In external appearance, climate and productions, Fuerteventura greatly resembles Lanzarote.
(1) The relation to the external world of the man who commits the deeds.
In external ways Pierre had hardly changed at all.
Helen's mind is so gifted by nature that she seems able to understand with only the faintest touch of explanation every possible variety of external relations.
The electrostatic capacity of a cable of this type is low, and its dimensions are small, the external diameter of a cable containing 1600 ten-lb conductors being only 24 in.
For early external evidence see H.
His father received his son's communication with external composure, but inward wrath.
She not merely avoided all external forms of pleasure--balls, promenades, concerts, and theaters--but she never laughed without a sound of tears in her laughter.
The married couple formed a unit as to external responsibility, especially for debt.
But this was only the external condition; the essential significance of the presence of the Emperor and of all these people, from a courtier's point of view (and in an Emperor's vicinity all became courtiers), was clear to everyone.
Externalities are the external effects an action has on society.
Thus our conception of free will and inevitability gradually diminishes or increases according to the greater or lesser connection with the external world, the greater or lesser remoteness of time, and the greater or lesser dependence on the causes in relation to which we contemplate a man's life.
The value of the external trade was £95,188,000, viz.
In C. nigrescens and in some other species a zooid may contain a pair of ovaries, a pair of testes, or an ovary and a testis, although the males, females and hermaj phrodites do not differ from one another in external characters.
The mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world; in the organic and mental worlds these mechanical laws were conceived as being disturbed or overridden by other powers, such as the influence of final causes, the existence of types, the work of vital and mental forces.
And as there is no branch of art in which mechanical improvements, and the consequent change in the nature of technical difficulties, bear so directly upon the possibilities and methods of external effect, it follows that an exclusive preponderance of this view is not without serious disadvantage from the standpoint of general musical culture.
External facts are not the causes of mental states, nor are mental states the causes of physical facts.
No external tail.
At the beginning of 1860, when the excitement of the gold discoveries was wearing off, five of the states had received from the home government the boon of responsible government, and were in a position to work out the problem of their position without external interference; it was not, however, until 1890 that Western Australia was placed in a similar position.
But even if--imagining a man quite exempt from all influences, examining only his momentary action in the present, unevoked by any cause--we were to admit so infinitely small a remainder of inevitability as equaled zero, we should even then not have arrived at the conception of complete freedom in man, for a being uninfluenced by the external world, standing outside of time and independent of cause, is no longer a man.
A letter like this, clear cut in its thought, teeming with ideas emanating from an unique religious experience, and admirably adjusted to known situations, bears on the face of it the marks of genuineness even without recourse to the unusually excellent external attestation.
Her life had no external aims--only a need to exercise her various functions and inclinations was apparent.
The table given below will be useful in calculating the size of the radiating surface necessary to raise the temperature to the extent required when the external air is at freezing point (32° Fahr.): - At the city of Lockport in New York state, America, an interesting example of the direct app of Lockport.
In the year 1905 the outstanding and authorized debt of the republic was as follows External debt (July 31, 1905): National loans..
The new hall (1876), the organ there, entirely his gift (1885), and the cricket ground (1889), remain as external monuments of the master's activity.
In 1896 a bill was passed by congress, which authorized the state by the issue of national bonds to assume the provincial external indebtedness.
there are no external ear-conchs; and the dentition includes four pairs of upper, and three of lower, incisors, and distinctly tritubercular cheek-teeth.
The construction of the wooden external dome, and the support of the stone lantern by an inner cone of brickwork, quite independent of either the external or internal dome, are wonderful examples of his, constructive ingenuity.
Bengal was prosperous, and free from external enemies on every quarter.
If the flue pipe be carried up a considerable distance inside the apartment to be warmed before being turned into the external air, practically the whole of the heat generated will be utilized.
His external policy and at Nancy (January 5, 1477).
Such an oscillation valve was first used by Fleming as a receiver for wireless telegraph purposes in 1904 as follows: - In between the receiving antenna and the earth is placed the primary coil of an oscillation transformer; the secondary circuit of this transformer contains a galvanometer in series with it, and the two together are joined between the external negative terminal of the carbon filament of the above-described lamp and the insulated platinum plate.
All that we know of the external world of nature is only a certain relation of the forces of nature to inevitability, or of the essence of life to the laws of reason.
Moved partly by external influences and partly by a slow internal reawakening, the people was preparing for the efforts of the I9th century.
The spadix forms a gelatinous cyst, the so-called acrocyst (ac), external to the gonotheca (gth), enclosing and protecting the embryos.
Ventilating radiators are similar, but have an inlet arrangement at the base to allow external air to pass over the heating surface before passing out through the perforations.
The chief external interest, however, of the new financial policy of the Commonwealth lay in its relation towards the empire as a whole.
The eighty-one canons which were adopted reflect with considerable fulness the internal life and external relations of the Spanish Church of the 4th century.
From this position it easily followed that actions, being merely external, were morally indifferent, and that the true Gnostic should abandon himself to every lust with perfect indifference.
and of the whole 230 ft., so that it is a building of considerable size; the stage is well preserved and so are parts of the external arcades of the auditorium.
It consists of two regions, an external epithelial layer and a more internal sub-epithelial layer.
The envelope is double, consisting of an external chitinous stratified shell, and an internal thin elastic membrane.
His account of the notion of external existence, as derived, not from pure sensation, but from the experience of action on the one hand and resistance on the other, may be compared with the account of Bain and later psychologists.
In 1839 Seguin endeavoured to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat from the loss of heat suffered by steam in expanding, assuming that the whole of the heat so lost was consumed in doing external work against the pressure to which the steam was exposed.
Considering the wide differences between the two groups in the size and external characters, and in the mode of life, including the mode of feeding, it is indeed surprising that in every important organ the two groups should show a fundamental morphological identity.
"I think, Princess, it is not convenient to speak of that now," she said with external dignity and coldness, though she felt the tears choking her.
In fact, there is a period when, as Aristotle long ago said, the embryo of the highest animal has the form of a mere worm, and, devoid of internal and external organization, is merely an almost structureless lump of polype-substance.
This is especially the case in the lichens (symbiotic organisms composed of a fungal mycelium in association with algal cells), which are usually exposed to very severe fluctuations in external conditions.
After the first feeling of perplexity aroused in the parents by Berg's proposal, the holiday tone of joyousness usual at such times took possession of the family, but the rejoicing was external and insincere.
He was surprised to find that this inner freedom, which was independent of external conditions, now had as it were an additional setting of external liberty.
An external shock was needed to overcome that shame, and this shock came in due time.
All historians agree that the external activity of states and nations in their conflicts with one another is expressed in wars, and that as a direct result of greater or less success in war the political strength of states and nations increases or decreases.
Leche shows that the wild Bactrian camel differs from the domesticated breed of central Asia in the following external characters: the humps are smaller; the long hair does not occupy nearly so much of the body; the colour is much more rufous; and the ears and muzzle are shorter.
This, he says, must not be conceived as resulting from the action of external causes, but is due to a natural disposition (Anlage).
But, further, every attempt to think clearly what those relations are, what we really mean, if we talk of a fixed order of events, forces upon us the necessity of thinking also that the different things which stand in relations or the different phases which follow each other cannot be merely externally strung together or moved about by some indefinable external power, in the form of some predestination or inexorable fate.
As regards the last mentioned it may be said that it was accomplished from within, there being no real external necessity for the union of the states.
The external form of the Hydromedusae varies from that of a deep bell or thimble, characteristic of the Anthomedusae, to the shallow saucer-like form characteristic of the Leptomedusae.
The supposition that sensation thus rests on a material process of absorption from external bodies naturally led up to the idea that plants and even inorganic subtances are precipient, and so to an indistinct recognition of organic life as a scale of intelligence.
Not only did it seem to him (as to all administrators) that he controlled the external actions of Moscow's inhabitants, but he also thought he controlled their mental attitude by means of his broadsheets and posters, written in a coarse tone which the people despise in their own class and do not understand from those in authority.
In Henley Street, close by, is the house in which the poet was born, greatly altered in external appearance, being actually two halftimbered cottages connected.
These branch, and may be packed or interwoven to form a very solid structure; but each grows in length independently of the others and retains its own individuality, though its growth in those types with a definite external form is of course correlated with that of its neighbors and is subject to the laws governing the general form of the body.
A tadpole is the larva of a tailless Batrachian after the loss of the external gills and before the egress of the fore limbs (except in the aberrant Xenopus) and the resorption of the tail.
That wound (which Tikhon treated only with internal and external applications of vodka) was the subject of the liveliest jokes by the whole detachment--jokes in which Tikhon readily joined.
If we examine a man little dependent on external conditions, whose action was performed very recently, and the causes of whose action are beyond our ken, we get the conception of a minimum of inevitability and a maximum of freedom.
external epithelium is flat on the ex-umbral surface, more columnar on the sub-umbral surface, where it forms the muscular tissue of the sub-umbrella and the velum.
e The external taxation is not only strongly protectionist, but i applied to goods which cannot be made in Italy; hardly anything comes in duty free, even such articles as second-hand furniture paying duty, unless within six months of the date at which the importer has declared domicile in Italy.
The principal new feature in the external conformation.
2, B), since there is no difference in the illumination and other external conditions, --------
There is no need for cuticularization here, as the external dangerous influences do not reach the interior, and the processes of absorption which Boussingault attributed to the external cuticularized cells can take place freely through the, delicate cell-walls of the interior, saturated as these are with water.
No sharp line can be drawn between these diseases and some of the preceding, inasmuch as it often depends on the external conditions whether necrosis is a dry-rot, in the sense I employ the term here, or a wet-rot, when it would come under the preceding category.
The Bible was made the sole rule, and all external authority was barred.
Commerce.The value of the external trade of the French possessions, exclusive of Algeria and Tunisia, increased in the ten years 1896-1905 from 18,784,060 to 34,957,479.
The great advantage of the tube anemometer lies in the fact that the exposed part can be mounted on a high pole, and requires no oiling or attention for years; and the registering part can be placed in any convenient position, no matter how far from the external part.
The original prescription is kept by the pharmacist for either three or ten years, according to the country, and a certified copy given to the patient, written on white paper if for internal use, or on coloured paper (usually orange yellow) if for external use.
In the higher forms a storage and a mechanically-strengthening system may also be developed, and in some aerial Fungi an external protective tissue.
of the thallus, whatever its external form, by branched, continuous or septate, coenocytic tubes (Siphoneae and Fungi), or by simple or branched cell-threads (Red and many Green Algae), in both cases growing mainly or entirely at the apex of each branch, is almost universal in.
This bundle is continued down into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace, and passing very slowly through the sclernchymatous external cortex and the parenchymatous, starchy internal cortex to join the central cylinder.
The whole stele may be surrounded by a common external endodermis; sometimes there is an internal endodermis in addition, separating the bundles from the pith; while in other cases each bundle possesses a separate endodermis surrounding it.
The pericycle, medullary rays, endocycle and mesoderm all form parts of one tissue system, the external conjunctive, and are only topographically separable.
The external conjunctive is usually a living comparatively small-celled tissue, whose cells are consider ably elongated in the direction of the stem-axis and frequently contain abundant starch.
Each J~ 1 1 / Stelein bundle has its own ~ investment of tissue P corresponding with external conjunctive, and now called peridesm.
the cambium, and producing like the latter an external ~i, and an internal secondary tissue.
The phellogen derives its name from the fact that its external product is the characteristic tissue known as cork.
This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.
Its most usual seat of origin in the stem is the external layer of the cortex immediately below the epidermis; in the root, the pericycle.
All the tissues external to the cork are cast off by the plant.
Provision is made for gaseous interchange between the internal tissues and the external air after the formation of cork, by the development of lenticels.
Fuchs and its allies, which form conspicuous members of the larger Algae, have their external cells much smaller, more closely put together, and generally much denser than the rest of their tissue.
This system of intercellular spaces, extending throughout the plant, constitutes a reservoir, charged with an atmosphere which differs somewhat in its composition from the external air, its gaseous constituents varying from time to time and from place to place, in consequence of the interchanges between itself and the protoplaste.
They are without stomata on their submerged portions, and the entry of gases can only take place by diffusion from the water through their external cells, which are not cuticularized.
The latter ultimately reaches the external air by diffusion through the stomata, whose dimensions vary in proportion as the amount of water in the epidermal cells becomes greater or less.
The prothalli of the Pterido phytes, which form similar symbioses, show a somewhat different mode of arrangement, the Fungi occupying the external or the lower layers of the thalloid body.
The sensitive cells must clearly be influenced in some way by weightnot the weight of external organs but of some weight within them.
IPassing to the recognized external agencies, the physical condition of the soil is a fruitful source of disease.
Turning to the non-material external agents, probably no factor, are more responsible for ill-health in plants than temperature anc light.
It must not be overlooked that the living cells of the plant react upon the parasite as well as to all external agencies, and the nature of disease becomes intelligible only if we bear in mind that it consists in such altered metabolismdeflected physiologyas is here implied.
Numerous wild hypotheses as to changes in the constitution of the host-plant, leading to supposed vulnerability previously non-existent, would probably never have seen the light had the full significance of the truth been grasped that an epidemic results when the external laciors favor a parasite somewhat more than they do the host.
This subject brings the domain of pathology, however, into touch with that of variation, and we are profoundly ignorant as to the complex of external conditions which would decide in any given case how far a variation in form would be prejudicial or otherwise to the continued existence of a species.
This is equally true of the phenomena of apogamy and apospory in the light of recent researches into the effects of external conditions on reproduction.
Moreover, we have good reasons for inferring that different constellations of external causes may determine whether the internal physiological disturbances induced by a given agent shall lead to pathological and dangerous variations, or to changes which may be harmless or even advantageous to the plant concerned.
Besides the internal or centripetal growth, some cell-walls are thickened on the outside, such as pollen grains, oospores of Fungi, cells of Peridineae, &c. This centrifugal growth must apparently take place by the activity of protoplasm external to the cell.
These changes may be brought about by external causes, such as the attacks of insects or of fungi, alterations in external conditions, &c., or by some unexplained internal disturbance of the morphological equilibrium.
In spite of the statement that the nature of the organism is the most important factor in variation, the tendency amongst evolutionists has been to take much more account of the influence of external conditions.
It is inconceivable that external conditions can impart to an organism the capacity to develop something that it does not already possess: can impart to it, that is, the capacity for variation in the direction of higher complexity.
Influence of External Cond itions.T his position does not, however, exclude the influence of external conditions; that influence is undeniable.
Darwins expression the nature of the organism has been interpreted in the preceding paragraph to mean an inherent tendency towards higher organization; that interpretation may now be completed by adding that the organism is susceptible to, and can respond to, the action of external conditions.
This evolution of the sporophyte is no doubt to be correlated with the great change in the external conditions of life.
AdaptationThe morphological and physiological differentiation of the plant-body has, so far, been attributed to (I) the nature of the organism, that is to its inherent tendency towards higher organization, and (2) to the indefinite results of the external conditions acting as a stimulus which excites the organism to variation, but does not direct the course of variation.
The definite results of the action of external conditions have still to be considered.
This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.
In endeavouring to trace the causation of adaptation, it is obvious that it must be due quite as much to properties inherent in the plant as to the action of external conditions; the plant must possess adaptive capacity.
Thus there is no essential difference between the direct and the indirect action of external conditions, the difference is one of degree only.
Grisebach declined to see anything in such forms but the production by nature of that which responds to external conditions and can only exist as long as they remain unchanged.
In external habit these exhibit adaptations to every kind of climatic or physical condition:
A transformation which is sometimes rapid, sometimes slow, but always continuous, is wrought by the reciprocal action of the innate variability of plants and of the variability of the external factors.
the descendants, and constitute the so-called adaptations in which the external factors acting on the plants are reflected.
into types has usually had regard rather to geological structure than to external form, so that some geologists would even apply the name of a mountain range to a region not distinguished by relief from the rest of the country if it bear geological evidence of having once been a true range.
Some geographers distinguish a mountain from a hill by origin; thus Professor Seeley says " a mountain implies elevation and a hill implies denudation, but the external forms of both are often identical."
land of their birth, when not compelled or induced by powerful external causes to seek a new home.
The forebrain forms the bulk of the whole brain, but the large size of the hemispheres is due to the greater development of the basal and lateral portions (pedunculi cerebri and corpora striata), while the pallium (the portion external to the lateral ventricles) is thin, and restricted to the median side of each hemisphere.
External tympaniform membranes exist, with great variations, between the specialized one or two last tracheal and some of the first bronchial rings.
We are here concerned only to examine the general principles of the school in its internal and external relations as forming a definite philosophic unit.
For this end, disrepute and poverty are advantageous, in so far as they drive back the man upon himself, increasing his self-control and purifying his intellect from the dross of the external.
When such exclusively " external " arguments are urged, the contents of Christianity go for next to nothing.
Herrmann reject natural theology outright in favour of revelation - a striking external parallel to early Socinianism.
The upper surface of the elytron is sharply folded inwards at intervals, so as to give rise to a regular series of external longitudinal furrows (striae) and to form a set of supports between the two chitinous layers forming the elytron.
The presence of a Stylops causes derangement in the body of its host, and can be recognized by various external signs.
Shortly, his services to Greece and to the world may be summed up under three heads: In foreign policy, he sketched out the plan on which Athens was to act in her external relations.
The external trade of the Russian empire (bullion and the external trade of Finland not included) since the year 1886 is shown in the following table: The exports rank in the following order :- cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat) and flour, 49.2%; timber and wooden wares, 7.2; petroleum, 5.8; eggs, 5.4; flax, 5; butter, 3; sugar, 2-4; cottons and oilcake, 2 each; oleaginous seeds, &c., 1.5; with hemp, spirits, poultry, game, bristles, hair, furs, leather, manganese ore, wool, caviare, live-stock, gutta-percha, vegetables and fruit, and tobacco.
Whitehead, 1910) and Our Knowledge of the External World (1914).
This large quantity of air is forced through the furnace by means of the difference of pressure established between the external atmospheric pressure in the ash-pan and the pressure in the smoke-box.
below the surface, with an external diameter of 10 ft.
The characteristic of the 18th and 19th centuries is the endeavour, connected with the name of Moses Mendelssohn, to bring Judaism more into relation with external learning, and in using the Hebrew language to purify tend- and develop it in accordance with the biblical standard.
External danger from a foreign foe, such as Midian or the Philistines, at once brought into prominence the claim and power of Yahweh, Israel's national war-god since the great days of the exodus.
It is only possible here to refer in briefest enumeration to the material and external objects and forms of popular Hebrew religion.
But now that these external bases of the old religion were to be swept away, a reconstruction of religious ideas became necessary.
In place of the old covenant based on external observance, which had been violated, there was to be a new covenant which was to consist not in outward prescription, but in the law which God would place in the heart (Jer.
Jeremiah, when he foretold the destruction of the external state and temple ritual, found no resource save in a reconstruction that was internal and spiritual.
The external bases of Israel's religion had been swept away, and in exchange for these Jeremiah had led his countrymen to the more permanent internal grounds of a spiritual renewal.
But a religion could not permanently subsist in this world of space and time without some external concrete embodiment.
the use of blind arches as an external decoration, and of brick cornices with the points of the bricks projecting like the teeth of a saw, the use of pulvini (cushions) above the capitals of columns and under the spring of an arch, &c. &c., the use of round arches springing direct from these cushions, spherical pendentives, &c.
Only one external source can be named: the falling of meteors into the sun must yield some heat just as a shooting star yields some heat to our atmosphere, but the question is whether the quantity of heat obtainable from the shooting stars is at all adequate for the purpose.
(3) The effect of change of volume against external pressure (due to production or consumption of mechanical energy) may be neglected in the case of solids, liquids or solutions, but must usually be taken into account when gases are dealt with.
Even during the temporary Hellenization in the second great period the character of the people as a whole was untouched by the various external influences which produced so great an effect on the upper classes.
The growing prominence of the new northern group of " Hittite " states continued to occupy the energies of Egypt, and when again we have more external light upon Palestinian history, the Hittites are found strongly entrenched in the land.
External history, however, is very fragmentary just at the age when its evidence would be most welcome.
For the external history, E.
Under external migration are comprised emigration and immigration, denoting simply direction from and to.
Fedele (12th century), both in the town, are also Romanesque, and the apses have external galleries.
Yet the very eagerness with which the champions of the Hebrew records searched for archaeological proofs of their validity was a tacit confession that even the most unwavering faith was not beyond the reach of external evidence.
But although Colombia was, to all external appearance, restored to tranquillity, the nation was divided into two parties.
Eleven abdominal segments can be recognized, at least in the early stages; as the adult condition is reached, the hinder segments become reduced or modified in connexion with the external reproductive organs, and show, in some male Hemiptera, a marked asymmetry.
9 cu) external, to and an embolium in front of the corium.
Thus external and internal influences alike drove him into conflict with the Netherlands, France and England; with the first because political and religious discontent combined to bring about revolt, which he felt bound in duty to crush; with the second and third because they helped the Flemings and the Hollanders.
i.; that the walls had been destroyed and the gates burnt down; that some external opposition (with which, however, Ezra did not have to contend) had been successful; that the main object of Ezra's mission was delayed for twelve years, and, finally, that only through Nehemiah's energy was the work of social and religious reorganization successful.
External Evidence and Canonicity, and Century.-It is possible that the Apocalypse was known to Ignatius, Eph.
The earliest external evidence is practically unanimous in ascribing the Apocalypse to the last years of Domitian.
The soul of man is a thinking monad, and stands mid-way between the divine intelligence and the world of external things.
As early as 1703 he seems to have become convinced of the non-existence of an external world.
His chief work appeared in 1713, under the title Clavis Universalis, or a New Inquiry after Truth, being a Demonstration of the NonExistence or Impossibility of an External World 1 (printed privately, Edinburgh, 1836, and reprinted in Metaphysical Tracts, 1837, edited by Sam.
After explaining that he will use the term "external world" in the sense of absolute, self-existent, independent matter, he attempts in the first part to prove that the visible world is not external, by showing - first, that the seeming externality of a visible object is no proof of real externality, and second, that a visible object, as such, is not external.
Similar illustrations are used to prove the second proposition, that a visible object, as such, is not external.
The second part of the book is taken up with a number of metaphysical arguments to prove the impossibility of an external world.
From the hypothesis of an external world a series of contradictions are deduced, such as that the world is both finite and infinite, is movable and immovable, &c.; and finally, Aristotle and various other philosophers are quoted, to show that the external matter they dealt with, as mere potentiality, is just nothing at all.
If there is no external world, the distinction between substance and accidents vanishes, and these become the sole essence of material objects, so that there is no room for any change whilst they remain as before.
In the United States and Scotland rectangular pits secured by timber framings are still common, but the tendency the pressure being reduced to that of the external atmosphere when it is desired to open the upper door, and increased to that of the working space below when it is intended to communicate with the sinkers, or to raise the stuff broken in the bottom.
The rehabilitation of the Ignatian letters in modern times has, however, practically destroyed the attack on the Epistles of Polycarp. The external evidence in its favour is of considerable weight.
The external forces holding the brake from turning are W, distant R from the axis, and the reaction, W 1 say, of the lever against the fixed pin P, distant R1 from the axis.
The ground of the modification, further, has been sought and apparently found in quite external influences, principally that of Schelling's Naturphilosophie, to some extent that of Schleiermacher.
It might not be easy to formulate precisely the doctrines for which he died, and certainly some of them, as, for example, that regarding the church, were such as many Protestants even would regard as unguarded and difficult to harmonize with the maintenance of external church order; but his is undoubtedly the honour of having been the chief intermediary in handing on from Wycliffe to Luther the torch which kindled the Reformation, and of having been one of the bravest of the martyrs who have died in the cause of honesty and freedom, of progress and of growth towards the light.
(16) Let a quantity dQ of energy, measured in work units, be absorbed by the gas from some external source, so that its pressure, volume and temperature change.
The term "spontaneous combustion" is used when a substance smoulders or inflames apparently without the intervention of any external heat or light; in such cases, as, for example, in heaps of cotton-waste soaked in oil, the oxidation has proceeded slowly, but steadily, for some time, until the heat evolved has raised the mass to the temperature of ignition.
His dress, the simplicity of his external appearance, the friendly meekness of the old man, and the apparent humility of the Quaker, procured for Freedom a mass of votaries among the court circles who used to be alarmed at its coarseness and unsophisticated truths.
In the ten years 1896-1905 the value of the external trade increased from about £600,000 to over £1,100,000.
SACRAMENT, in religion, a property or rite defined in the Anglican catechism as " an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace"; if the grace be allowed to be inherent in the external symbolic thing or act as well as in the faithful who receive or do it, this definition holds good not only for the Latin Church, but for more primitive religions as well.
It is impossible that Palestine should have remained untouched by the external movements in connexion with the Delta, the Levant and Asia Minor, and it is possible that the course of internal history in the age immediately before and after 1000 B.C. ran upon lines different from the detailed popular religious traditions which the biblical historians have employed.
What may be called the inner side of Benedictine life and history is treated in the article Monasticism; here it is possible to deal only with the broad facts of the external history.
The chief external works achieved for western Europe by the Benedictines during the early middle ages may be summed up under the following heads.
For the first four or five centuries of Benedictine history there was no organic bond between any of the monasteries; each house formed an independent autonomous family, managing its own affairs and subject to no external authority or control except that of the bishop of the diocese.
The organization of the Benedictine houses into provinces or chapters under this legislation interfered in the least possible degree with the Benedictine tradition of mutual independence of the houses; the provinces were loose federations of autonomous houses, the legislative power of the chapter and the canonical visitations being the only forms of external interference.
The chief external work of the Benedictines at the present day is secondary education; there are 114 secondary schools or gymnasia attached to the abbeys, wherein the monks teach over 12,000 boys; and many of the nunneries have girls' schools.
The material is placed in a perforated cage or "basket," which is enclosed in an outer casing, and when the cage is rapidly rotated by suitable gearing, the liquid portions are forced out into the external casing.
He dwelt upon the illumination of the mind and soul by direct communion with the Creative Spirit; upon the spiritual and poetic monitions of external nature; and upon the benefit to man of a serene mood and a simple way of life.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
But an inductive and deductive treatment, both comprehensive and in due proportion, does not as yet (19to) exist, and awaits fuller external evidence.'
External oppression and internal rivalries rent the Israelites, and in the religious philosophy of a later (Deuteronomic) age the period is represented as one of alternate apostasy from and of penitent return to the Yahweh of the " exodus."
External relations, too, were unsatisfactory.
Where the material is fuller, serious discrepancies are found; and where external evidence is fortunately available, the independent character of the biblical history is vividly illustrated.
It is at least necessary to distinguish provisionally between a possibly historical framework and narratives which may be of later growth - between the general outlines which only external evidence can test and details which cannot be tested and appear isolated without any cause or devoid of any effect.
As regards (b), external evidence has already suggested to scholars that there were Israelites in Palestine before the invasion; internal historical criticism is against the view that all the tribes entered under Joshua; and in (a) there are traces of an actual settlement in the land, entirely distinct from the cycle of narratives which prepare the way for (b).
Without sufficient external and independent evidence wherewith to interpret in the light of history the internal features of the intricate narratives, any reconstruction would naturally be hazardous, and all attempts must invariably be considered in the light of the biblical evidence itself, the date of the Israelite exodus, and the external conditions.
Biblical criticism is concerned with a composite (Judaean) history based upon other histories (partly of non-Judaean origin), and the relation between native written sources and external contemporary evidence (monumental and.
(For the period under review, as it appears in the light of existing external evidence, see Palestine: History.) 9.
(c. I loo B.C.), and external sources come to our aid.
The value of this external evidence for the history of Israel is enhanced by the fact that biblical tradition associates the changes in the thrones of Israel and Damascus with the work of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, but handles the period without a single reference to the Assyrian Empire.
intricacy and additional light is needed from external evidence.
An outburst of Jewish religious feeling is dated in the second year of Darius (520), but whether Judah was making a bold bid for independence or had received special favour for abstaining from the above revolts, external evidence alone can decide.
There are external historical circumstances and internal literary features which unite to show that the application of the literary hypotheses of the Old Testament to the course of Israelite history is still incomplete, and they warn us that the intrinsic value of religious and didactic writings should not depend upon the accuracy of their history.'
4 There are three inquiries: (a) the critical value of i Esdras, (b) the character of the different representations of post-exilic internal and external history, and (c) the recovery of the historical facts.
Old Testament History and External Evidence.
To external evidence one must look, therefore, for that which did not fall within the scope or the horizon of the religious historians.
External research constantly justifies the cautious attitude which has its logical basis in the internal conflicting character of the written traditions or in their divergence from ascertained facts; at the same time it has clearly shown that the internal study of the Old Testament has its limits.
Hence, in the absence of more complete external evidence one is obliged to recognize the limitations of Old Testament historical criticism, even though this recognition means that positive reconstructions are more precarious than negative conclusions.
The differences between the form of the written history and the conditions which prevailed have impressed themselves variously upon modern writers, and efforts have been made to recover from the Old Testament earlier forms more in accordance with the external evidence.
Curiously enough in Italy - and particularly in Rome - the external conditions were better.
Their Venetian masters at least secured to the islanders external tranquillity, and it is singular that the Turks were content to leave them in undisturbed possession of this opulent and important island for nearly two centuries after the fall of Constantinople.
I also observe that some external links should be allowed, particularly to Wikipedia, but understand the need to keep spammers at bay.
On the practical side, mysticism maintains the possibility of direct intercourse with this Being of beings - intercourse, not through any external media such as an historical revelation, oracles, answers to prayer, and the like, but by a species of ecstatic transfusion or identification, in which the individual becomes in very truth " partaker of the divine nature."
But what was matter of immanent assumption with Erigena is in them an equating of two things which have been dealt with on the hypothesis that they are separate, and which, therefore, still retain that external relation to one another.
Mysticism is not the voluntary demission of reason and its subjection to an external authority.
The whole tract, excepting south-eastern Arabia, is nominally subject to Turkey, but the people are to no small extent practically independent, living a nomadic, pastoral and freebooting life under petty chiefs, in the more arid districts, but settled in towns in the more fertile tracts, where agriculture becomes more profitable and external commerce is established.
Aridity has favoured the production of spines as a defence from external attack, sharp thorns are frequent, and asperities of various sorts predominate.
China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.
All ideas of external conquest were abandoned, Christianity was forbidden, and Japan closed to foreigners, only the Dutch being allowed a strictly limited commerce.
The publication of Hume's treatise turned his attention to philosophy, and in particular to the theory of external perception.
The internal organs are largely repeated metamerically, in correspondence with the external metamerism.
separated by an external groove, and containing, at least temporarily, the brain, which always arises there.
In another sense also the coelom is not a closed cavity, for it communicates in several ways with the external medium.
oviducts of Oligochaeta, sperm ducts of Phreoryctes, the coelomoducts occupy, like the nephridia, two segments, the funnel opening into that in front of the segment which carries the external pore.
As an example of the former it has been shown (Beddard) that a large median sac in Lybiodrilus is at first freely open to the coelom, that it later becomes shut off from the same, that it then acquires an external orifice, and, finally, that it encloses the ovary or ovaries, between which and the exterior a passage is thus effected.
The funnel, which is not large, appears to open, as a rule at least, into the segment in front of that which bears the external orifice.
of the parent in a regular line, and develop in situ; this process, which has been attributed to budding, is an "external gestation," and occurs in a number of species.
Segments worms, to illustrate external characters.
In the Oligochaeta there is a closer correspondence between external metamerism and the divisions of the coelom than is apparent in some Chaetopods.
The external segments are usually definable by the setae; and if the setae are absent, as in the anterior segments a, Penial seta of Perichaeta ceylonica.
The oviducts are always short trumpet-shaped tubes and are sometimes reduced (Enchytraeidae) to merely the external orifices.
sperm, spermatheca; sp. o, its external orifice; sp. sac, spermathecal sac; ov, sac containing ovary;.
The ganglia are crowded at the posterior end of the body as in leeches, and there is much tendency to the obliteration of the coelom as in that group. Pterodrilus and Cirrodrilus bear a few, or circles of, external processes which may be branchiae; Bdellodrilus and Astacobdella have none.
In external characters the Hirudinea are unmistakable and not to be confused with other Annelids, except perhaps with the Bdellodrilidae, which resemble them in certain particulars.
2; in addition, cn, nerve cord; in, intestine; nf, parts of nephridium; on, external opening of nephridium; ov, ova; 1, testis.
In Acanthobdella, however, the testes of each side of the body have grown together to form a continuous band, which extends in front of external pore.
The requirements of barley within the soil, and its susceptibility to the external influences of season, are very similar to those of its near ally, wheat.
But in the earliest times the manor was subjected to external influences of great importance.
The muscular columns (c) attaching the foot to the shell form a ring incomplete in front, external to which is the free mantleskirt.
Large or external or right renal organ.
Where the modification is carried to its extreme degree, not only the shell but the pallial cavity, ctenidium and visceral hump disappear, and the body acquires a simple elongated form and a secondary external symmetry, as in Pterotrachaea and in Doris, Eolis, and other Nudibranchia.
A further degree of modification occurs when the male duct takes its origin from the hermaphrodite duct above the external opening, so that there are two distinct apertures, one male and one female, the latter being the original opening.
In some forms this receptacle acquires a separate external opening remaining connected with the oviduct internally.
m, The external opening of the renal sac.
With regard to internal organization we may commence with the disposition of the renal organ (nephridium), the external opening of which has already been noted.
Its superficial extent is seen when the folds covering the shell are cut away and the shell removed; the external surface forms a triangle with its base bordering the pericardium, and its apex directed posteriorly and reaching to the lefthand posterior corner of the shell-chamber.
As so great a part of the whole surface of the kidney lies adjacent to external surfaces of the body, the remaining part which faces the internal organs is small; it consists of the left part of the under surface; it is level with the floor of the pericardium, and lies over the globular mass formed by the liver and convoluted intestine.
The shell is usually well developed, except in Runcina and Cymbuliidae, and may be external or internal.
Cephalic disk enlarged anteriorly, forming an open tube posteriorly; shell external, thick, with p:ominent spire; no operculum.
Margins of foot not prominent; no radula; shell external, with inconspicuous spire.
Cephalic shield short, truncated posteriorly; eyes deeply embedded; three calcareous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire.
Margins of foot well developed; eyes superficial; three chitinous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire.
Foot very broad; cephalic shield with four tentacles; shell external, thin, without prominent spire.
Shell external and conical; anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; ctenidium extending only over right side; a distinct osphradium.
Shell external, conical, much flattened; anterior tentacles very small, and situated with the mouth in a notch of the foot below the head; ctenidium very large.
External to the branchia are seen ten club-like processes of the dorsal wall, these are the " cerata " which are characteristically developed in another sub-order of Opisthobranchs.
The external form of the embryo goes through the same changes as in other Gastropods, and is not, as was held previously to Lankester's observations, exceptional.
Pulmonata with an external shell.
Shell external, smooth, heliciform or flattened; radula with pointed marginal teeth.
Shell external, ovoid, the last whorl.
Shell globular or auriform, external or partly covered by the mantle.
An external conformity was possible, inasmuch as speculation, proceeding from the higher to the lower, could keep by the stages of the regula fidei, which had been developed into a history of salvation.
External events served to unite him more closely to France.
In 1901 the Copley medal of the Royal Society of London was awarded him as being "the first to apply the second law of thermodynamics to the exhaustive discussion of the relation between chemical, electrical and thermal energy and capacity for external work."
There is also a certain amount of external evidence to be gathered from (I) Monuments and records of other contemporary civilizations, e.g.
Early Hissarlik shows less Cretan influence and more external (i.e.
In external appearance the Mandaean is distinguished from the Moslem only by a brown coat and a parti-coloured headcloth with a cord twisted round it.
Paired processes on the eighth and ninth abdominal segments may be specialized as external organs of reproduction, but these are probably not appendages.
The external part of the lateral field subsequently 14 grows up, and by coalescence with its fellow forms the t6 tergite or dorsal part of the segment.
In the absence of the external ectodermal ducts usual in winged insects, these two groups resemble therefore the primitive Aptera.
during post-embryonic development - no insect being hatched with the smallest external rudiments of those organs - and on the necessity for successive castings or " moults " (ecdyses) of the cuticle.
The " sclerites " that make up the skeleton of the insect (which skeleton, it should be remembered, is entirely external) are composed of this chitinous excretion.
The hypodermis is the immediate agent in effecting the external changes.
But in none of these latter cases have the wings to be changed from a position inside the body to become external and actively functional organs.
The difference between the nymph or false pupa and the true pupa is that in the latter a whole stage is devoted to the perfecting of the wings and body-wall after the wings have become external organs; the stage is one in which no food is or can be taken, however prolonged may be its existence.
His principal single production, representing his scholarly method and conservative conclusions, was The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel: External Evidences (1880; second edition, by J.
Thayer, with other essays, 1889), originally a lecture, and in spite of the compression due to its form, up to that time probably the ablest defence, based on external evidence, of the Johannine authorship, and certainly the completest treatment of the relation of Justin Martyr to this gospel.
Like nearly all his predecessors since Aelian, he adopted an alphabetical arrangement, though this was not too pedantically preserved, and did not hinder him from placing together the kinds of birds which he supposed (and generally supposed rightly) to have the most resemblance to that one whose name, being best known, was chosen for the headpiece (as it were) of his particular theme, thus recognizing to some extent the principle of classification.3 Belon, with perhaps less book-learning than his contemporary, was evidently no mean scholar, and undoubtedly had more practical knowledge of birds - their internal as well as external structure.
Far better both as draughtsman and as authority was George Edwards, who in 1 743 began, under the same title as Albin, a series of plates with letterpress, which was continued by the name of Gleanings in Natural History, and finished in 1760, when it had reached seven parts, forming four quarto volumes, the figures of which are nearly always quoted with approval.4 The year which saw the works of Edwards completed was still further distinguished by the appearance in France, where little had been done since Belon's days,' in six quarto volumes, of the Ornithologie of MathurinJacques Brisson - a work of very great merit so far as it goes, for as a descriptive ornithologist the author stands even now unsurpassed; but it must be said that his knowledge, according to internal evidence, was confined to books and to the external parts of birds' skins.
In the work just mentioned few details are given; but even the more elaborate classification of birds contained in his Lecons d'anatomie comparee of 1805 is based wholly on external characters, such as had been used by nearly all his predecessors; and the Regne Animal of 1817, when he 1 This was reprinted in 5882 by the Willughby Society.
An improvement on the old method of classification by purely external characters was introduced to the Academy of Sciences of Stockholm by C. J.
Indeed it is, as the latter says, that of Linnaeus, improved by Cuvier, with an additional modification of Illiger'sall these three authors having totally ignored any but external characters.
Herein the author first assigned anatomical reasons for rearranging the order Anseres of Linnaeus and Natatores of Illiger, who, so long before as 1811, had proposed a new distribution of it into six families, the definitions of which, as was his wont, he had drawn from external characters only.
To begin with, 1 Though not relating exactly to our present theme, it would be improper to dismiss Nitzsch's name without reference to his extraordinary labours in investigating the insect and other external parasites of birds, a subject which as regards British species was subsequently elaborated by Denny in his Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (1842) and in his list of the specimens of British Anoplura in the collection of the British Museum.
He states that Gould suspected the alliance of these two forms " from external structure and habits alone "; otherwise one might suppose that he had obtained an intimation to that effect on one of his Continental journeys.
respect, and he also pointed out that the planta of the different groups of birds in which it is divided is divided in different modes, the mode of division being generally characteristic of the group. Such a coincidence of the internal and external features of birds.
This is the more to be regretted by all ornithologists, since he intended to conclude with what to them would have been a very great boon - the showing in what way external characters coincided with those presented by osteology.
Blanchard's animadversions on the employment of external characters, and on trusting to observations on the habits of birds, called forth a rejoinder from A.
From what has before been said of his works it may be gathered that, while professedly basing his systematic arrangement of the groups of birds on their external features, he had hitherto striven to make his schemes harmonize if possible with the dictates of internal structure as evinced by the science of anatomy, though he uniformly and persistently protested against the inside being better than the outside.
About 1309 the arcaded facade along the lagoon front was taken in hand, and set the design for the whole of the external frontage of the palace.
The second problem of prime importance was the external problem of independence.
The external menace to their independence had welded together the place and the people; the same pressure had brought about the fusion of the conflicting parties in the lagoon townships into one homogeneous whole.
To turn now to the external events which followed on the Fourth Crusade.
But experience is of two sorts, external and internal; the first is that usually called experiment, but it can give no complete knowledge even of corporeal things, much less of spiritual.
The test of a miracle is, were there present in the case such external conditions, such second causes we may call them, that wherever these conditions or causes reappear the event will be reproduced.
For the Christian Church the miracles of Jesus are of primary importance; and the evidence - external and internal - in their favour may be said to be sufficient to justify belief.
Protonemertini, in which there are two layers of dermal muscles, external circular and internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies external to the circular muscles; the mouth lies behind the level of the brain; the proboscis has no stylet; there is no caecum to the intestine.
Heteronemertini, in which the dermal musculature is in three layers, an external longitudinal, a middle circular, an internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies between the first and second of these layers; the outer layer of longitudinal muscles is a new development; there is no intestinal caecum; no stylets on the proboscis and the mouth is behind the level of the brain.
The first three orders, which have a double muscular layer, external circular and internal longitudinal, are sometimes grouped together as the Dimyaria; the Heteronemertini, in which a third coat of longitudinal muscles arises outside the circular layer, are then placed in a second branch, the Trimyaria.
the external and" the internal one, there being a strong circular layer between them (fig.
The Heteronemertini thus appear to have developed an extra layer of longitudinal fibres internally to those which they inherited from more primitive ancestors, whereas the Metanemertini are no longer in possession of the internal circular layer, but have on the contrary largely developed the external circular one, which has dwindled away in the Heteronemertini.
In Polia the connective tissue enclosed in the external muscular layer is eminently vacuolar - all the intermediate stages between such cells in which the vacuole predominates and the nucleus is peripheral and those in which the granular protoplasm still entirely fills them being moreover present.
Each consists of a more or less coiled, ciliated, longitudinal canal, which on its external surface gives origin to one or more transverse canals, which pass to the exterior and open a little way behind the mouth on the sides of the body.
In Stichostemma, however, Montgomery 1 has described a series of nephridia lying all along the body, and each with a varying number of external pores.
The two external openings of the nephridia are situated sometimes more 2 towards the ventral, at other times more towards the dorsal side.
Then no changes of external temperature can affect the sag of the wire, and the only thing which can alter its length relatively to the supporting bar is the passage of a current through it.
The unbelieving receive the external sign or sacramentum; but the believing receive in addition, although invisibly, the reality represented by the sign, the res sacramenti.
He became Prime Minister and Secretary of State for External Affairs July io 1920, and was appointed a member of the King's Privy Council in October of the same year.
Medicated soaps for external use are only employed in cases of skin ailments, as prophylactic washes and as disinfectant soaps.
and two external, so that they were of the typical primitive bunodont structure.
According to DBrpfeld, this was the " old temple " of Athena Polias, frequently mentioned in literature and inscriptions, in which was housed the most holy image (oavov) of the goddess which fell from heaven; it was burnt, but not completely destroyed, during the Persian War, and some of its external decorations were afterwards built into the north wall of the Acropolis; it was subsequently restored, he thinks, with or without its colonnade - in the former case a portion of the peristyle must have been removed when the Erechtheum was built so as to make room for the porch of the maidens; the building was set on fire in 406 B.C. (Xen.
That the epistle implies as already existent a developed system of Gnostic thought such as only came into being in the 2nd century is not true, and such a date is excluded by the external evidence.
- The external fortunes of the Macedonian Empire after Alexander's death must be briefly traced before its inner developments be touched upon.'
The Hellenistic armies weredistinguished by their external magnificence.
All the former commercial grandeur of Chandernagore has now passed away, and at present it is little more than a quiet suburb of Calcutta, without any external trade.
Internal and external dangers alike, however, failed to daunt Leovigild, who may fairly be called the restorer of the Visigothic kingdom.
Leovigild himself was an Arian, being the last of the Visigothic kings to hold that creed; but he was not a bitter foe of the orthodox Christians, although he was obliged to punish them when they conspired against him with his external enemies.
The habit of absolute rule, always dangerous, was peculiarly corrupting when it penetrated every department of daily life, and when no external interference checked individual caprice in its action on the feelings and fortunes of inferiors.
The Stoic regarded the condition of freedom or slavery as an external accident, indifferent in the eye of wisdom; to him it was irrational to see in liberty a ground of pride or in slavery a subject of complaint; from intolerable indignity suicide was an ever-open means of escape.
Hence the abolition of the external slave trade tended, in fact, to put an end to internal sales, and the slaves became attached to the households or lands of their masters.
The limbs are stout and short, terminating in unsymmetrical hoofs, the external being rounded, the internal pointed, and the sole partially covered with hair.
The people, more remote and less accessible to external influences, retained their Scandinavian characteristics longer than the Orcadians.
The storm which shook the external states was favourable to the peace of Judah; the Assyrian power was practically broken, and that of the Chaldeans had scarcely developed into an aggressive form.
The extreme external length of the cathedral is 524 ft.
The upper cheek-teeth are short-crowned and without cement, and show distinct traces of the primitive tubercles; the two outer columns form a more or less complete external wall, connected with the inner ones by a pair of nearly straight transverse crests; and the premolars are originally simpler than the molars.
4, External surface dorsum).
It laid stress, not on external authority, as did the Jewish law, but on individual experience and inward meditation.
The eye is small, and the external ear represented by a minute aperture, scarcely larger than would be made by a pin, about 2 in.
The external law given, as was believed, by the God of Israel, was held to be the sufficient guide of life, and everything that looked like reliance on human wisdom was regarded as disloyalty to the Divine Lawgiver.
For the old external law they substitute the internal law: conscience is recognized as the power that approves or condemns conduct Nivxii, Ecclus.
Newton's Hypotheses non fingo was a proud boast, but it rests upon an entire misconception of the capacities of the mind of man in dealing with external nature.
External influences and latent fanaticism were active; a serious insurrection broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875, and the efforts to quell it almost exhausted Turkey's resources; the example spread to Bulgaria, where abortive outbreaks in September 1875 and May 1876 led to those cruel measures of repression which were known as " the Bulgarian atrocities," 3 Mussulman public feeling was inflamed, and an attempt at Salonica to induce a Christian girl who had embraced Islam to return to her faith caused the murder of two foreign consuls by a fanatical mob.
We know nothing of the work called The Ecclesiastical Canon from any external testimony.
Respiration is effected by means of external gills placed along both sides of the dorsum of the abdomen and hinder segments of the thorax.
In correspondence with the tri-regional differentiation of the body in its external configuration, the coelom (body-cavity, perivisceral cavity) is divided into three portions completely separated from one another by septa: - (I) proboscis-coelom, or first body-cavity; (2) the collar-coelom, or second body-cavity; (3) truncal coelom, or third body-cavity.
It is within the bounds of possibility that Tornaria actually does indicate a remote affinity on the part of the Enteropneusta to the Echinoderms, not only on account of its external form, but also by reason of the possession of a dorsal water-pore communicating with the anterior body-cavity.
If the external electromotive force exceed that of the cell by ever so little, a current flows in the opposite direction, and all the former chemical changes are reversed, copper dissolving from the copper plate, while zinc is deposited on the zinc plate.
The available energy A is the amount of external work obtainable by an infinitesimal, reversible change in the system which occurs at a constant temperature T.
During a small electric transfer through the cell, the external work done is Ee, where E is the electromotive force.
CONFEDERATION OF BAR, a famous confederation of the Polish nobles and gentry formed at the little fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw, Prince Nicholas Repnin.
Large metallic surfaces (especially external surfaces) are sometimes plated by means of a "doctor," which, in its simplest form, is a brush constantly wetted with the electrolyte, with a wire anode buried amid the hairs or bristles; this brush is painted slowly over the surface of the metal to be coated, which must be connected to the negative terminal of the electrical generator.
In the external trade the exports to Russia consist chiefly of grain, cattle, sheep, butter and other animal products, furs, game, feathers and down.
External opening of the same.
External tentacular muscle.
(After Hancock.) The its primitive connexion with the letters indicate the muscles as external epithelium.
forma), in general, the external shape, appearance, configuration of an object, in contradistinction to the matter of which it is composed; thus a speech may contain excellent arguments, - the matter may be good, while the style, grammar, arrangement, - the form - is bad.
In pursuance of this he indulged in all forms of external luxury.
ad, and facere, to do something to, sc. a person), literally, a mental state resulting generally from an external influence.
If a series of such elements, all equally and longitudinally magnetized, were placed end to end with their unlike poles in contact, the external action of the filament thus formed would be reduced to that of the two extreme poles.
The potential due to a uniformly magnetized sphere of radius a for an external point at a distance r from the centre is V =:I ra 3 I cos 0/r 22, (23) 0 being the inclination of r to the magnetic axis.
Since 7ra'I is the moment of the sphere (=volume X magnetization), it appears from (10) that the magnetized sphere produces the same external effect as a very small magnet of equal moment placed at its centre and magnetized in the same direction; the resultant force therefore is the same as in (14).
The resultant magnetic field, therefore, is compounded of two fields, the one being due to the poles, and the other to the external causes which would be operative in the absence of the magnetized metal.
The intensity (at any point) of the field due to the magnetization may be denoted by H i, that of the external field by Ho, and that of the resultant field by H.
Demagnetizing Force.-It has already been mentioned that when a ferromagnetic body is placed in a magnetic field, the resultant magnetic force H, at a point within the body, is compounded of the force H o, due to the external field, and of another force, Hi, arising from the induced magnetization of the body.
Since H, generally tends to oppose the external force, thus making H less than H o, it may be called the demagnetizing force.
Except in the few special cases when a uniform external field produces uniform magnetization, the value of the demagnetizing force cannot be calculated, and an exact determination of the actual magnetic force within the body is therefore impossible.
Equations (33) and (34) show that when, as is generally the case with ferromagnetic substances, the value of is considerable, the resultant magnetic force is only a small fraction of the external force, while the numerical value of the induction is approximately three times that of the external force, and nearly independent of the permeability.
retained by a bar of ferromagnetic metal after it has been removed from the influence of an external field produces a demagnetizing force NI T, which is greater the smaller the dimensional ratio..
So long as the wire (supposed isotropic) is free from torsional stress, there will be no external evidence of magnetism.
The action of a hollow magnetized shell on a point inside it is always opposed to that of the external magnetizing force, 6 the resultant interior field being therefore weaker than the field outside.
Of the three methods which have been described, the first two are generally the most suitable for determining the moment or the magnetization of a permanent magnet, and the last for studying the changes which occur in the magnetization of a long rod or wire wl?E:n subjected to various external magnetic forces, or, in other words, for determining the relation of I to H.
If a transverse cut is made through a bar whose magnetization is I and the two ends are placed in contact, it can be shown that this force is 27r I 2 dynes per unit of area (Mascart and Joubert, Electricity and Magnetism, § 322; and if the magnetization of the bar is due to an external field H produced by a magnetizing coil or otherwise, there is an additional force equal to HI.
From data contained in Joule's paper it may be calculated that the strongest external field Ho produced by his coil was about 126 C.G.S.
Experiments were afterwards made with rods of iron, nickel, and cobalt, the external field being carried up to the high value of 1500 units.
Experiments on the effect of external hydrostatic pressure upon the magnetization of iron rings have also been made by F.
He considers that Hall's is the fundamental phenomenon, and that the Nernst effect is essentially identical with it, the primary electromotive force in the case of the latter being that of the Thomson effect in the unequally heated metal, while in the Hall experiment it is derived from an external source.
The creation of an external magnetic field H will, in accordance with Lenz's law, induce in the molecule an electric current so directed that the magnetization of the equivalent magnet is opposed to the direction of the field.
If S is the area of the orbit described in time T by an electron of charge e, the moment of the equivalent magnet is M = eST; and the change in the value of M due to an external field H is shown to be OM = - He'S/47rm, m being the mass of the electron.
Serrula on movable digit of appendages of 1st pair fixed throughout its length, and broader at its proximal than at its distal end; the immovable digit with an external process.
1, Genital or first opisthosomatic (Original.) The serrula or the movable digit free at its distal end, narrowed at the base; no external lamina on the immovable digit.
Soc., 1885; Tower, " The External Opening of the brick-red Glands of Limulus," Zool.
The security offered by this treaty was further guaranteed by the formation of a regional league of the Baltic states against external aggression.
" Political differences " on the other hand, are such as affect states in their external relations, or in relation to their subjects or dependants who may be in revolt against them.
In 1888, a year before the republic was proclaimed, the internal and external national debts amounted to £74,000,000 sterling, with the currency at par.
The result of these measures was a large addition to the public debt, which on 31st December 1906 was approximately as follows (apolices being the name given to bonds inscribed to the holder): - External debt: Loans of 1883, 1888 and 1889 Oestede Minas R.
Their organization, however, in regard to their means of defence against both external aggression and internal violence, was extremely defective.
Although it suffered at the hands of revolutionary fanatics in 1688, the damage was confined mainly to the external ornament, and the chapel, owing to restoration in judicious taste, is now in perfect condition.
In that year the external trade of Natal, almost entirely with Cape Colony, was of the total value of 42,000 - of which 32,000 represented imported goods.
The relation of reason and faith remains external, and certain doctrines - an increasing number as times goes on - are withdrawn from the sphere of reason.
The end of the period was thus brought about by the internal decay of its method and principles quite as much as by the variety of external causes which contributed to transfer men's interests to other subjects.
But, although the relation of reason to an external authority thus constitutes the badge of medieval thought, it would be unjust to look upon Scholasticism as philosophically barren, and to speak as if reason, after an interregnum of a thousand years, resumed its rights at the Renaissance.
The individual is the only reality, whether the question be of an individual thing in the external world or an individual state in the world of mind.
But even the navigable rivers, owing to the direction of their course, are not available as a means of external communication.
Though an acquired or " superimposed " character is not transmitted to offspring as the consequence of the action of the external agencies which determine the " acquirement," yet the tendency to react to such agencies possessed by the parent is transmitted and may be increased and largely developed by survival, if the character developed by the reaction is valuable.
It amounts toa new and unprecedented factor in organic development, external to the organism and yet produced by the activity of the organism upon which it permanently reacts.
The,ideal surface of resolution may be there regarded as a flexible lamina; and we know that, if by forces locally applied every element of the lamina be made to move normally to itself exactly as the air at that place does, the external aerial motion is fully determined.
(It is easy to see that the radius of the bright spot is of the same order of magnitude.) The experiment succeeds in a dark room of the length above mentioned, with a threepenny bit (supported by three threads) as obstacle, the origin of light being a small needle hole in a plate of tin, through which the sun's rays shine horizontally after reflection from an external mirror.
It has been found by Sir William Herschel and others that the definition of a telescope is often improved by stopping off a part of the central area of the object-glass; but the advantage to be obtained in this way is in no case great, and anything like a reduction of the aperture to a narrow annulus is attended by a development of the external luminous rings sufficient to outweigh any improvement due to the diminished diameter of the central area.'
Under these conditions there is no doubt that the star would appear to be fairly resolved, since the brightness of its external ring system is too small to produce any material confusion, unless indeed the components are of very unequal magnitude.
Fresnel commenced his researches with an examination of the fringes, external and internal, which accompany the shadow of a narrow opaque strip, such as a wire.
Beyond this the external evidence for the completion of the collection does not carry us.
No canon of literary criticism can treat as valuable external evidence an attestation which first appears so many centuries after the supposed date of the poems.
Another article reserved to her majesty " the control of the external relations of the said state, including the conclusion of treaties and the conduct of diplomatic intercourse with foreign powers," and the right to march troops through the Transvaal.
Kruger's design at this time was to bring the whole of the external trade of the state, which was growing yearly as the gold industry developed, through Delagoa Bay and over the Netherlands railway.
But the increase of size which constitutes growth is the result of a process of molecular intussusception, and therefore differs altogether from the process of growth by accretion, which may be observed in crystals and is effected purely by the external addition of new matter - so that, in the well-known aphorism of Linnaeus, the word "grow" as applied to stones signifies a totally different process from what is called "growth" in plants and animals.
It has a certain external and internal form, the latter being more usually called structure; 2.
It is the subject of the operation of certain forces in virtue of which it undergoes internal changes, modifies external objects, and is modified by them; and 4.
It is presented as a solution of the problem of explaining the nature of our knowledge of the external world.
Against the charge of an undue insistence on the external graces of manner Chesterfield has been adequately defended by Lord Stanhope (History, iii.
They permitted external conformity with the dominant Church, and held that Christ would forgive it.
This reconciliation of the internal and the external evidence, countenanced as it is by Theophrastus, one of the best informed of the ancient historians, and approved by Zeller, one of the most learned of the modern critics, is more than plausible; but there is something to be said on the contrary part.
Secondly, the external evidence does not bear examination.
Trophic disturbance in the nutrition of the skin may be so great that a slight degree of external pressure or irritation is sufficient to excite even a gangrenous inflammation.
Of all external agents acting for evil, however, probably vegetable and animal micro-organisms with a pathogenic bent are most to be feared.
Response Of Tissues To Stimulation A stimulus may be defined as every change of the external agencies acting upon an organism; and if a stimulus come in contact with a body possessing the property of irritability, i.e.
in external diameter, also in the Lombard Romanesque style.
For long the Brahmas did not attempt any social reforms. But about 1865 the younger section, headed by Babu Keshub Chunder Sen, who joined the Samaj in 1857, tried to carry their religious theories into practice by demanding the abandonment of the external signs of caste distinction.
In its external development Syracuse differed somewhat from other Sicilian cities.
Hermocrates, the best of counsellors for external affairs, is suspected, and seemingly with reason, of disloyalty to the democratic constitution.
The most fundamental division is into internal and external medicine, or into medicine proper and surgery.
The highest importance was attached to applying all remedies at the right moment, and the general principle enforced of making all influences - internal and external - co-operate for the relief of the patient.
In the treatment of disease Asclepiades attached most importance to diet, exercise, passive movements or frictions, and the external use of cold water - in short, to a modified athletic training.
It is proper to point out here how intimately a pathology thus regenerated modified current conceptions of disease, in the linking of disease to oscillations of health, and the regarding many diseases as modifications of the normal set up by the impingement of external causes; not a few of which indeed may be generated within the body itself - "autogenetic poisoning."
Thus the field of disease arising not from essential defect in the body, but from external contingencies, is vastly enlarging; while on the other hand the great variability of individuals in susceptibility explains the very variable results of such extrinsic causes.
The external politics of his reign were not marked by any striking events.
Even now, however, in his sixtieth year, it required some more external pressure to induce him to make himself independent.
The principal external features are the huge Victoria Tower at the south, and the clock tower, with its well-known chimes and the hour-bell " Big Ben," on the north.
The Bank is a characteristic building, quadrilateral, massive and low, but covering a large area, without external windows, and almost wholly unadorned; though the northwest corner is copied from the Temple of the Sibyl at Tivoli.
The function of the academic department is to control the teaching branch, internal examinations, &c., and that of the external department to control external examinations, while the university extension system occupies a third department.
Further, all the subsequent processes of cutting, moulding and annealing become increasingly difficult, owing to the greatly increased risk of breakage arising from either external injury or internal strain, as the dimensions of the individual piece of glass increase.
During the war external trade was almost wholly with Great Britain; after 1918 Belgium recovered part of the trade, though that with Britain continued much above pre-war figures and was worth £2,000,000 in 1919.
Over a concentric cylinder, external or internal, of radius r=b, 4,'=4,+ Uly =[U I - + Ui]y, (4) and 4" is zero if U 1 /U = (a 2 - b2)/b 2; (5) so that the cylinder may swim for an instant in the liquid without distortion, with this velocity Ui; and w in (I) will give the liquid motion in the interspace between the fixed cylinder r =a and the concentric cylinder r=b, moving with velocity U1.
3 /, with similar equations for 13 and If we can make (41 rpA + a) x2' = (4 7 P B +a) b2 = (4 7 P C +7)0, (16) the surfaces of equal pressure are similar to the external case, which can then be removed without affecting the motion, provided remain constant.
4), and issues in a jet between two edges A and A'; the wall xA being bent at a corner B, with the external angle (3= 2Wr/n.
When the liquid is bounded externally by the fixed ellipsoid A = A I, a slight extension will give the velocity function 4 of the liquid in the interspace as the ellipsoid A=o is passing with velocity U through the confocal position; 4 must now take the formx(1'+N), and will satisfy the conditions in the shape CM abcdX ¢ = Ux - Ux a b x 2+X)P Bo+CoB I - C 1 (A 1 abcdX, I a1b1cl - J o (a2+ A)P and any'confocal ellipsoid defined by A, internal or external to A=A 1, may be supposed to swim with the liquid for an instant, without distortion or rotation, with velocity along Ox BA+CA-B 1 -C1 W'.
, (4) where X, Y, Z, L, M, N denote components of external applied force on the body.
When no external force acts, the case which we shall consider, there are three integrals of the equations of motion (i.) T =constant, x 2 +x 2 +x 2 =F 2, a constant, (iii.) x1y1 +x2y2+x3y3 =n = GF, a constant; and the dynamical equations in (3) express the fact that x, x, xs.
But the presence of the medium makes the effective inertia depend on the direction of motion with respect to the external shape of the body, and on W' the weight of fluid medium displaced.
Consider, for example, a submarine boat under water; the inertia is different for axial and broadside motion, and may be represented by (1) c 1 =W+W'a, c2=W+W'/3' where a, R are numerical factors depending on the external shape; and if the C.G is moving with velocity V at an angle 4) with the axis, so that the axial and broadside component of velocity is u = V cos 0, v =V sin 4), the total momentum F of the medium, represented by the vector OF at an angle 0 with the axis, will have components, expressed in sec. Ib, F cos 0 =c 1 - = (W +W'a) V cos 43, F sin 0 = c 2.11 = (W +W'/3) V sin 4) .
(9) c 2 Ci If the shot is moving as if fired from a gun of calibre d inches, in which the rifling makes one turn in a pitch of n calibres or nd inches, so that the angle S of the rifling is given by tan S = ird/nd = 2 d p/u, (10) '°If a denotes the density of the metal, and if the shell has a cavity homothetic with the external ellipsoidal shape, a fraction f of the linear scale; then the volume of a round shot being sird 3, and sird 3 x of a shot x calibres long W =*ird 3 x(I -f 3)v, (20) 2 Wki 2= 61rd 3 xo(I-f 5)Q, (21) Wk22=67rd3x 2 2+0 2(I - f5)Q.
I +W a W a), ' (k) 4 (I I) I+ w- R For a shot in air the ratio W'/W is so small that the square may be neglected, and formula (II) can be replaced for practical purpose in artillery by tan26= n2 = W i (0 - a) (k ð)7()4, (12) if then we can calculate /3, a, or (3-a for the external shape of the shot, this equation will give the value of 6 and n required for stability of flight in the air.
The effect of an external circulation of vortex motion on the motion of a cylinder has been investigated in § 29; a similar procedure will show the influence of circulation through a hole in a solid, taking as the simplest illustration a ring-shaped figure, with uniplanar motion, and denoting by the resultant axial linear momentum of the circulation.
Looking somewhat deeper at the sources from which Old English law was derived, we shall have to modify our classification to some extent, as the external forms of publication, although important from the point of view of historical criticism, are not sufficient standards as to the juridical character of the various kinds of material.
bones, muscles, &c.) shown as if external, as in some Mesopotamian sculptures.
The portcullis gate and a tower are all that remain of it; of the abbey which was at one time the finest in Wales, there still exist the external walls, with parts of the chapel, vaulted chapter-house, refectory and abbot's house.
"Nostril," the external opening into the nose, is from O.Eng.
But though the war was ended, the terms of the treaty left a number of burning questions, both internal and external, unsettled.
Outline of the ventral surface to show the external apertures and nervous system; a, rosette-organ; b, uterine pore; c, terminal sucker; e, vaginal pore; g, male gonopore; n, o, p, nervous system.
The most remarkable feature of this cystic development is the formation in many genera of several internal buds within a common cyst, each of which forms an independent inverted scolex (Coenurus, Polycercus); or these internal vesicles may bud off a large number of scolices on their external surface (Staphylocystis).