The prevalent famine and distress are due to Yahweh's indignation at such remissness.
There was a great famine in Rome.
Half the population of his planet had been decimated by famine and war.
The inhabitants are totally ruined, the hospitals overflow with sick, and famine is everywhere.
They are not distinct buckets but rather broad characterizations: actual famine, weaponized famine, and structural famine.
But Clive was followed by two inefficient successors; and in 1770 occurred the most terrible Indian famine on record, which is credibly estimated to have swept away one-third of the population.
The expenditure on relief alone was about a million sterling; and the total cost of the famine, including loss of revenue, amounted to nearly twice that amount.
A famine had begun to rage.
The Central Provinces were stricken by another famine, yet more severe and widespread, caused by the complete failure of the rains in 1899.
Structural famine exists when enough food is technically on hand or able to be imported, but some portion of the population is economically separated from it.
Four of the problems I address in this book—ignorance, disease, famine, and poverty—are purely technical problems.
The Genoese in their turn were now blockaded in Chioggia, and forced by famine to surrender.
In 1900 over one million tons of rice were shipped to India during the famine there.
He also made himself very popular in Paris by his large gifts to the poor in time of famine, and by throwing open the gardens of the Palais Royal to the people.
Famine forced the burghers to partial obedience, and Frederick held a victorious diet at Roncaglia.
During the decade 1891-1901 the Central Provinces suffered from famine more severely than any other part of India.
Any time a plant would sprout after the famine, the farmers felt hope again.
Epidemics of cholera, which occurred during the years of scarcity and famine, also swept away large numbers.
Some methods and technologies that show promise to end famine are controversial.
Desertion, pestilence and famine added to the usual horrors of a siege, and at length on the ninth day of the fourth month 586, a breach was made in the walls.
In 1813 it was ravaged by a famine and pestilence, which destroyed a great proportion of its inhabitants, - according to some accounts, nearly one-half.
The famine was perhaps interpreted by the Zealots as a punishment for their acquiescence in the rule of an apostate.
A large public park, opened in 1866, was laid out as a relief work for unemployed operatives during the cotton famine of the earlier part of the decade.
When this happens there is great suffering from famine, for wheat is the crop upon which the people principally depend, though rye, buckwheat and oats are also cultivated.
Famine, the avarice of the rich, and the necessity of providing tribute had brought the humbler classes to the lowest straits.
The famine of 1899-1900 was severely felt.
This seems to be in part due to a difference in numeration, but the state suffered heavily from famine in 1896-1897 and 1899-1900.
In the Orissa famine of 1866 more than one-third of the population of Puri is said to have perished.
During the three years 1899-1902 the total expenditure on famine relief amounted to about four millions sterling.
Although there was cultural opposition in India to Borlaug's methods and seeds, the famine was so bad by 1965 that the government stepped in and urged the project forward.
The answer begins with a promise of deliverance from famine, and of fruitful seasons compensating for the ravages of the locusts.
The complete failure of the rain in the autumn of 1896 caused scarcity to develop suddenly into famine, which lasted until the end of 1897.
Famine and pestilence at home drove men to emigrate hopefully to the golden East.
Weaponized famine occurs when hunger itself is used to gain a political or military end.
The chief exports are raw cotton, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, hides and lac. The exports of wheat are liable to extreme fluctuations, especially during famine periods.
I am also a historian with a full understanding of how poverty, disease, ignorance, famine, and war have dominated life on this planet.
In the Behar famine of 1874 this principle was even carried to an extreme, the cost was enormous, and the people were in danger of being pauperized.
46 or 47, occurred the great famine which Agabus had foretold, and in which the Antiochene church sent help to that of Jerusalem by the ministry of Barnabas and Saul (Acts xi.
The result was civil war and famine.
650 Famine throughout India.
1162 Universal famine.
879 Universal famine.
1005 Famine in England.
1016 Famine throughout Europe.
1064-1072 Seven years' famine in Egypt.
1148-1159 Eleven years' famine in India.
In 1901 the population was 584,627, showing a decrease of 30% due to the results of famine.
In the depression between the Bureya range and the coast ranges it suffers greatly from the heavy July and August rains, and from inundations, while on the lower Amur the agriculturists barely maintain themselves by growing cereals in clearances on the slopes of the hills, so that the settlements on the lower Amur and Usuri continually require help from government to save them from famine.
of France extorted large sums from the Florentine merchants and bankers in his dominions by accusing them of usury; in 1 34 o plague and famine wrought terrible havoc in Florence, and riots again broke out between the grandi and the popolo, partly on account of the late unsuccessful wars and the unsatisfactory state of the finances.
The causes of famine are partly natural and partly artificial.
The fiscal system was remodelled, and the district has since enjoyed a greater degree of prosperity only interrupted by famine.
The famine of 1878 was severely felt.
Driven by a famine to take refuge in Egypt (cf.
In 1582, 20,000 quarters of imported grain were required to avert famine.
Merewether, Through the Famine Districts of India (1898); G.
Forrest, The Famine in India (1898); E.
The citizens of Prague laid siege to the Vysehrad, and towards the end of October (1420) the garrison was on the point of capitulating through famine.
In 1186 he attacked a caravan in which the sister of Saladin was travelling, thus violating a four years' truce, which, after some two years' skirmishing, Saladin and Raymund of Tripoli had made in the previous year owing to the general prevalence of famine.
British troops were landed to assist in the siege; few lives were lost in actual combat, nevertheless famine and sickness killed thousands of the inhabitants, and finally forced the French to surrender to the allies.
Charles now sought to increase his authority in Italy, where Frankish counts were set over various districts, and where Hildebrand, duke of Spoleto, appears to have recognized his overlordship. In 780 he was again in the peninsula, and at Mantua issued an important capitulary which increased the authority of the Lombard bishops, relieved freemen who under stress of famine had sold themselves into servitude, and condemned abuses of the system of vassalage.
Owing to the famine and the disturbed state of the country, which demanded his attention as a large landowner and lieutenant of King's County (from 1831), the instrument remained unused for nearly three years, but since 1848 it has been in constant use, chiefly for observations of nebulae, for which it was particularly suited on account of its immense optical power, nominally 6000.
42 Great famine in Egypt.
1874 Famine in Behar, India.
1877-1878 Severe famine in north China.
1887-1889 Famine in China.
1891-1892 Famine in Russia.
1897 Famine in India.
1899-1901 Famine in India.
1905 Famine in Russia.
In the great Bengal famine of 1769-1770, which occurred shortly after the foundation of British rule, but while the native officials were still in power, a third of the population, or ten millions out of thirty millions, perished.
In 1347 Florence was again stricken with famine, followed the next year by the most terrible plague it had ever experienced, which carried off three-fifths of the population (according to now threatened Florence in the person of Castruccio p Villani).
The sufferings from famine within the city were now very great, and an increasingly large part of the people favoured surrender.
had died, eliminating two dangers to the republic. Spain, who was at war with France over the partition of Naples, helped the Pisans as the enemies of Florence, France's ally (1501-1504), but when the war was over the Florentines were able to lay siege to Pisa (1507), and in 1509 the city was driven by famine to surrender and became a dependency of Florence once more.
In 1901 the population was 171,227, showing a decrease of 4 2% due to the effects of famine.
In 1509 Florence encamped her forces on three sides of the distressed city, which at last, reduced to extremity by famine, was compelled to surrender on the 8th of June 1509.
In 1901 the population was 353, 410, showing a decrease of II% in the decade, due to the famine of 1899-1900, which was severely felt in the district.
Then the sword bent towards the earth, the sky darkened, thunder pealed, lightning flashed, and the whole world was wasted by famine, bloodshed and pestilence.
and held out resolutely by the bravery of Jean de Vienne, its governor, till after nearly a year's siege famine forced it to surrender.
In 493 B.C., at a time of serious famine, they ordered the building of a temple to the Greek triad Demeter, Dionysus and Persephone, who were identified with the old Roman divinities Ceres, Liber and Libera: Apollo must have come with or before the books themselves, though his temple was not built till 433 B.C.: Mercury followed, the representative of `Epµns 'E,uuroXaaos, Asclepius was brought from Epidaurus to the Tiber island in 293 B.C., and Dis and Proserpina, with their strange chthonic associations and night ritual, probably from Tarentum in 249 B.C. With new deities came new modes of worship: the graecus ritus, in which, contrary to Roman usage, the worshipper's head was unveiled, and the lectisternium, an elaborate form of the "banquet of the gods."
The famine commissioners in 1867 reported it to be the best harbour on the coast of India from the Hugli to Bombay.
In 1846 came the Irish potato famine, and an enormous emigration began, followed by a very large German emigration from similar causes.
At the end of the rule of the knights (1798) the population was estimated at roo,000; sickness, famine and emigration during the blockade of the French in Valletta probably reduced the inhabitants to 80,000.
Among other laws Bonaparte enacted that French should at once be the official language, that 30 young men should every year be sent to France for their education; that all foreign monks be expelled, that no new priests be ordained before employment could be found for those existing; that ecclesiastical jurisdiction should cease; that neither the bishop nor the priests could charge fees for sacramental ministrations, &c. Stoppage of trade, absence of work (in a population of which more than half had been living on foreign revenues of the knights), and famine, followed the defeat of Bonaparte at the Nile, and the failure of his plans to make Malta a centre of French trade.
Elaborate precautions were taken to save Italy from famine; it is said that corn for seven years' consumption at the capital was retained in the granaries.
In this revocation the Apocalyptist saw the menace of a famine of the necessaries of life, while the luxuries would remain unaffected.
and a total population (1901) of 1,308,326, showing a decrease of 13% in the decade, due to the effects of famine.
In 1901 the population was 285,363, showing a decrease of 1 2% in the decade, due to the results of famine.
This district suffered very severely from the famine of 1896-1897, in 1897 the death-rate being as high as 73 per 1000.
factions, who had taken refuge in Ankole, could not agree even in their common exile, and nearly came to blows, but on the spur of threatened famine they agreed to combine and to take back Mwanga as their king and strike a blow for supremacy in Buganda.
He regularly spent a large income in charity, and he laboured strenuously to stay the progress of the plague and famine which broke out in 1504.
In 1906 sugar refineries were projected at Hamilton, Kalispell, Chinook, Laurel, Missoula, Dillon and Great Falls; and in 1907 the crop was so large that 12,000 freight cars were needed to carry it and the railways had a car and coal " famine."
The state suffered from famine in 1896-1897, and again to a less extent in 1899-1900.
In view of the bad harvest of 1845-46, and the famine in Ireland in 1846, Peel surrendered, and proposed in 1846 the admission of Laws re- grain with only a fixed duty of is.
This district suffered terribly in the famine of 1847, and hundreds of victims were buried in pits in the graveyard adjoining the ruined Cistercian cell of Abbeystrowry, a mile west of the town.
It is further related by the Mexican historians that the Toltec nation all but perished in the 11th century by years of drought, famine and.
The state suffered severely from famine in 1868-1869, and again in 1896-1897.
The population in 1901 was 795,967, showing a decrease of 14% in the decade, due to the effects of famine.
It suffered severely in the famine of 1899-1900.
According to ancient authorities, the word (derived by them from vuKov, " fig," and cbaivecv, " to show") meant one who informed against another for exporting figs (which was forbidden by law) or for stealing the fruit of the sacred fig-trees, whether in time of famine or on any other occasion.
After Egypt has been afflicted for nine years with famine, Phrasius, a seer of Cyprus, arrived in Egypt and announced that the cessation of the famine would not take place until a foreigner was yearly sacrificed to Zeus or Jupiter.
It is conjectured that the wheat plant, as now known, is a degenerate form of something much finer which flourished thousands of years ago, and that possibly it may be restored to its pristine excellence, yielding an increase twice or thrice as large as it now does, thus postponing to a distant period the famine doom prophesied by Sir W.
The district is traversed by the main line of the Bengal & North-Western railway and by branch lines, part of which were begun as a famine relief work in 1874.
His charities were without limit; thus he contributed £300,000 for the relief of the sufferers from the Bengal famine of 1873-1874, and it is computed that during his possession of the raj he expended at least f 2,000,000 on charities, works of public utility, and charitable remissions of rent.
The book of Genesis closes with the migration of Jacob's family into Egypt to escape the famine in Canaan.
The natural causes of famine are still mainly outside our control, though science enables agriculturists to combat them more successfully, and the improvement in means of transport allows a rich harvest in one land to supplement the defective Breaking up of totemism.
But the ease with which food can nowadays be transported from one part of the world to another minimizes the danger of famine from natural causes, as we can hardly conceive that the whole food-producing area of the world should be thus affected at once.
The artificial causes of famine have mostly ceased to be operative on any large scale.
The true palliative of famine is to be found in the improvement of methods of transport, which make it possible rapidly to convey food from one district to another.
Still, every year makes it less likely that the world will see a renewal of the great famines of the past, and it is only the countries where civilization is still backward that are in much danger of even a local famine.
- Amongst the great famines of history may be named the following: 13.c.436 Famine at Rome, when thousands of starving people threw themselves into the Tiber.
1 3441 345 Great famine in India, when the Mogul emperor was unable to obtain the necessaries for his household.
The famine continued for years and thousands upon thousands of people perished of want.
1396-1407 The Durga Devi famine in India, lasting twelve years.
1586 Famine in England which gave rise to the Poor Law system.
1661 Famine in India, when not a drop of rain fell for two years.
1769-1770 Great famine in Bengal, when a third of the population (10,000,000 persons) perished.
1783 The Chalisa famine in India, which extended from the eastern edge of the Benares province to Lahore and Jammu.
1790-1792 The Doji Bara, or skull famine, in India, so-called because the people died in such numbers that they could not be buried.
Relief works were first opened during this famine in Madras.
1838 Intense famine in North-West Provinces (United Provinces) of India; 800,000 perished.
Famine in Ireland, due to the failure of the potatocrop. Grants were made by, parliament amounting to £10,000,000.
1861 Famine in North-West India.
1866 Famine in Bengal and Orissa; one million perished.
1869 Intense famine in Rajputana; one million and a half perished.
1876-1878 Famine in Bombay, Madras and Mysore; five millions perish.
Owing to its tropical situation and its almost entire dependence upon the monsoon rains, India is more liable than any other country in the world to crop failures, which upon occasion deepen into famine.
In fact, famine is, to all intents and purposes, endemic in India, and is a problem to reckon with every year in some portion of that vast area.
Every five or ten years the annual scarcity widens its area and becomes a recognized famine; every fifty or a hundred years whole provinces are involved, loss of life becomes widespread, and a great famine is recorded.
For the period preceding British rule the records have not been so well preserved, but there is ample evidence to show that famine was just as frequent in its incidence and infinitely more deadly in its effects under the native rulers of India.
From this it may be guessed what occurred in the centuries under Mogul rule, when for years there was no rain, when famine lasted for three, four or twelve years, and entire cities were left without an inhabitant.
In the famine of 1901, the worst of recent years, the loss of life in British districts was 3% of the population affected, as against 33% in the Bengal famine of 1770.
The native rulers of India seem to have made no effort to relieve the sufferings of their subjects in times of famine; and even down to 1866 the British government had no settled famine policy.
In that year the Orissa famine awakened the public conscience, and the commission presided over by Sir George Campbell laid down the lines upon which subsequent famine-relief was organized.
In the Rajputana famine of 1869 the humane principle of saving every possible life was first 1846-1847 enunciated.
But Sir John Strachey, the author of the scheme, explains in his book on India that the original intention was nothing more than the annual application of surplus revenue, of the indicated amount, to purposes of famine relief; and that when the country was free from famine, this sum should be regularly devoted to the discharge of debt, or to the prevention of debt which would otherwise have been incurred for the construction of railways and canals.
The measures by which the government of India chiefly endeavours to reduce the liability of the country to famine are the promotion of railways; the extension of canal and well irrigation; the reclamation of waste lands, with the establishment of fuel and fodder reserves; the introduction of agricultural improvements; the multiplication of industries; emigration; and finally the improvement where necessary of the revenue and rent systems. In times of famine the function of the railways in distributing the grain is just as important as the function of the irrigation-canals in increasing the amount grown.
Irrigation protects large tracts against famine, and has immensely increased the wheat output of the Punjab; the Irrigation Commission of 1903 recommended the addition of 62 million acres to the irrigated area of India, and that recommendation is being carried out at an annual cost of 12 millions sterling for twenty years, but at the end of that time the list of works that will return a lucrative interest on capital will be practically exhausted.
Finally, it is estimated by the census commissioners that in the famine of 1901 three million people died in the native states and only one million in British territory.
See Cornelius Walford, "On the Famines of the World, Past and Present" (Journal of the Statistical Society, 1878-1879); Romesh C. Dutt, Famines in India (1900); Robert Wallace, Famine in India (1900); George Campbell, Famines in India (1769-1788); Chronological List of Famines for all India (Madras Administration Report, 1885); J.
Hodgetts, In the Track of the Russian Famine (1892); W.
Steveni, Through Famine-stricken Russia (1892); Vaughan Nash, The Great Famine (1900); Lady Hope, Sir Arthur Cotton (1900); Lord Curzon in India (1905); T.
Holderness, Narrative of the Famine of 1896-1897 (c. 8812 of 1898); the Indian Famine Commission reports of 1880, 1898 and 1900; report of the Indian Irrigation Commission (1901-1903); C. W.
McMinn, Famine Truths, Half-Truths, Untruths (1902); Theodore Morison, Indian Industrial Organization (1906).
The average rainfall is 30 in., but the period 1891-1901 was a decade of low rainfall, and distress was caused by famine.
In the two years 1899 and 1900 the monsoon was very weak, the result being a severe famine which caused great mortality among the Bhil population.
In 1890-1892 he was United States minister to Russia, and during that period had charge of distributing among the Russian famine sufferers more than $ioo,000 in money, and five shiploads of food.
The prevalence of famine among the Swedes was attributed to the king's remissness in performing sacrificial functions; and on more than one occasion kings are said to have been put to death for this reason.
But the most singular esculent lichen of all is the " manna lichen," which in times of drought and famine has served as food for large numbers of men and cattle in the arid steppes of various countries stretching from Algiers to Tartary.
(1905); Klebahn, Die wirtwechselnden Rostpilze (Berlin, 1904); Sapin-Trouffy, "Recherches histologiques sur la famine des Uredinees," Le Botaniste (1896-1897); Blackman, "On the Fertilization, Alternation of Generations and General Cytology of the Uredineae," Ann.
The separation of Fanti and Ashanti has been ascribed to a famine which drove the former south, and led them to live on fan, or herbs, while the latter subsisted on san, or Indian corn, &c., whence the names Fanti and Santi.
Famine and disease soon began to tell their tale.
The weapon of famine, formerly in the hand of Alaric, was thus turned against him, and loud in consequence were the murmurs of the Roman populace.
439 B.C.), a wealthy Roman plebeian, who during a severe famine bought up a large amount of corn and sold it at a low price to the people.
To increase the alarm of the English, as well as to relieve the famine which then prevailed, Wallace organized a great raid into the north of England, in the course of which he devastated the country to the gates of Newcastle.
Edward, compelled by famine, had already given orders for a retreat when he received information.
In 1901 the population was 1,489,358, showing a decrease of 4% in the decade due to famine.
The population in 1901 was 5,540,702, showing a decrease of 4% in the decade due to the famine of 1896-1897, which was severely felt throughout the division.
Elijah emerged from his retirement in the third year, when, the famine having reached its worst, Ahab and his minister Obadiah had themselves to search the land for provender for the royal stables.
In the countries now being considered, the test of an irrigation work is how it serves in a season of drought and famine.
But even so, they helped to shorten the famine period; they stored up the rain after it had ceased to fall, and they caught up_ and husbanded the first drops when it began again.
Elsewhere in India the rainfall is usually sufficient for all the cultivation of the district, but about every eleven years comes a season of drought, during which canal water is so precious as to make it worth while to construct costly canals merely to serve as a protection against famine.
Such a feeble Nile flood has occurred only four times in modern history: in 1877, when it caused widespread famine and death throughout Upper Egypt, 947,000 acres remained barren, and the land revenue lost £1,112,000; in 1899 and again in 1902 and 1907, when by the thorough remodelling of the whole system of canals since 1883 all famine and disaster were avoided and the loss of revenue was comparatively slight.
The year 1878, which saw the end of a most disastrous famine, may be considered as the commencement of a new era as regards irrigation.
It had at last been recognized that such famines must be expected to occur at no very long intervals of time, and that the cost of relief operations must not be met by increasing the permanent debt on the country, but by the creation of a famine relief and a famine insurance fund.
In the seventeen years ending1896-1897the capital expenditure on such works was Rx.10,954,948, including a sum of Rx.1, 742, 246 paid to the Madras Irrigation Company as the price of the Kurnool-Cuddapah canal, a work which can never be financially productive, but which nevertheless did good service in the famine of1896-1897by irrigating 87,226 acres.
In the famine year1877-1878the area irrigated by productive canals was 5, 1 7 1, 497 acres.
In the famine year1896-1897the area was 9,57 1, 779 acres, including an area of 123,087 acres irrigated on the Swat river canal in the Punjab.
2, 0 99, 2 53 were spent on the construction of protective irrigation works, not expected to be directly remunerative, but of great value during famine years.
Perhaps this is as much as can well be done with the water at command for the country between the Sutlej and the Jumna, and it is enough to secure it for ever from famine.
This increase was not due to famine in Sind, for that rainless province depends always on the Indus, as Egypt does on the Nile, and where there is no rainfall there can be no drought.
But the famine prices obtained for agricultural produce doubtless gave an impetus to cultivation.
Turning from the basin of the Indus to that of the Ganges, the commissioners appointed to report on the famine of1896-1897found that in the country between the Ganges and the Jumna little was left to be done beyond the completion of some distributary channels.
If, moreover, such a famine were again to occur in Orissa as that of 1866--1867, there would be no doubt of the value of these fine canals.
This district suffered severely in the famine of 1877-1878, and the irrigation works were started in consequence.
The Barur tank system in the Salem district was also constructed after the famine of 1877-1878.
The last of those given in the table above was not expected to be remunerative, but it should prove a valuable protective against famine.
The area estimated from the whole three projects is 262,000 acres, situated in the only part of Burma that is considered liable to famine.
In 1901, after years of disastrous drought and famine, the government of India appointed a commission to examine throughout all India what could be done by irrigation to alleviate the horrors of famine.
It was found that although some irrigation works (especially in the Bombay Deccan) would never yield a direct return of or 5%, still in a famine year they might be the means of producing a crop which would go far to do away with the necessity for spending enormous sums on famine relief.
In the Sholapur district of Bombay, for instance, about three years' revenue was spent on relief during the famine of 1901.
While emphatically asserting that irrigation alone could never prevent famine, they recommended an outlay of £45,000,000 spread over a period of 25 years.
See also Annual Reports Irrigation Department Local Governments of India; Reports of the Indian Famine Commissions of 5878, 1898 and 1901; Sir Hanbury Brown, Irrigation, its Principles and Practice (London, 1907).
m., and the population in 1901 was 1,555,024, showing a decrease of 11% in the decade, due to the results of famine.
The rainfall was very deficient in 18 9518 97, causing famine in 1897; and in 1899-1900 there was drought in some sections.
After the return of Peter to Jerusalem the most important events were the famine at Jerusalem, and the persecution of the Church by Herod.
The famine referred to in Acts xi.
Ramsay has argued in his St Paul the Traveller that the visit of Paul to Jerusalem with the famine relief is the meeting between Paul and Peter referred to in Gal.
According to Ramsay, then, Peter was present during the famine, and made a private agreement with Paul that the latter should preach to the Gentiles, and so far Gentile Christianity was recognized, but the conditions of the intercourse between Gentile and Jewish Christians were not defined, and the question of circumcision was perhaps not finally settled.
We thus get the compact between Paul and Peter during the famine, then a visit of Peter to Antioch, during which Peter first adopted and afterwards drew back from the position which he had agreed to privately.
It is the most densely populated tract in India, and therefore always liable to famine; but it is now well protected almost everywhere by railways.
Here he rescued the pagan folk from an impending famine, sent preachers to the Isle of Wight and founded a monastery at Selsey.
Subsequently, it suffered much by famine and the occasional assaults of the neighbouring Irish chieftains, whose favour the townsmen were at length forced to secure by the payment of an annual tribute.
Corn was the staple produce of Egypt and may have been exported regularly, and especially when there was famine in other countries.
Abd alMalik, the country suffered from famine, and under this ruler it was unable to recover.
The period of internal disturbances, which had been accompanied by famine and pestilence, had caused usurpers to spring up in all parts of Egypt, and Badr was compelled practically to reconquer the country.
Though the early years of his reign were marked by numerous disasters, famine, pestilence and earthquake, of which the second seems to have been exceedingly serious, he reunited under his sway the whole of the empire which had belonged to his brother, and his generals conquered for him parts of Mesopotamia and Armenia, and in 1215 he got possession of Yemen.
The usurper was, however, able to maintain himself for two years only, famine and pestilence which prevailed in Egypt and Syria during his reign renderiqg him unpopular, while his arbitrary treatment of the amirs also gave offence.
Before the year was out the new sultan had been rendered unpopular by the occurrence of a famine, and Malik al-Na~ir was easily able to induce the Syrian amirs to return to his allegiance, in consequence of which Bibars in his turn abdicated, and Malik al-Ng~ir re-entered Cairo as sovereign on the 5th of March 1310.
Besides the extortions to which this practice gave occasion the country suffered greatly in these centuries from famine and pestilence.
Unfortunately famine compelled the garrison of Kassala to capitulate on the 3oth of July of that year, and Osman Digna hurried there from Tamai to raise a force with which to meet the Abyssinian general, Ras Alula, who was preparing for its relief.
Famine and disease broke out in Khatem Musas camp in 1895, and a retreat was made towards Kordofan.
This is immediately followed by the siege of Samaria by Benhadad which caused a famine of the severest kind.
John was in arms, divisions and distress were everywhere, a famine prevailed, and Scotland had to face the prospect of yielding to Edward, when, in 1369, that prince proclaimed himself king of France, and, having his hands full of war, made a fourteen years' truce with his northern neighbour.
During the winter of1862-1863the count took a special interest in the organization of the Lancashire Cotton Famine Fund, and contributed an article to the Revue des deux mondes entitled "Christmas Week in Lancashire."
After Wilfrid's exertions in relieving a famine which occurred in Sussex the king granted to him eighty-seven hides in and near the peninsula of Selsey which, with a lapse until 709 after Wilfrid's retirement, remained the seat of the South Saxon bishopric until the Norman Conquest.
Seven years before he had started a model farm at Frechine, where he demonstrated the advantages of scientific methods of cultivation and of the introduction of good breeds of cattle and sheep. Chosen a member of the provincial assembly of Orleans in 1787, he busied himself with plans for the improvement of the social and economic conditions of the community by means of savings banks, insurance societies, canals, workhouses, &c.; and he showed the sincerity of his philanthropical work by advancing money out of his own pocket, without interest, to the towns of Blois and Romorantin, for the purchase of barley during the famine of 1788.
Before long famine had fallen on the land, and under this visitation the repeal movement, already paralysed, wholly collapsed.
In 134 famine compelled John Hyrcanus, who had succeeded his father Simon, to a belated compliance with the king's demands.
In 1896-1897 the expenditure on famine relief amounted to £8190.
(to) That over-assessment is not, as alleged, a general or wide spread source of poverty and indebtedness in India, and that it cannot fairly be regarded as a contributory cause of famine.
The general conclusion of the Famine Commission of 1901 was that " except in Bombay, where it is full, the incidence of land revenue is low to moderate in ordinary years, and it should in no way per se be the cause of indebtedness."
In ordinary years most of this rice goes either to Europe or to the Farther East; but in famine seasons a large part is diverted to peninsular India, and Burma is the most important of the outside sources from which the deficient crops are supplemented.
The Famine Commission of 1878 urged the importance of forest conservancy as a safeguard to agriculture, pointing out that a supply of wood for fuel was necessary if cattle manure was to be used to any extent for the fields, and also that forest growth served to retain the moisture in the subsoil.
But while the cotton famine was at its height, the cultivators were intelligent enough to make the most of their opportunity.
The principal heads of revenue are land, opium, salt, stamps, excise, customs, assessed taxes, forests, registration and tributes from native states; and the chief heads of expenditure are charges of collection, interest, post-office, telegraph and mint, civil departments, famine relief and insurance, railways, irrigation, other public works and army.
special purposes of the safeguarding the internal and w external peace of the country, and of protecting special districts against famine by facilitating the movement of grain.
The Irrigation Commission of 1901 advised an expenditure of 30 millions sterling, spread over a term of twenty years, and irrigating 62 million acres in addition to the 47 millions already irrigated at that time; but it was estimated that that programme would practically exhaust the irrigable land in India, and that some of the later works would be merely protective against the danger of famine, and would not be financially productive.
form of relief work in times of famine.
In the famine of 1896-1897, for instance, 579 m.
Between that date and the arrival of Warren Hastings in 1772 nothing of importance occurred in Bengal beyond the terrible famine of 1770, which is officially reported to have swept away one-third of the inhabitants.
The chief incidents of his administration were the Bhutan war and the terrible Orissa famine of 1866.
During the time of his administration a famine in Lower Bengal in 1874 was successfully obviated by government relief and public works, though at an enormous cost; the gaekwar of Baroda was dethroned in 1875 for misgovernment and disloyalty, while his dominions were continued to a nominated child of the family; and the prince of Wales (Edward VII.) visited the country in the cold season of 1875-1876.
But, while the princes and high officials of the country were flocking to this gorgeous scene, the shadow of famine was already darkening over the south of India.
In 5900 this district suffered severely from famine owing to the complete failure of the monsoon, and the cultivated area decreased by 50 or 60 70; but, on the whole, trade has improved of late years owing to the new railways, which have stimulated commerce and created fresh centres of industry.
Although he encountered enormous obstacles, including famine and mutiny, the hostility and treachery of the natives and of foreigners, and the neglect of the home government, he laid a sure foundation for permanent Spanish occupation.
687-688) Syria was afflicted by a serious famine.
The blockade lasted more than six months, during which the city was a prey to all the horrors of siege and famine.
Ibn Zobair employed against him Abyssinians armed with Greek-fire-tubes, who, however, quitted him soon under the pressure of famine.
War soon broke out between the victors, the chief incident of which was the siege and capture by famine of Perusia, and the alleged sacrifice of three hundred of its defenders by the young Caesar at the altar of his uncle.
His daring march had alarmed the Goths for Ravenna, and induced them to raise the siege of Rome; but he himself was now shut up in Rimini, and on the point of being forced by famine to surrender.
Milan, which was holding out for the Romans, was also hard pressed by famine.
Milan had been compelled by extremity of famine to surrender, and with it the whole province of Liguria fell into the hands of the enemy.
The conditions, however, were not observed by the imperial generals, who for their own profit forced the new settlers to buy food at famine prices.
During a great famine which occurred in 1902 about 2,500,000 persons in the province died of starvation.
He at once arrested his march; but the pressure of famine in the capital, caused by the cutting off of supplies from Asia and the presence of the large Russian force, compelled Mahmud to yield, and on the 3rd of May a firman ceded Adana to Ibrahim under the pretext of appointing him muhassil, or collector of the revenue.
So long ago as 1815 the disease appeared in Guzerat, Kattywar and Cutch, " after three years of severe famine."
At the end of the 16th century there was a pestilence following a prolonged famine, and in the 17th century two violent epidemics are recorded under the names ta'un and waba.
Sickness and famine once again visited the colony, and the population was reduced by nearly one-half.
Conversely, the traces left by a casual set-back, such as famine, war, or an epidemic disease, remain long after it has been succeeded by a period of recuperation, and are to be found in the ageconstitution and the current vital statistics.
On the other hand, an accidental set-back to population, such as that caused by famine or a disastrous war, leaves room which an increasing birth-rate hastens to occupy.
But a far more potent factor in swelling the numbers of the Catholics has been the immigration of the Irish, which began early in the 19th century, but was enormously stimulated by the famine of 1846.
The church preached Simon de Montfort's crusade, and organized Dominic's Inquisition; what Quinet calls the "Renaissance sociale par l'Amour" was extirpated by sword, fire, famine and pestilence.
(1692-1696) the country suffered terribly from famine and pestilence; in the diocese of Abo alone 60,000 persons died in less than nine months.
Finland has been visited at different periods since by these scourges; so late as 1848 whole villages were starved during a dreadful famine.
But the country had been laid very low by war, pestilence and famine, though it recovered itself with wonderful rapidity.
In 546 Totila reduced Piacenza by famine.
Near the end of his life he rendered great public service by distributing provisions in the city during a famine.
" The poet shows how famine and the sword desolated Zion (verses i - io).
Verse 9: "Happier were the slain of the sword Than the slain of famine!
But the rains set in with unusual violence, and Mir Jumla's army was almost annihilated by famine and sickness.
Famine and sickness had begun to aggravate the situation.
144), "that the first borrowers must have been for the most part men driven to this necessity by the pressure of want, and contracting debt as a desperate resource without any fair prospect of ability to pay; debt and famine run together in the mind of the poet Hesiod.
The reasons for borrowing are famine and tribute.
The food of the people in the midlands and south is plentiful and good; in the remoter parts of the north an unfavourable summer is followed by a winter of scarcity or even famine; and in these parts meat is little used.
His son Olafr Tretelgia withdrew to Vermland, which he brought into a state of cultivation, though he was subsequently sacrificed by his subjects in a time of famine.
Sometimes the rains fail altogether, and then a drought (secca) ensues, causing famine and pestilence throughout the entire region.
Famine soon began to press hard upon the besieged, and in September Shah Uosain offered to capitulate.
When compared with a heavy decrease elsewhere throughout Rajputana, this increase may be attributed to the successful administration of famine relief, under British officials.
During these years Coleridge wrote many newspaper articles and some poems, among them "Fire, Famine and Slaughter," for the Morning Post (January 8, 1798).
The process of decay was hastened by frequent outbreaks of plague, sometimes followed by famine; a contemporary manuscript estimates that no fewer than 500 persons died daily in Lisbon alone during July, August and September 1569, and in some other years the joint effects of plague and famine were little less disastrous.
A committee of safety was organized by the citizens and by the city authorities acting in conjunction with General Funston, and measures were adopted for the prevention of famine and disease, permanent camps being established for those who had been rendered homeless and not provided for by removal to other cities.
- In 568 Alboin, king of the Langobards, with the women and children of the tribe and all their possessions, with Saxon allies, with the subject tribe of the Gepidae and a mixed host of other barbarians, descended into Italy by the great plain at the head of the Adriatic. The war which had ended in the downfall of the Goths had exhausted Italy; it was followed by famine and pestilence; and the government at Constantinople made but faint efforts to retain the province which Belisarius and Narses had recovered for it.
So entirely was slavery a habit of the people, that as late as 1905, after the slave-trade had been abolished for three years, it was found that, in consequence of a famine which rendered food difficult to obtain, a whole tribe (the Tangali) were selling themselves as slaves to their neighbours.
The ancient city was supplied with water by an elaborate underground system of reservoirs and aqueducts, which has been restored in part as a famine relief work.
These changes in population reveal the effects of famine, which was very severely felt in 1876-1878 and again in 1899-1900.
The result was a severe famine in 1871-1872, which was further aggravated by drought and other circumstances.
A number began to take it in the famine year, 1866, as it enabled them to exist on less food and mitigated their sufferings; others used it to enable them to undergo fatigue and to make long journeys.
There can be no doubt that the use of the drug is opposed by all thinking Chinese who are not pecuniarily interested in the opium trade or cultivation, for several reasons, among which may be mentioned the drain of bullion from the country, the decrease of population, the liability to famine through the cultivation of opium where cereals should be grown, and the corruption of state officials.
Christy took an earnest part in many philanthropic movements of his time, especially identifying himself with the efforts to relieve the sufferers from the Irish famine of 1847.
The population in 1901 was 837,695, showing a decrease of 6% in the decade, due to the results of famine.
During his short pontificate the States of the Church suffered dire calamities, famine, epidemic and a fresh outbreak of brigandage.
In the terrible "famine of St Luke" in 1835, Selassie still further won the hearts of his subjects by his wise measures and personal generosity; and by extending his hospitality to Europeans, he brought his country within the closer ken of civilized European powers.
The "Bread and Cheese War," an uprising of the peasants in North Holland caused by famine, is a proof of the misery caused by civil discords and oppressive taxation.
In 1901 the population was 285,326, showing a decrease of 1 2% in one decade due to famine.
Damoh suffered severely from the famine of 1896-1897.
Fortunately the famine of 1900 was little felt.
His country had been reduced to a desert by famine and war, and his own reckless extravagance had plunged him deeply in debt.
On the same bench of a Calcutta college sit youths trained up in the strictest theism, others indoctrinated in the mysteries of the Hindu trinity and pantheon, with representatives of every link in the chain of superstition - from the harmless offering of flowers before the family god to the cruel rites of Kali, whose altars in the most civilized districts of Bengal, as lately as the famine of 1866, were stained with human blood.
Except as a protection against famine, expenditure on irrigation is not remunerative in Bengal, on account of the abundance of rivers, and the general dampness of the climate.
During the decade 1891-1901 Bengal was fortunate in escaping to a great extent the two calamities of famine and plague which afflicted central and western India.
The drought of 1896-1897 did indeed extend to Bengal, but not to such an extent as to cause actual famine.
to pray for rain or fine weather, in time of storm, famine, plague, war, or, in quacunque tribulatione, processions of thanksgiving, translation of relics, the dedication of a church or cemetery.
The year 1770 saw the beginning of the cotton trade with China, the result of a famine in that country, the Chinese government having issued an edict commanding more land to be used for growing grain.
This was still further increased by the famine of 1803, which drove large numbers of people from Konkan and the Deccan to seek employment in Bombay.
The existence of famine and cholera added to the difficulties of the government, and in March 1867 the Lower House, by a majority of three, passed the laconic resolution, " The chamber inflicts a vote of blame on the government.
In1846-1847he accompanied his father to Ireland as distributor of the Friends' relief fund for the famine in Connemara, and the state of the country made a deep impression on him.
It was during his papacy that the siege of Rome by Alaric (408) took place, when, according to a doubtful anecdote of Zosimus, the ravages of plague and famine were so frightful, and help seemed so far off, that papal permission was granted to sacrifice and pray to the heathen deities; the pope was, however, absent from Rome on a mission to Honorius at Ravenna at the time of the sack in 410.
In 1848 a circular was sent by the 3rd Earl Grey, then colonial secretary, to the governor of the Cape (and to other colonial governors), asking him to ascertain the feelings of the colonists regarding the reception of a certain class of convicts, the intention being to send to South Africa Irish peasants who had been driven into crime by the famine of 1845.
Rome was threatened with a famine, as the corn supplies from Egypt and Africa were cut off by his ships, and it was thought prudent to negotiate a peace with him at Misenum (39), which was to leave him in possession of Sicily, Sardinia and Achaea, provided he would allow Italy to be freely supplied with corn.
During the decade 1891-1901 the mill industry passed through a period of depression due to widespread plague and famine, but on the whole there has been a marked expansion of the trade as well as a great improvement in the class of goods produced.
During recent times the entire history of Bombay has been sadly affected by plague and famine.
Bombay, like the Central Provinces, suffered from famine twice within three years.
The largest number of persons on relief was 301,056 in September 1897; and the total expenditure on famine relief was Rs.1,28,000,000.
In 1899 the monsoon again failed in Gujarat, where famine hitherto had been almost unknown; and the winter rains failed in the Deccan, so that distress gradually spread over almost the entire presidency.
For 1900-1901 the total expenditure on famine relief was nearly 3 crores (say, £2,000,000 sterling); and a continuance of drought necessitated an estimate of 1 crore in the budget of the following year.
Drought and famine came in 1860, and then upon the impoverished state came the strain of the Civil War.
In 1277, however, the king grew tired of waiting, invaded the principality and drove his recalcitrant vassal up into the fastnesses of Snowdon, where famine compelled him to surrender as winter was beginning.
All this unrest might well be ascribed to Lancasters want of ability, but he had also to bearwith less justicethe discontent caused by two years of famine and pestilence.
The potato, which was the sole food of at least half the people of an overcrowded island, failed, and a famine of unprecedented proportions was obviously imminent.
For the minister thought it necessary, while providing against famine by repealing the corn laws, to ensure the preservation of order by a new coercion bill.
Throughout that period the Irish famine had been its chief anxiety and difficulty.
If the famine had been less severe, this policy might possibly have succeeded.
Irish landlords complained that their properties, ruined by the famine, and encumbered by the extravagances of their predecessors, could not bear the cost of this new poor law; and the ministry introduced and carried a measure enabling the embarrassed owners of life estates to sell their property and discharge their liabilities.
The unfortunate persons driven from their holdings and forced to seek a refuge in the towns, in England, orwhen they could afford itin the United States, carried with them everywhere the seeds of disease, the constant handmaid of famine.
Famine, mortality and emigration left their mark on Ireland.
In the meanwhile the difficulties which the government was experiencing from the Irish famine had been aggravated by a grave commercial crisis in England.
It suffered in the famine of 1896-1897, and yet more severely in 1900.
There is the Famine steppe (Bekpak-dala), while in the Ak-kum steppe, which surrounds Lake Karakul, large areas consist of nothing but sands, partly shifting.
Meanwhile bad harvests deepened the country's distress, Ireland was approached by famine, the Anti-Corn-Law League became menacingly powerful, and Peel showed signs of yielding to free trade.
A rudely carved stone lion, which lies on the roadside close to the southern extremity of the city, and by some is supposed to have formed part of a building of the ancient city, is locally regarded as a talisman against famine, plague, cold, &c., placed there by Pliny, who is popularly known as the sorcerer Balinas (a corruption of Plinius).
If, in the face of what cannot be considered less than careless and inefficient agricultural practice, we have increased the wheat capacity of our land by 3.2 bushels per acre in so short a time, what may we not expect in the way of large acre yields before we experience the hardships of a true wheat famine?"
Though Lapland gives little scope for husbandry, a bad summer being commonly followed by a winter famine, it is richly furnished with much that is serviceable to man.
The outbreak of Laki in 1783 occasioned the loss of 11,500 cattle, 28,000 horses and 190,500 sheep - that is to say, 53% of the cattle in the island, 77% of the horses and 82% of the sheep. After that the island was visited by a famine, which destroyed 95 00 people, or one-fifth of the total population.
Smallpox, famine, sheep disease, and the eruptions of 1765 and 1783 follow each other in terrible succession.
At last, on the 15th of August 1585, Antwerp was compelled by famine to capitulate.
This simple process, applicable to such a variety of substances, is a valuable security against famine.
In a time of famine, a chief would declare the contents of the plantations to be common property.
This movement of population took its first great impulse from the famine of 1846 and has continued ever since.
But the potato famine and the repeal of the Corn Laws, occurring almost simultaneously, caused an immediate and startling diminution in the number of smaller holdings.
On the occasion of famine the druids advised that the son of a sinless married couple should be brought to Ireland to be killed in front of Tara and his blood mixed with the soil of Tara.
Spenser, an eye-witness, says famine slew far more than the sword.
During the famine which began in the winter of 1739 one-fifth of the population is supposed to have perished; yet it is hardly noticed in literature, and seems not to have touched the conscience of that English public which in 1755 subscribed £roo,000 for the sufferers by the Lisbon earthquake.
A frost which penetrated deep caused the famine of 1739.
Between 1831 and 1842 there were six seasons of dearth, approaching in some places to famine.
There was no margin, and when the " precarious exotic " failed an awful famine was the result.
One good result of the famine was thoroughly to awaken Englishmen to their duty towards Ireland.
The famine, emigration and the new poor law nearly got rid of starvation, but the people never became frankly loyal, feeling that they owed more to their own importunity and to their own misfortunes than to the wisdom of their rulers.
A famine was feared, and in the west there was much real distress.
When Lord Beaconsfield appealed to the country in March 1880, he reminded the country in a letter to the viceroy, the duke of Marlborough, that there was a party in Ireland " attempting to sever the constitutional tie which unites it to Great Britain in that bond which has favoured the power and prosperity of both," and that such an agitation might in the end be " scarcely less disastrous than pestilence and famine."
In 1901 the population was 423,616, showing a decrease of 12% in the decade due to the effects of famine.
A famine forces him to descend into Egypt, where a story of Sarai (here at least 65 years of age; see xii.
28); Joseph's policy during the famine is next described (xlvii.
It is significant that Jacob's body is taken to Palestine, but the brethren return to Egypt; in spite of a possible allusion to the famine in v.
But the critical study of these events raises very serious historical problems. Abraham's grandson, with his family - a mere handful of people - went down into Egypt during a famine (cf.
From 1436 to 1439 there was a terrible repetition of what happened after the Peace of Brtigny; famine, pestilence, extortions and, later, the aristocratic revolt of the Praguerie, completed the ruin of the country.
Richelieu went so far as to make poverty systematic and use famine as a means of government.
Disease and famine; crushing imposts and extortions; official debasement of the currency; bankruptcy; state prisons; religious and political inquisition; suppression of all institutions for the safe-guarding of rights; tyranny by the intendants; royal, feudal and clerical oppression burdening every faculty and every necessary of life; monstrous and incurable luxury; the horrible drama of poison; the twofold adultery of Madame de Montespan; and the narrow bigotry of Madame de Maintenon-~--all concurred to make the end of the reign a sad contrast with the splendour of its beginning.
The latter labored at re-establishing order in fiscal affairs; and various measures like the impost of the dixiine upon all property save that of the clergy, together with the end of the corn famine, sufficed to restore a certain amount of well-being.
The population in 1901 was 326,521, showing a decrease of 15% in the decade, due to the effects of famine.
The district suffered very severely from the famine of 1896-1897.
To this petition Ambrose replied in a letter to Valentinian, arguing that the devoted worshippers of idols had often been forsaken by their deities; that the native valour of the Roman soldiers had gained their victories, and not the pretended influence of pagan priests; that these idolatrous worshippers requested for themselves what they refused to Christians; that voluntary was more honourable than constrained virginity; that as the Christian ministers declined to receive temporal emoluments, they should also be denied to pagan priests; that it was absurd to suppose that God would inflict a famine upon the empire for neglecting to support a religious system contrary to His will as revealed in the Scriptures; that the whole process of nature encouraged innovations, and that all nations had permitted them, even in religion; that heathen sacrifices were offensive to Christians; and that it was the duty of a Christian prince to suppress pagan ceremonies.
It is not improbable that, at least in later times, Dagon had in place of, or in addition to, his old character, that of the god who presided over agriculture; for in the last days of paganism, as we learn from Marcus Diaconus in the Life of Porphyry of Gaza (§ 19), the great god of Gaza, now known as Marna (our Lord), was regarded as the god of rains and invoked against famine.
In 750 plague, following on drought and famine, swept away thousands of conquered and conquerors alike.
The new ministry, confronted by a rapidly spreading revolu.tionary agitation and by a rising provoked by a crop failure and famine in Andalusia, survived scarcely a month.
It suffered severely from the famine of 1896-1897.
The manuscript, discovered by Edward Pococke the Orientalist, and preserved in the Bodleian Library, contains a vivid description of a famine caused, during the author's residence in Egypt, by the Nile failing to overflow its banks.
Bhaunagar suffered terribly from the famine of 1899-1900.
During the Thirty Years' and Seven Years' Wars Marburg suffered considerably from sieges and famine.
A province subject to such conditions can hardly be free from famine or scarcity for any length of time; accordingly it was visited by two famines, one of unprecedented severity, and one scarcity, in the decade 1891-1901.
In 1901 the population was 476,912, showing a decrease of 12% in the decade, due to the results of famine.
Half the population of his planet had been decimated by famine and war, and for all he knew, his intended was among them.
There were no signs of famine or diseases that oft struck Landis, no fights in the streets for a higher position in the warlord-king's court or among his chosen men, no brawls over who would mate with a woman of age.
The main fear inducers seem to be the R.C. bishops many of whom are actively abetting the " potato famine " lie.
avert the tragedy of famine.
The propertyless bore almost the whole brunt of the famine brought about by their own improvident measures.
bumper crops are going to be followed by seven years of famine.
All these ecological factors lead to severe constraints and increase famine vulnerability at alarming rates.
convulse the nations, bringing famine in their train.
Seven years of bumper crops are going to be followed by seven years of famine.
We affirm the God-given dignity of every person, so we are moved to action by poverty and oppression and famine and disease.
Leave aside the mass emigration of the famine years.
Kenyan has appealed for $ 150m to save the lives of people threatened by famine.
Around seven million people were affected by the famine in 1984.
Small triumph in a world of scarce hope Agencies ' work and refugees ' resourcefulness avert famine, but aid still vital.
Libyans began flooding into the country, not as conquerors but apparently as refugees fleeing famine in north Africa.
You will be helping to alleviate human famine by taking less out of the World's finite resources.
He opposed Peel's free trade policies, especially after the later repealed the Corn Laws in order to relieve the famine in Ireland.
April 2002 State of disaster declared as worsening food shortages threaten famine.
Of those who survived the famine, many were forced to emigrate to greener pastures.
In 1984, Michael Buerk's report on the Ethiopian famine shocked the world into action.
That there has been a lack of serious analysis of the Ukrainian famine on the left is an understatement.
After all, the impending famine in Africa opens up a new market to sustain the multi-billion dollar US biotechnology industry.
The Irish famine of 1845 gave him the excuse for which he was looking.
Russians dead or dying in the terrible famine of 1921.
famine prevention and relief, the spread of armed conflict poses real dilemmas.