At Ephesus the Count Candidian was commissioned to maintain order, but took little part in the proceedings.
He published works on Leibnitz, empiricism and scepticism in Hume's philosophy, modern pessimism, Kantic criticism, English philosophy, Heraclitus of Ephesus and many other subjects.
From Ephesus indeed the garrison fled upon the news of Granicus, but Miletus required a siege.
It lay on the ancient trade route from Sinope to the Euphrates, on the Persian "Royal Road" from Sardis to Susa, and on the great Roman highway from Ephesus to the East.
Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
19), Ephesus (Eph.
Some of Theodoret's dogmatic works are no longer extant: of his five books IIEpi Evavepwirila - ecws, for example, directed against Cyril after the council of Ephesus, we now possess fragments merely.
The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.
The Church of Cyprus has been autocephalous since at any rate the oecumenical synod of Ephesus in 431.
A few fragments remain of an epitome by Marcianus of the eleven books of the Geographumena of Artemidorus of Ephesus.
HERACLITUS (`HpaKActTos; c. 540-475 B.C.), Greek philo sopher, was born at Ephesus of distinguished parentage.
Diels, Heraklit von Ephesus (2nd ed., 1909), Greek and German.
Lassalle, Die Philosophie Herakleitos' des Dunklen (Berlin, 1858; 2nd ed., 1892), which, however, is too strongly dominated by modern Hegelianism; Paul Schuster, Heraklit von Ephesus (Leipzig, 1873); Bernays, Die heraklitischen Briefe (Berlin, 1869); T.
Pfleiderer, Die Philosophie des Heraklitus von Ephesus im Lichte der Mysterienidee (Berlin, 1886); G.
Schafer, Die Philosophie des Heraklit von Ephesus and die moderne Heraklitforschung (Leipzig, 1902); Wolfgang Schultz, Studien zur antiken Kultur, i.; Pythagoras and Heraklit (Leipzig, 1905); O.
JOHN OF ASIA (or OF Ephesus), a leader of the Monophysite Syriac-speaking Church in the 6th century, and one of the earliest and most important of Syriac historians.
After the word Asia had acquired its larger sense, it was still specially used by the Greeks to designate the country around Ephesus.
Till near the end of the 2nd century the line between heresy and orthodoxy was less rigidly drawn there than at Ephesus, Lyons, Rome or Carthage.
His conversion apparently took place at Ephesus; there, at any rate, he places his decisive interview with the old man, and there he had those discussions with Jews and converts to Judaism, the results of which he in later years set down in his Dialogue.
The Seven Sleepers Of Ephesus >>
i.1 had read in Marcion's copies, as it does in most ancient authorities, "To the saints which are at Ephesus"; but in fact the words Ev E46w of verse z were probably absent.
The words, "in Ephesus" were thus probably originally lacking in the address, and were inserted from the suggestion of the title.
For the symbol which was used at Ephesus and other places in Asia Minor and elsewhere for the sound represented by -aa- in Ionic Greek, by -TT- in Attic, see ALPHABET.
Corinth, however, was allowed to go on striking staters under Antigonus Gonatas; Ephesus, Cos and the greater cities of Phoenicia retained their right of coinage under Seleucid or Ptolemaic supremacy.
Among geographers should be mentioned Posidonius (13-551), the head of the Stoic school of Rhodes, who is stated to be responsible for having reduced the length of a degree to 500 stadia; Artemidorus of Ephesus, whose " Geographumena " (c. Ioo B.C.) are based upon his own travels and a study of itineraries, and above all, Strabo, who has already been referred to.
Athens was an important slave market, and the state profited by a tax on the sales; but the principal marts were those of Cyprus, Samos, Ephesus and especially Chios.
In 434, three years after the council of Ephesus, he wrote the Commonitorium adversus profanas omnium haereticorum novitates, in which he ultimately aims at Augustine's doctrine of grace and predestination.
The Melchites therefore are those who accept the decrees of Ephesus and Chalcedon as distinguished from the Nestorians and Jacobite Church (qq.v.).
Nicephorus of Ephesus was appointed in his stead.
(e) The strife with beasts at Ephesus.
James, the Lord's brother, who, partly because of his relationship to Christ, stood supreme in the church at Jerusalem, as also Timothy and Titus, who acted as temporary delegates of St Paul at Ephesus and in Crete, are justly considered to have been forerunners of the monarchical episcopate.
of Sparta to arrange that they should attack the Persian Empire from the Phasis while the Spartans should march up from Ephesus.
It seems to have been the objection of Nestorius to the use of this expression which mainly led to his condemnation and deposition at the Council of Ephesus (431) under the influence of Cyril, when as patriarch of Constantinople (428-431) he had distinguished himself by his zeal for Nicene orthodoxy."
4 On the ground of his writings he was condemned and deposed by the " robber synod " of Ephesus (449), but was restored by the Council of Chalcedon (451), after he had anathematized Nestorius.
On John of Asia or Ephesus, the eminent Monophysite bishop and earliest Syriac church historian, see the separate article.
As Cibossa, so their other congregations were renamed, Mananali as Achaea, Argaeum and Cynoschora as Colossae, Mopsuestia as Ephesus, and so on.
In the and century a much greater name appears among the methodists, that of Soranus of Ephesus, a physician mentioned with praise even by Tertullian and Augustine, who practised at Rome in the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian.
It may be sufficient to name Rufus or Ephesus (2nd century A.D), and Archigenes (fl.
1), but elsewhere, possibly at Ephesus; yet Philemon may have been on a visit to Ephesus, for, even were the Ephesian Onesimus of Ignatius (Eph.
The fact that after the lapse of a quarter of a century there were Christians in Ephesus who accepted John's baptism (Acts xviii.
He was with Paul at a later date in Ephesus (1 Cor.
Some of the finest flavoured tobaccos are produced in the regions around Cavalla in Macedonia and ancient Ephesus in Asia Minor.
431 at the council of Ephesus, where, as a zealous adherent of Cyril of Alexandria, he vehemently opposed the doctrine of the Nestorians.
As his explanations were not considered satisfactory, the council deposed him from his priestly office and excommunicated him; but in 449, at a council held in Ephesus convened by Dioscurus of Alexandria and overawed by the presence of a large number of Egyptian monks, not only was Eutyches reinstated in his office, but Eusebius, Domnus and Flavian, his chief opponents, were deposed, and the Alexandrine dcctrine of the "one nature" received the sanction of the church.
There the synod of Ephesus was declared to have been a "robber synod," its proceedings were annulled, and, in accordance with the rule of Leo as opposed to the doctrines of Eutyches, it was declared that the two natures were united in Christ, but without any alteration, absorption or confusion.
- Among those who had been present at Ephesus in support of Nestorius was Ibas, presbyter and head of the theological school of Edessa.
On the accusation of the orthodox he was deposed by the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus, but at Chalcedon in 451 was pardoned on condition of anathematizing both Nestorius and Eutyches and accepting the Tome of Leo.
The incidents of his life are shrouded by uncertain traditions, which naturally sprang up in the absence of any authentic record; the earliest biography was by one of the Sorani, probably Soranus the younger of Ephesus, in the 2nd century; Suidas, the lexicographer, wrote of him in the 11th, and Tzetzes in the 12th century.
Gradually individual cities which had formed part of the Athenian empire returned to their alliance with Athens, until the Spartans had lost Rhodes, Cos, Nisyrus, Teos, Chios, Mytilene, Ephesus, Erythrae, Lemnos, Imbros, Scyros, Eretria, Melos, Cythera, Carpathus and Delos.
Many of the small congregations had gone completely over to Montanism, although in large towns, like Ephesus, the opposite party maintained the ascendancy.
we are comparatively well informed from Greek sources; for the earlier part of his reign from Ctesias and Xenophon (Anabasis), for the later times from Dinon of Ephesus, the historian of the Persians (from whom the account of Justin is derived), from Ephorus (whose account is quoted by Diodorus) and others.
The fact that St Paul founded the church of Ephesus seems to have been forgotten.
The earliest zeal has passed away and heathen ways of thought and life are tolerated and practised at Pergamum and Ephesus, and faith is dying or dead at Laodicea and Sardis.
There had been isolated instances of persecution at Ephesus, ii.
Doubtless there were many who bore the name of John in the early Christian communities; we read, for instance, of ` John, whose surname was Mark,' and there may have been a second John in Asia, since at Ephesus, we are told, there were two tombs said to be John's..
The tradition of St John's residence at Ephesus is too strong to be easily set aside.
Varro was also the author of a Cosmographia, or Chorographia, a geographical poem imitated from the Greek of Eratosthenes or of Alexander of Ephesus, surnamed Lychnus; and of an Ephemeris, a hexameter poem on weather-signs after Aratus, from which Virgil has borrowed.
The " Word," or " Logos," is a term derived from Heracleitus of Ephesus and the Stoics, through the Alexandrian Jew Philo, but conceived here throughout as definitely personal.
As to the place, the critics accept proconsular Asia with practical unanimity, thus endorsing Irenaeus's declaration that the Gospel was published in Ephesus.
Other slighter prolusions will have circulated in that Philonian centre Ephesus, before the great Gospel englobed and superseded them.
Certainly Polycrates, bishop of Ephesus, made a precisely similar mistake when about 190 he described the Philip " who rests in Hierapolis " as " one of the twelve apostles," since Eusebius rightly identifies this Philip with the deacon of Acts xxi.
The facts of the problem would all appear covered by the hypothesis that John the presbyter, the eleven being all dead, wrote the book of Revelation (its more ancient Christian portions) say in 69, and died at Ephesus say in loo; that the author of the Gospel wrote the first draft, here, say in 97; that this book, expanded by him, first circulated within a select Ephesian Christian circle; and that the Ephesian church officials added to it the appendix and published it in 110 -120.
convoked an ecumenical council at Ephesus, to which Celestine sent his legates.
Among its chief events may be mentioned the endowment of the university of Constantinople (425), the conciliatory council of Ephesus (434) and the publication of the Codex Theodosianus (438), a collection of imperial constitutions for the benefit of public officials, which is our chief source of information about the government of the empire in the 5th century.
APATURIA ('Airaroipca), an ancient Greek festival held annually by all the Ionian towns except Ephesus and Colophon (Herodotus i.
issued letters summoning the metropolitans of the catholic church to meet at Ephesus at Whitsuntide 431, each bringing with him some able suffragans.
A few days afterwards (June 26th or 27th) John of Antioch arrived, and efforts were made by both parties to gain his ear; whether inclined or not to the cause of his former co-presbyter, he was naturally excited by the precipitancy with which Cyril had acted, and at a conciliabulum of forty-three bishops held in his lodgings shortly after his arrival he was induced by Candidian, the friend of Nestorius, to depose the bishops of Alexandria and Ephesus on the spot.
Representatives from each side were now summoned before him to Chalcedon, and at last, yielding to the sense of the evident majority, he gave a decision in favour of the "orthodox," and the council of Ephesus was dissolved.
There is some evidence that he was summoned to the Council of Chalcedon,' though he could not attend it, and the concluding portion of his book known as The Bazaar of Heraclides not only gives a full account of the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus 449, but knows that Theodosius is dead (July 450) and seems aware of the proceedings of Chalcedon and the flight of Dioscurus the unscrupulous successor of Cyril at Alexandria.
He is throughout more concerned for the wrong done to the faith at Ephesus than to himself, saying that if he held the views attributed to him by Cyril he would be the first to condemn himself without mercy.
Kush-Adasi), also known as New Ephesus, a well-protected harbour on the west coast of Asia Minor in the vilayet of Aidin, opposite Samos.
2 to the fact that the Church at Ephesus had tried certain men who claimed to be apostles and had found them false, and also the directions given in the Didache for testing the character of those who travelled about as apostles.
(381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II.
Meanwhile the tendency which gave rise to the metropolitan system resulted in the grouping together of the churches of a number of contiguous provinces under the headship of the bishop of the most important city of the district, as, for instance, Antioch, Ephesus, Alexandria, Rome, Milan, Carthage, Arles.
(I) Magnesia Ad Maeandrum, a city of Ionia, situated on a small stream flowing into the Maeander, 15 Roman miles from Miletus and rather less from Ephesus.
It was thus not properly an Ionic city, and for this reason, apparently, was not included in the Ionian league, though superior in wealth and prosperity to most of the members except Ephesus and Miletus.
Thibron, the Spartan, persuaded the Magnesians to leave their indefensible and mutinous city in 399 B.C. and build afresh at Leucophrys, an hour distant, noted for its temple of Artemis Leucophryne, which, according to Strabo, surpassed that at Ephesus in the beauty of its architecture, though inferior in size and wealth.
The epistle may be placed conjecturally early in the stay at Ephesus (c. A.D.
(iii.) The writings are to be connected, either more or less closely, with John of Ephesus, who was a prominent figure towards the end of the 1st century.
(ii.) What is the exact relation of John of Ephesus to the Gospel ?
But this statement does not affect the historical character of John of Ephesus, who is also expressly described by Papias as " a disciple of the Lord " (Eus.
The early history of this version is obscure, but it seems probable that there were two translations made in the 4th century: (I) by Mesrop with the help of Hrofanos (Rufinus?) based on a Greek text; (2) by Sahak, based on Syriac. After the council of Ephesus (A.
These journeys and the intervening halts must have occupied seven or eight months, and it must have been about the end of the year when St Paul established his new headquarters at Ephesus.
From Ephesus he went into Europe, and after " much teaching " given to the churches of Macedonia (xx.
That after these two years he was released and visited Spain in the west, and in the east Ephesus, Macedonia, Crete, Troas, Miletus, and perhaps Achaea and Epirus, is probable, in the one case, from the evidence of Romans xv.
44 to the spring of 50 ), from the start for Europe to the end of the long stay at Ephesus (A.D.
55 ), and from the departure from Ephesus to the end of the two years' captivity at Rome (A.D.
Hoffmann, Kirchenversamnzlung zu Ephesus (1873), p. 89.
Many weights have been found in the temenos of Demeter at Cnidus, the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, and in a temple of Aphrodite at Byblus (44); and the making or sale of weights may have been a business of the custodians of the temple standards.
Asia Minor had this unit in early times-in the temples of Ephesus 20.55, Samos 20.62; Hultsch also claims Priene 20.90, and the stadia of Aphrodisias 20.67 and Laodicea 20.94.
The first session at Florence and the seventeenth of the union council took place on the 26th of February 1439; there ensued long debates and negotiations on the filioque, in which Markos Eugenikos, archbishop of Ephesus, spoke for the irreconcilables; but the Greeks under the leadership of Bessarion, archbishop of Nicaea, and Isidor, metropolitan of Kiev, at length made a declaration on the filioque (4th of June), to which all save Markos Eugenikos subscribed.
29-30) the Pauline Christianity of Ephesus was imperilled seriously during the last quarter of the ist century.
The address at Miletus is Paul's last word to the Christian elders of Ephesus, warning them against heresies (Acts xx.
He tells us that he had seen Egypt as far south as Syene and Philae, Comana in Cappadocia, Ephesus, Mylasa, Nysa and Hierapolis in Phrygia, Gyarus and Populonia.
1, 371 a 30), he mentions as now (vuv) the burning of the temple at Ephesus, which occurred in 356.
As the crusaders marched by way of Dorylaeum and Iconium towards Antioch, the Greeks subdued the Turkish amirs residing at Smyrna, Ephesus, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Lampes and Polybotus; 1 and Kilij Arslan, with his Turks, retired to the north-eastern parts of Asia Minor, to act with the Turkish amirs of Sivas (Sebaste), known under the name of the Danishmand.
St Paul, in his address to the elders at Ephesus (Acts xx.
The second and much more serious host of warriors, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, he conducted also into Asia, promising to supply them with provisions in return for an oath of homage, and by their victories recovered for the Empire a number of important cities and islands - Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, Philadelphia, Sardis, and in fact most of Asia Minor (1097-1099).
Now this in Timothy's case, as far as we can trace his steps, was Ephesus; and it is natural to ask whether it will not suit all the conditions of the problem.
24 ff.), connected with Ephesus and with Paul and his circle (cf.
In the war of 421, in which the north-east of Mesopotamia was chiefly concerned, the Romans failed to take Nisibis, and it became a natural rallying point for the Nestorians after the decision of Ephesus (431).
If they accepted the council of Ephesus in 430 and joined in the condemnation of Nestorius, it was rather because the Sassanid kings of Persia, who thirsted for the reconquest of Armenia, favoured Nestorianism, a form of doctrine current in Persia and rejected in Byzantium.
Held by St Sahak and 1Iesrop on receipt of letters from Proclus and Cyril after the council of Ephesus, when the "Glory in the Highest" was adopted.
3) the Phoenicians, who had long been settled on the coast and occupied Sidon, founded Tyre in the year before the fall of Troy; possibly the date 1198 B.C., given by Menander of Ephesus (in Jos.
From 970 to 772 B.C. the bare outline of events is supplied by extracts from two Hellenistic historians, Menander of Ephesus and Dius (largely dependent upon Menander), which have been preserved by Josephus, Ant.
2 9 7, Asia was broken up into several small provinces, and one of these, of which the capital was Ephesus, retained the name of the original province (see Asia Minor).
so Mark seems to have been sent by Paul to some place in the province of Asia, lying on the route between Ephesus and Rome.
During his pontificate the dispute was settled between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch, who had been at variance since the council of Ephesus, but he himself had some difficulties with Proclus of Constantinople with regard to the vicariate of Thessalonica.
Aenesidemus, the sceptic philosopher, and Chersiphron, the architect of the temple of Diana at Ephesus, were natives of Cnossus.
After her husband's death Arsinoe fled to Ephesus and afterwards to Cassandreia in Macedonia.
After the battle of Philippi she was put to death at Miletus (or in the temple of Artemis at Ephesus) by order of Mark Antony, at the request of her sister Cleopatra (Dio Cassius xlii.
The only mistake that seems possible is that he may have conferred a later title upon the emissaries of the Church of Ephesus.
This is not likely, but, at all events, it would only prove that the office under another name existed at Ephesus, for otherwise Luke could not possibly have put into the mouth of Paul the address which follows.
In the Pauline churches the name is not found except at Ephesus and possibly in south Galatia, though there are traces of the office, at any rate in germ, under different titles in other churches.
ZENODOTUS, Greek grammarian and critic, pupil of Philetas of Cos, was a native of Ephesus.
On the basis of the epistles of Paul to Timothy, Timothy is traditionally represented as bishop of Ephesus, and tradition also tells that he suffered under Domitian.
and follows closely the Ecclesiastical History of Socrates; while the third, extending to Justin II., reproduces the second part of the History of John of Asia or Ephesus, and also contains the well-known chronicle attributed to Joshua the Stylite.
He raised a large force of men and ships and endeavoured to draw Lysander (then at Ephesus) into an engagement.
is on machinery, with a preface concerning a law at ancient Ephesus compelling an architect to complete any public building he had undertaken; this, he says, would be useful among the Romans of his time.
(The architect being at that time also the contractor.) The chapters are -- (1) on various machines, such as scaling-ladders, windmills, &c.; (2) on windlasses, axles, pulleys and cranes for moving heavy weights, such as those used by Chersiphron in building the great temple of Diana at Ephesus, and on the discovery by a shepherd of a quarry of marble required to build the same temple; (3) on dynamics; (4) on machines for drawing water; (5) on wheels for irrigation worked by a river; (6) on raising water by a revolving spiral tube; (7) on the machine of Ctesibius for raising water to a height; (8) on a very complicated water engine, the description of which is not intelligible, though Vitruvius remarks that he has tried to make the matter clear; (9) on machines with wheels to register the distance travelled, either by land or water; (10) on the construction of scorpiones for hurling stones; (11) and (12) on balistae and catapults; (13) on battering rams and other machines for the attack of a fortress; (14) on shields (testudines) to enable soldiers to fill up the enemy's ditches; (15) on other kinds of testudines; (16) on machines for defence, and examples of their use in ancient times.
Plutarch, Agis 9), and of huge cities like Alexandria, Antioch and the enlarged Ephesus.
There was a tendency towards concentration in large cities of the new type, which caused many of the lesser towns, like Lebedus, Myus or Colophon, to sink to insignificance, while Ephesus grew in greatness and wealth, and Smyrna rose again after an extinction of four centuries.
14), made a hasty exit from a bath in Ephesus on learning that Cerinthus was within.
The last excavations at Ephesus, Miletus and Pergamon produced (besides inscriptions) little more than architectural remains of Hellenistic and Roman date.
A report of the work done at Ephesus by the Austrian Archaeological Institute since 1909 was issued in 1913.
He travelled past Naples to Syracuse, then on shipboard by Cos and Samos to Ephesus, and thence through Asia Minor to Damascus and Jerusalem.
Here must have stood the capital of some great empire connected with its extremities, Sardis or Ephesus on the west, Sinope on the north, the Euphrates on the east, the Cilician Gates on the south, by roads so well made as to continue in use for a long time after the centre of power had changed to Assyria, and the old road-system had become circuitous and unsuitable.
It was reputed an Argive and Thracian colony, and was long under Persian rule, of which we hear in the history of Dercyllidas' raid from Ephesus in 397 B.C. Fortified and increased by the Seleucids and Pergamenians, who renamed it successively Seleucia and Antiochia, it passed to Rome in 133.
Black bulls, symbolical of the stormy sea, were sacrificed to him, and often thrown alive into rivers; in Ionia and Thessaly bull-fights took place in his honour; at a festival of his at Ephesus the cupbearers were called.
It was ranked by Philostratus the third city of Pamphylia, and in Byzantine times seems to have been known as Primopolis, under which name its bishop signed at Ephesus in A.D.
During the Roman period, as it had also been in Pharaonic times, Kharga was used as a place of banishment, the most notable exile being Nestorius, sent thither after his condemnation by the council of Ephesus.
The same variation occurs at the neighbouring Teos and at Ephesus, while the coins of Mesembria in Thrace show regularly Meta and M ET A M B P I A N S2 N, where represents the sound which resulted from the fusion of By, and which appears in Homer as Qa in ï¿½ Vvos, while in later Greek it becomes piaos.
The first historical notice of the plague is contained in a fragment of the physician Rufus of Ephesus, who lived in the time of Trajan, preserved in the Collections of Oribasius.
Tmolus and Messogis to the sea near Ephesus, where its silt has filled up the port.
A great change followed the introduction of Christianity, which spread first along the main roads that ran north and west from the Cilician Gates, and especially along the great trade route to Ephesus.
But internal evidence points strongly to the Roman province of Asia, particularly the neighbourhood of Ephesus.
At any rate affairs in that region, including the future of the church of Ephesus (xx.
Already in The Church in the Roman Empire (1893) he held that the Codex Bezae rested on a recension made in Asia Minor (somewhere between Ephesus and S.
The Monophysites, who like the Greeks knew themselves simply as the Orthodox, were grievously persecuted by the emperor Justinian and the graecizing patriarchs of Antioch, because they rejected the decrees of the council of Chalcedon, in which they - not without good reason - saw nothing but a thinly veiled relapse into those opinions of Nestorius which the previous council of Ephesus had condemned.
Pherecydes (5th century) attributed to Leleges the coast land of Caria from Ephesus to Phocaea, with the islands of Samos and Chios, placing the "true Carians" farther south from Ephesus to Miletus.
Gregory also left a life of St Andrew, translated from the Greek, and a history of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, translated from Syriac.
THE SEVEN SLEEPERS OF EPHESUS, according to the most common form of an old legend of Syrian origin, first referred to in Western literature by Gregory of Tours (De glor.
Nearly 200 years later a herdsman of Ephesus rediscovered the cave on Mount Coelian, and, letting in the light, awoke the inmates, who sent one of their number (Jamblicus) to buy food.
by Sachau, p. 285) certain undecayed corpses of monks were shown in a cave as the sleepers of Ephesus in the 9th century.
for details) either during the earlier part of Paul's residence at Ephesus (Acts xix.
t, to, so most editors and scholars), or on his way from Ephesus to Corinth, or at Corinth itself (so Lightfoot, Bleek, Salmon).
Rovenius was succeeded as vicar-general in 1651 by Jacob de la Torre, consecrated as archbishop of Ephesus.
On his arrival at Ephesus a three months' truce was concluded with Tissaphernes, the satrap of Lydia and Caria, but negotiations conducted during that time proved fruitless, and on its termination Agesilaus raided Phrygia, where he easily won immense booty since Tissaphernes had concentrated his troops in Caria.
EPHESUS, an ancient Ionian city on the west coast of Asia Minor.
The earliest inhabitants assigned to Ephesus by Greek writers are the "Amazons," with whom we hear of Leleges, Carians and Pelasgi.
In the 11th century B.C., according to tradition (the date is probably too early), Androclus, son of the Athenian king Codrus, landed on the spot with his Ionians and a mixed body of colonists; and from his conquest dates the history of the Greek Ephesus.
To counteract, perhaps, the growing Lydian influence, Athens, the mother-city of Ephesus, despatched one of her noblest citizens, Aristarchus, to restore law on the basis of the Soloman constitution.
Poetry had long flourished at Ephesus.
From very early times the Homeric poems found a home and admirers there; and to Ephesus belong the earliest elegiac poems of Greece, the war songs of Callinus, who flourished in the 7th century B.C. and was the model of Tyrtaeus.
When Xerxes returned from the march against Greece, he honoured the temple of Artemis, although he sacked other Ionian shrines, and even left his children behind at Ephesus for safety's sake.
After the final Persian defeat at the Eurymedon (466 B.C.), Ephesus for a time paid tribute to Athens, with the other cities of the coast, and Lysander first and Agesilaus afterwards made it their headquarters.
Ephesus was very prosperous during the Hellenistic period, and is conspicuous both then and later for the abundance of its coinage, which gives us a more complete list of magistrates' names than we have for any other Ionian city.
After the defeat of Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, by the Romans, Ephesus was handed over by the conquerors to Eumenes, king of Pergamum, whose successor, Attalus Philadelphus, unintentionally worked the city irremediable harm.
The third Attalus of Pergamum bequeathed Ephesus with the rest of his possessions to the Roman people, and it became for a while the chief city, and for longer the first port, of the province of Asia, the richest in the empire.
Henceforth Ephesus remained subject to the Romans, save for a short period, when, at the instigation of Mithradates Eupator of Pontus, the cities of Asia Minor revolted and massacred their Roman residents.
According to local belief, Ephesus was also the last home of the Virgin, who was lodged near the city by St John and there died.
Ephesus contested stoutly with Smyrna and Pergamum the honour of being called the first city of Asia; each city appealed to Rome, and we still possess rescripts in which the emperors endeavoured to mitigate the bitterness of the rivalry.
One privilege Ephesus secured; the Roman governor of Asia always landed and first assumed office there: and it was long the provincial centre of the official cult of the emperor, and seat of the Asiarch.
(On this council see below.) Thereafter Ephesus seems to have been gradually deserted owing to its malaria; and life transferred itself to another and higher site near the Artemision, the name of which, Ayassoluk (written by early Arab geographers Ayathulukh), is now known to be a corruption of the title of St John TheolOgos, given to a great cathedral built on a rocky hill near the present railway station, in the time of Justinian I.
The first light thrown on the topography of Ephesus was due to the excavations conducted by the architect, J.
mundi, describes a stupendous erection of several storeys; but his other descriptions are so fantastic that no credence can 060 7080go To Ground plan of the 6th Century ("Croesus") Temple at Ephesus, conjecturally restored by A.
Begun probably before 350 B.C., it was in building when Alexander came to Ephesus in 334 and offered to bear the cost of its completion.
This huge pile used to be taken for the Artemision by early visitors to Ephesus.
It should, however, be added that very valuable topographical exploration has been carried out in the environs of Ephesus by members of the Austrian expedition, and that the Ephesian district is now mapped more satisfactorily than any other district of ancient interest in Asia Minor.
The Turkish village of Ayassoluk (the modern representative of Ephesus), more than a mile N.E.
Wood, Discoveries at Ephesus (1877); E.
Head, "Coinage of Ephesus" (Numism.
Council of Ephesus >>
TIMOTHY This book of the New Testament is really a pastoral letter upon church order, addressed by the apostle Paul to the Asiatic Christian communities in and round Ephesus (i.
The three histories together became known in the West from the 6th century through the selection which Cassiodorus caused to be made from them, and it is to this selection (if we leave Rufinus and Jerome out of account) that the middle ages were mainly indebted for all they knew of the Arian controversies, and of the period generally between the Councils of Nice and Ephesus.
Pergamum continued to rank for two centuries as the capital, and subsequently, with Ephesus and Smyrna, as one of the three great cities of the province; and the devotion of its former kings to the Roman cause was continued by its citizens, who erected on the Acropolis a magnificent temple to Augustus.
The main reasons 12 for conjecturing that this section was addressed separately, not to Rome but to a city like Ephesus, lie in its contents.
Now, as he wrote from Corinth, the only other city which answers to this description is Ephesus, the centre of Paul's long Asiatic mission.
Epaenetus (5), Aquila and Priscilla (3), who were at Ephesus immediately before Romans was written (Acts xviii.
25-27), one for Ephesus (i.-xiv., xvi.
The council of Ephesus (A.D.
Hence the Nestorians, who insisted upon the duality of the natures to such a degree as to lose sight of the unity of the person, and who rejected the term Theotokos, repudiated the decrees both of Ephesus and of Chalcedon, and upon the promulgation of the decrees of Chalcedon formally separated from the church.
Asia was governed by the exarch of Ephesus, who ruled over twelve metropolitans with more than 350 suffragan bishops.
Cyprus has been independent of Antioch since the council of Ephesus.
The patriarch's great rival was Joachim of Ephesus.
A much-frequented "halfsea" route led through it to the Lycus and Maeander valleys, and so to Ephesus and Smyrna.
These are marked off by the names of Heraclitus of Ephesus, the Stoics and Philo.
As thus defined, the collection contains the following documents: firstly, the eighty-five Apostolic Canons, the Constitutions having been put aside as having suffered heretical alterations; secondly, the canons of the councils of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, Constantinople (381), Ephesus (the disciplinary canons of this council deal with the reception of the Nestorians, and were not communicated to the West), Chalcedon, Sardica, Carthage (that of 4 19, according to Dionysius), Constantinople (394); thirdly, the series of canonical letters of the following great bishops - Dionysius of Alexandria, Peter of Alexandria (the Martyr), Gregory Thaumaturgus, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, Amphilochus of Iconium, Timotheus of Alexandria, Theophilus of Alexandria, Cyril of Alexandria, Gennadius of Constantinople; the canon of Cyprian of Carthage (the Martyr) is also mentioned, but with the note that it is only valid for Africa.
Finally he set up a school at Ephesus, where he died, apparently at the age of a hundred years.
He who planned his campaigns to the great civilized centres of Corinth, Ephesus and Rome, and thus prepared for a historic future of which he did not dream, drew his parallels of thought with no less firm hand, and showed himself indeed " a wise master-builder."
Such views were marked as heretical by the Council of Ephesus (431), the decision resulting in a profound and lasting schism.
In the East (Council of Ephesus, 431) he was helped by the entanglement of Pelagianism with Nestorianism, just as in the West the ruin of Nestorian prospects was occasioned partly by dislike for the better known system of Pelagianism.
The columns of verde antique on either side of the nave are commonly said to have come from the temple of Diana at Ephesus, but recent authorities regard them as specially cut for use in the church.
In its original sense it does not apply either to the island of Ortygia at Syracuse, or to Ortygia near Ephesus, which also claimed the honour of having been the birthplace of the goddess.
The most important of these was Artemis of Ephesus, whose seat was in the marshy valley of the Caystrus.
The Greeks of Ephesus identified her with their own Artemis, and claimed that her birthplace Ortygia was near Ephesus, not in Delos.
They were supposed to have founded many towns, amongst them Smyrna, Ephesus, Sinope, Paphos.
There it forked, one branch going down the Maeander valley to Magnesia and thence north to Ephesus, a distance of about 90 m., and the other branch crossing the mountains by an easy pass to Philadelphia and the Hermus valley, Sardis, Thyatira and at last Pergamum.
The cult may have been brought westward by the Hittites who have left memorials of themselves in the pseudo-Sesostris figures of Kara-bel (between Sardis and Ephesus) as well as in the figure of the Mothergoddess, the so-called Niobe.
The preHellenic cities of the coast - Smyrna, Samorna (Ephesus), Myrina, Cyme, Priene and Pitane - were all of Amazonian origin, and the first three of them have the same name as the Amazon Myrina, whose tomb was pointed out in the Troad.
To the latter monarch were probably due the earliest gold coins of Ephesus (Head, Coinage of Ephesus, p. 16).
Heberdey's excavations at Ephesus since 1896, like those of D.
EPHESUS This Church council was convened in 431 for the purpose of taking authoritative action concerning the doctrine of the person of Christ.
The emperor now intervened and summoned a council, which met at Ephesus on the 22nd of June 431.
The so-called "Robber Synod" of Ephesus (Latrocinium Ephesinum) of 449, although wholly irregular and promptly repudiated by the church, may, nevertheless, not improperly be treated here.
Perry, The Second Synod of Ephesus (Dartford, 1881); l'Abbe Martin, Actes du brigandage d'Ephese (Amiens, 1874) and Le Pseudo-synode connu dans l'histoire sous le nom de brigandage d'Ephese (Paris, 1875).
The name, which is said to be derived from an Amazon called Smyrna, is indubitably Anatolian, having been applied also to a quarter of Ephesus, and (under the cognate form Myrina) to a city of Aeolis, and to a tumulus in the Troad.
Miletus, and later Ephesus, situated at the sea end of the other great trade route across Anatolia, competed for a time successfully with Smyrna, but both cities long ago lost their harbours and Smyrna remains without a rival.
Between the two the road from Ephesus entered the city by the "Ephesian gate," near which was a gymnasium.
It vied with Ephesus and Pergamum for the title "First (city) of Asia."
The bishops of Smyrna were originally subject to the metropolitan of Ephesus; afterwards they became independent (ai ro?
These were (from south to north) - Miletus, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos, Erythrae, Clazomenae and Phocaea, together with Samos and Chios.
The district comprised three extremely fertile valleys formed by the outflow of three rivers, among the most considerable in Asia Minor: the Hermus in the north, flowing into the Gulf of Smyrna, though at some distance from the city of that name; the Cayster, which flowed under the walls of Ephesus; and the Maeander, which in ancient times discharged its waters into the deep gulf that once bathed the walls of Miletus, but which has been gradually filled up by this river's deposits.
Ephesus, though it did not send out any colonies of importance, from an early period became a flourishing city and attained to a position corresponding in some measure to that of Smyrna at the present day.
When the popular Nestorianism of the Syrians was condemned at Ephesus (431) it began to gravitate eastwards, Nisibis becoming its eventual headquarters; but Edessa and the western Syrians refused to bow to the Council of Chalcedon (45r) when it condemned Monophysitism.
Bright, Notes on the Canons, on Ephesus 8).
At any rate, its independence "by ancient custom" was recognized, as against the claims of the patriarch of Antioch, by the council of Ephesus, A.D.
Timothy was a young man, appointed by the apostle Paul to lead the church in Ephesus.
explore the local bazaar or perhaps take an excursion to the ancient ruins of Ephesus.
exhorts the believers in Ephesus to retrace their steps.
The tradition that the Apostle lived in Ephesus easily explicable.
heresythy was left at Ephesus to oppose heresies into which some had fallen, vv.
farcical mix-ups occur when all the twins all meet in Ephesus.
multitude of believers did make more congregations than one in the church of Ephesus.
Mighty Ephesus With plenty of time at Selcuk, we set out to visit nearby Ephesus.
Here again Howell gave a rather plodding performance, playing Antipholus of Ephesus on a sustained note of vague irritation.
praetorian guard which would best be suited to the situation in Rome rather than Ephesus or Caesarea.
Some modern writers have suggested that sacred prostitution occurred at the temple of Artemis at Ephesus.
He argued that Timothy needed some ammunition in dealing with some very stroppy people in the church at Ephesus.
stroppy people in the church at Ephesus.
The people of Ephesus in Turkey became rich by selling silver trinkets to the pilgrims who visited the temple of the goddess Diana.
The ruins of Ephesus are on the side of a fertile valley.
66, 69.) All reputed colonies from Attica (except Ephesus and Colophon) kept also the feast of Apaturia; and many worshipped Apollo Patrous as the reputed father of Ion.
2 The elders were appointed to teach and rule; 3 the deacons to minister to the poor.4 There were elders in the church at Jerusalem,' and in the church at Ephesus; 6 Paul and Barnabas appointed elders in the cities of Lycaonia and Pisidia; 7 Paul left Titus in Crete to appoint elders in every city; 8 the elders amongst the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia received a special exhortation by Peter.Ã‚° These elders were rulers, and the only rulers in the New Testament Church.
Colossae, like the other Phrygian cities of Laodicea and Hierapolis, had not been visited by Paul, but owed its belief in Jesus Christ to Epaphras, a Colossian, who had been converted by Paul, perhaps in Ephesus, and had laboured not only in his native city but also in the adjacent portions of the Lycus valley, - a Christian in whom Paul reposed the greatest confidence as one competent to interpret the gospel of whose truth Paul was convinced (i.
COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON, the fourth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, was held in 451, its occasion being the Eutychian heresy and the notorious "Robber Synod" (see Eutyches and Ephesus, Council Of), which called forth vigorous protests both in the East and in the West, and a loud demand for a new general council, a demand that was ignored by the Eutychian Theodosius II., but speedily granted by his successor, Marcian, a "Flavianist."
At the Council of Chalcedon (451) the patriarchs still bore the title of " exarch "; it was not till the 7th century that that of " patriarch " was fixed as proper to the bishops of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, " exarch " being reserved for those of Ephesus and Caesarea, who had fallen to a lower rank.
SORANUS, Greek physician, born at Ephesus, lived during the reigns of Trojan and Hadrian (A.D.
The contents might be summarized with Hennecke as follows: - Arrival and first sojourn of the apostle in Ephesus (xviii.-lv.); return to Ephesus and second sojourn (history of Drusiana, lviii.-lxxxvi.); account of the crucifixion of Jesus and His apparent death (lxxxvii.-cv.); the death of John (cvi.-cxv.).
The monuments are as follows: (r) the pyramids of Egypt, (2) the gardens of Semiramis at Babylon, (3) the statue of Zeus at Olympia (see PHE1DIAS), (4) the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, (5) the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (see Mausoleum), (6) the Colossus at Rhodes, (7) the Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, or the Walls of Babylon.
It is enumerated as third, after Ephesus and Smyrna, in the list of cities of the Thracesian thema given by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century; but in the actual history of the next four centuries it plays a part very inferior to Magnesia ad Sipylum and Philadelphia (see ALA-Shehe), which have retained their pre-eminence in the district.
Moreover, whereas Persia had been for several years aiding Athens against Sparta, the revolt of the Athenian ally Evagoras of Cyprus set them at enmity, and with the secession of Ephesus, Cnidus and Samos in 391 and the civil war in Rhodes, the star of Sparta seemed again to be in the ascendant.
The same variation occurs at the neighbouring Teos and at Ephesus, while the coins of Mesembria in Thrace show regularly Meta and M ET A M B P I A N S2 N, where represents the sound which resulted from the fusion of By, and which appears in Homer as Qa in Ã¯¿½ Vvos, while in later Greek it becomes piaos.
c. 95), seven Christian youths of Ephesus, who, in the Decian persecution (A.D.
That is to say, these gifts were probably paid for out of the proceeds of the sequestration of the property of a rich Lydian merchant, Sadyattes, which Croesus presented to Ephesus (Nic. Damasc. fr.
Hogarth, Excavations at Ephesus: the Archaic Artemisia (2 vols., 1908), with chapters by C. H.
17-20) suits Rome at this period much less aptly than Ephesus (cf.
The successors of Strato in the headship of the Lyceum were Lyco, Aristo of Ceos, Critolaus, Diodorus of Tyre, and Erymneus, who brings the philosophic succession down to about z oo B.C. Other Peripatetics belonging to this period are Hieronymus of Rhodes, Prytanis and Phormio of Ephesus, the delirus senex who attempted to instruct Hannibal in the art of war (Cic. De orat.
At Ephesus, where she was adored under the form of a meteoric stone, she was identified with the Greek Artemis (see also Great Mother Of The Gods).
The first event in the history of Ionia of which we have any trustworthy account is the inroad of the Ciinmerii (see Scythia), who ravaged a great part of Asia Minor, including Lydia, and sacked Magnesia on the Maeander, but were foiled in their attack upon Ephesus.
Hogarth in the lower strata of the Artemision at Ephesus in1904-1905(see Greek Art).
Paul said he was hoping to come to Timothy in Ephesus shortly, but may have to tarry long (1 Timothy 3:14-15).
Ephesus was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Asia Minor, now in Turkey.
We recently sailed in the Eastern Mediterranean and one of the most amazing ports of call was Kusadasi, Turkey, where we did a full day excursion to the ruins of the ancient city of Ephesus.
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