Epistemology specifically studies knowledge and what we believe.
It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to draw a hard and fast line between epistemology and other branches of philosophy.
I would like to narrow down my study of philosophy to epistemology.
He saw that the theories of the origin of knowledge in idealistic epistemology are unsound.
In his logic, and especially in his epistemology, Wundt appears as a mediator between Hume and Kant, but with more leaning to the latter.
The result of the foregoing, however, is to show that, as soon as epistemology draws its conclusion, it becomes metaphysics; the theory of knowledge passes into a theory of being.
If self-consciousness be treated in this objective fashion, then we pass naturally from epistemology to metaphysics or ontology.
epistemology of religion.
Wundt's comprehensive view that logic looks backwards to psychology and forward to epistemology was hundreds of years ago one of the many discoveries of Aristotle.
But appearing with these thinkers as the problem of perception, epistemology widens its scope and becomes, in Kant's hands, the question of the possibility of experience in general.
This introduces us to the second part of the question we are seeking to determine, namely the relation of epistemology to metaphysics.
Without prejudice, then, to the claim of epistemology to constitute the central philosophic discipline, we may simply note its liability to be pressed too far.
epistemology of mathematics.
epistemology of science in the classroom.
epistemology of memory beliefs.
epistemology of midwifery practice.
A bibliography of such references would be in effect a bibliography of metaphysics, or rather of epistemology.
Masaryk, who, as a counterpoise to German speculation and the intellectualism of Herbart, emphasized the critical study of English philosophy, notably Hume, Spencer and Mill, and the French Comte; at the same time he fully appreciated the value of Kant in epistemology.
As with his master, his reasons for this view are derived, not from a direct proof that unconscious Nature has the mental attributes supposed, but from human psychology and epistemology.
Thirdly, on the grounds that logical thinking adds the notion of substance, as substrate, to experience of the physical, but not of the psychical, and that the most proper being of mind is will, he concludes that wills are not active substances, but substance-generating activities (" nicht thatige Substanzen sondern substanzerzeugende Thdtigkeiten," System, 429) What kind of metaphysics, then, follows from this compound of psychology and epistemology?
The conclusion that reason in transcending experience can show no more than the necessity of " ideals " is the only conclusion which could follow from Wundt's phenomenalism in psychology, logic, and epistemology.
It arises from a general awakening to the fact that the growth of our psychological and biological knowledge must profoundly transform the traditional epistemology.
Herein lies the key to the entire system of the Stoics, as Cleanthes's epoch-making discovery continually received fresh applications to physics, ethics and epistemology.
Hamilton encouraging the confusion by speaking of "psychology or metaphysics," 1 while his lectures on metaphysics are mainly taken up with what belongs in the strictest sense to psychology proper, with an occasional excursus (as in the theory of perception) into epistemology.
They involve an elaborate discussion, not only of Christian evidences, but of the entire subject-matter alike of Ethics and Metaphysics, of Philosophy as a whole, and of the philosophies of individual writers who have dealt in their different ways with the problems of existence and epistemology.
anarchist epistemology does not declare scientific sources invalid a priori.
epistemic injustice is explained, and politicizing implications for epistemology educed.
epistemology of Religious experience, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Alvin Plantinga has become famous among philosophers of religion for his defense of what he calls " reformed epistemology.
Hence, many philosophers began to develop evolutionary epistemology.
A realist response to this kind of incommensurability may appeal to externalist or naturalized epistemology.
This appears to us to be a constructivist epistemology, which is embedded in a behaviorist pedagogy.
Burton, L. (1995) Moving toward a feminist epistemology of mathematics.
Outcomes The module will introduce students to the main aspects of contemporary epistemology.
Russell, J. (1979) The status of genetic epistemology.
historical epistemology II: The new pragmatism (Toulmin, Hacking, Kitcher) 11.
epistemology workshop: 24-25 November 2006 An ArchÃ© pilot workshop on Basic Knowledge will take place on 24-25 November 2006.
An anarchist epistemology does not declare scientific sources invalid a priori.
A number of claims have been made on behalf of virtue epistemology.
I conclude by sketching how a suitable realist epistemology may avoid this problem.
epistemology glimmer of something useful in Harding's ' standpoint epistemologies ' .
First he quite clearly rejected the hegemony of epistemology.
A phenomenon of epistemic injustice is explained, and politicizing implications for epistemology educed.
It will present a perspective on epistemology that overcomes the existing divides between analytical and continental philosophy.
politicizeenon of epistemic injustice is explained, and politicizing implications for epistemology educed.
pons asinorum in epistemology, then maybe it is being able to understand falsificationism.
Lyotard defines the postmodern as the process of developing a new epistemology that responds to new conditions of knowledge (Kellner 1990 ).
Conversely, focusing exclusively on African voices and denying the existence of the Western epistemology would be similarly skewed.
standpoint epistemology is used to protect particular views through its capacity to disqualify critics on the grounds of their social characteristics.
Paul Edwards Do you feel a little twinge in your epistemology?
His limitation of theological knowledge to the bounds of human need might, if logically pressed, run perilously near phenomenalism; and his epistemology ("we only know things in their activities") does not cover this weakness.
Epistemology is concerned rather with the possibility of knowledge in the abstract (sub specie aeternitatis, Ward, ibid.).
If, for example, philosophy is divided into the theory of knowing and the theory of being, it is impossible entirely to separate the latter (Ontology) from the analysis of knowledge (Epistemology), so close is the connexion between the two.
Some thinkers have identified the two, while others regard Epistemology as a subdivision of logic; others demarcate their relative spheres by confining logic to the science of the laws of thought, i.e.
yvcnacs) for "Epistemology" as a special term for that part of Epistemology which is confined to "systematic analysis of the conceptions employed by ordinary and scientific thought in interpreting the world, and including an investigation of the art of knowledge, or the nature of knowledge as such."
"Epistemology" would thus be reserved for the broad questions of "the origin, nature and limits of knowledge" (Baldwin's Diet.
both ontology and epistemology, and this is perhaps the most convenient use of the term; Kant, on the other hand, would represent metaphysics as being " nothing more than the inventory of all that is given us by pure reason, systematically arranged " (i.e.
We, on the contrary, mainly through the influence of Descartes, rather ask what are the things we know, and therefore, some more and some less, come to connect ontology with epistemology, and in consequence come to treat metaphysics in relation to psychology and logic, from which epistemology is an offshoot.
The conclusion of his epistemology is that we start with ourselves positing subjective sensations - e.g.
The metaphysics resulting from this epistemology is that the socalled thing in itself is not a cause of our sensations, but a product of one's own thinking, a determination of the Ego, a thing known to the Ego which constructs it.
He calls this epistemology " transcendent realism "; it is really " transcendent idealism."
Kant, however, had no epistemology for such a contention, because according to him both outer and inner senses give mere appearance, from which we could not know either body in itself, or soul in itself.
The three most vital idealisms of this kind at the moment are the panpneumatism of Hartmann, combining Hegel with Schopenhauer; the panteleologism of Lotze, reviving Leibnitz; and the panpsychism of Paulsen, continuing Fechner, but with the addition of an epistemology combining Kant with Schopenhauer.
Like all true followers of Kant, Riehl prefers epistemology to metaphysics; yet in reality he founds a metaphysics on epistemology, which he calls " critical realism," so far as it asserts a knowledge of things beyond phenomena, and " critical monism," so far as it holds that these things are unlike both physical and psychical phenomena, but are nevertheless the common basis of both.
From this epistemology he derives the metaphysical conclusion that the things we know are indeed independent of my consciousness and of yours, taken individually, or, to use a new phrase, are " transsubjective "; but, so far from being independent of the common consciousness, one and the same in all of us, they are simply its contents in the inseparable relation of subject and object.
But to make such a conversion from phenomenalism plausible, it is necessary to be silent about his whole psychology, logic, and epistemology, and the consequent limitation of knowledge to experience, and of reason to ideas and " ideals," without any power of inferring corresponding things.
Spencer widens the empirical theory of the origin of knowledge by his brilliant hypothesis of inherited organized tendencies, which has influenced all later psychology and epistemology, and tends to a kind of compromise between Hume and Kant.
tried to effect a harmony of Kant and Hegel by proceeding from the epistemology of the former to the metaphysics of the latter.
And the light that later writers bring to bear on Kant's logic and epistemology from other sides of his speculation varies in kind and in degree.
He created their formal logic and contributed much that was of value to their psychology and epistemology; but in the main his work was to new-label and new-arrange in every department, and to lavish most care and attention on the least important parts - the logical terminology and the refutation of fallacies, or, as his opponents declared, the excogitation of fallacies which even he could not refute.
The order in which, for clearness of exposition, it will be most convenient to consider these disciplines will be psychology, epistemology or theory of knowledge, and metaphysics, then logic, aesthetics and ethics.
This leads to the consideration of the main divisions of philosophy - PsYcxoLoGY (q.v.), epistemology (theory of knowledge, Erkenntnisstheorie), and metaphysics (ontology; see Metaphysic).
we return to the distinction between epistemology and psychology, by way of illustrating the nature of the former, we may take the following summing up by Professor James Ward in a valuable article on "Psychological Principles" in Mind (April 1883, pp. 166, 567): "Comparing psychology and epistemology, then, we may say that the former is essentially genetic in its method, and might, if we had the power to revise our existing terminology, be called biology; the latter, on the other hand, is essentially devoid of everything historical, and treats, sub specie aeternitatis, as Spinoza might have said, of human knowledge, conceived as the possession of mind in general."
The metaphysic is the epistemology from another point of view - regarded as completing itself, and explaining in the course of its exposition that relative or practical separation of the individual knower from the knowable world, which it is a sheer assumption to take as absolute.
Logic, therefore, agrees with epistemology (and differs from psychology) in treating thought not as mental fact but as knowledge, as idea, as having meaning in relation to an objective world.
At the opening of the era of modern scientific discovery, with all its fruitful new generalizations, the still more highly generalized laws of epistemology and of the spiritual constitutionof man might well baffle the physicist and lead his intellect to "flounder."
Taylor, The Problem of Conduct, chap. ii.) has been directed, though it is chiefly expressed in the language of epistemology, has its roots nevertheless in the direct testimony of moral experience.
Conversely, standpoint epistemology is used to protect particular views through its capacity to disqualify critics on the grounds of their social characteristics.
After studying epistemology, Stephanie was able to differentiate between her beliefs and opinions.
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