The ectoderm furnishes the general epithelial covering of the body, and the muscular tissue, nervous system and sense-organs.
The nematocysts of the ectoderm may be grouped to form batteries on the tentacles, umbrellar margin and oral lappets.
There is some evidence that in this group the ectoderm of the oesophagus is chiefly concerned with digestion, whereas the endoderm of the intestine is limited to the absorption of the soluble products.
A considerable part of the alimentary canal is said to be derived from the ectoderm in the buds of both Cephalodiscus and Rhabdopleura.
(3) The gonads, whether formed in the polyp or the medusa, are developed in the ectoderm.
- Portion;of the body-wall of Hydra, showing ectoderm cells above, separated by " structureless lamella " from three flagellate endoderm cells below.
According to Wulfert  the primitive germ-cells of Gonothyraea can be distinguished soon after the fixation of the planula, appearing amongst the interstitial cells of the ectoderm.
A fur- ‘ - ther peculiarity of this type of colony is that theentire coenosarcal complex is covered externally by a common layer of ectoderm; it is not clear how this covering layer is developed.
One, the " upper " or ex-umbral nervering, is derived from the ectoderm on the ex-umbral side of the velum; it is the larger of the two rings, containing more numerous but smaller ganglioncells, and innervates the tentacles.
The sensory cells are slender epithelial cells, often with a cilium or stiff protoplasmic process, and should perhaps be regarded as the only ectoderm-cells which retain the primitive ciliation of the larval ectoderm, otherwise lost in all Hydrozoa.
ex, Ex-umbral ectoderm.
sub, Sub-umbral ectoderm.
pigmented patch of ecto- ect, Ectoderm.
by very flattened ectoderm, and bears no otoliths or sense-cells, but the base of the club rests upon the ex-umbral nerve-ring.
In the Hydromedusae they usually, if not invariably, ripen in the ectoderm, but in the neighbourhood of the main sources of nutriment, that is to say, not far from the stomach.
It is evident that the outer envelope of the gonophore represents the ex-umbral ectoderm (ex.), and that the inner ectoderm lining the cavity represents the sub-umbral ectoderm of the free medusa.
The next step is the gradual obliteration of the sub-umbral cavity by disappearance of which the sub-umbral ectoderm comes into contact with the ectoderm of the manubrium.
41, F, G, H), and consists of the spadix bearing the gonads covered by a single layer of ectoderm (ex.), with or without the addition of an ectotheca.
43, A); in this the mouth is formed distally as a perforation (B); next the sides of the tube so formed bulge out laterally near the attachment to form the umbrella, while the distal undilated portion of the tube represents the manubrium (C); the umbrella now grows out into a number of lobes or lappets, and the tentacles and tentaculocysts grow out, the former in a notch between two lappets, the latter on the apex of each lappet (D, E); finally, the velum arises as a growth of the ectoderm alone, the whole bud shapes itself, so to speak, and the little medusa is separated off by rupture of the thin stalk connecting it with the parent (F).
The endoderm is shaded, the ectoderm left clear.
44, F) grow out from the ring-canal, and the double plate of ectoderm on the distal side of the entocodon becomes perforated, leaving a circular rim composed of two layers of ectoderm, the velum (v) of the medusa.
The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.
From these facts,, and from those of the sporogony, to be described below, we may regard budding to this type as taking place from the germinal epithelium rather than from ordinary ectoderm.
(a) The Polyp. - Budding from the ectoderm alone has been described by A.
The tissues of the bud become differentiated into ectoderm and endoderm, and the endoderm of the bud becomes secondarily continuous with that of the parent, but no part of the parental endoderm contributes to the building up of the daughter-polyp. Lang regarded this method of budding as universal in polyps, a notion disproved by O.
The buds of Margellium are produced on the manubrium in each of the four interradii, and they arise from the ectoderm, that is to say, the germinal epithelium, which later gives rise to the gonads.
- Budding from the Ectoderm (germinal epithelium) in Margellium.
When fully developed the medusa is characterized by the sense organs being composed entirely of ectoderm, developed independently of the tentacles, and innervated from the sub-umbral nerve-ring.
Trophosome polyps forming branching colonies of which the stem and main branches are thick and composed of a network of anastomosing coenosarcal tubes covered by a common ectoderm and supported by a thick chitinous perisarc; hydranths similar to those of Coryne; gonosome, sessile gonophores.
The nearest approach to the Stylasteridae is perhaps to be found in Ceratella, with its arborescent trophosome formed of .anastomosing coenosarcal tubes supported by a thick perisarc and covered by a common ectoderm.
The umbrella is shallow and has the margin supported by a rim of thickened ectoderm, as in the Trachomedusae, but not so strongly developed.
As a result of this extension of the umbrellar margin, all structures belonging to this region, namely, the ring-canal, the nerve-rings, and the rim of thickened ectoderm, do not run an even course, but are thrown into festoons, caught up under the insertion of each tentacle in such a way that the ring-canal and its accompaniments form in each notch of the umbrellar margin an inverted V, the apex of which corresponds to the insertion of the tentacle; in some cases the limbs of the V may run for some distance parallel to one another, and may be fused into one, giving a figure better compared to an inverted Y.
a streak of thickened ectoderm supporting the tentacle.
The pneumato phore arises from the ectoderm as a pit or invagination, part of which forms a gas-secreting gland, while the rest gives rise to an air-sack lined by a chitinous cuticle.
The thick black line represents endoderm, the thinner line ectoderm.
The planula becomes elongated and broader towards one pole, at which a pit or invagination of the ectoderm arises.
the "segmental organs" of Lumbricus) have been asserted to be "ultimately, though not always, actually traceable to the ectoderm"; the latter (represented by, e.g.
The invaginated cells (derived from the division of the four big cells) form the endoderm or arch-enteron; the outer cells are the ectoderm.
One end of the blastopore becomes nearly closed, and an ingrowth of ectoderm takes place around it to form the stomodaeum or fore-gut and mouth.
The body-cavity and the muscular, fibrous and vascular tissues are traced partly to two symmetrically disposed " mesoblasts," which bud off from the invaginated arch-enteron, partly to cells derived from the ectoderm, which at a very early stage is connected by long processes with the invaginated endoderm.
Farther up, within the velar area, the rudiments of the cerebral nerve-ganglion ng are seen separating from the ectoderm.
Exoskeleton The outer cellular layer (ectoderm or " hypodermis ") of insects as of other Arthropods, secretes a chitinous cuticle which has to be periodically shed and renewed during the growth of the animal.
- Diagram showing Formation of the ectoderm.
E, ectoderm; M, inner regard to the inner ayer.
S, serosa; A, amnion; E, ectoderm; N, rudiment of nerveof the oral piece.
The air-tubes, like the food-canal, are formed by invaginations of the ectoderm, which arise close to the developing appendages, the rudimentary spiracles appearing soon after the budding limbs.
In moths and certain saw-flies there is no rupture of the membranes; the Russian zoologists Tichomirov and Kovalevsky have described the growth of both amnion and embryonic ectoderm around the yolk, the embryo being thus completely enclosed until hatching time by both amnion and serosa.
The nervous system, composed of a ring and a ventral cord, retains its primitive connexion with the ectoderm.
The plexus of nerve-fibrils which underlie the ectoderm and are in places gathered up into nerves, and the great development of connective tissue, are worthy of notice.
beneath the ectoderm, but the B, Peduncle.
The lophophore is supplied by yet a third nerve, the under arm-nerve, which is less clearly defined than the others, and resembles a moderate aggregation of the nerve fibrils, which seem everywhere to underlie the ectoderm, and which in a few cases are gathered up into nerves.
On the ether hand, a survey of the facts of cellular embryology which were accumulated in regard to a variety of classes within a few years of Kovalevsky's work led to a generalization, independently arrived at by Haeckel and Lankester, to the effect that a lower grade of animals may be distinguished, the Protozoa or Plastidozoa, which consist either of single cells or colonies of equiformal cells, and a higher grade, the Metazoa or Enterozoa, in which the egg-cell by " cell division " gives rise to two layers of cells, the endoderm and the ectoderm, surrounding a primitive digestive chamber, the archenteron.
In the Phylactolaemata the outermost layer of the bodywall is a flexible, uncalcified cuticle or "ectocyst," beneath which follow in succession the ectoderm, the muscular layers and the coelomic epithelium.
Even the ectoderm can rarely be recognized as an obvious epithelium except in regions where budding is taking place, while muscular layers are always absent and a coelomic epithelium can seldom be observed.
ect, Thickened part of the ectoderm, which will give rise to the inner layer of the polypidebud.
Fixation takes place by means of this sucker, which is everted for the purpose, part of its epithelium becoming the basal ectoderm of the ancestrula.
(I) The body is built up of two layers only, an external protective and sensory layer, the ectoderm, and an internal digestive layer, the endoderm.
(3) The generative cells are produced in either the ectoderm or endoderm, and not in a third layer arising in the embryo, distinct from the two primary layers; in other words, there is no mesoderm or coelom.
In this stage the body is composed of two layers, ectoderm (d) externally, and endoderm (c) internally, surrounding a central cavity, the archenteron (b), which communicates with the exterior by a pore (a), the blastopore.
ep, Ectoderm; hy, endoderm; al, enteric cavity.
Round the blastopore hollow outgrowths, variable in number, arise by the evagination of the entire body-wall, both ectoderm and endoderm.
Between the ectoderm and endoderm a gelatinous supporting layer, termed the mesogloea, makes its appearance.
The endoderm is shaded, the ectoderm is left clear.
The ectoderm loses entirely the ciliation which it had in the planula and actinula stages and commonly secretes on its external surface a protective or supporting investment, the perisarc. Contrasting with this, the anthopolyp is generally of s q uat form, the diameter often exceeding the height; the peristome is wide, a hypostome is lacking, and the ectoderm, or so much of it as is exposed, i.e.
The internal structural differences are even more characteristic. In the hydropolyp the blastopore of the embryo forms the adult mouth situated at the extremity of the hypostome, and the ectoderm and FIG.
The ectoderm retains its ciliation only in the sensory organs.
1 The general ectoderm loses its cilia, which persist only in the sensory cells, and it frequently secretes external protective or supporting structures.
The body-wall is highly muscular and, except in a few probably specialized cases, possesses chitinous spines, the setae, which are secreted by the ectoderm and are embedded in pits of the skin.
As in all Hydrozoa (q.v.) the body wall is composed of two cell-layers, the ectoderm and endoderm.
It may be traversed by processes of the cells of the ectoderm and endoderm, or it may contain cells which have migrated into it from these two layers.
The ectoderm covers the whole external surface of the animal, while the endoderm lines the coelenteron or gastrovascular space; the two layers meet each other, and become continuous, at the edge of the mouth.
The gonads or generative organs may be produced either in the ectoderm or the endoderm.
The embryo is now ec, Ectoderm.
The outer single layer of cells which constitutes the surface of the vesicle is the ectoderm or epiblast.
The test is really a ciliated velum developed in the normal position at the apical pole but reflected backwards in such a way as to cover the original ectoderm except at the posterior end.
This cavity is excavated in a third mass of cells distinct from the cells lining the gut, forming the endoderm, and the cells covering the surface of the body, the ectoderm.
When this covering is complete the shell is contained in a closed sac and is said to be " internal," but the sac is lined by ectoderm and the shell is always morphologically external.
The invaginated layer is the enteric cell-layer or endoderm; the outer cell-layer is the dermic cell-layer or ectoderm.
In eggs which contain a larger quantity of food-yolk, the process by which the endoderm is enveloped by the ectoderm is somewhat different.
Between ectoderm and endoderm a third intermediate cell-layer _r B (After Lankester, 15.) FIG.
ec, Ectoderm or deric cell-layer.
The skin consists of a transparent cuticle excreted by the underlying ectoderm, the cells of which though usually one-layered may be heaped up into several layers in the head; beneath this is a basement membrane, and then a layer of longitudinal muscle fibres which are limited inside by a layer of peritoneal cells.
Into these fins, which are largely cuticular and strengthened by radiating bars, a single layer of ectoderm cells projects.
The whole of this system has retained its primitive connexion with the ectoderm.
In addition to the eyes and the olfactory circle on the head scattered tactile papillae are found on the ectoderm.
The ectoderm behind the ciliated ring develops spicules, and the post-oral region of the larva elongates.
The ectoderm is in some genera modified to form certain excretory glands, which usually take the form of papillae with an apical opening.
The Coelentera, as contrasted with other Metazoa (but not Parazoa), consist of two layers of cells only, an outer layer or ectoderm, an inner layer or endoderm.
In the remaining Metazoa certain cells are budded off at an early stage of development from one or both of the two original layers, to form later a third layer, the mesoderm, which lies between the ectoderm and endoderm; such forms have therefore received the name Triploblastica.
In the Coelentera the ectoderm and endoderm are set apart from one another at a very early period in the life-history; generally either by delamination or invagination, processes described in the article Embryology.
The ectoderm rarely consists of more than one layer of cells: these are divisible by structure and function into nervous, muscular and secretory cells, supported by interstitial cells.
The mesogloea is in itself an inert non-cellular secretion, but the immigration of muscular and other cells into its substance, from both ectoderm and endoderm, gives it in many cases a strong resemblance to the mesoderm of Triploblastica, - a resemblance which, while probably superficial, may yet serve to indicate the path of evolution of the mesoderm.
The Coelentera may thus be briefly defined as Metazoa which exhibit two embryonic cell-layers only, - the ectoderm and endoderm, - their body-cavities being referable to a single cavity or coelenteron in the endoderm.
The Hydromedusae are distinguished from the Scyphozoa chiefly by negative characters; they have no stomodaeum, that is, no ingrowth of ectoderm at the mouth to form an oesophagus; they have no mesenteries (radiating partitions) which incompletely subdivide the coelenteron; and they have no concentration of digestive cells into special organs.
Their sexual cells are (probably in all cases) produced from the ectoderm, and lie in those radii which are first accentuated in development.
The medusoids have a muscular velum of ectoderm and mesogloea only.
As regards the other three groups, however, it is easy to conceive of them as derived from an ancestor, represented to-day to some extent by the planula-larva, which was Coelenterate in so far as it was composed of an ectoderm and endoderm, and had an internal digestive cavity (I.
4) a structure is found termed a velarium (Ve), which is a flap hanging down from the margin of the umbrella, and which consists of a fold of the subumbral ectoderm containing endodermal canals.
The nervous system consists as in Hydromedusae of a diffuse plexus beneath the ectoderm, concentrated in certain places to form a central nervous system.
6) and consists of a short, hollow rod, the wall of which is composed of the two bodylayers, ectoderm and endoderm, enclosing a cavity continuous with that of the gastrovascular system.
8); the primitively open cup has now closed over to form a vesicle lying beneath the ectoderm; the outer wall of the vesicle becomes thickened to form a cellular lens (1), while the proximal wall consists of sensory and pigmented cells and forms a retina.
It has been sought to prove that the interior of the hypostome is lined by ectoderm, so as to form a stomodaeum or ectodermal oesophagus similar FIG.
D, Later stage with mouth, short tentacles, &c. ep, Ectoderm.
The outer layer is known technically as the ectoderm, the inner layer as the endoderm.
Between ectoderm and endoderm is a supporting layer of structureless gelatinous substance termed mesogloea, secreted by the cell-layers of the body-wall; the mesogloea may be a very thin layer, or may reach a fair thickness, and then sometimes contains skeletal elements formed by cells which have migrated into it from the ectoderm.
By means of the stinging nettle-cells or nematocysts with which the tentacles are thickly covered, living organisms of various kinds are firmly held and at the same time paralysed or killed, and by means of longitudinal muscular fibrils formed from the cells of the ectoderm the tentacles are contracted and convey the food to the mouth.
The external layer, or ectoderm, is made up of cells, and contains also muscular and ner vous elements.
In the course of development, however, cells from the ectoderm and endoderm may migrate into it.
It has been shown that these asulcar filaments are derived from the ectoderm, the re - mainder from the en doderm.
Most commonly the spicule-forming cells pass out of the ectoderm and are imbedded in the mesogloea, where they may remain separate from one another or may be fused together to form a strong mass.
2.-I, Portion of epithelium from the tentacle of an Actinian, showing three supporting cells and one sense cell (sc); 2, a cnidoblast with enclosed nematocyst from the same specimen; 3 and 4, two forms of gland cell from the stomodaeum; 5a, 5b, epithelio-muscular cells from the tentacle in different states of contraction; 5c, an epithelio-muscular cell from the endoderm, containing a symbiotic zooxanthella; 6, a ganglion cell from the ectoderm of the peristome.
The order Coenothecalia is represented by a single living species, Heliopora coerulea, which differs from all recent Alcyonaria in the fact that its skeleton is not composed of spicules, but is formed as a secretion from a layer of cells called calicoblasts, which originate from the ectoderm.
Z', the distal, and Z 2, the proximal or intracalicular portion of the zooid; ec, ectoderm; ct, coenenchymal tubes; sp, superficial network of solenia.
It is formed, not from fused spicules, but as a secretion of a special layer of cells derived from the basal ectoderm, and known as calicoblasts.
A ring-shaped plate of calcite, secreted by the ectoderm, is then formed, lying between the embryo and the surface of attachment.
ec, Ectoderm; en, endoderm; mg, mesogloea; m, m, mesenteries; s, septum; b, basal plate formed of ellipsoids of carbonate of lime secreted by the basal ectoderm; ep, epitheca.
The ectoderm beneath each fold becomes detached from the surface of the basal plate, and both it and the mesogloea are folded conformably with the endoderm.
16 and 17 that every ec septum is covered by a fold of endoderm, mesogloea, and ectoderm, and is in fact pushed into the cavity of the zooid from without.
The immediate cavities or pits into which the tracheal stigmata open appear to be in many cases ectodermic in sinkings, but there seems to be no reason (based on embryological observation) for regarding the tracheae as an ingrowth of the ectoderm.
The segmentation is peculiar, and leads to the formation of a solid gastrula, consisting of a cortex of ectoderm nuclei surrounding a central endodermal mass, which is exposed at one point - the blastopore.
The various divisions of the perivisceral cavity develop as a series of spaces between the ectoderm and endoderm, and later in the mesoderm.
A, Eafly stage; no trace of the vascular space; endoderm and ectoderm in contact.
B, Endoderm has separated from the dorsal and ventral ectoderm.
The first cells of this sort to form in the embryo are called the ectoderm, the mesoderm and the endoderm.
ectoderm layer in the embryo.
(I) The polyp (hydropolyp) is of simple structure, typically much longer than broad, without ectodermal oesophagus or mesenteries, such as are seen in the anthopolyp (see article Anthozoa); the mouth is usually raised above the peristome on a short conical elevation or hypostome; the ectoderm is without cilia.
The general ectoderm covering the surface of the body has entirely lost the cilia present in the earlier larval stages (planula), and may be naked, or clothed in a cuticle or exoskeleton, the perisarc (ps), which in its simplest condition is a chitinous membrane secreted by the ectoderm.
- The ectoderm degenerate medusiform persons or of the hydropolyp is chiefly sporosacs b.
In the middle ectoderm cell are seen a nucleus and three nematocysts, with trigger hairs projecting beyond the cuticle.
The other, the " lower " or subumbral nerve-ring, is derived from the ectoderm on the sub-umbral side of the velum; it contains fewer but larger ganglion-cells and innervates the muscles of the velum (see diagram in article Medusae).
36), where the t1k,,??i ectoderm of the cushion rises up in a doubldt?
41, D); centrally is seen the spadix (sp.), bearing the generative cells (g), and external to these (1) a layer of ectoderm representing the epithelium of the manubrium; (2) the layer of sub-umbral ectoderm; (3) the endoderm-lamella (ed.); (4) the ex-umbral ectoderm (ex.); and (5) there may or may not be present also an ectotheca.
The sub-umbral ectoderm and that covering the manubrium undergo concrescence to form a single layer (fig.
44, A); at the tip of this is formed a thickening of the ectoderm, arising primitively as a hollow ingrowth (fig.
The cavity of the entocodon increases continually in size, while the endoderm pushes up at the sides of it to form a cup with hollow walls, enclosing but not quite surrounding the Gc entocodon, which C remains in contact at its outer side with the ectoderm covering the bud (fig.
The layer that produces the bud is invariably the ectoderm, i.e.
47, A), and becomes separated into a superficial layer, future ectoderm, surrounding a central mass, future endoderm (fig.
The surface of the coenosteum is covered by a layer of common ectoderm, containing large nematocysts, and is perforated by pores of two kinds, gastropores and dactylopores, giving exit to gastrozoids and dactylozoids respectively, which are lodged in vertical pore-canals of wider calibre than the coenosarcal canals of the general net 'work.
The medusae of this order are characterized by the tough, rigid consistence of the umbrella, due partly to the dense nature of the mesogloea, partly to the presence of a marginal rim of chondral tissue, consisting of thickened ectoderm containing great numbers of nematocysts, and forming, as it were, a cushion-tyre supporting the edge of the umbrella.
It consists of a hollow tube, or tubes, of which the wall is made up of the two body-layers, ectoderm and endoderm, and the cavity is a continuation of the digestive cavities of the nutritive and other appendages, i.e.
Diagram of the structure of a medusa; the ectoderm is left clear, the endoderm is dotted, the mesogloea is shaded black; a-b, principal axis (see Hydrozoa); to the left of this line the section is supposed to pass through an inter-radius (I.R.); to the right through a radius (R).
Immediately below each gonad the subumbral ectoderm is pushed in, as it were, to form a pit or deep cavity (fig.
The ectoderm continued over the optic vesicle forms a transparent cornea (fig.
the mesogloea is more abun dantly developed in the free-swimming forms, and contains special mesogloeal corpuscles, derived by immigration from the ectoderm, and generally occurring in the form of stellate or bipolar cells.
It is said by Schultz (I I) to develop, in specimens which are regenerating the lophophoral end, from an invagination of the ectoderm; and in this condition is compared by him with Efferent vessel.
A process (gastrulation) leads to the formation of three distinct layers called germ layers: the ectoderm (outer layer), the mesoderm (middle layer), and the endoderm (inner layer).
First, the ectoderm cells will develop into sense organs and the nervous system.
When the nematocyst is completely developed, the cnidoblast passes outwards so as to occupy a superficial position in the ectoderm, and a delicate protoplasmic process of sensory nature, termed the cnidocil (cn) projects from the cnidoblast like a fine hair or cilium.
sub, Sub-umbral ectoderm c.c, Circular canal.
The reproductive cells may be regarded as belonging primarily to neither ectoderm nor endoderm, though lodged in the ectoderm in all Hydromedusae.
c, Cordylus, composed of flattened ectoderm ec covering a large-celled endodermal axis en.
The endodermal spadix (sp) of the sporosac represents the endoderm of the manubrium; the ectodermal lining of the sporosac (ex.) represents the ex-umbral ectoderm of the medusa; and the intervening layers, together with the sub-umbral cavity, have disappeared.
Wheeler, the amnion is ruptured and turned back from covering the germ band, enclosing the yolk dorsally and becoming finally absorbed, as the ectoderm of the germ band itself spreads to form the dorsal wall.
s, I npushing of ectoderm to form air-tubes.
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