on Esther, p. 104.
(1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.
7) Amalek is mentioned among the enemies of Israel - just as Greek writers of the 6th century of this era applied the old term Scythians to the Goths (Noldeke), - and the traditional hostility between Saul and Amalek is reflected still later in the book of Esther where Haman the Agagite is pitted against Mordecai the Benjamite.
Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther.
Proverbs, and the Wisdom of Solomon), in the treatment of the stories of Esther and Daniel (the history of Susanna), and also in the twofold recensions Ezra and i Esdras.
Susanna, where the point lies in the name Daniel " God is judge "), Esther, Judith, Tobit (and the Ahiqar cycle of stories), the story of Zerubbabel (i Esd.
Thrice married, he had a large family, his seven sons becoming Congregational clergymen, and his daughters, Harriet Beecher Stowe (q.v.) and Catherine Esther Beecher, attaining literary distinction.
(2nd ed., p. 269 ff.), the legend - for it is nothing better - grew, until finally, in the hands of Elias Levita (1538), and especially of Johannes Buxtorf (1665), it assumed the form that the " men of the Great Synagogue," - a body the real existence of which is itself very doubtful, but which is affirmed in the Talmud to have " written " (!) the books of Ezekiel, the Minor Prophets, Daniel and Esther - with Ezra as president, first collected the books of the Old Testament into a single volume, restored the text, where necessary, from the best MSS., and divided the collection into three parts, the Law, the Prophets and the " Writings " (the Hagiographa).
The terms used, however, do not show that the Hagiographa was already completed, as we now have it; it would be entirely consistent with them, if, for instance, particular books, as Esther, or Daniel, or Ecclesiastes, were only added to the collection subsequently.
at the end of Esther, and also of Ezra, shows that x was then in the library of Caesarea, and that a chapter division in Acts found both in s and B can also be traced to the same library.
For the later period he uses the Greek Esther, with its additions, I Maccabees, Polybius, Strabo and Nicolaus of Damascus.
The Pentateuch (or Hexateuch) was finally completed in its present form at some time before 400 B.C. The latest parts of the Old Testament are the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 330 B.C.), Ecclesiastes and Esther (3rd century) and Daniel, composed either in the 3rd century or according to some views as late as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 168 B.C.).
There are also Midrashim on the Canticle, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Esther and the Psalms, belonging to this later period, the Pirge R.
Daniel, Esther, i Esdras, Josephus), the historical narratives are of the scantiest and vaguest until the time of Artaxerxes, when the account of a return (Ezra iv.
By about the beginning of our era the Jews had given up Hebrew and wrote in Aramaic; the process of expulsion had been going on, doubtless, for some time; but comparison with the later extant literature (Chronicles, the Hebrew Ecclesiasticus or Ben-Sira, Esther) makes it improbable that such Hebrew as that of Koheleth would have been written earlier than the 2nd century B.C. (for details see Driver's Introduction).
Archdeacon Hare married in 1844 Esther, a sister of his friend Frederick Maurice.
The Apocrypha Proper, or the apocrypha of the Old Testament as used by English-speaking Protestants, consists of the following books: 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Additions to Daniel (Song of the Three Holy Children, History of Susannah, and Bel and the Dragon), Prayer of Manasses, i Maccabees, 2 Maccabees.
which contain the Syriac Massorah or tradition of the reading of the text pass over Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, and in the case of the Nestorians also Esther.
His daughter, Catherine Esther Beecher (1800-1878), was born at East Hampton, Long Island, on the 6th of September 1800.
(b) The five Megilloth (or " Rolls ") - grouped thus together in later times, on account of the custom which arose of reading them in the synagogues at five sacred seasons - Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther.
The different order of the books in the English Bible is due to the fact that when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek between the 3rd and 1st centuries B.C., the Hebrew tripartite division was disregarded, and the books (including those now known as the " Apocrypha ") were grouped mostly by subjects, the historical books being placed first (Genesis - Esther), the poetical books next (Job - Song of Songs), and the prophetical books last (Isaiah - Malachi).
Lagarde's projected edition of the Lucianic recension was unfortunately never completed; the existing volume contains Genesis - 2 Esdras, Esther.
Ezra and Nehemiah were written after, Esther during, or after, the captivity: Job, which is not a history but a philosophical poem, at an uncertain date.
The corrections of s e are important, as they are based (according to a note by that scribe, at the end of Esther) on an early copy which had been corrected by, Pamphilus, the disciple of Origen, friend of Eusebius and founder of a library at Caesarea.
Historical or narrative Midrash is exemplified in the " canonical " books Daniel, Esther, Jonah and Ruth, and in the " apocryphal " stories of Daniel (viz.
on Esther, pp. 20, too and passim); and finally (d) the numerous minor miscellaneous parallels noticed in recent annotated editions of the ' On the history of his intermediate stage see E.
Megillath Esther, dating, to judge from its indebtedness to Josippon (the pseudo-Josephus), after 10th century.
According to his own statement in De vetere testamento, written about loco, he had at that period translated the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Kings, Job, Esther, Judith and the Maccabees.
Genesis is but slightly abridged, but Job, Kings, Judges, Esther and Judith as well as the Maccabees are mere homilies epitomized from the corresponding Old Testament books.
Adar 13, 2 Fast of Esther, 8 In embolismic „ 14, Purim, years.
In the Septuagint and Vulgate it immediately precedes Esther, and along with Tobit comes after Nehemiah; in the English Apocrypha it is placed between Tobit and the apocryphal additions to Esther.
It is preceded by a fast on the 13th day of Adar, known as the Fast of Esther, based upon Esther iv.
The Megillah or Roll of Esther is read both at home and in the synagogue, and wherever, during the reading, the name of Haman is mentioned, it is accompanied with tramping the feet.
From the 17th century onward Purim plays were performed mostly by the children, who improvised a dramatic version of the story of Esther.
It is a curious coincidence, to say the least, that Dieulafoy found among the ruins of the Memnonium at Susa (the ancient Shushan, given as the scene of the events narrated in the Book of Esther) a quadrangular prism bearing different numbers on its four faces.
Even the fact that this latter was celebrated on the first of Nisan, or a fortnight after the Jewish date for Purim, is confirmed by the Book of Esther itself, which states that "In the first month, which is the month Nisan, they cast Pur, that is, the lot, before Haman" (Esther iii.
The death of the god, he suggests, is represented by the Fast of Esther on the 13th of Adar, the day before Purim, while the rejoicing on Purim itself, and the licence accompanying it, recall the union of the god and goddess of vegetation, of which he sees traces in the relations of Mordecai and Esther.
There may possibly be "survivals" of the influence of some such celebrations both on the Book of Esther and on the ceremonies of Purim, but there is absolutely no evidence that the Jews took over the interpretation of these festivals with their celebration.
However, it is practically certain, both from the etymology of the word Purim and from the resemblance of the festivals, that the feast, as represented in the Book of Esther, was borrowed from the Persians, who themselves appeared to have adapted it from the Babylonians.
This is confirmed by the fact that the Book of Esther contains several Persian words and shows throughout a familiarity with Persian conditions.
This renders it impossible to accept Haupt's suggestion that Purim is connected with the celebration of Nicanor's Day, to celebrate the triumph of Judas Maccabaeus over the Syrian general Nicanor at Adasa (161 B.C.) on the 13th of Adar, since this is the date of the Fast of Esther, and, besides, the Second Book of Maccabees, which refers to Nicanor's Day, speaks of it as the day before Mordecai's Day (2 Macc. xvi.
if, as seems probable, the earlier Greek version of the Book of Esther was made about 179 B.C. (Swete, Introduction of the Old Testament in Greek, p. 25), this suggestion of the connexion of Purim with the Maccabean period made by Haupt and, before him, by Willrich, falls to the ground.
The date at which the feast of Purim was first adopted by the Jews from their Persian neighbours would be definitely determined if we knew the date of the Book of Esther.
In Frankfort the women were allowed to open their lattice windows in the synagogue in honour of the deliverance brought about by Esther.
Execration of Haman, as the typical persecutor of the Jews, took various forms. In Germany wooden mallets were used in the synagogue to beat the benches when Haman's name was read out from the scroll of Esther, and during the festivities these mallets were sometimes used on the heads of the bystanders.
The first Spanish drama written by Jews was entitled "Esther," by Solomon Usque and Lazaro Gratiano, published in 1567; and there is another entitled "Comedia famosa de Aman y Mordechay," produced anonymously in Leiden in 1699.
The actual name given to the mysterious Jew varies in the different versions: the original pamphlet calls him Ahasver, and this has been followed in most of the literary versions, though it is difficult to imagine any Jew being called by the name of the typical anti-Semitic king of the Book of Esther.
B, Ecclesiasticus comes between Wisdom and Esther, no distinction being drawn between canonical and uncanonical.
xiii.); but the same argument would prove that the book of Esther was written before Ezra.
His abundant energy found still further expression in a poem entitled Esther, Queen of Persia (1714), and in the compilation of a grammar of ten languages entitled The Complete Linguist (2 vols., London, 1719-1721).
The fact that it stands in the third division of the Hebrew Canon, the Writings or Hagiographa, along with such late works as Job, Psalms, Chronicles, Daniel, Ecclesiastes and Esther, must be allowed weight; the presumption is that the arrangers of the Canonical books regarded it as being in general later than the Prophetical books.
In the book of Esther the king of Persia is called Ahasuerus (rendered in LXX.
In support of the former view it is alleged, among other things, that Darius was the first Persian king of whom it could be said, as in Esther i.
1, that he "reigned from India even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and seven and twenty provinces"; and that it was also the distinction of Darius that (Esther x.
there is a striking similarity of character between the Xerxes of Herodotus and the Ahasuerus of Esther; (3) that certain coincidences in dates and events 'See Trumbull, Threshold Covenant, pp. 46 sqq.; Haddon, Study of Man, pp. 347 sqq.; P. Sartori, Zeitschr.
To this it may be added that the interval of four years between the divorce of Vashti and the marriage of Esther is well accounted for by the intervention of an important series of events fully occupying the monarch's thoughts, such as the invasion of Greece.
(io) Megillah, " roll " (of Esther), the reading of it at Purim, &c. (11) Mo`ed gaton (" the small M," to distinguish it from the name of this order), or Mashkin (the first word), regulations for the intermediate festivals at Passover and Tabernacles.
In the Hebrew Bible Lamentations is placed among the Cetubim or Hagiographa, usually as the middle book of the five Megilloth or Ferial Rolls (Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther) according to the order of the days on which they are read in the Synagogue, Lamentations being read on the 9th of Ab (6th of August), when the destruction of the Temple is commemorated (Mass.
It was for them that Racine wrote his Esther and his Athalie, and it was because he managed the affairs of St Cyr well that Michel Chamillart became controller-general of the finances.
194; Esther i.
2~ Esther vi.
also, a few statements in the much later Esther romance.
Graetz attained considerable repute as a biblical critic. He was the author of many bold conjectures as to the date of Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Esther and other biblical books.
- The Book of Daniel stands between Ezra and Esther in the third great division of the Hebrew Bible known as the Hagiographa, in which are classed all works which were not regarded as being part of the Law or the Prophets.
In 1757, on the death of President Burr, who five years before had married Edwards's daughter Esther, he reluctantly accepted the presidency of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), where he was installed on the 16th of February 1758.
Among them were: his son Pierrepont (1750-1826), a brilliant but erratic member of the Connecticut bar, tolerant in religious matters and bitterly hated by stern Calvinists, a man whose personal morality resembled greatly that of Aaron Burr; his grandsons, William Edwards (1770-1851), an inventor of important leather rolling machinery; Aaron Burr the son of Esther Edwards; Timothy Dwight (1752-1817), son of Mary Edwards, and his brother Theodore Dwight, a federalist politician, a member, the secretary and the historian of the Hartford Convention; his great-grandsons, Tryon Edwards (1809-1894) and Sereno Edwards Dwight, theologian, educationalist and author; and his great-great-grandsons, Theodore William Dwight, the jurist, and Timothy Dwight, second of that name to be president of Yale.
It was at Moor Park, near Farnham, the residence to which Temple had retired to cultivate apricots after the rapid decline of his influence during the critical period of Charles II.'s reign (1679-1681), that Swift's acquaintance with Esther Johnson, the "Stella" of the famous Journal, was begun.
Swift was twenty-two and Esther eight years old at the time, and a curious friendship sprang up between them.
Esther, daughter of a merchant named Edward Johnson, a dependant, and legatee to a small amount, of Sir William Temple's (born in March 1680), whose acquaintance he had made at Moor Park in 1689, and whom he has immortalized as "Stella," came over with her companion Rebecca Dingley, a poor relative of the Temple family, and was soon permanently domiciled in his neighbourhood.
In this brochure he predicts solemnly that on the 29th of March 1 The name "Stella" is simply a translation of Esther.
We have already mentioned his invitation of Esther Johnson and Mrs Dingley to Ireland.
Esther Vanhomrigh (b.
It is worthy of remark that Ezekiel's prophetic legislation contains no reference to any fast day; the book of Esther (ix.
The criticism of Esther began in the 18th century.
Esther, on her elevation, keeps her Jewish origin secret (ii.
12-14); and when the danger has been averted by the cleverness of Esther, the provincial Jews are allowed to butcher 75,000, and those in the capital Boo of their Persian fellowsubjects (ix.
And how can we find room for Esther as queen by the side of Amestris (Herod.
In 1891 came a new explanation of Esther from Zimmern.
that, judging from our experience elsewhere, the Book of Esther has probably passed through various stages of development.
(I) a possible mythological element in Esther, and (2) possible stages of development prior to that represented by the Hebrew text.
7) long ago declared that Esther was so called " because she was like the planet Venus."
Esther is a modification of Ishtar, the name of the Babylonian goddess of fertility and of the planet Venus, whose myth must have been partially known to the Israelites even in pre-exilic times,' and after the fall of the state must have acquired a still stronger hold on Jewish exiles.
Add to this, that, according to Jensen, Ishtar in mythology was the cousin of Marduk, just as the legend represents Esther as the cousin of Mordecai.4 The same scholar also accounts for Esther's other name Hadassah (Esth.
(2) According to Jensen's theory, Mordecai, and not Esther, ought to be the direct cause of Haman's ruin.
Esther, moreover, ought to be parallel to Judith; fancy likening the representative of Israel to the goddess Ishtar !
Next, as to the preliminary literary phases of Esther.
As the legend stands, Mordecai and Esther seem to be in each other's way.
5 in LXX.) only found in the Septuagint, but which may have belonged to the original Esther, reference is made to a dream of Mordecai respecting two great dragons, i.e.
Linguistic facts and certain points in the contents seem to him to show that our Esther is a work of the age of the Seleucidae; more precisely he thinks of the time of the revolt of Molon under Antiochus III.
Of course there was a Book of Esther before this, and even in its redacted form our Esther reflects the period of three Persian kings, viz.
(1891), pp. 1 5716 9, and Keilinschriften and das Alte Testament (3), 485, 515-520, Jensen in Wildeboer's Esther (in Marti's series, 1898), pp.173-175; Winckler, Keilinschriften and das Alte Testament ('), p. 288, Altorientalische Forschungen, 3rd ser.
Biblica, articles " Esther " and " Purim " (a composite article).
C.) Additions To Book Of Esther.
These "additions " were written originally in Greek and subsequently interpolated in the Greek translation of the Book of Esther.
12, furnish copies of the letters of Artaxerxes referred to in these verses; the third and fourth, which are inserted after chap. iv., consist of the prayers of Mordecai and Esther, with an account of Esther's approach to the king.
504-541 (1883), and Scholz in his Kommentar ilber das Buck Esther (1892).
Paton, " A Text-Critical Apparatus to the Book of Esther " in O.T.
Among objects of interest are the alleged tombs of Esther and Mordecai in an insignificant domed building in the centre of the town.
8; Esther ii.
The inscriptions on the other sarcophagus consist of the verses Esther ix.
All the summer of 1704 he continued to decline, tenderly nursed by Lady Masham and her step-daughter Esther.
Plainly she is the Esther of Jewish story.
688) calls Esther the mother of Bahman, and, like Firdousi, gives to Homai the name of Shahrazad.
The story of Esther and that of the original Nights have in fact one main feature in common.
But both stories agree that thereafter a new wife was brought to him every night, and on the morrow passed into the second house of the women (Esther), or was slain (Nights).
At length Esther or Shahrazad wins his heart and becomes queen.
The issue in the Jewish story is that Esther saves her people; in the Nights the gainers are "the daughters of the Moslems," but the old story had, of course, some other word than "Moslems."
Esther's fosterfather becomes vizier, and Shahrazad's father is also vizier.
The last account comes nearest to Esther ii.
15, where Esther gains the favour of the king's chamberlain, keeper of the women.
It is also to be noted that Ahasuerus is read to at night when he cannot sleep (Esther vi.
Now it may be taken as admitted that the book of Esther was written in Persia, or by one who had lived in Persia, and not earlier than the 3rd century B.C. If now there is real weight in the points of contact between this story and the Arabian Nights - and the points of difference cannot be held to outweigh the resemblances between two legends, each of which is necessarily so far removed from the hypothetical common source - the inference is important for both stories.
On the one hand, it appears that (at least in part) the book of Esther draws on a Persian source; on the other hand, it becomes probable that the Nights are older than the Sasanian period, to which Lane (iii.
adapted from the best-selling semi-autobiographical novel by Esther Freud, who was in effect one of the children.
Nathaniel Stenton aged 74 (late bandmaster) dearly loved husband of Esther Stenton Interred Jarrow cemetery on Thursday at 3.30.
It isn't long, however, before Esther begins carving new and increasingly brutal wounds into her body.
deity underlying myth of Esther therefore seems to show how the two reduced or rejected deities under Zoroaster returned to favor.
Esther McIntosh The Scottish idealists: Selected Philosophical Writings, ed.
Action: MM 3. Second tranche Action plans Esther reported on progress toward drafting second tranche of action plans.
There is also a second Targum on Esther.
Book of Wisdom (see Wis „ „ Esther.
Esther (Halle, 1885), and Abt iElfric's Judith (in Anglia, vol.
xxvii., which closely follows the second Targum to Esther i.
It was most probably written during the Greek period towards the end of the 3rd century B.C. The book of Esther, which describes, with many legendary traits, how the beautiful Jewess succeeded in rescuing her people from the destruction which Haman had prepared for them, will not be earlier than the closing years of the 4th century B.C., and is thought by many scholars to be even later.
No a priori distinction can be made and no precise chronological line can be drawn between the books of the Canon (Canticles, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Ezekiel and Proverbs had been at one time or another subjects of debate among the Rabbis) and the Apocrypha (Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Maccabees and Tobit, were " allowed "); and the intimate relation between them appears in the character of the " Wisdom Literature " (e.g.
57 2); (c) the relationship between the Midrashic developments of the story of Esther in Josephus, the Greek and Old Latin Versions, the Targums and later Jewish sources (see L.
The connexion that has been suggested between the names of Mordecai and Esther and those of the Assyrian deities Marduk and Ishtar would be a further strong confirmation of the proposed etymology and derivation of the feast (see Esther).
Swift may have learned that Esther means "star" from the Elementa linguae persicae of John Greaves or from some Persian scholar; but he is more likely to have seen the etymology in the form given from Jewish sources in Buxtorf's Lexicon, where the interpretation takes the more suggestive form "Stella Veneris."
The Book of Esther, in the Bible, relates how a Jewish maiden, Esther, cousin and foster-daughter of Mordecai, was made his queen by the Persian king Ahasuerus (Xerxes) after he had divorced Vashti; next, how Esther and Mordecai frustrated Haman's endeavour to extirpate the Jews; how Haman, the grand-vizier, fell, and Mordecai succeeded him; how Esther obtained the king's permission for the Jews to destroy all who might attack them on the day which Haman had appointed by lot for their destruction; and lastly, how the feast of Purim (Lots ?) was instituted to commemorate their deliverance.
There is something impressive, awful, in the simplicity and terrible directness of the book of Esther.
Could there be anything more dramatic than the scene in which Esther stands before her wicked lord?
Action: MM 3. Second Tranche Action Plans Esther reported on progress toward drafting second tranche of action plans.
Although the job of cleaning out her father's basement seemed insurmountable, Esther was determined to give it a try.
She is the oldest daughter of Joe, a bus driver, and Esther Ripa, a homemaker.
The Esther Williams collection at Retro Dress has fantastic retro plus size bikini swimsuits up to size 26.
The various suits in their Esther Williams Collection are beautifully designed, come in a number of exciting colors and patterns and are available up to size 26.
Burkitt, Esther et al. "Children's Colour Choices for Completing Drawings of Affectively Characterised Topics."
The very popular Esther Williams suits, named for the famous swimming star, are available at Retro Dress and other such sites.
It is so flattering, one wishes the stylist had recalled another Williams - Esther - and piled Serena's hair on her head, adding a white flower.
Olympic swimmer turned actress Esther Williams put a glamorous spin on swim caps in her many movie musicals, inciting a fashion trend in swimwear that raged on through the 40's, 50's, and 60's.
This was the era of Olympic swimmer-turned-actress Esther Williams and the Hollywood water ballet.
They flatter the bust area, and when worn with boy shorts or hipster bikini bottoms, create a look reminiscent of the type of swimsuits worn by classic icons such as Marilyn Monroe and Esther Williams.
For example, if you want something classic and retro, you might try Esther Williams' site.
The activity centered around Esther Cox, age 19, who lived on Princess Street in Amherst.
After nearly being raped by a local shoemaker named Bob MacNeal, Esther started experiencing violent poltergeist activity including moving objects and loud noises.
While attending to the girl, the doctor reported watching the words "Esther Cox you are mine to kill" etch itself into the wall plaster by unseen hands.
Free Patterns: You can find some great free patterns, such as the "colorful dog sweater", "Esther Bozak's custom knit sweater", and "Wylie's free Chihuahua sweater".
But even he reckoned the books of Daniel and Esther as canonical, and these were dangerous food for men who did not realize the full power of Rome.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.