Eusebius in his Onomasticon uses it as a central point from which the distances of other towns are measured.
Eusebius (Life of Const.
Eusebius did not find them in the Hexaplar Septuagint.'
the years 490-480 (Eusebius, Chron.
The better sources make Sardica the scene of meeting and name Eusebius (of Nicomedia) as the prelate who attended Constantine.
Its author made use of Eusebius's Life of Constantine, and of the histories of Rufinus, Socrates and Sozomen, and probably of Philostorgius as well.
The `EAXnvucwv OEpairEvruo lraen,uhTwv (De Curandis Graecorum Affectionibus) - written before 438 - is of an historical and apologetic character, very largely indebted to Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius; it aims at showing the advantages of Christianity as compared with " the moribund but still militant " Hellenism of the day, and deals with the assaults of pagan adversaries.
It was quite small by the time of Eusebius.
69), Justin, Melito (in Eusebius, H.E., iv.
From Alexandria we get Athanasius, Didymus and Cyril; from Cyrene, Synesius; from Antioch, Theodore of Mopsuestia, John Chrysostom and Theodoret; from Palestine, Eusebius of Caesarea and Cyril of Jerusalem; from Cappadocia, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory of Nazianzus.
Other apologies are by Aristides (recently recovered in translation), Athenagoras (" elegant "), Eusebius of Caesarea, Cyril of Alexandria; in Latin by Minucius Felix, Tertullian (a masculine spirit and phrase-coiner like T.
It is true that Eusebius, in his Chronicle, dates his first appearance from A.D.
133, but according to Eusebius, Hist.
The site was known, and some scanty ruins still existed, in the time of Eusebius and Jerome (Onomast., s.v.
To Eusebius the erection of a temple of Venus over the sepulchre of Christ was an act of mockery against the Christian religion.
For the translations, see the various editions of Origen, Eusebius, &c.
In the 4th century Pamphilus, Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius, the Cappadocians, Didymus, and Rufinus were on the side of Origen against the attacks of Methodius and many others.
This, however, is not the primitive form of the legend, which a close examination shows to be derived from the following story related by Eusebius in his Historia Ecclesiastica (vii.
Melchiades was preceded and followed by Eusebius and Silvester I.
Thus Eusebius (Hist.
adversus Paganos, 1844); besides the Old and New Testaments, he appears to have consulted Caesar, Livy, Justin, Tacitus, Suetonius, Florus and a cosmography, attaching also great value to Jerome's translation of the Chronicles of Eusebius.
In 1893 he published a history of early Christian literature down to Eusebius, Geschichte der altchristl.
10, § 12) - hence its highly rhetorical character - from which Eusebius gives the extract about the Essenes; while this in its turn may have constituted the fourth book of a large work entitled ("sarcastically," says Eusebius, H.E.
Eusebius was so much struck by the likeness of the Therapeutae to the Christian monks of his own day as to claim that they were Christians converted by the preaching of St Mark.
Eusebius having gone wrong on this point, others of the Fathers followed suit, so that Philo is reckoned by Jerome among the ecclesiastical writers of the Christians.
He was twice married, and had several sons, of whom Eusebius held a chair of philosophy at Wittenberg, and married Melanchthon's grand-daughter, Anna Sabinus.
The maps which accompany St Jerome's translation of the Onomasticon of St Eusebius (388).
It was only the chronologists and historians of the church who, following Julius Africanus, made use of apocalyptic numbers in their calculations, while court theologians like Eusebius entertained the imperial table with discussions as to whether the dining-hall of the emperor - the second David and Solomon, the beloved of God - might not be the New Jerusalem of John's Apocalypse.
Eusebius was not the first who dabbled in such speculations.
It finds its analogy in the Phoenician account of the origin of different inventions which Eusebius (Praep. Evang.
The earliest writer after himself who gives us any information with regard to him is Eusebius.
By Eusebius and Photius he is called Titus Flavius Clemens, and " c the Alexandrian " is added to his name.
This is expressly stated by Eusebius (Praep. Evangel.
cap. 2), though it is likely that Eusebius had no other authority than the works of Clement.
Eusebius and Jerome give us lists of the works which Clement left behind him.
Both Eusebius and Photius describe the work.
Of the other treatises mentioned by Eusebius and Jerome nothing is known.
Besides the treatises mentioned by Eusebius, fragments of treatises on Providence and the Soul have been preserved.
When, in the year 289, St Cyprian was led to martyrdom, he wore, according to Eusebius (Hist.
Thus the Gelasian Decree includes the works of Eusebius, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria, under this designation.
This gospel must have been translated at an early date into Greek, as Clement and Origen cite it as generally accessible, and Eusebius recounts that many reckoned it among the received books.
190-203) found it in use in the church of Rhossus in Cilicia, and condemned it as Docetic (Eusebius, H.E.
in Luc. i.), Eusebius, H.E.
They belong to the earliest ages, for they are mentioned by Eusebius, H.E.
- This so-called letter of Clement is not mentioned by any writer before Eusebius (H.E.
c. xc.) The name is given to the Arabians mentioned by Eusebius (Hist.
According to Eusebius, they were convinced of their error by Origen, and renounced it at a council held about A.D.
Moreover the statement of Eusebius (Chron.
The well-known legend of the correspondence of Abgar Ukkama, king of Edessa, with Christ and the mission of Addai to Edessa immediately after the Ascension was accepted as true by the historian Eusebius (f340) on the faith of a Syriac document preserved in the official archives of the city.
It adds many new features to the shorter form of the story as given by Eusebius, among which is the noteworthy promise of Christ about the impregnability of the city - " Thy city shall be blessed and no enemy shall ever henceforth obtain dominion over it.
C. Burkitt (Early Eastern Christianity, p. 14), that Eusebius knew of Christ's promise as part of the letter to Abgar, and purposely suppressed it as inconsistent with historical facts.
Such allegorization meets us already in Origen, Eusebius and other early fathers, and is quite compatible with that use of a material Eucharist which Nerses II.
The former scruple, however, was not confined to Paulicians, for it inspires the answer made by Eusebius, bishop of Thessalonica, to the emperor Maurice, when the latter asked to have relics sent to him of Demetrius the patron saint of that city.
34), bishop of Athens (Eusebius, Hist.
Had the native history of Berossus survived, this would not have been the case; all that is known of the Chaldaean historian's work, however, is derived from quotations in Josephus, Ptolemy, Eusebius and the Syncellus.
The energy and imprudence of Eutyches in asserting his opinions led to his being accused of heresy by Domnus of Antioch and Eusebius, bishop of Dorylaeum, at a synod presided over by Flavian at Constantinople in 448.
As his explanations were not considered satisfactory, the council deposed him from his priestly office and excommunicated him; but in 449, at a council held in Ephesus convened by Dioscurus of Alexandria and overawed by the presence of a large number of Egyptian monks, not only was Eutyches reinstated in his office, but Eusebius, Domnus and Flavian, his chief opponents, were deposed, and the Alexandrine dcctrine of the "one nature" received the sanction of the church.
His reading ranges from Arabian philosophers and naturalists to Aristotle, Eusebius, Cicero, Seneca, Julius Caesar (whom he calls Julius Celsus), and even the Jew, Peter Alphonso.
The Maronite scholar, Joseph Simon virgin Assemani (1687-1768), first identified her with the royal and wealthy lady of Alexandria (Eusebius, Hist.
The term nymphaeum was also applied to the fountains of water in the atrium of the Christian basilica, which according to Eusebius (x.
1), was still a very large village (MaXµas) in the time of Eusebius.
When Eusebius placed MwpavIel near Eleutheropolis it is not likely that he is thinking of Mareshah (Maresa), for he speaks of the former as a village and of the latter as a ruin 2 m.
His festival (semiduplex) is observed by the Roman Catholic Church on the 17th of November, For the facts of his biography we have an outline of his early years in his eulogy on Origen, and incidental notices in the writings of Eusebius, of Basil of Caesarea and Jerome.
He was the author of notes on Cluvier's Italia antiqua (1624); an edition of portions of Porphyrius (1630), with a dissertation on his life and writings, described as a model of its kind; notes on Eusebius Against Hierocles (1628), on the Sayings of the later Pythagoreans (1638), and the De diis et mundo of the neo-Platonist Sallustius (1638); Notae et castigationes in Stephani Byzantini ethnica (first published in 1684); and Codex regularum, Collection of the Early Rules of the Monastic Orders (1661).
Fragments of older works are cited by Philo of Byblus (in Eusebius, Praep. Evang.
Eusebius relates (Hist.
It was in the East especially that preaching flourished: Eusebius of Caesarea, Eusebius of Emesa, Athanasius, Macarius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Ephraem Syrus among the orthodox; and of the Arians, Arius himself and Ulfilas the great Gothic missionary, are all of high quality; but above even these stand out the three Cappadocians,Basil (q.v.) of Caesarea,cultured, devout and practical; his brother Gregory of Nyssa, more inclined to the speculative and metaphysical, and Gregory (q.v.) of Nazianzus, richly endowed with poetic and oratorial gifts, the finest preacher of the three.
Sotas bishop of Anchialus attempted to refute Prisca, but with no better success (Eusebius, Hist.
- (ED.) 4 Quoted in Eusebius, Hist.
(3) The oldest polemical works of the 2nd century, extracts from which have been preserved, especially by Eusebius (Hist.
Apollonius (Eusebius, Hist.
Creed of Eusebius of Caesarea, presented to the Nicene Council.
ST JEROME (HIERONYMUS, in full Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) (c. 340-420), was born at Strido (modern Strigau ?), a town on the border of Dalmatia fronting Pannonia, destroyed by the Goths in A.D.
The result of his studies there was the translation of the Chronicon of Eusebius, with a continuation 1 of twenty-eight homilies of Origen on Jeremiah and 1 Cf.
At Rome were published the Gospels (with a dedication to Pope Damasus, an explanatory introduction, and the canons of Eusebius), the rest of the New Testament and the version of the Psalms from the Septuagint known as the Psalterium romanum, which was followed (c. 388) by the Psalterium gallicanum, based on the Hexaplar Greek text.
The results of this journey may be traced in his translation with emendations of the book of Eusebius on the situation and names of Hebrew places, written probably three years afterwards, when he had settled down at Bethlehem.
Eusebius classed it among the " disputed " books, declaring that as with James " not many of the ancients have mentioned it " (H.
Some authors, however, among whom are Eusebius, Jerome and the historian Socrates, place its commencement at the 1st of September; these, however, appear to have confounded the Olympic year with the civil year of the Greeks, or the era of the Seleucidae.
The fact that Eusebius does not mention Revelation among the New Testament books known to Papias (H.E.
30 = Eusebius, H.E.
The arguments of Dionysius were repeated by Eusebius, who ascribed the work to the presbyter John mentioned by Papias (Eus.
- In the Eastern Church the views of Dionysius and Eusebius were generally accepted.
The rest of the patristic evidence from Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Victorinus, Eusebius and Jerome will be found in Swete's Apocalypse of St John 2, xcix.
The validity of such an hypothesis was attacked as early as the 4th century by Dionysius of Alexandria in the fragment of his treatise irEpi 7ray yeAuA;v, in Eusebius, H.E.
The epistle is quoted by Eusebius 1 Ency.
Eusebius has preserved the greater part of this epistle (iv.
Eusebius in his Chronicon gives A.D.
In 370 Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, died, and Basil was chosen to succeed him.
It was previously known by name from lists of canonical and extracanonical books compiled by Eusebius and other writers.
Three pre-Christian or extra-ecclesiastical usages are recorded by a half-heretical churchman, Marcellus of Ancyra (in Eusebius of Caesarea, Contra Marcellum, i.
Elmenhorst's statement, that Musanus and Didymus in an earlier age wrote treatises with the name De ecclesi asticis dogmatibus, seems a plain blunder, if we compare Jerome's Latin with Eusebius's Greek.
An early and well-known instance of such delegation is that mentioned by Eusebius (Hist.
12) has been identified by tradition (as old as Eusebius) with the valley between Jerusalem and the mount of Olives.
The story of his having baptized Constantine is pure fiction, as almost contemporary evidence shows the emperor to have received this rite near Nicomedia at the hands of Eusebius, bishop of that city.
Thus Papias, as Eusebius.
Certainly Polycrates, bishop of Ephesus, made a precisely similar mistake when about 190 he described the Philip " who rests in Hierapolis " as " one of the twelve apostles," since Eusebius rightly identifies this Philip with the deacon of Acts xxi.
The Alexandrian Clement, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, Jerome and Augustine only tell of the Zebedean what is traceable to stories told by Papias of others, to passages of Revelation and the Gospel, or to the assured fact of the long-lived Asian presbyter.
See Hefele's Concilien, passim; Du Cange, Glossary, article "Baptisterium"; Eusebius, Hist.
Neither Eusebius (H.E.
In 355 Liberius was one of the few who, along with Eusebius of Vercelli, Dionysius of Milan and Lucifer of Cagliari, refused to sign the condemnation of Athanasius, which had anew been imposed at Milan by imperial command upon all the Western bishops; the consequence was his relegation to Beroea in Thrace, Felix II.
Eusebius was archbishop here (A.D.
The opposition, which was led by one Eusebius, a "scholasticus" or pleader who afterwards became bishop of Dorylaeum, chose to construe this utterance as a denial of the divinity of Christ, and so violent did the dispute upon it become that Nestorius judged it necessary to silence the remonstrants by force.
The first real church history was written by Eusebius of Caesarea in the early part of the 4th century.
In the West Eusebius' History was translated into Latin by Rufinus, and continued down to the end of the 4th century.
Before writing his history Eusebius produced a world chronicle which was based upon a similar work by Julius Africanus and is now extant only in part.
In spite of all opposition the Church steadily grew, until in 3" the emperor Galerius upon his death-bed granted toleration (see Eusebius, H.E.
On early Christian literature, in addition to the works on Church history, see especially the monumental Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius, by Harnack (1893 ff.).
Schwegler published also an edition of the Clementine Homilies (1847), and of Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History (1852); in philosophy Ubersetzung and Erlciuterung der aristot.
See Eusebius, Praep. Ev.
The greatest orthodox authority is Eusebius Amort, De Origine, &c., indulgentiarum (1735).
420), the most scholarly representative of Christianity in the 4th century, the student of Plautus and Terence, of Virgil and Cicero, the translator of the Chronology of Eusebius, and the author of the Latin version of the Bible now known as the Vulgate.
Symmachus, according to Eusebius and Jerome, was an Ebionite; Epiphanius represents him (very improbably) as a Samaritan who became a Jewish proselyte.
The Hexapla as a whole was far too large to be copied, but the revised Septuagint text was published separately by Eusebius and Pamphilus, and was extensively used in Palestine during the 4th century.
As applied to a class of epistles, the title dates from Eusebius, early in the 4th century; the epithet is given to single epistles by Origen, and is found as far back as the end of the 2nd century.
The story which Eusebius quotes from Clement of Alexandria (H.E.
- Early in the 4th century Eusebius, as a historian reviews the situation (H.E.
Asia Minor and Syria were for most of the 4th century divided between the following of Eusebius (Cyril of Jerusalem in A.D.
The corrections of s e are important, as they are based (according to a note by that scribe, at the end of Esther) on an early copy which had been corrected by, Pamphilus, the disciple of Origen, friend of Eusebius and founder of a library at Caesarea.
All writers earlier than the 5th century are valuable, but particularly important are the following groups: (1) Greek writers in the West, especially Justin Martyr, Tatian, Marcion, Irenaeus and Hippolytus; (2) Latin writers in Italy, especially Novatian, the author of the de Rebaptismate and Ambrosiaster; (3) Latin writers in Africa, especially Tertullian and Cyprian; (4) Greek writers in Alexandria, especially Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Athanasius and Cyril; (5) Greek writers in the East, especially Methodius of Lycia and Eusebius of Caesarea; (6) Syriac writers, especially Aphraates and Ephraem; it is doubtful whether the Diatessaron of Tatian ought to be reckoned in this group or in (1).
from the preface to the Acts: " Dionysius, bishop of the Corinthians, a very ancient writer, quoted by Eusebius, writes that Peter and Paul obtained the crown of martyrdom by the command of Nero on the same day."
This document is by many scholars identified with the " Logia," mentioned by Papias (Eusebius, Ch.
I, Eop-r1 7 A B D, Origen, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Paschal Chronicle; KCLz 1-118, 33, the Egyptian versions, Eusebius, Cyril-Alex.
922], Eusebius's Chronicle Tib.
18 or r9) =01.202.4 [this last is a later interpolation from Eusebius] in the Acts of Pilate.
Other methods of expressing the year 29 appear in Hippolytus's Paschal Cycle and Chronicle, and in the Abgar legend (ap. Eusebius, H.E.
53], Eusebius probably under Claudius 11, that is, between September 51 and September 52 (for the meaning of the regnal years in the Chronicle of Eusebius see the present writer's article in Journal of Theological Studies, January 1900, pp. 188-192).
- (a) Eusebius's Chronicle places the arrival of Festus in Nero 2, October 55-56, and Eusebius's chronology of the procurators goes back probably through Julius Africanus (himself a Palestinian) to contemporary authorities like the Jewish kings of Justus of Tiberias.
But (i.) Nero 2 is really September 56-September 57; (ii.) it is doubtful whether Eusebius had any authority to depend on here other than Josephus, who gives no precise year for Festus - Julius Africanus is, hardly probable, since we know that his chronicle was very jejune for the Christian period - and if so, Eusebius had to find a year as best he could.'
1) attempts to interpret the evidence of Eusebius in favour of the later date for Festus as follows: Eusebius's date for Festus is to be found in Nero 1, by striking a mean between the Armenian, Claudius 12, and the Latin, Nero 2; it is really to be understood as reckoned, not by years of Nero, but by years of Agrippa; and as Eusebius erroneously antedated Agrippa's reign by five years, commencing it with A.D.
Ramsay's various works, and in Harnack's Chronologie der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius, i.
But in any case the Greek language hardly offered another word for an organ of revelation so colourless as arp04, rns, while the condition of etymology among the ancients made it possible to interpret it as having a special reference to prediction (so Eusebius, Dem.
331, the emperor Constantine requested Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, to provide him with fifty copies of the Old and New Testaments for use in the principal churches in Constantinople.
The numerous followers of Iamblichus - Aedesius, Chrysanthius, Eusebius, Priscus, Sopater, Sallust, and, most famous of all, Maximus, rendered little service to speculation.
EUSEBIUS AMORT (1692-1775), German Catholic theologian, was born at Bibermiihle, near T61z, in Upper Bavaria, on the 15th of November 1692.
According to Eunapius, he differed from Iamblichus on certain points connected with magic. He taught at Pergamum, his chief disciples being Eusebius and Maximus.
In the East we do not hear of the sacrifice of the body and blood before Eusebius, about the year 300.
has led Prof. Harnack to suppose that in the earliest age water was used equally with wine, and Eusebius the historian, who had means of judging which we have not, saw no difficulty in identifying with the first converts of St Mark the Therapeutae of Philo who took only bread and water in their holy repast.
- Tertullian, Eusebius, Chrysostom and others represent the faithful as standing at the Eucharist.
In the West, Augustine, like Eusebius and Theodoret, calls the elements signs or symbols of the body and blood signified in them; yet he argues that Christ " took and lifted up his own body in his hands when he took the bread."
From the time of Eusebius this city has been identified with Sychem or Shechem (modern Nablus), and the well is still in existence I z m.
If we may take the edict of Diocletian against the Manichaeans as genuine, the system must have gained a firm footing in the West by the beginning of the 4th century, but we know that as late as about the year 325 Eusebius had not any accurate knowledge of the sect.
Eusebius gives a short account of the sect (H.
His works have perished, but extracts from the history have been preserved by Josephus and Eusebius, the latter of whom probably derived them not directly from Berossus, but through the medium of Alexander Polyhistor and Apollodorus.
On the other hand, a list of post-diluvian dynasties, which is quoted by Eusebius and Georgius Syncellus as having been given by Berossus, cannot, in its present form, be reconciled with the monumental facts, though a substratum of historical truth is discoverable in it.
4.49 Chaldaean, , 458 „ 5.9 Arabian, , 2 45 6.45 Assyrian „ 526 „ After these, according to Eusebius, came the reign of Pul.
If Eusebius can be trusted, the 6th dynasty ended in 729 B.C., the year in which Pul or Tiglath-pileser III.
He studied in Carthage, probably also in Rome, where, according to Eusebius, he enjoyed the reputation of being one of the most eminent jurists.
Eusebius Amort >>
60) he died from excessive drinking, but the story is discredited by the eulogy of Eusebius (Praep. Ev.
In the prince's library Bergler discovered the introduction and the first three chapters of Eusebius's Demonstratio Evangelica.
Beside the grotto of the Nativity other traditional sites are shown within the church, such as the Altar of the Magi, the Tomb of Eusebius, the cave wherein Jerome made his translation of the Bible, &c.
Only a few fragments of his work, apparently en titled Commentaries on the Writings of Moses, are quoted by Clement, Eusebius and other theological writers, but they suffice to show its object.
All the great theologians of the 4th and 5th centuries may be quoted as evidence of this: Eusebius of Caesarea (Praep. Ev.
Jerusalem, as early as the time of Eusebius, rejoiced in the possession of the episcopal chair of James the Just (Hist.
From this work he was called to return as missionary bishop to his own country, being ordained by Eusebius of Nicomedia and "the bishops who were with him," probably at Antioch, in 341.
If, as seems probable from the circumstances of his ordination, he was a semi-Arian and a follower of Eusebius in 341, at a later period of his life he departed from this position, and vigorously opposed the teaching of his former leader.
457-4 60), and also in his " Apology for the Jews," a fragment of which has been preserved by Eusebius (Praep. Ev.
This historian, of whom Eusebius had a very high opinion (Praep. Ev.
Eusebius quoted the account as from Porphyry, though he must have known that he had derived it from Josephus (Praep. Ev.
According to an Arabic manuscript, a translation of which was published by Eusebius Renaudot (Paris, 1718), they traded in ships to the Persian Gulf and Red Sea in the 9th century.
The revival which took place under Byzantine rule (6th and 7th centuries) was of little importance; Victor's conduct in this matter was not approved by a number of bishops (including Irenaeus), who protested against it (&vrt1rapaKEXd,ovrau) in the interests of peace and Christian love (Eusebius, Hist.
His doctrinal position is explained in his letters to his patron Eusebius, bishop of the imperial city of Nicomedia, and to Alexander of Alexandria, and in the fragments of the poem in which he set forth his dogmas, which bears the enigmatic title of " Thalia " (06XECa), used in Homer, in the sense of " a goodly banquet," most unjustly ridiculed by Athanasius as an imitation of the licentious style of the drinking-songs of the Egyptian Sotades (270 B.C.).
In addressing to Eusebius of Nicomedia a request for his help, Arius ended with the words: " Be mindful of our adversity, thou faithful comrade of Lucian's school (vvXAowawitarils)"; and Eusebius entered the lists energetically on his behalf.
His letter, preserved by the imperial biographer, Eusebius of Caesarea, is a state document inspired by a wisely conciliatory policy; it made out both parties to be equally in the right and in the wrong, at the same time giving them both to understand that such questions, the meaning of which would be grasped only by the few, had better not be brought into public discussion; it was advisable to come to an agreement where the difference of opinion was not fundamental.
Arius and the two bishops of Marmarica Ptolemais, who refused to subscribe the creed, were excommunicated and banished to Illyria, and even Eusebius of Nicomedia, who accepted the creed, but not its anathemas, was exiled to Gaul.
Constantine, while strongly disposed at first to enforce the Nicene decrees, was gradually won to a more conciliatory policy by the influence especially of Eusebius of Caesarea and Eusebius of Nicomedia, the latter of whom returned from exile in 328 and won the ear of the emperor, whom he baptized on his death-bed.
In the 4th century and later the liturgy was still read in Syriac in parts of Armenia, and the New Testament, the history of Eusebius, the homilies of Aphraates, the works of St Ephraem and many other early books were translated from Syriac, from which tongue most of their ecclesiological terms were derived.
The earliest notice of an organized church in Armenia is in Eusebius, H.
None but a scion of a priestly family could become a deacon, elder or bishop. Accordingly the primacy remained in the family of Gregory until about 374, when the king Pap or Bab murdered Nerses, who had been ordained by Eusebius of Caesarea (362-370) and was over-zealous in implanting in Armenia the canons about celibacy, marriage, fasting, hospices and monastic life which Basil had established in Cappadocia.
He was first advised by Pere Lecointe to devote himself to ecclesiastical history, and laboriously studied Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret, but.
An interesting sidelight is thrown upon this period by the list of the Thalassocracies in the Chronicon of Eusebius p. 226,226, ed.
It may be noted that the traditional or conjectural dates based upon the list of the Thalassocracies preserved by Eusebius carry us back to the 12th century B.C. See Professor John L.
Philo's cosmogony has been preserved, at least in fragments, by Eusebius in Praep. evang.
de recta fide, 4th century), he was the founder of the Alexandrine Church (recorded as a tradition by Eusebius, ii.
It is possible - even probable, if we accept the theory that he had already 2 been there with Barnabas - that Alexandria was his final sphere of work, as the earliest tradition on the point implies (the Latin Prologue, and Eusebius as above, probably after Julius Africanus in the early 3rd century), and as was widely assumed in the 4th century.
The presbyter John, whom Papias quotes, says distinctly that "he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him" (Eusebius, loc. cit.); and this positive statement is fatal to the tradition, which does not appear until about two hundred and fifty years afterwards, that he was one of the seventy disciples (Epiphanius, pseudo-Origen De recta in Deum fide, and the author of the Paschal Chronicle).
A tradition which was widely diffused, and which is not in itself improbable, was that he afterwards preached the gospel and presided over the church at Alexandria (the earliest extant testimony is that of Eusebius, H.
The earliest traditions appear to imply that he died a natural death (Eusebius, Jerome, and even Isidore of Seville); but the Martyrologies claim him as a martyr, though they do not agree as to the manner of his martyrdom.
Seven ancient wells still exist here, though two are stopped up. Eusebius and Jerome mention the place in the 4th century as a large village and the seat of a Roman garrison.
His Historia Ecclesiastica, in eighteen books, brings the narrative down to 610; for the first four centuries the author is largely dependent on his predecessors, Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret and Evagrius, his additions showing very little critical faculty; for the later period his labours, based on documents now no longer extant, to which he had free access, though he used them also with small discrimination, are much more valuable.
Aristo is cited by Eusebius (Hist.
Fuller evidence is not found until Eusebius, who dates the arrival of Peter at Rome in 43 and his martyrdom twenty-five years later.
12); and the silence of Eusebius tells heavily against their existence before the 4th century, at any rate as writings of Clement.
In that case they, or rather it, may date from the 3rd century in spite of Eusebius's silence, and are not pseudo-Clementine in any real sense.
evidence of ancient writers really begins, not with Origen,' but with Eusebius of Caesarea, who in his Eccl.
Thus Eusebius implies (r) a spurious Clementine work containing matter found also in our Homilies at any rate; and (2) its quite recent origin.
There is no reason to doubt that such, roughly speaking, were the contents of the Clementine work to which Eusebius alludes slightingly, in connexion with that section of it which had to his eye least verisimilitude, viz.
Now Eusebius believed the work to have been of quite recent and suspicious origin.
It seems rather to represent a later and modified Essene Christianity, already half-Catholic, such as would suit a date after 250, in keeping with Eusebius's evidence.
ARISTIDES Until 1878 our knowledge of the early Christian writer Aristides was confined to the statement of Eusebius that he was an Athenian philosopher, who presented an apology "concerning the faith" to the emperor Hadrian.
For although its title there corresponds to that given by the Armenian fragment and by Eusebius, it begins with a formal inscription to "the emperor Titus Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius"; and Dr R.
According to Eusebius and Strabo he was a learned scientist for his day, and some attribute to him a history of Tarsus.
3) and twice recorded in Eusebius (Hist.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
The history, which had an apologetic aim, is no longer extant, but copious extracts from it are to be found in the Chronicon of Eusebius, who used it extensively in compiling the early episcopal lists.
The somewhat colourless compromise doubtless proceeded from the party of Eusebius of Nicomedia, and proved not inacceptable to the more nearly orthodox members of the synod.
He died the same year, being succeeded by Eusebius.
On the summit of this mound there stood, in the days of Eusebius, a sanctuary of Venus (Eus.
The pilgrimage to Palestine received a powerful impetus from the erection of the memorial churches on the holy sites, under Constantine the Great, as described by Eusebius in his biography of the emperor (iii.
Eusebius, the contemporary of Constantine, is silent on this point.
The date of the Cimmerian invasion is fixed by the concurrent testimony of the contemporary poets Archilochus and Callinus, of the late chronologists Eusebius, &c., and of the inscriptions of the Assyrian king Esar-haddon.
There is every appearance that the great mass of the people were Christians before 300, and Eusebius (H.
Among his other publications are: A Dialogue between a Christian and a Jew (1888); a translation (with introduction and notes) of Eusebius's Church History (1890); and The Apostles' Creed (1902), in which he attempted to prove that the old Roman creed was formulated as a protest against the dualism of Marcion and his denial of the reality of Jesus's life on earth.
Eusebius and Jerome ('Onom.
Alexander Polyhistor and Abydenus in their excerpts from Berossus, which Eusebius (Chron.
Nor does Eusebius, who knew the anteNicene literature intimately, seem to know of any other view ever having been held.
In connexion with this may be mentioned Collectio nova patrum et scriptorum graecorum (1706), containing some newly discovered works of Athanasius, Eusebius of Caesarea, and the Topographia christiana of Cosmas Indicopleustes.
The oldest collection of this kind, the avvayw'y apxaiwv e uaprvpiwv of Eusebius, to which the author refers in several passages in his writings (Hist.
These kings probably represent that " sea-power of Cyprus " which precedes that of Phoenicia in the Greek " List of Thalassocracies " preserved by Eusebius.
Eusebius (Church History, vi.
Porphyry, quoted by Eusebius, ib.
There seems no reason, therefore, to doubt that Eusebius is here referring to the Christian philosopher.
Whittaker, The Neo-platonists (Camb., 1901); Eusebius, Hist.
The early Christian Fathers recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century A.D., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philad.elphus the design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks.
Of this temple Herodotus speaks as existing in his day; and unless weight be given to an isolated statement of Eusebius, that it was burned about 395 B.C., we must assume that it survived until the night when one Herostratus, desirous of acquiring ° eternal fame if only by a great crime, set it alight.
5 Their use at funerals is illustrated by Eusebius's description of the burial of Constantine, s and Jerome's account of that of St Paula.
In logic he is reported to have agreed with Eusebius, Iamblichus and Porphyry in asserting the validity of the second and third figures of the syllogism.
His Exposition of the Lord's Oracles, the prime early authority as to the Gospels of Matthew and Mark (see Gospels), is known only through fragments in later writers, chiefly Eusebius of Caesarea (H.
Eusebius quotes from him the resurrection of a dead person 4 in the experience of "Philip the Apostle" - who had resided in Hierapolis, and from whose daughters Papias derived the story - and also the drinking of poison ("when put to the test by the unbelievers," says Philip of Side, by "Justus, surnamed Barsabbas") without ill effect.'
But the fact that Irenaeus thought of him as Polycarp's contemporary and "a man of the old time" (apXaaos avilp), together with the affinity between the religious tendencies described in Papias's Preface (as quoted by Eusebius) and those reflected in the Epistles of Polycarp and Ignatius, all point to his having flourished in the first quarter of the 2nd century.
Indeed, Eusebius, who deals with him along with Clement and Ignatius (rather than Polycarp) under the reign of Trajan, and before referring at all to Hadrian's reign (A.D.
None of them has ventured upon a fresh treatment of the period dealt with by Eusebius; all three begin their narratives about the point where his closes.
The chief sources from which he drew were: (1) the Church History, the Life of Constantine and certain theological works of Eusebius; (2) the Church History of Rufinus; (3) certain works of Athanasius; (4) the no longer extant /vva-ycoy'i of the Macedonian and semi-Arian Sabinus - a collection of acts of councils with commentaries, brought down to the reign of Theodosius I.
Eusebius, after all, had some conception of what is meant by "church history," but Socrates has none.
This is confirmed by Eusebius, who adds that even those who admitted the virgin birth did not accept the pre-existence of Jesus as Logos and Sophia.
- The earliest reference to a writing by Matthew occurs in a fragment taken by Eusebius from the same work of Papias from which he has given an account of the composition of a record by Mark (Euseb.
Whether "the elder" referred to in the passage on Mark, or some other like authority, was the source of this statement also does not appear; but it is probable that this was the case from the context in which Eusebius gives it.
EUSEBIUS [OF CAESAREA] (c. 260 - c. 340), ecclesiastical historian, who called himself Eusebius Pamphili, because of his devotion to his friend and teacher Pamphilus, was born probably in Palestine between A.D.
Pamphilus had a magnificent library, which Eusebius made diligent use of, and a catalogue of which he published in his lost Life of Pamphilus (Hist.
During the time of his imprisonment (307-309) Eusebius distinguished himself by assiduous devotion to his friend, and assisted him in the preparation of an apology for Origen's teaching (Hist.
After the death of Pamphilus Eusebius withdrew to Tyre, and later, while the Diocletian persecution was still raging, went to Egypt, where he seems to have been imprisoned, but soon released.
Eusebius was a very important figure in the church of his day.
McGiffert's translation of Eusebius' Church History, p. 15 sq.).
To this length Eusebius himself was unwilling to go, and so, convinced that he had misunderstood Arius, and that the teaching of the latter was imperilling the historic belief in the divinity of Christ, he gave his support to the opposition, and voted for the Nicene Creed, in which the teachings of the Arians were repudiated.
(For a fuller description of the development of Eusebius' Christology and of his attitude throughout the Arian controversy, see McGiffert, op. cit.
p. II sq.) Eusebius was one of the most voluminous writers of antiquity, and his labours covered almost every field of theological learning.
The reasons leading to the great undertaking, in which Eusebius had no predecessors, were in part historical, in part apologetic. He believed that he was living at the beginning of a new age, and he felt that it was a fitting time, when the old order of things was passing away, to put on record for the benefit of posterity the great events which had occurred during the generations that were past.
Eusebius often fails to appreciate the significance of the events which he records; in many cases he draws unwarranted conclusions from the given premises; he sometimes misinterprets his documents and misunderstands men and movements; but usually he presents us with the material upon which to form our own judgment, and if we differ with him we must at the same time thank him for the data that enable us independently to reach other results.
Eusebius possessed extensive sources of knowledge no longer accessible to us.
In addition to the Church History we have from Eusebius' pen a Chronicle in two books (c. 303; later continued down to 325), the first containing an epitome of universal history, the second chronological tables exhibiting in parallel columns the royal succession in different nations, and accompanied by notes marking the dates of historical events.
The former is an account of martyrdoms occurring in Palestine during the years 303 to 310, of most of which Eusebius himself was an eye-witness.
Of Eusebius' apologetic works we still have the Contra Hieroclem, Praeparatio evangelica, Demonstratio evangelica, and Theophania.
The first is a reply to a lost work against the Christians written by Hierocles, a Roman governor and contemporary of Eusebius.
Of Eusebius' dogmatic and polemic writings, we still have two works against his contemporary, Marcellus, bishop of Ancyra, the one known as Contra Marcellum, the other as De theologia ecclesiastica.
The former and briefer aims simply to expose the errors of Marcellus, whom Eusebius accuses of Sabellianism, the latter to refute them.
- The only edition of Eusebius' extant works which can lay claim even to relative completeness is that of Migne (Patrologia graeca, tom.
Many of Eusebius' works have been published separately.
Acacius, the pupil of Eusebius and his successor in the see of Caesarea, wrote a life of him which is unfortunately lost.
Among the many modern accounts in church histories, histories of Christian literature, encyclopaedias, &c., may be mentioned a monograph by Stein, Eusebius Bischof von Caesarea (Wiirzburg, 1859), meagre but useful as far as it goes; the magnificent article by Lightfoot in the Dictionary of Christian Biography; the account by McGiffert in his translation of the Church History; Erwin Preuschen's article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklop. (3rd ed., 1898); the treatment of the Chronology of Eusebius writings in Harnack's Alt - christliche Litteraturgeschichte, ii.
The many special discussions of Eusebius' separate works, particularly of his Church History, and of his character as an historian, cannot be referred to here.
Eusebius of Emesa >>
The story of the pagan past slipped out of mind, and in its place was set, by the genius of Eusebius, the story of the world force which had superseded it, Christianity, and of that small fraction of antiquity from which it sprang, - the Jews.
With Eusebius of Caesarea the apologetic pamphlets of the age of persecutions gave way to a calm review of three centuries of Christian progress.
Eusebius' biography of Constantine shows what distortion of fact the father of Church history permitted himself, but the Ecclesiastical History was fortunately written for those who wanted to know what really happened, and remains to-day an invaluable repository of Christian antiquities.
An even greater influence, however, was exercised by Eusebius' Chronica.
For a time there were even attempts to continue "imperial chronicles," but they were insignificant compared with the influence of Eusebius and Jerome.
There is more than one meaning of Eusebius discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Eusebius (about A.D.
From Origen's statement one might have thought that the Simonians would have dwindled out altogether by the time of Eusebius.
Eusebius's account of Menander (iii.
These letters are given by Eusebius (Eccl.
Eusebius also states that in due course Judas, son of Thaddaeus, was sent (in 340 =A.D.
Eusebius gives the legend in its oldest form; it was worked up in the Doctrina Addaei in the second half of the 4th century; and Moses of Chorene was dependent upon both these sources.
When this historical heresy led to the inevitable persecution, Abelard wrote a letter to the abbot Adam in which he preferred to the authority of Bede that of Eusebius' Historia Ecclesiastica and St Jerome, according to whom Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, was distinct from Dionysius the Areopagite, bishop of Athens and founder of the abbey, though, in deference to Bede, he suggested that the Areopagite might also have been bishop of Corinth.
Unsuccessful attempts have been made to identify this mythical Darius with the Cyaxares, son of Astyages, of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, and also with the Darius of Eusebius, who was in all probability Darius Hystaspis.
See Eusebius, Hist.
Marie, Queene of Scotland, by Eusebius Dicaeophile (London, 1569), reprinted, with alterations, at Liege in 1571, under the title, A Treatise concerning the Defence of the Honour of Marie, Queene of Scotland, made by Morgan Philippes, Bachelor of Divinitie, Piae a?licti animi consolationes, ad Mariam Scot.
Arius himself still lived, and his friend Eusebius of Nicomedia rapidly regained influence over the emperor Constantine.
Accordingly the leaders of the council, the most conspicuous of whom were Eusebius of Nicomedia and his namesake of Caesarea, were summoned to Constantinople.
He in his turn fell, as his father had done in later years, under the influence of Eusebius of Nicomedia, who in the latter half of 339 was transferred to the see of Constantinople, the new seat of the imperial court.
On the possible identity of the name with Usoos, the Phoenician demi-god (Philo of Byblus, ap. Eusebius, Praep. Evang.
The church of Tyre described by Eusebius (H.E.
The circumstance, unknown to these critics when they made their conjectures, that Eusebius Pamphili, in nearly a score of citations, substitutes the words " in My Name " for the words " baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost," renders their conjectures superfluous.
He is said to have gone, after the ascension of the Lord, on a missionary tour to India (then a very wide geographical designation) where, according to a story in Eusebius (H.E.
Dr Nestle has drawn attention to the fact that in the Syriac translation of Eusebius' history the name Tolmai, i.e.
EUSEBIUS [OF EMESA] (d.
Among his teachers were Eusebius of Caesarea and Patrophilus of Scythopolis.
Eusebius accepted the small bishopric of Emesa (the modern Horns) in Phoenicia, but his powers as mathematician and astronomer led his flock to accuse him of practising sorcery, and he had to flee to Laodicea.
A reconciliation was effected by the patriarch of Antioch, but tradition says that Eusebius finally resigned his charge and lived a studious life in Antioch.
The theological sympathies of Eusebius were with the semi-Arian party, but his interest in the controversy was not strong.
Eusebius of Myndus >>
See Eusebius H.E.
Irenaeus, quoted by Eusebius (v.
- According to an expression preserved by Eusebius (H.E.
Parker's second son, Samuel Parker (1681-1730), was the author of Bibliotheca biblica, or Patristic Commentary on the Scriptures (1720-1735), an abridged translation of Eusebius, and.
19; Eusebius, Praep. _ Evangel.
The apocryphal book, The Acts of Andrew, mentioned by Eusebius, Epiphanius and others, is generally attributed to Leucius the Gnostic. It was edited and published by C. Tischendorf in the Ada Apostolorum apocrypha (Leipzig, 1821).
The Groote Kerk of St Eusebius, built in the third quarter of the 15th century, contains the marble monument to Charles (d.
For instance, considerable portions of the original text of the Chronicle of Eusebius have been restored by the aid of Syncellus.
His chief authorities were Annianus of Alexandria (5th century) and Panodorus, an Egyptian monk, who wrote about the year 400 and drew largely from Eusebius, Dexippus and Julius Africanus.
First (as Arnobius and Eusebius reminded their heathen opponents), the allegorical explanations are purely arbitrary, depend upon the fancy of their author, and are all equally plausible and equally unsupported by evidence.6 Secondly, there is no proof at all that, in the distant age when the myths were developed, men entertained the moral notions and physical philosophies which are supposed to be " wrapped up, " as Cicero says, " in impious fables."
Till recent times whatever other writings and letters of Irenaeus are mentioned by Eusebius appeared to be lost, with the exception of a fragment here or there.
Recently, however, two Armenian scholars, Karapet Ter-Mekerttschian and Erwand Ter-Minassianz, have published from an Armenian translation a German edition (Leipzig, 1907; minor edition 1908) of the work "in proof of the apostolic teaching" mentioned by Eusebius (H.E.
It was soon clear, by the exclusion of the "Pars Majorini" from certain privileges conferred on the African church, that the sympathies of Constantine were with the other party (Eusebius, Hist.
The poem of the Jew Ezechiel quoted by Eusebius (Praep. ev.
We learn from Eusebius that Sardis was first captured by the Cimmerii 1078 B.C.; and since it was four centuries later before the real Cimmerii (q.v.) appeared on the horizon of history, we may perhaps find in the statement a tradition of the Hittite conquest.
28, i.; (3) Rhodon, quoted in Eusebius's Hist.
1, 11; (5) Eusebius, Chronicon anno A.D.
After the death of Justin he became a heretic - according to Eusebius's Chronicon in 173.
According to Epiphanius, Tatian went to the East after the death of Justin (c. 165), and then became heretical, and Eusebius states that he was recognized as heretical in 173.
According to Eusebius, Tatian wrote many books (Hist.
The same source seems to have been used by 1Vlinucius Felix and Tertullian, and Eusebius in his Praei.
The truth of his views he rests, rather strangely, on the argument that Moses, the writer of the Pentateuch, lived long before Homer, whom he regards as the earliest Greek religious writer, and to prove this he quotes a series of synchronisms, which were made use of by many subsequent chronologers, including probably Julius Africanus, who in turn was used by Eusebius.
The chief authorities used were: Julius Sextus Africanus (3rd century); the consular Fasti; the Chronicle and Church History of Eusebius; John Malalas; the Acta martyrum; the treatise of Epiphanius, bishop of Constantia (the old Salamis) in Cyprus (fl.
How far the Christian feeling of the 4th and 5th centuries was from being settled in favour of the employment of the fine arts is shown by such a case as that of Eusebius of Caesarea, who, in reply to a request of Constantia, sister of Constantine, for a picture of Christ, wrote that it was unlawful to possess images pretending to represent the Saviour either in his divine or in his human nature, and added that to avoid the reproach of idolatry he had actually taken away from a lady friend the pictures of Paul and of Christ which she had.
There was a second chapel of Semo Sancus on the island in the Tiber with an altar, the inscription on which led Christian writers (Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Eusebius) to confuse him with Simon Magus, and to infer that the latter was worshipped at Rome as a god.
The Shepherd of Hermas too is another book which seems to have been used for the purpose of catechesis, for Eusebius says that it "was deemed most necessary for those who have need of elementary instruction" (Eccles.
- According to a credible tradition found in Eusebius (Excerpta, 179), the Syriac Chronicle ascribed to Dionysius of Tell-mahre (Tullberg, 61), and elsewhere, Urhai was renovated, like other Mesopotamian sites, in 304 B.C. by Seleucus I.
I is, according to von Soden, a Palestinian recension connected with Eusebius, Pamphilus and Origen.
Apart from the a priori improbability of a whole legion being martyred, the difficulties are that in 286 Christians everywhere throughout the empire were not molested, that at no later date have we evidence of the presence of Maximinian in the Valais, and that none of the writers nearest to the event (Eusebius, Lactantius, Orosius, Sulpicius Severus) know anything of it.
Eusebius testifies (H.E.
Since the revival of learning books on the fathers have been numerous; among the more recent and most accessible of these we may mention Smith and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography, Hauck-Herzog's Realencyklopcidie, Bardenhewer's Patrologie and Geschichte der altkirchlichen Litteratur, Harnack's Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bei Eusebius and Ehrard's Die altchristliche Litteratur and ihre Erforschung.
Entirely consistent with this is the information given by the Acta Archelai that Basilides, before he came to Alexandria, had appeared publicly among the Persians (fuit praedicator aped Persas); and the allusion to his have appealed to prophets with oriental names, Barkabbas and Barkoph (Agrippa in Eusebius Hist.
Still, in spite of such measures, the Physiologus, like the Church History of Eusebius or the Pastor of Hermas, continued to be read with general interest, and even Gregory the Great did not disdain to allude to it on occasion.
The Historiae Ecclesiasticae Libri XI of Rufinus consist partly of a free translation of Eusebius (10(10 books in 9) and partly of a continuation (bks.
Eusebius (to whom we owe our full knowledge of his life) collected more than a hundred of Origen's letters, arranged them in books, and deposited them in the library at Caesarea (H.
(1851), pp. 66 seq.) the most important sources are: Gregory Thaumat., Panegyricus in Orig.; Eusebius, H.E.
Litteratur bis Eusebius (part 2 of vol.
The De Vita Contemplativa thus owes its place next to the Quod Omnis Probus Liber, a place which it already occupied in the copy of Philo's works possessed by Eusebius (H.E.
It seems to have soon passed out of use as a precise geographical designation; for though occasionally mentioned by Apocryphal writers, by Josephus, and by Eusebius, the allusions are all vague, and show that those who made them had no definite knowledge of Gilead proper.
At the time of Eusebius the Greek Church was saturated with prejudice against the book and with doubts as to its canonicity.
The only one about whom conjecture has any basis for speculating is the last, for Eusebius states (H.E.
The only further notice of Clement that we have in history is in' a letter written in 211 by Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, to the Antiochians, and preserved by Eusebius (H.E.
A statement of Eusebius in regard to the persecution of Severus in 202 (H.E.
In 325 Eusebius (H.E.
These acts are first mentioned by Eusebius (H.E.
17.105), and as late as the time of Eusebius (H.E.
This version has peculiar titles taken from Eusebius and Theodore of Mopsuestia (see Nestle, in Theol.
His anti-Arian polemic against Eusebius of Caesarea made him unpopular among his fellow-bishops in the East, and a synod convened at Antioch in 330 passed a sentence of deposition, which was confirmed by the emperor.
It is mentioned in the Muratorian Canon, and according to Eusebius (H.E.
This means that it once enjoyed quasicanonical authority, a fact amply borne out by what Eusebius (H.
The Nicene Creed of the liturgies, often called the Constantinopolitan creed, is the old baptismal creed of Jerusalem revised by the insertion of Nicene terms. The idea that the council merely added to the last section has been disproved by Hort's famous dissertation in 1876.3 The text of the creed of the Nicene Council was based on the creed of Eusebius of Caesarea, and a comparison of the four creeds side by side proves to demonstration their distinctness, in spite of the tendency of copyists to confuse and assimilate the forms.4 Creed of Eusebius, A.D.
Bibliography.-In addition to the early Greek writings already named, there are the forty books (some fifteen only extant in their entirety) of universal history compiled (about 8 B.C.) by Diodorus Siculus, and arranged in the form of annals; the Pentabiblos of Julius Africanus (about 220-230 A.D.); the treatise of Censorinus entitled De die natali, written 238 A.D.; the Chronicon, in two books, of Eusebius Pamphili, bishop of Caesarea (about 325 A.D.), distinguished as the first book of a purely chronological character which has come down to us; and three important works forming parts of the Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, namely, the Chronographia of Georgius Syncellus (800 A.D.), the Chronographia of Johannes Malalas (9th century), and the Chronicon Paschale.
Over and above the general criticism, which may now be said to have been completely answered by the investigations of Zahn, Lightfoot and Harnack, one or two special arguments have been brought against the Epistle to Polycarp. Ussher, for instance, while accepting the other six epistles, rejected this on the ground that Jerome says that Ignatius only sent one letter to Smyrna - a mistake due to his misinterpretation of Eusebius.
The chief authorities whom Nennius followed were Gildas' De excidio Britonum, Eusebius, the Vita Patricii of Murichu Maccu Machtheni, the Collectanea of Tirechan, the Liber occupationis (an Irish work on the settlement of Ireland), the Liber de sex aetatibus mundi, the chronicle of Prosper of Aquitaine, the Liber beati Germani.
x.4, and Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum, 34), and in 3 1 3 the emperors Constantine and Licinius published the edict of Milan, proclaiming the principle of complete religious liberty, and making Christianity a legal religion in the full sense (see Eusebius x.
For the 3rd, and especially the 4th and following centuries, the writers are much more numerous; for instance, in the East, Origen and his disciples, and later Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius, Apollinaris, Basil and the two Gregories, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Ephraim the Syrian, Cyril of Alexandria, Pseudo-Dionysius; in the West, Novatian, Cyprian, Commodian, Arnobius, Lactantius, Hilary, Ambrose, Rufinus, Jerome, Augustine, Prosper, Leo the Great, Cassian, Vincent of Lerins, Faustus, Gennadius, Ennodius, Avitus, Caesarius, Fulgentius and many others.
Eusebius Amort, in 1735, admits the gravest differences of opinion; and the Bishop of Newport writes (p. 163) " to receive an Indulgence of a year, for example, is to have remitted to one so much temporal punishment as was represented by a year's canonical penance.
This catena of time-references is of course unique in the Gospels as a basis for a chronology of the ministry; and it is not reasonable to doubt (with Loisy, loc. cit., who suggests that the aim was to produce an artificial correspondence of a three and a half years' ministry with the half-week of Daniel; but many and diverse as are the early interpretations of Daniel's seventy weeks, no one before Eusebius thought of connecting the half-week with the ministry), that the evangelist intended these notices as definite historical data, possibly for the correction of the looser synoptic narratives and of the erroneous impressions to which they had given rise.
Eusebius adopted and popularized this date, which fell in with his own system of Gospel chronology, but of the year 33 as the date of the Passion there is no vestige in Christian tradition before the 4th century.
Polycarp, for instance, speaks of " those who pervert the oracles of the Lord " (Philipp. 7), and Papias, as Eusebius tells us, wrote a work with the title " Expositions of the Oracles 6f the Lord."
Manichaeism first penetrated the Greek-Roman Empire about the year 280, in the time of the emperor Probus (see the Chronicon of Eusebius).
When in 251 Pope Cornelius, in a letter to Fabius of Antioch, mentions among the Roman clergy forty-two acolytes, placing them after the subdeacons and before the other minor officials (see Eusebius, Hist.
Besides these, Moses refers to a whole array of Greek authorities, which were known to him from his constant use of Eusebius, but which cannot possibly have related all that he makes them relate.6 Although Moses assures us that he is going to rely entirely upon Greek authors, the contents of his work show that it is mainly drawn from native sources.
54); while, according to Eusebius, a second bishop from Cappadocia, Alexander by name, visited Jerusalem in order to pray and acquaint himself with the holy sites, and was there invited by the community tc remain with them and assume the episcopate of the aged Narcissus (Hist.
was discovered; and by excavation conducted under Constantine's auspices, the Holy Sepulchre, " contrary to all expectation " as Eusebius naively says, was discovered also (see Jerusalem; and Sepulchre, The Holy).
Of this temple Herodotus speaks as existing in his day; and unless weight be given to an isolated statement of Eusebius, that it was burned about 395 B.C., we must assume that it survived until the night when one Herostratus, desirous of acquiring Ã‚° eternal fame if only by a great crime, set it alight.
This may have been so to some degree; but Papias (whose name itself denotes that he was of the native Phrygian stock, and who shared the enthusiastic religious temper characteristic of Phrygia, see Montanism) was nearer in spirit to the actual Christianity of the sub-apostolic age, especially in western Asia, than Eusebius realized.
He also used writings of Gregory Thaumaturgus, Archelaus, Acacius,Didymus, George of Laodicea, Gregory Nazianzen, Timothy of Berytus (see Lietzmann, A pollinaris von Laodicea, p. 44), Nestorius, Eusebius Scholasticus, Philip of Side, Evagrius, Palladius, Eutropius, the emperor Julian and orations of Libanius and Themistius; and he was apparently acquainted with some of the works of Origen and with Pamphilus' Apologia pro Origene.
Thus Eusebius describes as "evangelists" (cf.
26.2), who sheds no light on the origin of the Ebionites, but says that while they admit the world to have been made by the true God (in contrast to the Demiurge of the Gnostics), they held Cerinthian views on the person of Christ, used only the Gospel of Matthew (probably the Gospel according to the Hebrews - so Eusebius), and rejected Paul as an apostate from the Mosaic Law, to the customs and ordinances of which, including circumcision, they steadily adhered.
Of Biblical and exegetical works we have a considerable part of Eusebius' Commentaries on the Psalms and on Isaiah, which are monuments of learning, industry and critical acumen, though marred by the use of the allegorical method characteristic of the school of Origen; also a work on the names of places mentioned in Scripture, or the Onomasticon, the only one extant of a number of writings on Old Testament topography; and an epitome and some fragments of a work in two parts on Gospel Questions and Solutions, the first part dealing with the genealogies of Christ given in Matthew and Luke, the second with the apparent discrepancies between the various gospel accounts of the resurrection.
The early Sabellians (comp. Eusebius, Hist.
by the archdeacon Wibert (1615), Marcellinus and Idatius (1619), Anastasius the librarian (1620), Eusebius of Caesarea (1643), Hincmar (1645), Hrabanus Maurus (1647), Rufinus and Loup de Ferrieres (1650), &c., and above all his edition of the capitularies of Charles the Bald (Karoli Calvi et successorum aliquot Franciae regum capitula, 1623) and of the councils of ancient France (Concilia antiquae Galliae, 1629, 3 vols., new ed.
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