See Whitney's article Philology in the present edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
The treatises on physical geography by Mrs Mary Somerville and Sir John Herschel (the lattewritten for the eighth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica) showed the effect produced in Great Britain by the stimulus of Humboldt's work.
His Encyclopaedia article, "Probability," was published separately.
Julicher on "Colossians and Ephesians" in the Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899); the Introductions of H.
A brief history of the bishopric is given in the Catholic Encyclopaedia (London and New York, 1909), with bibliography.
These instruments thus produced, in Haydn's and Beethoven's times, a very remarkable but closely limited series of effects, which, as Sir George Macfarren pointed out in the article "Music" in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, gave them a peculiar character and function in strongly asserting the main notes of the key.
The existence of the purer and larger conception of Yahweh's character and power before the advent of Amos indicates that the transition from the past was not so sudden as Wellhausen's graphic portrayal in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia (art.
There is much material in the Encyclopaedia of Mississippi History (2 vols., Madison, Wisconsin, 1907), edited by Dunbar Rowland.
The modern doctrine of evolution or " evolving," as opposed to that of simple creation, has been defined by Prof. James Sully in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia as a " natural history of the cosmos including organic beings, expressed in physical terms as a mechanical process."
Romanes in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica runs as follows: "Instinct is a generic term comprising all those faculties of mind which lead to the conscious performance of actions that are.
Since Huxley and Sully wrote their masterly essays in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia, the doctrine of evolution has outgrown the trammels of controversy and has been accepted as a fundamental principle.
We may here quote Newton (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., " Birds," p. 738) on the remarkable differences between this region and the rest of the Old World: - " The prevalent zoological features of any Region are of two kinds - negative and positive.
On particular authors and subjects there are many excellent monographs in the Jewish Encyclopaedia (New York, 1901-6), to which the present article is much indebted.
He also wrote several literary articles for the first two volumes of the Encyclopaedia, and to the remaining volumes he contributed mathematical articles chiefly.
During the time he was engaged on the Encyclopaedia he wrote a number of literary and philosophical works which extended his reputation and also exposed him to criticism and controversy, as in the case of his Mï¿½nges de Philosophic, d'Histoire, et de Litterature.
The controversy as to the nature of his religious opinions, arising as it did chiefly out of his connexion with the Encyclopaedia, has no longer any living interest now that the Encyclopaedists generally have ceased to be regarded with unqualified suspicion by those who count themselves orthodox.
- The Russkiy Encyclopedicheskiy Slovar, edited by Brockhaus and Efron, was begun in 1890, with the idea of giving a Russian version of Brockhaus's Conversations Lexikon, but from the very first volumes it became a monumental encyclopaedia, and is, indeed, an inexhaustible source of information on everything Russian.
In the article on " Railways " in the Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, published in 1824, it is said: "It will appear that this species of inland carriage [railways] is principally applicable where trade is considerable and the length of conveyance short; and is chiefly useful, therefore, in transporting the mineral produce of the kingdom from the mines to the nearest land or water communication, whether sea, river or canal.
In 1807 he undertook the editorship of the newly projected Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, of which the first part appeared in 1808, and the last not until 1830.
At a later period he was one of the leading contributors to the Encyclopaedia Britannica (seventh and eighth editions), the articles on Electricity, Hydrodynamics, Magnetism, Microscope, Optics, Stereoscope, Voltaic Electricity, &c., being from his pen.
He also contributed important articles to the 9th, 10th and 1 1th editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and edited a number of Oriental works.
Among his articles may be mentioned those which he wrote for the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia on Light, Mechanics, Quaternions, Radiation and Thermodynamics, besides the biographical notices of Hamilton and Clerk Maxwell.
Ingram in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica is still a valuable historical account.
of this Encyclopaedia, to which this article is much indebted.
It is unnecessary here to discuss the views of Gadow, as that author himself has contributed the article BIRD to this edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and has there set forth his revised scheme.
His publications include Philosophy of Kant (1878); Critical Philosophy of Kant (1889); Religion and Social Philosophy of Comte (1885); Essays on Literature and Philosophy (1892); Evolution of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1891-1892); Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); and he is represented in this encyclopaedia by the article on Cartesianism.
- Robertson Smith's later views subsequent to 1877 (when he wrote the article on David for this Encyclopaedia) were expressed partly in the Old Test.
In the article " Ornithology" in the ninth edition of this encyclopaedia, A.
It has been called by Whewell at once the Encyclopaedia and the Organum of the 13th century.
Kitto's Encyclopaedia, W.
It may be convenient here to state how the whole subject of chemistry is treated in this edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Marco Polo mentions such charts; Vasco da Gama (1498) found them in the hands of his Indian pilot, and their nature is fully explained in the Mohit or encyclopaedia of the sea compiled from ancient sources by the Turkish admiral Sidi Ali Ben Hosein in 1554.1 These charts are covered with a close network of lines intersecting each other at right angles.
Jaquet wrote The Kennel Club: a History and Record of its Work, and an edition de luxe of Dogs is edited by Mr Harding Cox; Mr Sidney Turner, the chairman of the Kennel Club committee, edited The Kennel Encyclopaedia, the first number of which was issued in 1907.
This was the Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy, prefixed to the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
He contributed largely to the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and also wrote several scientific papers for the Edinburgh Review and various scientific journals.
C. Achelis in HerzogHauck, Realencyklopadie (Leipzig, 1897); The Catholic Encyclopaedia (London and New York, 1908) s.
1893) and The Catholic Encyclopaedia (New York, 1907 onwards).
He worked intensely on the Talmud and contributed no less than 190 papers to Chambers's Encyclopaedia, in addition to essays in Kitto's and Smith's Biblical Dictionaries, and articles in periodicals.
Pocock, "Ancestors and Relatives of the Dog," in The Kennel Encyclopaedia (London, 1907).
Huxley, in the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia, treated of Brongniart's Batrachia, under the designation Amphibia, but this use of the word has not been generally accepted.
Parispapai compiled an Hungarian-Latin Dictionary, Dictionarium magyar es dedk nyelven (Locse, 1708), and Apaczai-Csere, a Magyar Encyclopaedia (Utrecht, 1653).
A statement may now be given of the classes and orders in each group, as recognized by the writers of the various special zoological articles in the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Later, in his article " Chromatics " in the supplement to the 5th edition of this encyclopaedia, he shows that the colours " lose the mixed character of periodical colours, and resemble much more the ordinary prismatic spectrum, with intervals completely dark interposed," and explains it by the consideration that any phasedifference which may arise at neighbouring striae is multiplied in proportion to the total number of striae.
His great work Evvaywyai tar pucai, of which only about one-third has been preserved, was a medical encyclopaedia founded on extracts from Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides (fl.
For the internal structural details of the micrometer the reader is referred to the article " Micrometer " in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Grubb's duplex micrometer is described in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Huxley, who in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia traced the history of the growth of the biological idea of evolution from its philosophical beginnings to its efflorescence in Charles Darwin.
The distribution of life is discussed in the various articles in this Encyclopaedia dealing with biological, botanical and zoological subjects.'
The most complete existing work, an encyclopaedia of the subject in fact, is T.
Hirsch, Jewish Encyclopaedia, iv.
It may be interesting to recall the account given in the first edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1771), which contained a summary of some of these various views (substantially repeated up to the publication of the eighth edition, 1853).
486; and Jewish Encyclopaedia, i.
ii.) except that Phylum 17, Diplochorda (a name doubtfully applicable to Phoronis) is replaced by Podaxonia, a term employed by Lankester in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia and now used to include a number of groups of doubtful but possible affinity.
He was author of the article "Bridges" in the ninth edition of this encyclopaedia.
Toy compares Barnebo, "son of Nebo," of which he regards Barnabas as a slightly disguised form (Jewish Encyclopaedia).
Catherine called him "her encyclopaedia."
[Abulcasis'] great work, Altasrif, a medical encyclopaedia, is chiefly valued for its surgical portion, which was translated into Latin in the 16th century, and was for some centuries a standard if not the standard authority on surgery in Europe.
The work by which he is chiefly known, the celebrated "canon," is an encyclopaedia of medical and surgical knowledge, founded upon Galen, Aristotle, the later Greek physicians, and the earlier Arabian writers, singularly complete and systematic, but is thought not to show the practical experience of its author.
Dibdin in the 10th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and the exposition given by Sir Lewis Dibdin of the whole question of the use of incense in the Church of England may here be interpolated.
Chambers's Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen; memoir by Principal Lee in early editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; J.
Besides compiling numerous useful tables, he contributed largely to the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana.
See the articles in the Encyclopaedia Biblica; Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie; The Jewish Encyclopaedia; Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible; and cf.
Armstrong's article Chemistry in the 10th edition of this Encyclopaedia; the representation differs from the projection of Meyer and Jacobsen.
Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Agriculture (New York, 1907) and Standard Encyclopaedia (London, 1908), &c.
Not less famous is the great Encyclopaedia of his contemporary Nuwairi (d.
From 1796 to 1800 he was sub-editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, in succession to his elder brother, JAMES THOMSON (1768-1855), who filled that position in 1795-1796, and who in 1805 was ordained to the parish of Eccles, Berwickshire; and the chemical and mineralogical articles which he contributed to the supplement to the third edition formed the basis of his System of Chemistry, the first edition of which was published in 1802 and the seventh in 1831.
He was also the author (1852) of the "Dissertation on the Progress of Mathematical and Physical Science," published in the 8th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
See Leon Clugnet's article in the Catholic Encyclopaedia, vol.
55) which would fill forty pages of this Encyclopaedia.
A universal geography (by Uchida Masao); a history of nations (by Mitsukuri Rinsho); a translation of Chamberss Encyclopaedia by the department of education; Japanese renderings of Herbert Spencer and of Guizot and Buckleall these made their appearance duringthe first fourteen years of the epoch.
(b) Institutiones divinarun et humanarum litterarum, an encyclopaedia of sacred and profane literature for the monks, and a sketch of the seven liberal arts.
The Religions of the World (1847); Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy (at first an article in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 1848); The Church a Family (1850); The Old Testament (1851); Theological Essays (1853); The Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament (1853); Lectures on Ecclesiastical History (1854); The Doctrine of Sacrifice (1854); The Patriarchs and Lawgivers of the Old Testament (1855); The Epistles of St John (1857); The Commandments as Instruments of National Reformation (1866); On the Gospel of St Luke (1868); The Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry (1868); The Lord', Prayer, a Manual (1870).
More modern works are the Encyclopaedia of Chronology, by B.
Campbell Fraser; he joined the staff of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.) (1874) and studied widely in the Advocates' Library.
His writings consisted of short articles, of which many appeared in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.) and in Mind, a volume on Kant and another on Fichte.
The following full description of the only species which attacks the vine, the Phylloxera vastatrix, or grape-louse, is reprinted from the article Vine in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia.
The variety of languages and the dispersion of mankind were regarded as a curse, and it is probable that, as Prof. Cheyne (Encyclopaedia Biblica, col.
Macdonald in the Jewish Encyclopaedia).
The work was a complete encyclopaedia of the liberal culture of the time, and was in high repute during the middle ages.
"Marienfeste"; The Catholic Encyclopaedia (London and New York, 1907, &c.), s.
Schmiedel in the Encyclopaedia Biblica, s.v.
Gray on Numbers xxii.-xxiv.; and the articles on "Balaam" (Bileam) in Hamburger's Realencyclopddie fiir Bibel and Talmud, Hastings' Bible Diet., Black and Cheyne's Encyclopaedia Biblica, Herozog-Hauck's Realencyklopddie.
This tendency was largely due to a doubt whether the Federal government under the Constitution possessed the power to initiate general statistical inquiries, a doubt well expressed in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica by Francis A.
The scope of the work was so extended as to make the twenty-two quarto volumes of the tenth census almost an encyclopaedia, not only of the population,but also of theproductsand resources of the United States.
" Angel " in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
Some curious examples of echo are given in Herschel's article on " Sound " in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, but it appears that he is in error in one case.
In the same field of literature Lord Selborne further laboured by the publication of another collection called The Book of Praise Hymnal; a contribution to an edition of Bishop Ken's hymns; a paper on English Church Hymnody at a Church Congress; and the article in the Encyclopaedia Britannica on "Hymns" (q.v.), which was republished as a separate volume in 1892.
Day of Atonement: articles in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and in the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
For the collection of data he necessarily relied upon the labours of a corps of assistants, and the publications named represent, properly speaking, an encyclopaedia rather than a unified history; but as a storehouse of material their value is great and is likely to be enduring.
This description, quoted from James Clerk Maxwell's article in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, represents the historical position of the subject up till about 1860, when Maxwell began those constructive speculations in electrical theory, based on the influence of the physical views of Faraday and Lord Kelvin, which have in their subsequent development largely transformed theoretical physics into the science of the aether.
Please be aware that this material is all a reproduction of the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica and reflects the knowledge and beliefs of that time.
Among his other works the bishop published in 1781-1782, in two volumes, a kind of encyclopaedia of belles lettres entitled Zbior Wiadomosci.
He was also the author of the articles on astronomy in the American Cyclopaedia and the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and was well known as a popular lecturer on astronomy in England, America and Australia.
This view, however, is not accepted by Cheyne, Encyclopaedia Biblica, s.v.
1898; see also his article English Law in this encyclopaedia), Domesday Book and Beyond (1897), Township and Borough (1898), Canon Law in England (1898), English Law and the Renaissance (1901), the Life of Leslie Stephen (1906), besides important contributions to the Cambridge Modern History, the English Historical Review, the Law Quarterly Review, Harvard Law Review and other publications.
636), whose comprehensive encyclopaedia was a favourite text-book in the middle ages.
To the third quarter of the 10th century we may assign the Greek lexicon of Suidas, a combination of a lexicon and an encyclopaedia, the best articles being those on the history of literature.
See also the separate biographical articles in this Encyclopaedia.
Prince Kropotkin's authority as a writer on Russia is universally acknowledged, and he has contributed largely to the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Muller in 1776 and 1781, and first restricted by Leach in 1816 in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (art.
The key to the riddle is to be found in the Encyclopaedia Britannica for 1816.
From 1875 onwards Smith contributed to the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica a long series of important articles, which, together with the articles of Cheyne, Wellhausen and others, made that work an important factor in the change which was to pass over English thought in regard to the Bible; in 1878, by his pleadings in the trial for heresy brought against him on the ground of these articles, he turned a personal defeat in the immediate issue into a notable victory for the cause which led to his condemnation; and subsequently (in 1880), in two series of lectures, afterwards published 2 and widely read, he gave a brilliant, and, as it proved, to a rapidly increasing number a convincing exposition of the criticism of the literature, history and religion of Israel, which was already represented in Germany 2 The Old Testament in the Jewish Church (1881); The Prophets of Israel (1882).
Other important works in which English and American scholars have co-operated are the Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903) and Hastings' Bible Dictionary (1898-1904) - the latter less radical, but yet on the whole based on acceptance of the fundamental positions of Vatke, Graf, Wellhausen.
Hastings, 5 vols., 1898-1904) and Encyclopaedia Biblica (ed.
C. Loudon to write the descriptive portion of the Encyclopaedia of Plants.
de Jussieu, as distinguished from the "artificial" system of Linnaeus followed in the Encyclopaedia; the conviction found expression in A Synopsis of British Flora, arranged according to the Natural Order (1829) and in An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany (1830).
Everett also prepared for the Encyclopaedia Britannica a biographical sketch of Washington, which was published separately in 1860.
At his own request the article on Christianity was assigned to him in Dr Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, and in studying the credentials of Christianity he received a new impression of its contents.
Mackenzie's Royal Masonic Encyclopaedia, C. W.
Castell Hopkins, Canada: an Encyclopaedia (6 vols., 1898-1900); The Canadian Annual Review (yearly since 1902), replacing H.
Of Canada: An Encyclopaedia Of The Country (1898-1900); Also To Henry J.
Blake Crofton, In Canada: An Encyclopaedia Of The Country; C. H.
1797), the hydrographer; Malcolm Laing (1762-1818), author of the History of Scotland from the Union of the Crowns to the Union of the Kingdoms; Mary Brunton (1778-1818), author of Self-Control, Discipline and other novels; Samuel Laing (1780-1868), author of A Residence in Norway, and translator of the Heimskringla, the Icelandic chronicle of the kings of Norway; Thomas Stewart Traill (1781-1862), professor of medical jurisprudence in Edinburgh University and editor of the 8th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Samuel Laing (1812-1897), chairman of the London, Brighton & South Coast railway, and introducer of the system of "parliamentary" trains with fares of one penny a mile; Dr John Rae (1813-1893), the Arctic explorer; and William Balfour Baikie (1825-1864), the African traveller.
rn, Mantle flap. In the gth edition of this br, Outer, b'r', inner gill-plate - each Encyclopaedia Professor (Sir) composed of two lamellae.
The extension of the investigation to wide slits was first made by the present writer in the article " Spectroscopy " in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
He was pastor of the Presbyterian church of Roselle, New Jersey, 1869-1874, and professor of Hebrew and cognate languages in Union Theological Seminary 1874-1891, and of Biblical theology there from 1891 to 1904, when he became professor of theological encyclopaedia and symbolics.
For a specially Jewish view of the Essenes see Kohler's article in the Jewish Encyclopaedia.
Nor is there any nautical significance in a passage which occurs in the Chinese encyclopaedia, Poei-wen-yun-fou, in which it is stated that under the Tsin dynasty, or between A.D.
3 Brunetto Latini also makes reference to the compass in his encyclopaedia Livres dou tre.
Of encyclopaedias may be mentioned the New SchaffHerzog Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge (New York, 1908 sqq.); the Catholic Encyclopaedia (New York, 1907 sqq.); Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1896 sqq.); Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon (2nd ed., Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1882-1901); G.
i., 1907), The Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England, ed.
Among his publications were the well-known quarterly magazine Y Traethodydd (" The Essayist"), Gwyddoniadur Cymreig (" Encyclopaedia Cambrensis"), and Dr Silvan Evans's English-Welsh Dictionary (1868), but his greatest achievement in this field was the newspaper Baner Cymru (" The Banner of Wales"), founded in 1857 and amalgamated with Yr Amserau (" The Times") two years later.
The scheme of his great work is vast and comprehensive, being nothing short of an encyclopaedia of learning and of art so far as they are connected with nature or draw their materials from it.
Bliss, editor of the Encyclopaedia of Missions.
The Encyclopaedia of Missions (2nd ed., 1904) edited by Bliss, Dwight and Tupper; The Blue Book of Missions by H.
(2) An application from the editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica - who might, 1 suppose, as in Macaulay's time, almost command the services of the most eminent scholars and historians of the country - to me, a mere poet, proposing that I should contribute to that great repository of erudition the biography of Mary Queen of Scots.
ed., London, 1904); The Catholic Encyclopaedia (London and New York, 1907).
Eugene van Bemmel (1824-1880) established an excellent historical tradition in his Histoire de la Belgique (1880), reproducing textually the original authorities, and also edited a Belgian Encyclopaedia (1873-1875), the Patria Belgiaa.
He published Japan (1901); Japan and China (1903), as well as a Japanese-English dictionary, and was the author of the article Japan in the earlier volumes of this encyclopaedia.
Another method of baiting this animal is thus described in the Encyclopaedia of Sport: " They dig a place in the earth about a yard long, so that one end is four feet deep. At this end a strong stake is driven down.
The Catholic Dictionary contains useful articles on most of the subjects here touched on; and an extensive Catholic Encyclopaedia is in course of preparation at the Catholic University of Washington.
More weighty contributions are the anonymous theological discussion The Kernel and the Husk (1886), Philomythus (1891), his book on Cardinal Newman as an Anglican (1892), and his article "The Gospels" in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, embodying a critical view which caused considerable stir in the English theological world; he also wrote St Thomas of Canterbury, his Death and Miracles (1898), Johannine V ocabulary (1905), Johannine Grammar (1906).
- The splendid example of his style which Macaulay contributed in the article on Johnson to the 7th edition of this encyclopaedia has become classic, and has therefore been retained above with a few trifling modifications in those places in which his invincible love of the picturesque has drawn him demonstrably aside from the dull line of veracity.
A summary of his philosophy is contained in his article "Metaphysics" in the 8th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (separately published, 1860).
Wallace, Farm Live Stock of Great Britain (4th ed., 1907); Douglas Encyclopaedia (1906); C. S.
In 1814 he wrote a number of articles, containing an exposition of utilitarianism, for the supplement to the fifth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the most important being those on "Jurisprudence," "Prisons" and "Government."
J.) in the supplement to the 4th, 5th and 6th editions of the Encyclopaedia (vol.
See the Jewish Encyclopaedia and the Encyclopaedia Biblica; also M.
He contributed the article on John Locke to the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Ray Lankester (preface to the English edition of C. Gegenbaur's Comparative Anatomy), and employed by the same writer in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia (article "Zoology") to denote the eighth phylum, or major division, of coelomate animals.
He took a pupil or two, and wrote articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia under the editorship of Brewster.
We quote from the article "Variation and Selection," in the tenth edition of this Encyclopaedia, an exposition of the biometric method by Weldon: The characters of individual animals or plants depend upon so many complex conditions, most of which are generally unknown to us, that the statements we can make concerning them are of a peculiar kind.
Brooke in Hamersley's Naval Encyclopaedia.) When the Civil War broke out, he was on ordnance duty in the Washington navy yard, and he was one of the three officers who did not resign from confederate sympathies.
His chief contribution to ancient history was his article on Roman history in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1886), which was republished with additions as the Outlines of Roman History (1890).
In philology he wrote Encyclopaedia philologica sive primae lineae Isagoges in antiquorum stadia (1798; 2nd ed., 1805); Kurze Theorie des lateinischen Stils (1793); Leitfaden der Rhetorik (1802); and an annotated edition of the Satires of Persius.
His Encyclopaedia (1630), the most considerable of the earlier works of that class, was long held in high estimation.
Others, however, on the encyclopaedia of philosophy and the history of philosophy drew classes of twenty to thirty.
The most comprehensive view of Rosmini's philosophical standpoint is to be found in his Sistema filosofico, in which he set forth the conception of a complete encyclopaedia of the human knowable, synthetically conjoined, according to the order of ideas, in a perfectly harmonious whole.
Robertson Smith, in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia.
In 1810 appeared the Philosophical Essays, in 1814 the second volume of the Elements, in 1815 the first part and in 1821 the second part of the "Dissertation" written for the Encyclopaedia Britannica " Supplement," entitled "A General View of the Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy since the Revival of Letters."
The most extensive is the twelvevolume Futuhat ul-Makkiyat (" Meccan Revelations"), a general encyclopaedia of Sufic beliefs and doctrines.
Freshficld, Travels in the Central Caucasus and Bashan (1869); Parrot, Reise zum Ararat (1834); Wagner, Reise nach dem Ararat (1848); Abich, Die Besteigung des Ararat (1849); articles "Ararat," in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, and the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
" Snakes "), and the articles in this Encyclopaedia on the various departments of primitive religion.
The Semitic alphabet is excellently treated by Lidzbarski in the Jewish Encyclopaedia (1901); his Nordsemitische Epigraphik (1898) has excellent facsimiles and tables of the alphabets, and there are many contributions to the history of the alphabet in the same writer's Ephemeris fur semitische Epigraphik (Giessen, since 1900).
Bevan) in the Encyclopaedia Biblica, and " Alphabet "(by Isaac Taylor) in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible.
Elsewhere in this edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica the articles on the various languages and under the headings INSCRIPTIONS, PALAEOGRAPHY, WRITING, &c., should be consulted, while separate articles are given on each letter of the English alphabet.
The article on Greek Art in Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopaedia is by him.
The practical application of mechanics may be divided into two classes, according as the assemblages of material In view of the great authority of the author, the late Professor Macquorn Rankine, it has been thought desirable to retain the greater part of this article as it appeared in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia.
This modified arrangement is adopted as being better suited than the original arrangement to the limits of an article in an encyclopaedia; but it is not disputed that the original arrangement may be the best for a separate treatise.
Goschler, 1870); Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie fir Protestantische Theologie and Kirche (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1896-1909), Protestant, but containing articles of universally recognized scientific authority on many aspects of the Roman Catholic Church; the Catholic Encyclopaedia (London and New York, 1907 ff.), invaluable as an authoritative account of Roman Catholicism in all its phases, by eminent Catholics of all nations.
See articles "Ahasuerus" in the Encyclopaedia Biblica, Hastings' Dictionary, the Jewish Encyclopaedia; S.
Pocock in the first part of the Kennel Encyclopaedia, 1907), the absence of any really wild species of the typical group of the genus Canis between Burma and Siam on the one hand and Australia on the other is a very strong argument against the dingo being indigenous, seeing that, whether brought by man or having travelled thither of its own accord, the dingo must have reached its present habitat by way of the Austro-Malay archipelago.
He also wrote several important articles in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
It is scarcely a law-book or a work of divinity; it is almost an encyclopaedia in its scope, a store-house reproducing the knowledge and the thought, both unconscious and speculative, of the first few centuries of the Christian era.
He was the author of several successful textbooks of science, and also of the article on "Terrestrial Magnetism" in the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia.
In separate articles throughout this Encyclopaedia the main subjects of interest in connexion with British institutions are fully dealt with; and it is only necessary here to give such details as are needed to supplement those given under the subjectheading.
This category contains articles in the Calssic Encyclopaedia dealing with Bulgaria.
Cabrol in the Catholic Encyclopaedia, vol.
WILLIAM ROBERTSON SMITH (1846-1894), Scottish philologist, physicist, archaeologist, Biblical critic, and editor, from 1881, of the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia, was born on the 8th of November 1846 at Keig in Aberdeenshire, where his father was Free Church minister.
The articles on Biblical subjects which he contributed to the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica distressed and alarmed the authorities of the Free Church.
In 1875 he was appointed one of the Old Testament revisers; in1880-1882he delivered by invitation, to very large audiences in Edinburgh and Glasgow, two courses of lectures on the criticism of the Old Testament, which he afterwards published (The Old Testament in the Jewish Church, first edition 1881, second edition 1892, and The Prophets of Israel, 1882, which also passed through two editions); and soon after his dismissal from his chair he joined Professor Baynes in the editorship of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and after Professor Baynes's death remained in supreme editorial control till the work was completed.
His chief contributions to this branch of learning were his article Sacrifice in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, his Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia (Cambridge, 1885), and above all his Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (1st edition 1889, 2nd edition 189 4).
He never ceased to work, and when near his end was actively engaged in planning the Encyclopaedia Biblica, which he had hoped to edit.
He edited (1864-1880) the American translation and revision of Lange's Bibelwerk, the great Schaff-Herzog Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge (1884, 3rd ed.
He considered that the suspension of the liquid is due 1 In this revision of James Clerk Maxwell's classical article in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, additions are marked by square brackets.
Leslie's theory was afterwards treated according to Laplace's mathematical methods by James Ivory in the article on capillary action, under "Fluids, Elevation of," in the supplement to the fourth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, published in 1819.
epistolis cornparatur (1826), Institutiones historiae ecclesiae (1835), Institutio theologiae naturalis (1842), Encyclopaedia theologi christiani (1844).
The chief of these was the American Cyclopaedia, which as the New American Cyclopaedia - so named to distinguish it from Francis Lieber's Encyclopaedia Americana - was issued, under the editorship of Ripley and Charles A.
It may be useful to give here a synopsis of the classification adopted in this encyclopaedia, noting that, for convenience of treatment, it has been thought, necessary to adopt a grouping not always expressive of the most recent views of affinity.
The encyclopaedia itself is a history of them in the stricter sense, - the description and record of this universal process.
The great "glossary" of Ducange is still in enlarged editions the indispensable encyclopaedia of the middle ages.
This limitation of the professed historian is made up for by the growingly historical treatment of all the sciences and arts - a tendency noted before, to which this edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica is itself a notable witness.
The subject of Police police is separately treated in the Encyclopaedia Britan- nica, and it is not necessary to supplement what is there stated.
But as Schmiedel champions the Tubingen view in the Encyclopaedia Biblica, it cannot be overlooked.
In 1836 he became editor of the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, and he projected the New General Biographical Dictionary, a scheme carried through by his brother Henry John Rose (1800-1873).
Holweck in the Catholic Encyclopaedia.
Among the more important of his later writings were the articles on Aristotle, Plato and Socrates, contributed to the eighth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and afterwards reprinted with additions under the title of The Fathers of Greek Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1862).
(including his earliest publication, "On the Arithmetic of Impossible Quantities," 1779, and an "Account of the Lithological Survey of Schehallion," 1811) and in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh ("On the Causes which affect the Accuracy of Barometrical Measurements," &c.), also the articles "Aepinus" and "Physical Astronomy," and a "Dissertation on the Progress of Mathematical and Physical Science since the Revival of Learning in Europe," in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Supplement to fourth, fifth and sixth editions).
See the Jewish Encyclopaedia (1902), s.v.
For the latter, and for systems of notation, reference may also be made to Peacock's article " Arithmetic " in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, which contains a detailed account of the Greek system.
- Since Sir Samuel Ferguson wrote his article on "Brehon Laws" in the 9th editionof this Encyclopaedia, much research has been done on the subject, and Ferguson's account is no longer accepted by scholars, either as regards the language or the substance of the laws.
"Isaiah" in the Temple Bible was finished, but not revised, when he died; and he also had in hand the volume on Isaiah for the International Critical Commentary; to which must be added a mass of articles contributed to The Imperial Bible Dictionary, The Encyclopaedia Britannica, and the chief religious reviews.
in Jewish Encyclopaedia, s.v.
p. 118.) Two of his most elaborate treatises are to be found in the [[Encyclopaedia]] metropolitana, namely the articles on the Calculus of Functions, and the Theory of Probabilities.
The Sanskrit usage of the word is fully illustrated by him from the early Sanskrit writings in the article "Aryan" in the ninth edition of this encyclopaedia.
The legend of Asmodeus is given fully in the Jewish Encyclopaedia,s.v.
See also the articles in the Encyclopaedia Biblica,Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, and Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie.
are welcome to the theologian; " encyclopaedia " is a new and broader-based " systematic theology " in itself; but none of these is central as Dogmatic is.
Encyclopaedia may be studied in J.
Among the clergy of postRevolution days the most eminent are Bishop Sage, a well-known patristic scholar; Bishop Rattray, liturgiologist; John Skinner, of Longside, author of Tullochgorum; Bishop Gleig, editor of the 3rd edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Dean Ramsay, author of Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character; Bishop A.
A comprehensive work on Hobbes was never completed, though part of the materials were used for an article in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and another portion was published as one of Blackwood's "Philosophical Classics."
1902), enlarged from his article Ethics in the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Elements of Politics (1891, 2nd ed.
This reform was justified by the religious intolerance of the parlements; by their scandalous trials of Calas, Pierre Paid Sirven (1709-1777), the chevalier de la Barre and the comte de Lally; by the retrograde spirit that had made them suppress the Encyclopaedia in 1759 and condemn Emile in.
This society - the Brothers of Purity or Sincerity (Ikhwan us Safa ` i) - divided into four orders, wrought in the interests of religion no less than of science; and though its attempt to compile an encyclopaedia of existing knowledge may have been premature, it yet contributed to spread abroad a desire for further information.
The fifty-one treatises of which this encyclopaedia consists are interspersed with apologues in true Oriental style, and the idea of goodness, of moral perfection, is as prominent an end in every discourse as it was in the alleged dream of al-Ma ` mun.
p. 85; Schmolders, Documenta philosophiae Arabum (Bonn, 1836), and Essai sur les ecoles philosophiques chez les Arabes (Paris, 1842); Shahrastani, History of Religious and Philosophical Sects, in German translation by Haarbri cker (Halle, 1850-1851); Dieterici, Streit zwischen Mensch and Thier (Berlin, 1858), and his other translations of the Encyclopaedia of the Brothers of Sincerity (1861 to 1872); T.
It is an encyclopaedia of all the sciences, under the form of an explanation of the terms proper to each of them.
Here for two years he was busily engaged in parochial work, but he found time to write articles on "Apollonius of Tyana," on "Cicero" and on "Miracles" for the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana.
Test., a veritable encyclopaedia of the history of Israel from its earliest beginning till the taking of Jerusalem by Titus.
He was also the author of the articles on "Heat" and "Elasticity" in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land; Encyclopaedia Biblica, art.
Huxley, in his article on this subject in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, for applying the name Amphibia to those lung-breathing, pentadactyle vertebrates which had been first severed from the Linnaean Amphibia by Alexandre Brongniart, under the name of Batrachia, have not met with universal acceptance.
However extraordinary it may appear, especially to those who bring the living forms only into focus, that opposition should still be made to Huxley's primary division of the vertebrates other than mammals into Sauropsida (birds and reptiles) and Ichthyopsida (batrachians and fishes), it is certain that recent discoveries in palaeontology have reduced the gap between batrachians and reptiles to such a minimum as to cause the greatest embarrassment in the attempt to draw a satisfactory line of separation between the two; on the other hand the hiatus between fishes and batrachians remains as wide as it was at the time Huxley's article Amphibia (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed.) was written.
411), and Ginzberg (Jewish Encyclopaedia, ii.
Ginzberg's article in the Jewish Encyclopaedia, ii.
Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography and the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Girault, Principes de cot onisation et de ligislation coloniele (3 vols., Paris, 1907-1908); Les Colonies franchises, an encyclopaedia edited by M.
He wrote A History of American Politics (1881); The Genesis of a New England State - Connecticut (1883), in "Johns Hopkins University Studies"; A History of the United States for Schools (1886); Connecticut (1887) in the "American Commonwealths Series"; the article on the history of the United States for the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, reprinted as The United States: Its History and Constitution (1887); a chapter on the history of American political parties in the seventh volume of Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, and many articles on the history of American politics in Lalor's Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and Political History of the United States (1881-1884).
P. Courtenay in Lardner's Encyclopaedia, " Eminent British Statesmen," vol.
of our knowledge of the structure and course of the vascular strands of the higher plants (IJeber den Bau und die Anordnung der Gefssbundel bei den Stamm und Wurzel der Phanerogamen, Beitrage zur wissenschaftlichen Botanik, Heft i., Leipzig, 1859); to the second the establishment of the sound morphological doctrine of the central cylinder of the axis as the starting-point for the consideration of the general arrangement of the tissues, and the first clear distinction between primary and secondary tissues (Botanische Zeitung, 186I and 1863); to the last the putting together of the facts of plant anatomy known up to the middle of the eighth decade of the century in that great encyclopaedia of plant anatomy, the Vergleichende Anatomie der Vegetationsor gene bei den Phanerogamen und Farnen (Stuttgart, 1876; Eng.
Parker wrote the account of the skull in the article Birds for the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, he had still to wrestle with the general problem of the composition and evolution of the skull.
Palaeotropical Ethiopian Region 4 Oriental In the following account the characterization of the various regions and subregions has to a very great extent been adopted from Newton's article in his Dictionary of Birds, and from the chapter on distribution in the article on " Birds " in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th edition.
During the time he was engaged on the Encyclopaedia he wrote a number of literary and philosophical works which extended his reputation and also exposed him to criticism and controversy, as in the case of his MÃ¯¿½nges de Philosophic, d'Histoire, et de Litterature.
Bibl., Jewish Encyclopaedia, &c.
Adler, pp. 39 seq.; Bacher, Jewish Encyclopaedia, vol.
Forbes in his preliminary dissertation to the eighth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Charles, who in a preliminary form in the Encyclopaedia Biblica (i.
A list of early works on algebra is given in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., vol.
(See Bible, Old Testament, Chronology; the article "Chronology" in the Encyclopaedia Biblica; and cf.
His great work, Altasrif, a medical encyclopaedia, is chiefly valued for its surgical portion (already mentioned), which was translated into Latin in the 16th century, and was for some centuries a standard if not the standard authority on surgery in Europe.
Renan, Les rabbins francais, pp. 647 foil.; Perles, Salomo ben Abraham ben Adereth, pp. 15-54; Jewish Encyclopaedia, s.v.
the 1 See article " Electricity," Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th edition), vol.
C. Durgan, A History of Preaching (1906), and preface to The Pulpit Encyclopaedia, vol.
The separate publication of his article in the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, and contributions to the Edinburgh Christian Instructor and the Eclectic Review, enhanced his reputation as an author.
Oxley, In The Encyclopaedia Americana, Vol.
He became a frequent contributor to the Monthly Review, the Gentleman's Magazine, the AntiJacobin Review and the British Critic. He also wrote several articles for the third edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and on the death of the editor, Cohn Macfarquhar, in 1793, was engaged to edit the remaining volumes.
' These are figured most accessibly in Lidzbarski's article on the alphabet in the Jewish Encyclopaedia, vol.
The world-picture presented in this encyclopaedia is that of a dynamic universe, of phenomena in process of ceaseless change.
188; Stengel, Die Rechtsverhdltnisse der deutschen Schutzgebiete (1901); Devaulx, Les Protectorats de la France (1903) article " Protectorates" in the Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England, 2nd ed., vol.
Also see articles "Compagnies de Charte," "Colonies," "Privilege," in Nouveau Dictionnaire d'economie politique (Paris, 1892); and article "Companies, Chartered," in Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England, edited by A.
Plus, you have the trusted sources of Merriam-Webster and the parent company, Encyclopaedia Britannica to rely on.
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