Libanus, for frankincense, occurs only in the Vulgate.
Bernhard von Breydenbach, 8 Ausonius, Florus and others, arguing, it would seem, from its Hebrew and Greek names, concluded that olibanum came from Mount Lebanon; and Chardin (Voyage en Perse, &c., 1711) makes the statement that the frankincense tree grows in the mountains of Persia, particularly Caramania.
They also melt frankincense as a depilatory, and smear their hands with a paste into the composition of which frankincense enters, for the purpose of communicating to them an attractive perfume.
King Antigonus is said to have had a branch of the true frankincense tree sent to him.
In cold weather the Egyptians warm their rooms by placing in them a brazier, "chafing-dish," or "standing-dish," filled with charcoal, whereon incense is burnt; and in hot weather they refresh them by occasionally swinging a hand censer by a chain through them - frankincense, benzoin and aloe wood being.
Punt is identified with the Somali country, now known to be the native country of the trees that yield the bulk of the frankincense of commerce.
that the African frankincense, called by the Arabs " asli," is of twice the value of the Arabian " luban."
Pure frankincense (lebonah) formed part of the meat-offering (Lev.
The prevalent bush plants are khansa (umbrella mimosa), acacias, aloes, and, especially, Boswellia and Commiphora, which yield highly fragrant resins and balsams, such as myrrh, frankincense (olibanum) and " balm of Gilead."
2), there is only one phoenix at a time, and he, at the close of his long life, builds himself a nest with twigs of cassia and frankincense, on which he dies; from his corpse is generated a worm which grows into the young phoenix.
That which occurs in globular drops is, he says, termed " male frankincense "; the most esteemed, he further remarks, is in breast-shaped drops,.
158), as true frankincense, or olibanum; from this, however, it differs in its softness, and tendency to melt into a mass' (Birdwood, loc. cit., p. 146).
9 Good frankincense, Pliny tells us, is recognized by its whiteness, size,.
For example, Abba Oil offers a selection of frankincense bath and body products, including lotion, bath salts, and shower gel.
183), frankincense to the amount of 1000 talents' weight was offered every year, during the feast of Bel, on the great altar of his temple in Babylon.
The Indian frankincense tree, Boswellia thurifera, Colebrooke (which certainly includes glabra, Roxburgh), is a doubtful native of India.
It is quite possible therefore that, in the course of their widely extended commerce during the one thousand years of their ascendancy, the Buddhists imported the true frankincense trees from Africa and Arabia into India, and that the accepted Indian species are merely varieties of them.
To obtain the frankincense a deep incision is made in the trunk of the tree, and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 in.
Frankincense, or olibanum, occurs in commerce in semiopaque, round, ovate or oblong tears or irregular lumps, which are covered externally with a white dust, the result of their friction against one another.
ketzioth), the root of the Aucklandia Costus (Falconer), native of Kashmir; frankincense (Heb.
Frankincense burns with a bright white flame, leaving an ash consisting mainly of calcium carbonate, the remainder being calcium phosphate, and the sulphate,.
These slopes are the home of aromatic flora which yields myrrh and frankincense.
It has been identified with benzoin, but was probably frankincense.
97) states that the Arabs brought every year to Darius as tribute woo talents of frankincense.
The commonest incense in ancient India was probably frankincense.
Gold, with myrrh and frankincense were offered by the Persian Magi to the infant Jesus at his birth; and in Revelation viii.
The Gara coast was visited by the Bents, who went inland from Dhafar, one of the centres of the old frankincense trade, to the crest of the plateau.
The narrow coastal strip seems to be moderately fertile, and the hills which in places come down to the seashore are covered with trees, among which the frankincense and other gumbearing trees are found.
luban, frankincense, the first syllable being dropped in Romanic as if it were the article), a balsamic resin obtained from Styrax benzoin, a tree of considerable size, native to Sumatra and Java, and from other species of Styrax.
The Catabanes produce frankincense and Hadramut myrrh, and there is a trade in these and other spices with merchants who make the journey from Aelana (Elath, on the Gulf of `Akaba) to Minaea in seventy days; the Gabaeans (the Gaba'an of the inscriptions, Pliny's Gebanitae) take forty days to go to Hadramut.
63) that frankincense was collected at Sabota (the capital of Hadramut; inscr.
A variety of spices - the wealth of the land - are named on these altars, as rand, ladanum, costus, tarum, &c. Frankincense appears as luban, and there are other names not yet understood.
On the Dhafar coast in1894-1895he visited ruins which he identified with the Abyssapolis of the frankincense merchants.
The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarach, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, turpentine, copaiba) and gum-resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense.
14), and the tithe of frankincense paid in Arabia to the god Sabis (Pliny, H.N.
Among the "harbours of incense" exploited by various Pharaohs during some twentyfive centuries it is impossible to believe that the island could be missed by the Egyptian galleys on their way to the "Land of Punt," identified by several writers with Somaliland; nor that, though the roadsteads of the African coast were perhaps oftener frequented, and for other freights besides myrrh and frankincense, the shores of Sokotra were neglected by such ardent explorers as those, for instance, of Queen Hatshepsut of the r8th dynasty.
P. Taeda, the " loblolly pine " of the backwoodsman, a tall tree with straight trunk and spreading top, covers great tracts of the " pine-barrens " of the southern states, but also frequently spreads over deserted arable lands that have been impoverished by long and bad farming; hence the woodsmen call it the " old-field " pine, while, from the fragrance of its abundant resin, it is also known as the frankincense pine.
is the oasis of Jauf, a hollow or depression, as its name signifies, containing many villages, and of great antiquarian interest as the central point of the old Minaean and Sabaean kingdoms, known to the ancients from the earliest historical times through their control of the frankincense trade of S.
FRANKINCENSE,' or Olibanum 2 (Gr.
Carterii, the " Yegaar," " Mohr Add," and " Mohr Madow " of the Somali country, in East Africa, the last species including a variety, the " Maghrayt d'Sheehaz " of Hadramaut, Arabia, all of which are sources of true frankincense or olibanum.
The coast of south Arabia is yearly visited by parties of Somalis, who pay the Arabs for the privilege of collecting frankincense.
Ward, The Gulf of 'Aden Pilot, p. 117, 1863.) Much as formerly in the region of Sakhalites in Arabia (the tract between Ras Makalla and Ras Agab), 4 described by Arrian, so now on the sea-coast of the Somali country, the frankincense when collected is stored in heaps at various stations.
The idea held by several writers, including Niebuhr, that frankincense was a product of India, would seem to have originated in a confusion of that drug with benzoin and other odoriferous substances, and also in the sale of imported frankincense with the native products of India.
10 The best frankincense, as we learn from Arrian," was formerly exported from the neighbourhood of Cape Elephant in Africa (the modern Ras Fiel); and A.
Miles (loc. cit., p. 64) states that the best kind of frankincense, known to the Somali as " bedwi " or " sheheri," comes from the trees.
to as " Indian frankincense."
9 See, on the chemistry of frankincense, Braconnot, Ann.
One of the Chinese names for frankincense, Ju-hiang, " milk-perfume," is explained by the Pen Ts'au (xxxiv.
Raymond Wellsted (Travels to the City of the Caliphs, p. 173, Lond., 1840) distinguishes two kinds of frankincense - " Meaty," selling at $4 per cwt., and an inferior article fetching 20% less.
In the Red Sea regions frankincense is valued not only for its sweet odour when burnt, but as a masticatory; and blazing lumps of it are not infrequently used for illumination instead of oil lamps.
In the East frankincense has been found efficacious as an external application in carbuncles, blind boils and gangrenous sores, and as an internal agent is given in gonorrhoea.
Porter Smith, op. cit., p. 162.) Common frankincense or thus, Abietis resina, is the term applied to a resin which exudes from fissures in the bark of the Norway spruce fir, Abies excelsa, D.C.; when melted in hot water and strained it constitutes " Burgundy pitch," Pix abietina.
Common frankincense is an ingredient in some ointments and plasters, and on account of its pleasant odour when burned has been used in incense as a substitute for olibanum.
(See Fliickiger and Hanbury, Pharmacographia.) The " black frankincense oil " of the Turks is stated by Hanbury (Science Papers, p. 142, 1876) to be liquid storax.
Philo explains that the offerings of frankincense laid on the golden altar in the Inner Temple were more holy than the blood offered outside.
Ingredients: carrot oil*, lime blossom oil*, macadamia oil, rosewater, frankincense, local welsh beeswax.
Midwives used frankincense to relieve her anxiety, tension and stress after she came out of the birthing pool.
Were they bringing the frankincense and the incense to make Christ an even sweeter savor to the nostrils of His heavenly Father?
frankincense laid on the golden altar in the Inner Temple were more holy than the blood offered outside.
Take fragrant spices; gum mastic, aromatic shells, 4 galbanum; add pure frankincense to the spices in equal proportions.
contains Somalian frankincense, organic essential oils of Sweet Orange, Vetivert (the oil of tranquility ), Clary Sage & Roman Chamomile.
The words which express our faith and piety are not definite; yet they are significant and fragrant like frankincense to superior natures.
The casket originally held biscuits; not gold, frankincense or myrrh.
Figure 1: Mass spectrometry of triterpenoids of ancient frankincense.
frankincense resin Tired more often than you'd like to admit?
frankincense trade was of immense importance in ancient times, peaking about 2000 years ago.
frankincense incense clockwise.
Blended with essential oils of frankincense, rose geranium and lavender to calm, soothe and refresh body and mind.
Perpetua remembers the aromas of sweet rose otto, musky frankincense, myrrh, and even common lavender.
But, in use, while the meaning of the word "perfume" has been extended so as to include everything sweet in smell, from smoking incense to the invisible fresh fragrance of fruits and exquisite scent of flowers, that of the word "incense," in all the languages of modern Europe in which it occurs, has, by an opposite process of limitation, been gradually restricted almost exclusively to frankincense (see Frankincense).
Frankincense has always been obtainable in Europe in greater quantity than any other of the aromatics imported from the East; it has therefore gradually come to be the only incense used in the religious rites and domestic fumigations of many countries of the West, and at last to be properly regarded as the only "true" or "genuine" (i.e.
Even the "ground frankincense" or "ground pine" (Ajuga chamaepitys) was known to the Romans as Tus terrae (Pliny), although they called some plant, from its smelling like frankincense, Libanotis, and a kind of Thasian wine, also from its fragrance, Libanios.
How important the consumption of frankincense in the worship of the gods became in Egypt is shown by two of its monuments, both of the greatest interest and value for the light they throw on the early history of the commerce of the Indian Ocean.
The kohl or black powder with which the modern, like the ancient, Egyptian ladies paint their languishing eyelids, is nothing but the smeeth of charred frankincense, or other odoriferous resin brought with frankincense, and phials of water, from the well of Zem-zem, by the pilgrims returning from Mecca.
There are, however, a good many instances recorded of what has been called a fumigatory use of frankincense in churches, by which it was sought to purify the air, in times of public sickness, or to dispel the foulness caused by large congregations, or poisonous gases arising from ill-constructed vaults under the church floor.
It was one of the gifts offered by the Magi, and a royal oblation of gold, frankincense and myrrh is still annually presented by the sovereign on the feast of Epiphany in the Chapel Royal in London, this custom having been in existence certainly as early as the reign of Edward L 1 True myrrh is the product of Balsamodendron (Commiphora) Myrrha, a small tree of the natural order Amyridaceae that grows in eastern Africa and Arabia, but the name is also applied to gum resins obtained from other species of Balsamodendron.
Aloes, dragon'sblood (Dracaena), myrrh, frankincense, pomegranate, and cucumber (Dendrocycios) trees are its most famous species.
(Etymologicon linguae Anglicanae, Lond., 1671), gives the derivation: " Frankincense, Thus, q.d.
sq.), frankincense was not sacrificially employed in Trojan times.
Frankincense Everyday Hand Cream is a rejuvenating body-care product that should work with most skin types: Normal, dry, sensitive, and mature.
Made with the aromatic frankincense resin, Frankincense Everyday Hand Cream has also been formulated with herbal and essential oils, aloe vera, and the flower lavender.
As the product's name suggests, a main ingredient in it is "frankincense," also known as olibanum.
For Beautiful Balms' frankincense hand cream, the natural antiseptic has been paired with lavender to create sweet-smelling nourishment for the skin.
Frankincense alone has been used to treat cuts, scars, and blemishes.
Consider hand creams that feature frankincense if you're looking for a scented hand cream.
Though a shea butter cream with frankincense and myrrh (by Nubian Heritage) is available at pharmacies, a specialty shop will help you find a wider selection.
Omani Sites (on the World Heritage List): A look at the many uses of frankincense by cultures around the world.
Plant Botanic: Information about how frankincense has been used for spiritual, medicinal, and cosmetology purposes.
ScienceDaily:' The Arthritis Research & Therapy reports that frankincense can perhaps be an herbal remedy for arthritis.
Frankincense items include toning body cream and a best-selling nourishing cream.
Essential oils are also distilled from resins, such as frankincense.
Cinnamon and Frankincense are just the scents to calm you after a horrendous day at the office, in traffic, or surrounded by your screaming kids.
Frankincense, carrot seed, patchouli, myrrh, rose absolute and sandalwood are highly recommended.
galbanum, myrrh, stacte, frankincense, calamus, cassia and cinnamon, were all of them used in perfumes, even the myrrh being probably the kind distinguished at the present time in the Bombay market as perfumed myrrh or bissabol, which still forms an ingredient of the joss sticks used as incense in the temples in China.
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
The Latino-barbaric word Olibanum (quasi Oleum Libani), the common name for frankincense in modern commerce, is used in a bull of Pope Benedict IX.
It may here be remarked that the name "European frankincense" is applied to Pinus Taeda, and to the resinous exudation ("Burgundy pitch") of the Norwegian spruce firs (Abies excelsa).
shelheleth), the celebrated odoriferous shell of the ancients, the operculum or "nail" of a species of Strombus or "wing shell," formerly well known in Europe under the name of Blatta byzantina; it is still imported into Bombay to burn with frankincense and other incense to bring out their odours more strongly; saffron (Heb.
In embalming their dead the Egyptians filled the cavity of the belly with every sort of spicery except frankincense (Herod.
In the burntofferings of male kine to Isis, the carcase of the steer, after evisceration, was filled with fine bread, honey, raisins, figs, frankincense, myrrh and other aromatics, and thus stuffed was roasted, being basted all the while by pouring over it large quantities of sweet oil, and then eaten with great festivity.
- lxvi.), in Jeremiah and in Chronicles, it represents the Hebrew lebonah, more usually rendered "frankincense"; elsewhere the original word is ketoreth (Ex.
35, "a confection after the art of the apothecary," or rather "a perfume after the art of the perfumer," which was to be regarded as most holy, and the imitation of which was prohibited under the severest penalties, was compounded of four "sweet scents" (sammim),3 namely stacte (nataph), onycha (sheheleth), galbanum (helbenah) and "pure" or "fine" frankincense (lebonah zaccah), pounded together in equal proportions, with (perhaps) an admixture of salt (memullah).
Frankincense, however, though the most common, never became the only kind of incense offered to the gods among the Greeks.
Latterly the use of frankincense ("mascula thura," Virg.
It is recommended that frankincense should enter as largely as possible into its composition, and that if inferior materials be employed at all they should not be allowed to preponderate.
2 In the interior of the country about the plain of Dhofar, 3 during the south-west monsoon, frankincense and other gums are gathered by the Beni Gurrah Bedouins, and might be obtained by them in much larger quantities; their lawlessness, however, and the lack of a safe place of exchange or sale are obstacles to the development of trade.
On the sacrificial use and import of frankincense and similar substances see Incense.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.