess of counsel (iroXv)30vXos) in the Iliad and in Hesiod.
The protectress of cities was naturally also a goddess of war.
She was also the goddess of the arts of war in general; rTotXEia, she who draws up the ranks for battle, c,.)QTnpia, she who girds herself for the fray.
The epithets i-rriria, XaXtviTts, 5a t ta6t7r7r-os, usually referred to her as goddess of war-horses, may perhaps be reminiscences of an older religion in which the horse was sacred to her.
The goddess of war develops into the goddess of peace and the pursuits connected with it.
This god, whose worship was introduced into Athens at a later date by the Ionian immigrants, was identified with ErechtheusErichthonius (for whose birth Athena was in a certain sense responsible), and thus was brought into connexion with the goddess, in order to effect a reconciliation of the two cults.
The custom of offering a beautifully woven peplus at the Panathenaic festival is connected with her character as Ergane the goddess of industry.'
As in the case of Aphrodite and Apollo, Roscher in his Lexikon deduces all the characteristics of Athena from a single conception - that of the goddess of the storm or the thunder-cloud (for a discussion of such attempts see Farnell, Cults, i.
There seems little reason for regarding her as a nature-goddess at all, but rather as the presiding divinity of states and cities, of the arts and industries - in short, as the goddess of the whole intellectual side of human.
(3) The Scirophoria, with a procession from the Acropolis to the village of Skiron, in the height of summer, the priests who were to entreat her to keep off the summer heat walking under the shade of parasols (aKipov) held over them; others, however, connect the name with crKipos (" gypsum"), perhaps used for smearing the image of the goddess.
(8) The Panathenaea, at which the new robes for the image of the goddess were carried through the city, spread like a sail on a mast.
Harrison in Classical Review (June 1894), Athena Ergane is the goddess of the fruits of the field and the procreation of children.
As to artistic representations of the goddess, we have first the rude figure which seems to be a copy of the Palladium; secondly, the still rude, but otherwise more interesting, figures of her, as e.g.
From the time of Pheidias calm earnestness, self-conscious might, and clearness of intellect were the main characteristics of the goddess.
According to some, Niobe is the goddess of snow and winter, whose children, slain by Apollo and Artemis, symbolize the ice and snow melted by the sun in spring; according to others, she is an earth-goddess, whose progeny - vegetation and the fruits of the soil - is dried up and slain every summer by the shafts of the sun-god.
Heffter builds up the story round the dripping rock in Lydia, really representing an Asiatic goddess, but taken by the Greeks for an ordinary woman.
African epigraphy has revealed the names of some of their deities: deus invictus Aulisva; the god Motmanius, associated with Mercury; the god Lilleus; Baldir Augustus; Kautus pater; the goddess Gilva, identified with Tellus, and Ifru Augustus (Tissot i.
gyden, goddess, and Ger.
In this capacity there is associated with him a goddess Allatu, though there are indications that at one time Allatu was regarded as the sole mistress of Aralu, ruling in her own person.
Herodotus mentions the existence of this class, called Enarees, and says that they suffer from a sacred disease owing to the wrath of the goddess of Ascalon whose shrine they had plundered.
The Scyths had a method of divination with sticks, and the Enarees, who claimed to be soothsayers by grant of the goddess who had afflicted them, used another method by splitting bast fibres.
7 originally referred to the women who wove garments for the goddess in the temple at Jerusalem.
In the beginning were Chronos, the principle of time; Zeus (Zas), the principle of life; and Chthonie, the earth goddess.
The laws of Zaleucus, which he declared had been communicated to him in a dream by Athena, the patron goddess of the city, were few and simple, but so severe that, like those of Draco, they became proverbial.
Medea was honoured as a goddess at Corinth, and was said to have become the wife of Achilles in the Elysian fields.
Libitina was the goddess of funerals; her officers were the Libitinarii our undertakers; her temple in which all business connected with the last rites was transacted, in which the account of deaths - ratio Libitinae - was kept, served the purpose of a register office."
Abu-Habba lies south-west of Bagdad, midway between the Euphrates and Tigris, on the south side of a canal, which may once have represented the main stream of the Euphrates, Sippara of the goddess Anunit, now Der, being on its opposite bank.
These were " booty " dedicated to the goddess Bau.
Gis-ukh was made tributary, a certain amount of grain being levied upon each person in it, which had to be paid into the treasury of the goddess Nina and the god Ingurisa.
The women of Hierro worshipped a goddess called Moneiba.
In the oldest forms of the legend Hera is not mentioned; but afterwards the wanderings of Leto are ascribed to the jealousy of that goddess, enraged at her amour with Zeus.
But Leto is a real goddess, not a mere mythological figure.
In Lycia graves are frequently placed under her protection, and she is also known as a goddess of fertility and as Kouporp60os.
Lycia, one of the chief seats of the cult of Apollo, where most frequent traces are found of the worship of Leto as the great goddess, was probably the earlier home of her religion.
Close to the mouth of the river was the sacred grove of the Italic goddess Marica.
Neith, the goddess of Sais, was identified with Athena, and Osiris was worshipped there in a great festival.
This necklace occurs in the story of the goddess Freya (Frigg), who is said to have caused the battle to conciliate the wrath of Odin at her infidelity, the price paid by her for the possession of the necklace Brisnigamen; again, the light god Heimdal is said to have fought with Loki for the necklace (the sun) stolen by the latter.
The chief festival in Bengal - sometimes termed the Christmas of Bengal - celebrates the goddess's birth in the sixth Hindu month (parts of September and October).
The chief towns in the interior were Amasia, on the Iris, the birthplace of Strabo, the capital of Mithradates the Great, and the burial-place of the earlier kings, whose tombs still exist; Comana, higher up the river, a famous centre of the worship of the goddess Ma (or Cybele); Zela, another great religious centre, refounded by Pompey, now Zilch; Eupatoria, refounded by Pompey as Magnopolis at the junction of the Lycus and Iris; Cabira, Pompey's Diospolis, afterwards Neocaesarea, now Niksar; Sebastopolis on the Scylax, now Sulu Seral; Sebasteia, now Sivas; and Megalopolis, a foundation of Pompey, somewhere in the same district.
The goddess of art of Akishino-dera, Nara, attributed to the 8th century, is the most graceful and least conventional of female sculptures in Japan, but infinitely remote from the feminine conception of the Greeks.
The famous temple of Kwannon, the goddess of mercy, is in the Asakusa Park, in which a permanent fair is held; it is a great holiday resort of the citizens.
vi., vii., " The Making of a Goddess and of a God."
Others said that Athena (or Artemis) blinded him because he had seen her naked in the bath; when his mother prayed Athena to restore his sight, the goddess, being unable to do so, purged his ears so that he could understand the speech of birds, and gave him a staff wherewith to guide his steps (Apollodorus iii.
The oracle at Delphi was asserted by tradition to have existed before the introduction of the Apolline worship and to have belonged to the goddess Earth (Ge or Gaia).
Though they themselves trace their origin to seven Mahommedan tribes, Hindus appear to have been associated with them at an early period; at any rate, their religious creed and practices as stanch worshippers of Kali (Devi, Durga), the Hindu goddess of destruction, had certainly no flavour of Islam in them.
The will of the goddess by whose command and in whose honour they followed their calling was revealed to them through a very complicated system of omens.
Now he develops a twofold character: as the receiver of the spolia opima he becomes associated with war, especially in the double character of the stayer of rout (Stator) and the giver of victory (Victor), in which last capacity he later gives birth to an offshoot in the abstract conception of the goddess Victoria.
As the sky-god again he is appealed to as the witness of oaths in the special capacity of the Dins Fidius, producing once more an abstract offshoot in the goddess Fides.
through the mediation of Falerii, a Latin town on the Etruscan border, was due the introduction of Minerva, who, as the goddess of handicraft and protectress of the artisan gilds, was established in a temple on the Aventine.
Other Italian cults introduced at this period were those of Juno Sospes and Juno Regina, Venus and Fortuna Primigenia, a goddess of childbirth who came from Praeneste.
Thus we hear of temples dedicated to Juventas=Hebe (191 B.C.), Diana=Artemis (179 B.C.), Mars=Ares (138 B.C.), and find even such unexpected identifications as that of the Bona Dea - a cult title of the ancient Fauna, the female counterpart of the countryside numen Faunus - with a Greek goddess of women, Damia.
All the aboriginal tribes of Bastar worship the deities of the Hindu pantheon along with their own national goddess Danteswari.
They were famous in the ancient world for their maiden goddess, identified by the Greeks with Artemis Tauropolos or Iphigeneia, whom the goddess was said to have brought to her shrine at the moment when she was to have been sacrificed at Aulis.
Much of a priest's time was given up to the toilet of the god or goddess.
MACAO (A-Ma-ngao, "Harbour of the goddess A-Ma"; Port.
LUCINA, goddess of light, a title given to Juno and Diana as presiding over childbirth and bringing children into the light of the world.
The full name is lucina dea, " the light-bringing goddess" (lux, light, hence adj.
Here the goddess mother is represented with a sun upon her head.
The old Egyptian name of Tentyra was written 'In t (Ant), but the pronunciation of it is unknown: in later days it was 'In t-t-ntr t, "ant of the goddess," pronounced Ni-tentori, whence TEvrupa, TEvrupcs.
He was one of the promoters of the worship of Reason, and on the 10th of November 1793 he presented the goddess to the Convention in the guise of an actress.
Most important of the ruins is a temple; the remnants of its sculptures and inscriptions preserve the name of Tiberius and the figures of many deities, including a goddess 1 Alabarch or Arabarch (Gr.
According to Herodotus he was killed by his brother Saulius while he was performing sacrifice to the goddess Cybele.
LIBITINA, an old Roman goddess of funerals.
By later antiquarians Libitina was sometimes identified with Persephone, but more commonly (partly or completely) with Venus Lubentia or Lubentina, an Italian goddess of gardens.
The inconsistency of selling funeral requisites in the temple of Libitina, seeing that she is identified with Venus, is explained by him as indicating that one and the same goddess presides over birth and death; or the association of such things with the goddess of love and pleasure is intended to show that death is not a calamity, but rather a consummation to be desired.
lub-et, lib-ido); then, all such deities being connected with the underworld, she also became the goddess of death, and that side of her character predominated in the later conceptions.
His guardian goddess was Athena (Homer, viii.
The last variety is both the most ancient and the most commonly found, and is the sacred barley of antiquity, ears of which are frequently represented plaited in the hair of the goddess Ceres, besides being figured on ancient coins.
He was the husband of Chloris, the goddess of flowers, by whom he had a son, Carpus, the god of fruit (Ovid, Fasti, v.
The Sabaean Shams was a goddess, while the chief divinity of the Minaeans was the god `Athtar, -a male figure, worshipped under several forms, of which the commonest are the Eastern `Athtar and `Athtar Dhu Kabd.
The second story is that of Ea-bani, 8 who was formed by the goddess Arusu (= the mother-goddess Ishtar) of a lump of clay (cp. Gen.
9 Here the main points are that Etana is induced by an eagle to mount up to heaven, that he may win a boon from the kindly goddess Ishtar.
It is said that, after the fall of Troy, he dragged Cassandra away by force from the statue of the goddess at which she had taken refuge as a suppliant, and even violated her (Lycophron, 360, Quintus Smyrnaeus xiii.
In his train also are found Enyo, the goddess of war who delights in bloodshed and the destruction of cities; his sister, Eris, goddess of fighting and strife; and the Keres, goddesses of death, whose function it is especially to roam the battle-field, carrying off the dead to Hades.
In what appears to be a very early development of her character, Aphrodite also was a war goddess, known under the name of Areia; and in Thebes, the most important seat of the worship of Ares, she is his wife, and bears him Eros and Anteros, Deimos and Phobos, and Harmonia, wife of Cadmus, the founder of the city (Hesiod, Theog.
4, 5), and regarded by him as the real seat of the cult of the goddess, the Pietas of the sanctuary dedicated by Glabrio being a Greek goddess.
Helen was worshipped as the goddess of beauty at Therapnae in Laconia, where a festival was held in her honour.
At Rhodes she was worshipped under the name of Dendritis (the tree goddess), where the inhabitants built a temple in her honour to expiate the crime of Polyxo.
Originally, Helen was perhaps a goddess of light, a moon-goddess, who was gradually transformed into the beautiful heroine round whom the action of the Iliad revolves.
For revealing the name of the child's mother, in spite of the warnings of the goddess, he was killed or struck blind by lightning (Hyginus, Fab.
From the name Assaracus, from the intercourse between the Phoenicians and the early inhabitants of the Troad, and from the connexion of Aphrodite, the protecting goddess of the Phoenicians, with Anchises, it has been inferred that his family was originally of Assyrian origin.
They are traditionally, but without foundation, attributed to Vesta and the Sibyl of Tibur (Varro adds Albunea, the water goddess worshipped on the banks of the Anio as a tenth Sibyl to the nine mentioned by the Greek writers.
He was the offspring of Loki and the giantess Angurboda, who bore two other children, Midgard the serpent, and Hel the goddess of death.
mane, matutinus, " morning"), an old Italian goddess of dawn.
Under hellenizing influences, she became a goddess of sea and harbours, the Ino-Leucothea of the Greeks.
The progress of navigation and the association of divinities of the sky with maritime affairs probably also assisted to bring about the change, although the memory of her earlier function as a goddess of childbirth survived till imperial times.
But Gnostic speculation gives various accounts of the descent or fall of this goddess of heaven.
Neither would it be correct to identify her entirely with the great goddess Ishtar of the old Babylonian religion.
The character of the great goddess of heaven is still in many places fairly exactly preserved in the Gnostic speculations.
The great goddess of heaven is the mother of the stars.
From the same group of myths must be derived the idea of the goddess who descends to the under-world, and is there taken prisoner against her will by the lower powers; the direct prototype of this myth is to be found, e.g.
The subject is here that of a high goddess of heaven (she has 70 sons) whose friend and lover finds her in the misery of deepest degradation, frees her, and bears her home as his bride.
Common to all these is the dominant position assumed by the " Seven " (headed by Ialdabaoth); the heavenly world lying above the spheres of the Seven is occupied by comparatively few figures, among which the most important part is played by the µ rrlp, who is sometimes enthroned as the supreme goddess in heaven, but in a few systems has already descended from there into matter, been taken prisoner, &c. Numerous little groups are distinguished from the mass, sometimes by one peculiarity, sometimes by another.
Centeotl, the goddess of the allnourishing maize, was patroness of the earth and mother of the gods, while Mictlanteuctli, lord of dead-land, ruled over the departed in the dim under-world.
There is a good deal of evidence to connect the Greek goddess Artemis with a cult of the bear; girls danced as "bears" in her honour, and might not marry before undergoing this ceremony.
The bear is traditionally associated with Bern in Switzerland, and in 1832 a statue of Artio, a bear goddess, was dug up there.
==Lion== The lion was associated with the Egyptian gods Re and Horus; there was a lion-god at Baalbek and a lion-headed goddess Sekhet.
The name Nina, was borne also by the goddess Ishtar, whose worship was the special cult of Nineveh, and Ninua may well be a hypocoristicon of Nina,.
The same letters mention Shaushbi as goddess of Nineveh.
The connexion of the rough Hephaestus with these goddesses is curious; it may be due to the beautiful works of the smith-god (xapLEVTa Epya), but it is possibly derived from the supposed fertilizing and productive power of fire, in which case Hephaestus is a natural mate of Charis, a goddess of spring, and Aphrodite the goddess of love.
During the festival of Artemis at Delos, Acontius saw Cydippe, a well-born Athenian maiden of whom he was enamoured, sitting in the temple of the goddess.
He wrote on an apple the words, "I swear by the sacred shrine of the goddess that I will marry you," and threw it at her feet.
The Delphic oracle at last declared the cause of her illnesses to be the wrath of the offended goddess; whereupon her father consented to her marriage with Acontius (Aristaenetus, Epistolae, i.
Pele in idolatrous times was the dreaded goddess of Kilauea.
His daring is illustrated by the story that he came by night to the temple of Athene "of the Brazen House" at Sparta, and there set up his shield with the inscription, "Dedicated to the goddess by Aristomenes from the Spartans."
This work was refused; the jury alleged that a statue of Diana demanded drapery; without drapery, they said, the goddess became a "suivante de Venus," and not even the proud and frank chastity of the attitude and expression could save the Diana of Houdon (a bronze reproduction of which is in the Louvre) from insult.
There can be little doubt that the heathen Angli worshipped certain gods, among them Ti (Tig), Woden, Thunor and a goddess Frigg, from whom the names Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday are derived.
Their father, Niiir6r, the god of wealth, who is a somewhat less important figure, corresponds in name to the goddess Nerthus (Hertha), who in ancient times was worshipped by a number of tribes, including the Angli, round the coasts of the southern Baltic. Tacitus describes her as " Mother Earth," and the account which he gives of her cult bears a somewhat remarkable resemblance to the ceremonies associated in later times with Frey.
Gefion was another goddess who may represent a later form of Nerthus.
Skioldr, though hardly a god himself, is the husband of the goddess Gefion.
Ska61, the wife of Nior6r, and Ger6r, the wife of Frey, were the daughters of the giants Thiazi and Gymir respectively, though SkaNi is always reckoned as a goddess.
She ought perhaps to be regarded rather as a goddess than as a giantess, but she is never associated with the other.
21, is variously explained as meaning "man of El" (Ball), or as a transcription (Sayce) of the Babylonian Mutu-sa-ili (possibly, "man of the goddess").
Whilst giving an Aryan descent to their first kings, the ancient Tibetans assigned to their princesses a divine origin, and called them lhamo, " goddess."
The latter was the chief town; its coins are found in considerable number, the types being sometimes the Athenian goddess and her owl, sometimes native religious symbols, the caps of the Dioscuri, Apollo, &c. Few coins of Myrina are known.
1), in which the king is represented in Persian dress, and the goddess to whom he is offering a bowl looks exactly like an Egyptian Isis-Hathor; the inscription mentions the various objects of bronze and gold, engraved work and temple furniture, which the king dedicated.
The god or goddess was generally called the Ba'al or Ba'alath of such and such a place, a title which was used not only by the Canaanites, but by the Aramaeans (Be`el) and Babylonians (Bel) as well.
The mistress of Gebal was no doubt `Ashtart (Astarte in Greek, `Ashtoreth in the Old Testament, pronounced with the vowels of bosheth, " shame "), a name which is obviously connected with the Babylonian Ishtar, and, as used in Phoenician, is practically the equivalent of " goddess."
Another goddess, specially honoured at Carthage, is Tanith (pronunciation uncertain); nothing is known of her characteristics; she is regularly connected with Ba'al on the Carthaginian votive tablets, and called " the face of Ba'al," i.e.
Closer intimacy with the Greek world naturally brought about modifications in the character of the native gods, which became apparent when Ba'al of Sidon or Baal-shamem was identified with Zeus, Tanith with Demeter or Artemis, 'Anath with Athena, &c.; the notion of a supreme Ba'al, which finds expression in the Greek 1 3 Xos and (aaXris or 131 7 XOns (the goddess of Byblus), was no doubt encouraged by foreign influences.
Another horrible sacrifice was regularly demanded by Phoenician religion: women sacrificed their virginity at the shrines of Astarte in the belief that they thus propitiated the goddess and won her favour (Frazer, ibid.
The death of the god, he suggests, is represented by the Fast of Esther on the 13th of Adar, the day before Purim, while the rejoicing on Purim itself, and the licence accompanying it, recall the union of the god and goddess of vegetation, of which he sees traces in the relations of Mordecai and Esther.
BRIZO, an ancient goddess worshipped in Delos.
Fougeres, Mantinee et l'Arcadie orientate (1898), according to whom Odysseus is an Arcadian chthonian divinity and Penelope a goddess of flocks and herds, akin to the Arcadian Artemis; S.
The goddess Fortuna here went by the name of Primigenia (First-Born, but perhaps in an active sense FirstBearer); she was represented suckling two babes, said to be Jupiter and Juno, and she was especially worshipped by matrons.
It was originally a religious celebration, founded by Erechtheus (Erichthonius), in honour of Athena Polias, the patron goddess of the city.
She was worshipped as a goddess under the title of OEa cbtXh5EX40s, and she and her husband as OEoi HEX of (Justin xxiv.
HERTHA, or NERTxvs, in Teutonic mythology, the goddess of fertility, "Mother Ear:h."
Though of small size, and by no means remarkable in point of architecture, it is interesting as the only temple that has come down to us in a good state of preservation of those dedicated to the Egyptian goddess, whose worship became so popular under the Roman Empire.
Here she was hospitably received by Celeus, and out of gratitude would have made his son Demophon immortal by anointing him with ambrosia and destroying his mortal parts by fire; but Metaneira, happening to see what was going on, screamed out and disturbed the goddess.
In the Homeric hymn to Demeter, Triptolemus is simply one of the nobles of Eleusis, who was instructed by the goddess in her rites and ceremonies.
But the goddess continued to be worshipped in her old home; her priests, the Galli, went out to welcome Manlius on his march in 189 B.C., which shows that the town was not yet in the hands of the Tolistobogii.
Soon after this a splendid new temple of the goddess was built by the Pergamenian kings.
Whatever may have been the origin of Hera, to the historic Greeks (except a few poets or philosophers) she was a purely anthropomorphic goddess, and had no close relation to any province of nature.
This character of the offended wife was borrowed by later poets from the Greek epic; but it belongs to literature rather than to cult, in which the dignity and power of the goddess is naturally more emphasized.
The origin of the connexion may possibly be due to the fusion of two "Pelasgic" tribes, worshipping Zeus and Hera respectively; but speculation on the earliest cult of the goddess, before she became the wife of Zeus, must be largely conjectural.
The festival, which was certainly ancient, was held not only in Argos, Samos, Euboea and other centres of Hera-worship, but also in Athens, where the goddess was obscured by the predominance of Athena.
But it by no means follows that Hera was therefore originally a goddess of the earth or of vegetation.
In her general cult Hera was worshipped in two main capacities: (1) as the consort of Zeus and queen of heaven; (2) as the goddess who presided over marriage, and, in a wider sense, over the various phases of a woman's life.
She was worshipped as the goddess of flowers (avOeia); girls served in her temple under the name of "flowerbearers," and a flower festival ('HpoaavOela, 'HpoavOca) was celebrated by Peloponnesian women in spring.
The story of Io, metamorphosed into a cow, is familiar; she was priestess of Hera, and was originally, no doubt, a form of the goddess herself.
The earliest recorded images of Hera preceded the rise of Greek sculpture; a log at Thespiae, a plank at Samos, a pillar at Argos served to represent the goddess.
Isis was perhaps the 1 goddess of Buto, a town not far distant from Busiris; geographical proximity would suffice to explain her conon with Osiris in the tale.
Among them the bright star Sirius was any I in special esteem; it was a goddess Sothis (Sopde), often be 1tified by the Egyptians with Isis.
Day riva or and night, the year, the seasons, eternity, and many to I ~s similar conceptions were each represented by a god by or goddess of their own, who nevertheless possessed cult but a shadowy and doubtful existence.
abstract ideas such as Fate, Destiny to I others; rather more clearly defined than the rest was Maat, aspi goddess of Truth and Right, who was fabled to be the daughter pop ~e and may even have had a cult.
Certain gods were purely par ctional, that is to say, they appeared at special times to and khonit, the goddess who attended every child-bed; Tait, the less of weaving.
Probably at first a goddess of the sky, she is early mentioned in connection with Re.
In this capacity he is sometimes accompanied by the frog-headed goddess Heket.
It is as such, in opposition to Buto the goddess of the north, that she is most often named on the monuments.
NEfrH, the very ancient and important goddess of Sais, the Greek Athene.
SAKHMI, a lion-headed goddess of war and strife, whose name dgnifies the mighty.
Th~re rollowed a series of prostrations and adorations, culminating in the offering of a small image of Maat, the goddess of Truth.
nlrt hell, the goddess goes; lw-k wdtl, thou art prosperous.
Nekhbi, goddess of El Kab, represented the Upper or Southern Kingdom, which was also under the tutelage of the god Seth, the goddess Buto and the god Horus similarly presiding over the Lower Kingdom.
He was a son of Othin and husband of the goddess Gefjon, who created Zealand.
The conception and attributes of the figure are taken, as has lately been recognized, from a description in the "Manto" of Politian: the goddess, to whose shoulders are appended a pair of huge wings, stands like Fortune on a revolving ball, holding the emblems of the cup and bridle, and below her feet is spread a rich landscape of hill and valley.
"The son of Harpagus" on the obelisk of Xanthus boasts of having sacked numerous cities in alliance with the Athenian goddess.
Works are extant in papyri and on temple walls, treating of geography, astronomy, ritual, myths, medicine, &c. It is probable that the native priests would have been ready to ascribe the authorship or inspiration, as well as the care and protection of all their books of sacred lore to Thoth, although there were a goddess of writing (Seshit), and the ancient deified scribes Imuthes and Amenophis, and later inspired doctors Petosiris, Nechepso, &c., to be reckoned with; there are indeed some definite traces of such an attribution extant in individual cases.
The Museum of Fine Arts at Boston also obtained in 1914 a masterpiece surreptitiously excavated and smuggled out of Crete, an exquisite gold and ivory statuette of the snake goddess or her votary.
Among Sicilian discoveries must be counted a remarkable archaic statue of a seated goddess which was in Paris at the outbreak of war, and was soon afterwards acquired by the Berlin Museum.
This is all we know for certain about the goddess and her cult; but the name naturally suggested myth-making, and Anna became a figure in stories which may be read in Ovid (l.c.) and in Silius Italicus (8.50 foil.).
On two of these monuments are engraved the names of "Midas the King" and of the goddess "Kybile the Mother."
Every Persian king was, at his accession, invested here, in the sanctuary of a warlike goddess (Anaitis ?), with the garb of Cyrus, and received a meal of figs and terebinths with a cup of sour milk (Plut.
(1900), 289 seq., on the discovery of an archaic altar of the Locus sacer of Florence, belonging to Ancharia (Angerona), the goddess of Fiesole.
The ceremony of the first day took place in Rome itself, in the house of the magister or his deputy, or on the Palatine in the temple of the emperors, where at sunrise fruits and incense were offered to the goddess.
The combination was, however, of an artificial character, and the consciousness that Ishtar was in reality an independent goddess never entirely died out.
Although no goddess is associated with the national god Yahweh, female deities abounded, as is amply shown by the numerous plaques of the great mother-goddess found in course of excavation.
At the western extremity of the whole site, immediately beside the river-bed, we again have a huge stoa running round two sides of a square, which was no doubt connected with the functions of this sanctuary as a health resort, especially for women, the goddess ?1.16 I.
Tilton, on the ground of the height of the nave, the total height of the image, including the base and the top of the throne, would be about 26 ft., the seated figure of the goddess herself about 18 ft.
A temple of Athena, the chief goddess of Scyros, was on the shore near the town.
excrescence upon Hinduism, in so far as the bands of secret assassins were sworn together by an oath based on the rites of the bloody goddess Kali.
was Allat, the chief goddess of the ancient Arabs.
Postponing the discussion of this triad, it is to be noted that the systematization of the pantheon after the days of Khammurabi did not seriously interfere with the independence of the goddess Ishtar.
According as the one or the other aspect of such a power is brought into the foreground, Ishtar becomes the mother of mankind, the fertile earth, the goddess of sexual love, and the creative force among animals, while at times she appears in hymns and myths as the general personification of nature.
The ritual alone which accompanied divination practices and incantation formulae and was a chief factor in the celebration of festival days and of days set aside for one reason or the other to the worship of some god or goddess or group of deities, is free from traces of the astral theology.
HESTIA, in Greek mythology, the "fire-goddess," daughter of Cronus and Rhea, the goddess of hearth and home.
She is not mentioned in Homer, although the hearth is recognized as a place of refuge for suppliants; this seems to show that her worship was not universally acknowledged at the time of the Homeric poems. In post-Homeric religion she is one of the twelve Olympian deities, but, as the abiding goddess of the household, she never leaves Olympus.
Hestia is the goddess of the family union, the personification of the idea of home; and as the city union is only the family union on a large scale, she was regarded as the goddess of the state.
Hygieia, goddess of health, passed for his daughter, and is commonly identified with the woman in Greek art who feeds a serpent out of a saucer.
Some connexion with the goddess Ashir(t)a, however, is not unlikely.
His followers, the Ramanujas, or Sri-Vaishnavas as they are usually called, worship Y Y, P Vishnu (Narayana) with his consort Sri or Lakshmi (the goddess of beauty and fortune), or their incarnations Rama with Sita and Krishna with Rukmini.
during ten days at the time of the autumnal equinox, in commemoration of her victory over the buffalo-headed demon Mahishasura; when the image of the ten-armed goddess, holding a weapon in each hand, is worshipped for nine days, and cast into the water on the tenth day, called the Dasahara, whence the festival itself is commonly called Dasara in western India.
Kali, on the other hand, the most terrible of the goddess's forms, has a special service performed to her, at the Kali-puja, during the darkest night of the succeeding month; when she is represented as a naked black woman, four-armed, wearing a garland of heads of giants slain by her, and a string of skulls round her neck, dancing on the breast of her husband (Mahakala), with gaping mouth and protruding tongue; and when she has to be propitiated by the slaughter of goats, sheep and buffaloes.
On other occasions also Vamacharis commonly offer animal sacrifices, usually one or more kids; the head of the victim, which has to be severed by a single stroke, being always placed in front of the image of the goddess as a blood-offering (bali), with an earthen lamp fed with ghee burning above it, whilst the flesh is cooked and served to the guests attending the ceremony, except that of buffaloes, which is given to the low-caste musicians who perform during the service.
In connexion with the principal object of this cult, Tantric theory has devised an elaborate system of female figures representing either special forms and personifications or attendants of the "Great Goddess."
FAUNA, the name, in Roman mythology, of a country goddess of the fields and cattle, known sometimes as the sister, sometimes as the wife of the god Faunus; hence the term is used collectively for all the animals in any given geographical area or geological period, or for an enumeration of the same.
A more modern theory makes St Ursula the Christianized representative of the old Teutonic goddess Freya, who, in Thuringia, under the name of HOrsel or Ursel, and in Sweden Old Urschel, welcomed the souls of dead maidens.
Thallo and Carpo, the goddesses of the flowers of spring and of the fruits of summer, to whom Auxo, the goddess of the growth of plants, may be added, although some authorities make her only one of the Graces.
Egyptian speculation, in like manner, impersonated the conceptions of physical and moral order as two sides of a fundamental unity in the goddess Maat.
Law was thus the spouse of the sovereign of the sky, but Aeschylus identified her with the Earth (worshipped at Athens as Ge-Themis), not only the kindly Mother, but the goddess who bound herself by fixed rules or laws of nature and life.
The name of their eponymous goddess Brigantia is found on inscriptions (Corp. Inscr.
Ixion abused his pardon by trying to seduce Hera; but the goddess substituted for herself a cloud, by which he became the father of the Centaurs.
The goddess of springs and streams (of the Oxus in particular) and of all fertilityA rdvisura Anahsla, Ana-ilis is endowed with the form of the Babylonian Ishtar and Belit.
She is worshipped as the goddess of generation and all sexual life (cf.
The deity of the city was Artemis; but we must guard against misconception when we use that name, remembering that she bore close relation to the primitive Asiatic goddess of nature, whose cult existed before the Ionian migration at the neighbouring Ortygia, and that she always remained the virgin-mother of all life and especially wild life, and an embodiment of the fertility and productive power of the earth.
In early Ionian times she seems to have been represented as a natural matronly figure, sometimes accompanied by a child, and to have been a more typically Hellenic goddess than she became in the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
Twice in the period 700 -500 B.C. the city owed its preservation to the interference of the goddess; once when the swarms of the Cimmerians overran Asia Minor in the 7th century and burnt the Artemision itself; and once when Croesus besieged the town in the century succeeding, and only retired after it had solemnly dedicated itself to Artemis, the sign of such dedication being the stretching of a rope from city to sanctuary.
Croesus was eager in every way to propitiate the goddess, and since about this time her temple was being restored on an enlarged scale, he presented most of the columns required for the building as well as some cows of gold.
The city was proud to be termed neocorus or servant of the goddess.
This is said to have hapC, pened in 356 B.C. on the October night on which Alexander the Great came into the world, and, as Hegesias said, the goddess herself was absent, assisting at the birth; but the exactness of this portentous synchronism makes the date suspect.
The priestesses of the goddess were rrap6Evoc (i.e.
The making of shrines and images of the goddess occupied many hands.
But perhaps the most important of all the privileges possessed by the goddess and her priests was that of asylum.
Nowhere in Asia could money be more safely bestowed, and both kings and private persons placed their treasures under the guardianship of the goddess.
ANGERONA, or ANGERONIA, an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions are variously explained.
According to ancient authorities, she was a goddess who relieved men from pain and sorrow, or delivered the Romans and their flocks from angina (quinsy); or she was the protecting goddess of Rome and the keeper of the sacred name of the city, which might not be pronounced lest it should be revealed to her enemies; it was even thought that Angerona itself was this name.
Modern scholars regard her as a goddess akin to Ops, Acca Larentia and Dea Dia; or as the goddess of the new year and the returning sun (according to Mommsen, ab angerendo = are) roi, ava Apeo Oat rae it Xtov).
The priests offered sacrifice in the temple of Volupia, the goddess of pleasure, in which stood a statue of Angerona, with a finger on her mouth, which was bound and closed (Macrobius i.
The Hindu festival of Dewali (Diyawali, from diya, light), when temples and houses are illuminated with countless lamps, is held every November to celebrate Lakhshmi, the goddess of prosperity.
It seems clear that he had a peculiar gift for evoking the enthusiasm of rude tribes, and we can well understand how the famous white fawn, a present from one of the natives, which was his constant companion and was supposed to communicate to him the advice of the goddess Diana, promoted his popularity.
He gives no precise indication of their geographical position, but states that, together with six other tribes, including the Varini (the Warni of later times), they worshipped a goddess named Nerthus, whose sanctuary was situated on "an island in the Ocean."
Here the special attribute of the goddess appears to be health; and in later times she was identified with the Greek goddess of health, Hygieia.
South of it is the precinct of Artemis, containing within it the old temple of the goddess; her more recent temple was to the south of her precinct, opening not into it but into the open space entered through the southern propylaea of the precinct of Apollo.
His crowning sin (recorded by the poet alone) was the destruction of the Sibylline books - a sin worthy of one who had decked his wife in the spoils of Victory, the goddess who had for centuries presided over the deliberations of the senate.
At the outset we have an almost dithyrambic address to the goddess Roma, whose glory has ever shone the brighter for disaster, and who will rise once more in her might and confound her barbarian foes.
Kv/3E¦77, Kv 1 31 71 3n), a goddess native to Asia Minor and worshipped by most of the peoples of the peninsula, was known to the Romans most commonly as the GREAT MOTHER OF THE GODS, or the Great Idaean Mother of the Gods-Magna Deum Mater, Mater Deum Magna Idaea.
Picus rejected her advances, and the goddess in her anger changed him into a woodpecker, which pecks impotently at the branches of trees, but still retains prophetic powers.
BELLONA (originally Duellona), in Roman mythology, the goddess of war (bellum, i.e.
Her worship appears to have been promoted in Rome chiefly by the family of the Claudii, whose Sabine origin, together with their use of the name of "Nero," has suggested an identification of Bellona with the Sabine war goddess Nerio, herself identified, like Bellona, with Virtus.
From this native Italian goddess is to be distinguished the Asiatic Bellona, whose worship was introduced into Rome from Comana, in Cappadocia, apparently by Sulla, to whom she had appeared, urging him to march to Rome and bathe in the blood of his enemies (Plutarch, Sulla, 9).
During her husband's absence on an expedition to Syria, she dedicated her hair to Venus for his safe return, and placed it in the temple of the goddess at Zephyrium.
`EuaT17, "she who works from afar" 1), a goddess in Greek mythology.
She is there represented as a mighty goddess, having power over heaven, earth and sea; hence she is the bestower of wealth and all the blessings of daily life.
Hecate is the chief goddess who presides over magic arts and spells, and in this connexion she is the mother of the sorceresses Circe and Medea.
Like Artemis, Hecate is also a goddess of fertility, presiding especially over the birth and the youth of wild animals, and over human birth and marriage.
While the goddess took as subjects her quarrel with Poseidon as to the naming and possession of Attica, and the warning examples of those who ventured to pit themselves against the immortals, Arachne depicted the metamorphoses of the gods and their amorous adventures.
Arachne hanged herself in despair; but the goddess out of pity loosened the rope, which became a cobweb, while Arachne herself was changed into a spider (Ovid, Metam.
Thyrsis sings to a goatherd how Daphnis, the mythical herdsman, having defied the power of Aphrodite, dies rather than yield to a passion with which the goddess had inspired him.
APHRODITE,' the Greek goddess of love and beauty, counterpart of the Roman Venus.
This oriental Aphrodite was worshipped as the bestower of all animal and vegetable fruitfulness, and under this aspect especially as a goddess of women.
The Eastern Aphrodite was closely related to the sea and the element of moisture; in fact, some consider that she made her first appearance on Greek soil rather as a marine divinity than as a nature goddess.
According to Syrian ideas, as a fish goddess, she represented the fructifying power of water.
At Hierapolis (Bambyce) there was a pool with an altar in the middle, sacred to the goddess, where a festival was held, at which her images were carried into the water.
During her stay all animal and vegetable productivity ceases, to begin again with her return to earth - a clear indication of the conception of her as a goddess of fertility.
Another aspect of her character is that of a warlike goddess, armed with spear or bow, sometimes wearing a mural crown, as sovereign lady and protectress of the locality where she was worshipped.
The attributes of the goddess were the ram, the he-goat, the dove, certain fish, the cypress, myrtle and pomegranate, the animals being symbolical of fertility, the plants remedies against sterility.
This has been supposed to point to a confusion between Aphrodite and Hebe, the daughter of Zeus and Hera, Dione being an Epirot name for the last-named goddess.
In the Odyssey, she is the wife of Hephaestus, her place being taken in the Iliad by Charis, the personification of grace and divine skill, possibly supplanted by Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty.
From her relations with these acknowledged Hellenic divinites it is argued that there once existed a primitive Greek goddess of love.
It is admitted that few traces remain of direct relations of the Greek goddess to the moon, although such possibly survive in the epithets 7raat4 ads, dcrmpla, oupavla.
It is suggested that this is due to the fact that, at the time of the adoption of the oriental goddess, the Greeks already possessed lunar divinities in Hecate, Selene, Artemis.
Aphrodite as the goddess of all fruitfulness in the animal and vegetable world is especially prominent.
She is the goddess of gardens, especially worshipped in spring and near lowlands and marshes, favourable to the growth of vegetation.
Her character as a goddess of vegetation is clearly shown in the cult and ritual of Adonis (q.v.; also Farnell, ii.
In the animal world she is the goddess of sexual impulse; amongst men, of birth, marriage, and family life.
Harmonia), Nymphia (" bridal goddess "), Kourotrophos (" rearer of boys ").
As the goddess of the grosser form of love she inspires both men and women with passion (7rw rpoOla, " turning them to " thoughts of love), or the reverse (airoa-rpocbia, " turning them away ").
The function of Aphrodite as the patroness of courtesans represents the most degraded form of her worship as the goddess of love, and is certainly of Phoenician or Eastern origin.
In Corinth there were more than a thousand of these iep030vXot (" temple slaves "), and wealthy men made it a point of honour to dedicate their most beautiful slaves to the service of the goddess.
Further proof may be found in many of her titles - avaSvop vat (" rising from the sea "), e157rXota (" giver of prosperous voyages "), yaXrpala (" goddess of fair weather "), Karao r K07rc'a (" she who keeps a look-out from the heights ") - in the attribute of the dolphin, and the veneration in which she was held by seafarers.
Remembering the importance of the horse in the cult of the sea-god Poseidon, it is natural to associate it with Aphrodite as the sea-goddess, although it may be explained with reference to her character as a goddess of vegetation, the horse being an embodiment of the corn-spirit (see J.
Thus, at Delphi there was an image of Aphrodite 6rtrupt31a (" Aphrodite of the tomb "), to which the dead were summoned to receive libations; the epithets ru,u i 3capvxos (" grave-digger "), µvxia (" goddess of the depths "), peXacv%s (" the dark one "), the grave of Ariadne-Aphrodite at Amathus, and the myth of Adonis, point in the same direction.
It has been explained by reference to the lunar character of the goddess, but more probably signifies " she whose seat is in heaven," whence she exercises her sway over the whole world - earth, sea, and air alike.
There is no doubt that Pandemos was originally an extension of the idea of the goddess of family and city life to include the whole people, the political community.
9), although the author is doubtful whether there are two goddesses, or whether Urania and Pandemos are two names for the same goddess, just as Zeus, although one and the same, has many titles; but in any case, he says, the ritual of Urania is purer, more serious, than that of Pandemos.
But there is no doubt that the cult of Aphrodite was on the whole as pure as that of any other divinities, and although a distinction may have existed in later times between the goddess of legal marriage and the goddess of free love, these titles do not express the idea.
VENUS, an old Roman and Latin goddess, apparently representing beauty and growth in nature, and especially in gardens, where the Roman practical sense would most naturally see these.
EPONA, a goddess of horses, asses and mules, worshipped by the Romans, though of foreign, probably Gallic, origin.
The Romans used to place the image of the goddess, crowned with flowers on festive occasions, in a sort of shrine in the centre of the architrave of the stable.
At Naxos Ariadne (probably a Cretan goddess akin to Aphrodite) was associated with Dionysus as his wife, by whom he was the father of Oenopion (wine-drinker), Staphylus (grape), and Euanthes (blooming), and their marriage was annually celebrated by a festival.
The name of the island and city of Bombay is derived from Mumba (a form of Parvati), the goddess of the Kolis, a race of husbandmen and fishermen who were the earliest known inhabitants, having occupied the island probably about the beginning of the Christian era.
RHEA, a goddess of the Greeks known in mythology as the daughter of Uranus and Gaia, the sister and consort of Kronos, and the mother of Zeus.
Rhea (Goddess) >>
HYGIEIA, in Greek mythology, the goddess of health.
The already existing worship of Athena Hygieia had nothing to do with Hygieia the goddess of health, but merely denoted the recognition of the power of healing as one of the attributes of Athena, which gradually became crystallized into a concrete personality.
While in classical times Asclepius and Hygieia are simply the god and goddess of health, in the declining years of paganism they are protecting divinities generally, who preserve mankind not only from sickness but from all dangers on land and sea.
of the city there is a curious monument of antiquity, commonly called "the school of Homer"; it is a very ancient sanctuary of Cybele, with an altar and a figure of the goddess with her two lions, cut out of the native rock on the summit of a hill.
Borne in a whirling chariot, and attended by the daughters of the sun, he reaches a temple sacred to an unnamed goddess (variously identified by the commentators with Nature, Wisdom or Themis), by whom the rest of the poem is spoken.