His meeting with Pierre formed an epoch in Prince Andrew's life.
At this epoch the study of Roman law received a new impulse, imd thu.
Today's events mark an epoch, the greatest epoch in our history, he concluded.
Pasteur's important researches mark an epoch in the technical aspect of fermentation.
- After the death of Dushan and the break-up of the Servian empire, a new epoch began when Albania fell under the rule of chieftains more or less of native origin.
The Italians learn through their discords at this epoch that they form one community.
The Mediterranean is all that remains of a great ocean which at an early geological epoch, before the formation of the Atlantic, encircled half the globe along a line of latitude.
The conditions which have the five been described, of despotism, mercenary warfare and bourgeois prosperity, determined the character of this epoch, which was also the period when the great achievements of the Renaissance were prepared.
Both Darwin and Wallace lay great stress on the close relation which obtains between the existing fauna of any region and that of the immediately antecedent geological epoch in the same region; and rightly, for it is in truth inconceivable that there should be no genetic connexion between the two.
Rome itself again at this epoch established a republic, with which Innocent would not or could not interfere.
Each petty potentate strove for his own private advantage in the confusion; and at this epoch the chief gains accrued to the papacy.
The names of leading legislators, which we so often find recorded in the history of primitive peoples, are symbols and myths, merely serving to mark an historic period or epoch by some definite and personal denomination.
This confirms the theory of Christ that Europe was restocked mainly from Asia after the close of the glacial epoch, the south being closed to it.
important reign is a very mportant period in the early history of Scotland, and may almost be said to mark an epoch in every department of public life.
The ancients have left us model heroic poems in which the heroes furnish the whole interest of the story, and we are still unable to accustom ourselves to the fact that for our epoch histories of that kind are meaningless.
- Towards the end of the r8th century a new epoch of reconstruction begins in the thought and life of civilization.
re-established the papacy upon a solid basis at Rome, the Italians approximated D~cr1mimore nearly to self-government than at any other nation of epoch of their history.
He also persuaded the new ruler to inaugurate, as King Humbert I., the new dynastical epoch of the kings of Italy, instead of continuing as Humbert IV.
- The entrance of Israel into Canaan marks the beginning of a new epoch in the development of Israel's religious life.
9), 6 marks a new epoch in the religious development of the Hebrews.
Boissier, La Religion romaine; Renier, Inscriptions d'Algiers, 2510.) The Greek term Apotheosis, probably a coinage of the Hellenistic epoch, becomes more nearly technical for the deification of dead emperors.
Dieu," of 1000 tons burden, making an epoch in its history.
The burning of Smolensk and its abandonment made an epoch in his life.
At the comparatively remote epoch when the Deccan was a forest tract, they were probably also met with there, but the swamps of the Bengal Sundarbans appear unsuited to their habits.
Their appointment, according to notions which defined themselves within the church at this epoch, was simoniacal; and during the long minority of Henry IV., who succeeded his father in 1056, the terrible Tuscan monk, Hildebrand of Soana, forged weapons which he used with deadly effect against the presumption of the empire.
In the Persian epoch, native dynasts established themselves in Caria and even extended their rule over the Greek cities.
The revolutionary and imperial epoch had seen a great development of Italian patriotism, and Santarosa was aggrieved by the great extension given to the Austrian power in Italy in 1815, which reduced his own country to a position of inferiority.
In general, the remains of the classical epoch attest the influence of Roman rather than of Greek civilization.
The next important epoch in building construction at Jerusalem was about 460, when the empress Eudocia visited Palestine and expended large sums on the improvement of the city.
It is here, at the Heribert present epoch and for the next two centuries, that the and the pith and nerve of the Italian nation must be sought; Lombard and among the burghs of Lombardy, Milan, the eldest burghs.
It must not, however, be supposed that .at this epoch the liberties of the burghs were fully developed.
The Venetian ascendancy in the Levant dates from this epoch; for, though the republic had no power to occupy all the domains ceded to it, Candia was taken, together with several small islands and stations on the mainland.
It is from this epoch that the supremacy of the Visconti, hitherto the unsuccessful rivals of the Guelphic Torriani for the signory of Milan, dates.
With the later 9th century we enter upon a new epoch, and by the time of Gregory VII., in the 11th century, the tribunals have fallen into the hands of a regular class of canonists who are in fact professional church-lawyers in orders.
At the close of the glacial epoch the north Asiatic flora spread westwards into Europe and intermingled with the surviving vegetation.
The most important result is the proof that, until the end of the Cretaceous epoch, most, if not all, birds were still possessed of teeth.
A wide gap separates Archaeopteryx from the next order of fossil birds of the Cretaceous epoch, and, since freshwater deposits of that age are rare, bird remains are uncommon.
Until a very recent epoch there flourished in Madagascar huge birds referable to the Ratitae, e.g.
Even in the nominalistic epoch we have Raymond of Sabunde's Natural Theology (according to the article in Herzog-Hauck, not the title of the oldest Paris MS., but found in later MSS.
Since 1880 the city has been almost entirely renovated in the " European " style; the narrow tortuous lanes and mean houses of the Turkish epoch have almost disappeared, and a new town with straight parallel streets has been constructed in the eastern suburb.
Settlements belonging to the Stone age, and manufactories of stone implements, burial-grounds of the Bronze epoch, earthen forts and burial-mounds (kurgans) - of this last four different types are known, the earliest belonging to the Bronze period - are superposed, rendering the task of unravelling their several relations one of great difficulty.
Beginning with the Aptian and Albian the sea again gradually spread over the country and attained its maximum in the early part of the Senonian epoch, when once more the ancient massifs of the Central Plateau, Brittany and the Ardennes, alone rose above the waves.
This system of geography founded a new epoch, and the book - translated into English, Dutch and French - was the unchallenged standard for more than a century.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
Partly from disappointment and nervous exhaustion, and partly from a conviction that the country required rest in order to judge the practical results of the reforms already accomplished, the tsar refrained from further initiating new legislation, and the government gave it to be understood that the epoch of the great reforms was closed.
In all probability the western projection of Africa was connected by a land bridge with the opposite land of Brazil as late as the Eocene period of the Tertiary epoch.
In the meantime he had done much useful work, especially that of laying down, conjointly with Merlin of Douai, the principles on which the legislation of the revolutionary epoch should be codified.
Syria, not apparently at Kadesh, but at Carchemish, though they had not been in possession of the latter place long (not in the epoch of Tethmosis I.'s Syrian campaign).
It had ancestors in a flourishing condition during the Secondary epoch.
The Latinizing Armenians adopted it from Rome in the crusading epoch.
By this slender tie the crown of Italy was joined to that of Germany; and the formal right of the elected king of Germany to be considered king of Italy and emperor may be held to have accrued from this epoch.
Galeazzo was the wealthiest and most magnificent Italian of his epoch.
And when we know that the Chrysomelidae and Buprestidae also lived in Triassic, and the Carabidae, Elateridae, Cerambycidae and Scarabaeidae, in Liassic times, we cannot doubt that the great majority of our existing families had already been differentiated at the beginning of the Mesozoic epoch.
With his priests and Levites, and with the chiefs and nobles of the Jewish families, the high priest directs this small state, and his death marks an epoch as truly as did that of the monarchs in the past.
The first dictator is said to have been created in 501 B.C.; the last of the " administrative " dictators belongs to the year 216 B.C. It was an office that was incompatible both with the growing spirit of constitutionalism and with the greater security of the city; and the epoch of the Second Punic War was marked by experiments with the office, such as the election of Q.
Asiatic Russia, especially eastern Siberia and Mongolia, have been brought within the sphere of Russian exploration, with results so surprising as to form an epoch in the history of Asia.
The lion and the hunting-leopard, which may be considered as, in this epoch at least, Ethiopian types, extend thus far, besides various species of jerboa and other desert-loving forms.
This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
de Bacourt (2 vols., 1851) marks an epoch in our exact knowledge of Mirabeau and his career; some additional letters appeared in the German edition (3 vols., Leipzig, 1851-1852).
These highlands exhibit very considerable evidences of volcanic activity both in remote geological periods and also since the Tertiary epoch.
These decrees were not, indeed, at once universally enforced; but the convulsions of the Revolutionary epoch and the religious reorganization that followed completed the work.
The plague of 1348 marks an epoch in English agriculture.
A similar rebuilding took place at the same epoch at Phaestus, and possibly at Hagia Triada.
At the same epoch a notable change took place in the Aegean script.
A good deal of anthropometric investigation has been devoted to human remains of the Aegean epoch, especially to skulls and bones found in Crete in tombs of Period II.
With the dawn of the Mesozoic epoch we reach Hexapods that can be unhesitatingly referred to existing orders.
None of the groups of existing Endopterygota have been traced with certainty farther back than the Mesozoic epoch, and all the numerous Palaeozoic insect-fossils seem to belong to forms that possessed only imperfect metamorphosis.
Endopterygota - of insects of the present epoch are descended from the predominant - if not the sole - group that existed in the Palaeozoic epoch, viz.
This order can be traced with certainty back to the early Jurassic epoch, while the Permian fossil Eugereon, and the living order - specially modified in many respects - of the Thysanoptera indicate steps by which the aberrant suctorial and piercing mouth of the Hemiptera may have been developed from the biting mouth of primitive Isopteroids, by the elongation of some parts and the suppression of others.
These need not detain us for long, since, however well some of them may have been executed, regard being had to their epoch, and whatever repute some of them may have achieved, they are, so far as general information and especially classification is concerned, wholly obsolete, and most of them almost useless except as matters of antiquarian interest.
This paper is indeed little more than an English translation of one published by the author in the annual volume (Arsskrift) of the Scientific Society of Upsala for 1860, and belonging to the pre-Darwinian epoch should perhaps have been more properly treated before, but that at the time of its original appearance it failed to attract attention.
The period with which we are now dealing is the epoch of the despots, the signori, and in pursuit of expansion on the mainland Venice was brought into collision first with the Scaligeri of Verona, then with the Carraresi of Padua, and finally with the Visconti of Milan.
The chief features of this epoch -the Antinomian dissensions, the Quaker and Baptist persecutions, the witchcraft delusion (four witches were executed in Boston, in 1648, 165r, 1656, 1688) &c.-are referred to in the article Massachusetts.
But no writer has surpassed him in the clearness and brevity with which he could sum up the characteristics of an epoch in the history of the world, or present and define the great forces by which the world has been influenced.
But it is important to bear in mind the continuity of the Crusades - the constant flow of new forces eastward and back again westward; for this alone explains why the Crusades formed a great epoch in civilization, familiarizing, as they did, the West with the East.
Nothing marks the secular attitude of the Italians at an epoch which decided the future course of both Renaissance and Reformation more strongly than the mundane proclivities of this apostolic secretary, heart and soul devoted to the resuscitation of classical studies amid conflicts of popes and antipopes, cardinals and councils, in all of which he bore an official part.
The men of that nation and of that epoch were bent on creating a new intellectual atmosphere for Europe by means of vital contact with antiquity.
The process by which the position of a planet at any time is determined from its elements may now be conceived as follows The epoch of passage through pericentre being given, let t be the interval of time between this epoch and that for which the position of the body is required.
The monumental work of James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who spent three years at Athens (1751-1754), marked an epoch in the progress of Athenian topography and is still indispensable to its study, owing to the demolition of ancient buildings which began about the middle of the 18th century.
- Numerous traces of the " Mycenaean " epoch have recently been brought to light in Athens and its" neighbourhood.
The various approaches to the citadel on the northern side - the rock-cut flight of steps north-east of the Erechtheum, the stairs leading to the well Clepsydra, and the intermediate passage supposed to have furnished access to the Persians - are all to be attributed to the primitive epoch.
The remains on the Pnyx and its neighbourhood cannot all be assigned to one epoch, the prehistoric age.
All belong to the " archaic " epoch; only a few remains of the greater age were found, including some fragments of sculptures from the Parthenon and Erechtheum.
Of the great monuments of this epoch few traces remain except on the Acropolis.
The monuments of the Byzantine epoch have latterly occupied a prominent place in its investigations.
In the Minoan epoch Athens is proved by the archaeological remains to have been a petty kingdom scarcely more important than many other Attic communities, yet enjoying a more unbroken course of development than the leading states of that period.
This brilliant epoch, however, was not without its darker side.
It had already been understood that the various genera of the Ratitae were the representatives of so many different groups, each of which was at least equivalent to ordinal rank, and that therefore, if the Ratitae were still to be considered a natural group, this common ancestry must be referred to a remote geological epoch.
and of iodine and sulphurous acid to the estimation of copper and many other substances by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, marks an epoch in the early history of volumetric analysis.
"It is scarcely an exaggeration to say that the scene which took place at that humble meeting in Aldersgate Street forms an epoch in English history.
With the latter part of the 4th century a new epoch in the history of the catacombs arose--that of religious reverence.
The war that followed marks an epoch in the decay of the Ottoman Empire and in the expansion of Russia.
The history of his youth reveals no special predilection for the military service - the bent of his mind was political far more than military, but unlike the politicians of his epoch he consistently applied scientific and mathematical methods to his theories, and desired above all things a knowledge of facts in their true relation to one another.
According to his views this nation, very numerous at that epoch - which preceded the Iron-Period civilization of the Turco-Tatars, - were pretty well acquainted with mining; the remains of their mines, sometimes 50 ft.
with Ostiaks, recall the condition of the inhabitants of France and Germany at the epoch of the reindeer.
All previous attempts had been far below the modern standard in these particulars, and Burton's history will always be memorable as marking an epoch.
The most interesting feature of the glacial epoch is the extinct Lake Agassiz, which the receding ice of the later glacial period left in the Red River Valley of Minnesota,.
The epoch is characterized by flint implements of the rudest type and never polished.
One classification makes three divisions for the epoch, characterized respectively by the existence of the cavebear, the mammoth and reindeer; another, two, marked by the prevalence of the mammoth and reindeer respectively.
The reign of Gratian forms an important epoch in ecclesiastical history, since during that period orthodox Christianity for the first time became dominant throughout the empire.
Father Braun, to whose kindness the writer is indebted for the above account of the causes of the ritual changes in the Carolingian epoch, adds that the papacy was never narrowminded in its attitude towards local rites, and that it was not until the close of the middle ages, when diversity had become confusion and worse, that it began to insist upon uniformity.
Nevertheless, on many occasions, fashion has led the preachers of a particular epoch to develop rules for the composition of sermons, the value of which is more than doubtful.
He thus created an epoch in German literature, philosophy and law, and Spittler opens with him the modern period of ecclesiastical history.
Formerly used in every fever, and even in the septic states that constantly followed surgical operations in the pre-Listerian epoch, aconite is now employed only in the earliest stage of the less serious fevers, such as acute tonsilitis, bronchitis and, notably, laryngitis.
Jean de Masles, who annotated a portion of his verse, has recorded how the pages and young gentlemen of that epoch were required daily to learn by heart passages of his Breviaire des nobles.
At that epoch the same three opinions were taken up and congealed into dogmas, which may be considered characteristic of the churches adopting them.
The establishment of a permanent tribunal at the Hague, pursuant to the Peace convention of 1899, marks a momentous epoch in the history of international arbitration.
He enjoyed a triple wergeld, but had no definite salary, being remunerated by the receipt of certain revenues, a system which contained the germs of discord, on account of the confusion of his public and private 1 The changing language of this epoch speaks of civitates, subsequently of pagi, and later of comitatus (counties).
Eruptive rocks occur in the Devonian and Carboniferous beds, but there is no evidence of volcanic activity since the Palaeozoic epoch.
This epoch, when grass grew even in High Street, long lingered in the popular memory as the " dark age."
Unfortunately, however, the brilliant epoch of the alliance of Liberalism and Catholicism, represented on its literary side by Chateaubriand and by Lamartine, to whose poetic school Herculano had belonged, was past, and fanatical attacks and the progress of events drove this former champion of the Church into conflict with the ecclesiastical authorities.
Estimates, based on a census of the tax-paying peasantry in the years 1494 and 1495, give five millions of inhabitants, a very respectable number, which explains fully the predominant position of Hungary in the east of Europe at that epoch.
The truce of Adrianople in 1568, nominally for eight years, but prolonged from time to time till 1593, finally suspended regular hostilities, and introduced the epoch known as " The Long Peace," though, throughout these twenty-five years, the guerilla warfare on the frontier never ceased for more than a few months at a time, and the relations between the Habsburgs and Transylvania were persistently hostile.
These works exhibit great originality and mark an important epoch in the history of algebra.
The 17th century is a famous epoch in the progress of science, and the mathematics in no way lagged behind.
These two oracles agree in the elaborateness of their description of the fearful fate of the enemies of Yahweh (Babylon and Edom are merely representatives of a class), and also in their view of the deliverance and restoration of Israel as an epoch for the whole human race.
Deprived at an early age of his mother, the care of the boy devolved upon his grandmother, the marchioness of Halifax, a lady of culture and connexion, whose house was frequented by the most distinguished Whigs of the epoch.
In anatomy also the beginning of a new epoch was made by Mondino de Liucci or Mundinus (1275-1326), and his followers.
Borelli (1608-1679), whose treatise De motu animalium, published in 1680, is regarded as marking an epoch in physiology.
Morgagni's work at once made an epoch in the science.
The very extensive pumice deposits at Neuwied and the lava and other volcanic rocks belong to a more recent epoch.
Simultaneously with this work he carried on the publication of the annals of the Carolingian epoch on the model of the German Jahrbitcher, reserving for himself the reign of Charles the Bald.
Here the years were dated by the chief events that distinguished them, as was also the case in Egypt in the epoch of the Old Empire.
No remarkable specimens of the metallurgic art of an early period have been found, apart perhaps from the silver vase of Entemena, but at a later epoch great excellence was attained in the manufacture of such jewellery as ear-rings and bracelets of gold.
II.) gives a list of the Babylonian, Assyrian and Persian kings who ruled in Babylon, together with the number of years each of them reigned, from the accession of Nabonassar in 747 B.C. to the conquest of Babylon by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. The accuracy of this list is confirmed by the larger List of Kings and by the principal Babylonian Chronicle; the latter, like the Canon, begins with the reign of Nabonassar, who, it has been suggested, may have revised the calendar and have inaugurated a new epoch for the later chronology.
Now the capture of the city of Isin by Rim-Sin, which took place in the seventeenth year of Sin-muballit, the father of Khammurabi, foamed an epoch for dating tablets in certain parts of Babylonia," and it is probable that we may identify the fall of the Dynasty of Isin with this capture of the city.
2), is not connected explicitly with Hittites, a fact which is not surprising, since that city was no longer under a Hatti dynasty at the epoch of the Old Testament references.
The Meistergesang reached its highest point in the 16th century; and it can hardly be said to have outlived that epoch, although the traditions of the Meistersinger schools lingered in south German towns even as late as the 19th century.
Alphonse de Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 158) points out that the epoch of its introduction into different countries agrees with the idea that its origin was in India, Cochin-China or the Malay Archipelago, and regards it as most probable that its primitive range extended from Bengal to Cochin-China.
That line of descent can be made out with convincing clearness and with no particular difficulty from epoch to epoch, from the precarium and the patrocinium, through the benefice and commendation, to the fief and vassalage.
With the establishment of the Abbasid dynasty, a new epoch in Arabian poetry began.
The epoch of their greatness is from A.D.
The coast has been upraised from the ocean at no very distant geological epoch, and is nearly as destitute of vegetation as the Coast.
One who heard this famous discourse says: " Most of the speakers rose, more or less, above their usual level, but when Mr Gladstone sat down we all of us felt that an epoch in our lives had occurred.
Before them all was a tribe of immigrants who appear to have crossed from north eastern Asia at an epoch when the sea had not yet dug broad channels between the continent and the adjacent islands.
There were two epochs in Japani study of the Chinese language first, the epoch when she received Confucianism through Korea; and, secondly, the epoch when sh began to study Buddhism direct from China.
Vicarious interest, however, attaches to the productions of the Mito School on account of the political influence they exercised in rehabilitating the nations respect for the throne by unveiling the picture of an epoch prior to, the usurpations of military feudalism.
To them is due the fact that the ~: l~ two principal works compiled during this epoch were, one political, the other quasi-historical.
Brief mention must also be made of two other kinds of books belonging to this epoch; namely, the Shingakusho (ethical essays) and the .Jilsuroku-mono (true records).
Although the incursions made into Chinese philosophy and the revival of Japanese traditions during the Tokugawa Epoch contributed materially to the overthrow of feudalism and the restoration of the Thrones administrative power, Thjc,~1fl the immediate tendency of the last two events was to divert the nations attention wholly from the study of either Confucianism or the Record of Ancient Matters.
A universal geography (by Uchida Masao); a history of nations (by Mitsukuri Rinsho); a translation of Chamberss Encyclopaedia by the department of education; Japanese renderings of Herbert Spencer and of Guizot and Buckleall these made their appearance duringthe first fourteen years of the epoch.
Nevertheless, Matsumotos figures marked an epoch in Japanese wood sculpture.
He established his kiln at Arita in Hizen, and the event marked the opening of the second epoch of Japanese ceramics.
The third clearly differentiated epoch was inaugurated by the discovery of true kaolin at Izumi-yama in Hizen, the discoverer being one of the Korean potters who came to Japan in the train of Hideyoshis generals returning from the invasion of Korea, and the date of the discovery being about 1605.
Okamuia Yasutaro, commonly called Shozan, produces specimens which only a very acute connoisseur can distinguish from the work of Nomura Ninsei; Tanzan Rokuros half-tint enamels and soft creamy glazes would have stood high in any epoch; Taizan YOhei produces Awata faience not inferior to that of former days; Kagiya SObei worthily supports the reputation of the KinkOzan ware; Kawamoto Eijiro has made to the order of a well-known KiOto firm many specimens now figuring in foreign collections as old masterpieces; and ItO TOzan succeeds in decorating faience with seven colors sons couverte (black, green, blue, russetred, tea-brown, purple and peach), a feat never before accomplished.
From the early part of the 8th century they began to ornament it with dust of gold or mother-of-pearl, and throughout the Heian epoch (9th to 12th century) they added pictorial designs, though of a formal character, the chief motives being floral subjects, arabesques and scrolls.
Men of the calibre of KOyetsu KOrin, RitsuO, Kajikawa and Mitsutoshi must be rare in any age, and the epoch when they flourished is justly remembered with enthusiasm.
Living at the commencement of an epoch of unparalleled scientific activity, Spencer could not possibly sum up and estimate its total production.
It cannot be said, however, that Ramus's innovations mark any epoch in the history of logic. His rhetorical leaning is seen in the definition of logic as the "ars disserendi"; he maintains that the rules of logic may be better learned from observation of the way in which Cicero persuaded his hearers than from a study of the Organon.
It shared to the full in all the quickening that transformed so many departments of civilization during that epoch, and has been specially influenced by the missionary enterprise, the discoveries of science, the fuller knowledge of the Bible, the awakened zeal for social service.
- The second great creed-making epoch of Church history opens in the 16th century with the Confession of Augsburg.
The mammoth belongs to the post-Tertiary or Pleistocene epoch and was contemporaneous with man.
The prominence which legend assigns to its king Echemus in opposing the Heraclid invasion shows that it was one of the chief Peloponnesian communities in the preDorian epoch.
The invention of the art of writing afforded the means of substituting precise and permanent records for vague and evanescent tradition; but in the infancy of the world, mankind had learned neither to estimate accurately the duration of time, nor to refer passing events to any fixed epoch.
There can be no exact computation of time or placing of events without a fixed point or epoch from which the reckoning takes its start.
When it began to be seen, various epochs were selected by various writers; and at first each small separate community had its own epoch and method of time-reckoning.
Precision, which was at first unattainable for want of an epoch, was afterwards no less unattainable from the multiplicity, and sometimes the variation, of epochs.
The extension of intercourse between the various small groups or societies of men, and still more their union in larger groups, made a common epoch necessary, and led to the adoption of such a starting point by each larger group. These leading epochs continued in use for many centuries.
In reckoning years from any fixed epoch in constant succession, the number denoting the years is necessarily always on the increase.
The Cretan inscriptions belong to a far older epoch, and are written in two non-Grecian scripts of undetermined affinities.
The games in which Coroebus was victor, and which form the principal epoch of Greek history, were celebrated about the time of the summer solstice 776 years before the common era of the Incarnation, in the 3938th year of the Julian period, and twentythree years, according to the account of Varro, before the foundation of Rome.
- After the Olympiads, the -era most frequently met with in ancient history is that of the foundation of Rome, which is the chronological epoch adopted by all the Roman historians.
Livy in general adheres to the epoch of Cato, though he sometimes follows that of Fabius Pictor.
The Palilia commenced on the 21st of April; and all the accounts agree in regarding that day as the epoch of the foundation of Rome.
Through a like want of attention, many writers also, particularly among the moderns, have confounded the Julian and Olympic years, by making an entire Julian year correspond to an entire Olympic year, as if both had commenced at the same epoch.
Its epoch or beginning is the 1st of January in the fourth year of the 194th Olympiad, the 753rd from the foundation of Rome, and the 4714th of the Julian period.
This epoch was introduced in Italy in the 6th century, by Dionysius the Little, a Roman abbot, and began to be used in Gaul in the 8th, though it was not generally followed in that country till a century later.
This epoch therefore precedes that of the vulgar era by nine months and seven days.
The so-called era of the creation of the world is therefore a purely conventional and arbitrary epoch; practically, it means the year 4004 B.C., - this being the date which, under the sanction of Archbishop Usher's opinion, won its way, among its hundreds of competitors, into general acceptance.
But in reducing Alexandrian dates to the common era it must be observed that Julius Africanus placed the epoch of the Incarnation three years earlier than it is placed in the usual reckoning, so that the initial day of the Christian era fell in the year 5503 of the Alexandrian era.
In reckoning from the Incarnation, however, there is a difference of seven years, that epoch being placed, in the reformed era of Alexandria, seven years later than in the mundane era of Antioch or in the Christian era.
Some of the Greek historians have assumed as a chronological epoch the death of Alexander the Great, in the year 325 B.C. The form of the year is the same as in the preceding era.
- The epoch of the Armenian era is that of the council of Tiben, in which the Armenians consummated their schism from the Greek Church by condemning the acts of the council of Chalcedon; and it corresponds to Tuesday, the 9th of July of the year 552 of the Incarnation.
Since the epoch is the 9th of July, there were 176 days from the beginning of the Armenian era to the end of the year J52 of our era; and since 552 was a leap year, the year 553 began a Julian intercalary period.
This is the epoch assumed by the authors of L'Art de verifier les dates.
Among works on Chronology, the following, which are arranged in the order of their publication, have an historical interest, as leading up to the epoch of modern research: 1583.
- Very little is known of the history of the Hymenoptera previous to the Tertiary epoch, early in which, as we know from the evidence of many Oligocene and Miocene fossils, all the more important families had been differentiated.
He was zealous also in the cause of foreign missions, and in a sermon preached at the opening of the new century he urged that a supreme obligation rested upon Britain at this epoch in the world's history to seek to evangelize all nations.
The reports of Venetian and Florentine ambassadors at this epoch contain the first germs of an attempt to study politics from the point of view of science.
It would be unfair to charge what is repulsive in their letters wholly on the habits of the times, for wide familiarity with the published correspondence of similar men at the same epoch brings one acquainted with little that is so disagreeable.
Of course, for many purposes, mean conditions may be adopted and mean scale-values be found which are applicable with considerable pre cision to small angles or to comparatively crude observations of large distances; but the highest refinement is lost unless means are provided for determining the scale-value for each observer at each epoch of observation.
" Challenger " in1872-1876formed an epoch marking the end of the older order of things and the beginning of modern oceanography as a science of precision.
A second epoch comparable to that of the " Challenger " and resulting like it in a leap forward in the precision of the methods previously employed was marked by the institution in 1901 of the International Council for the Study of the Sea.
This intervening period was the most perilous epoch in the history of the ante-Nicene Church.
- Topographically, Iowa lies wholly in the Prairie Plains Region, part of it having been overrun by the Great Ice Sheet of the Glacial epoch.
That catechumens could not participate in the agape or love-feast (of which in this epoch the Eucharist was merely an episode) does not give to those feasts the character of a Greek mystery.
On the revolutionary epoch, Mellen Chamberlain, John Adams ...
But Canada is bound only by a voluntary allegiance, Guiana is unimportant, and in the West Indian islands, where the independence of Hayti and the loss of Cuba and Porto Rico by Spain have diminished the European sphere, European dominion is only a survival of the colonial epoch.
There is no proof of their having lived in the Oligocene epoch, but in deposits of Miocene and Pliocene date remains undistinguishable generically and perhaps specifically from the modern tapirs (though named priscus, T.
525), Halevy fixes 115 B.C. as the epoch of the Sabaean era.
OA=e is termed the epoch, being the distance from 0 of the first ascending node.
If now the curve moves along unchanged in form in the direction ABC with uniform velocity U, the epoch e =OA at any time t will be Ut, so that the value of y may be represented as 2 y=a sin T (x - Ut).
It may, however, be stated here that certain experiments of Helmholtz appear to show that the epoch of the harmonics has not much effect on the quality.
His enthronement in October 1279 marks the beginning of an important epoch in the history of the English primacy.
The Hindu zodiacal constellations belong then to an earlier epoch than the Chinese " stations," such as they have been transmitted to our acquaintance.
These important discoveries mark a new epoch in embryology, and may be said to be the foundation of the views now entertained, which were materially aided by the subsequent elucidation of the process of cytogenesis, or cell-development, by Schleiden, Schwann, Mohl and others.
It is believed that there was a landconnexion between Asia and Australia in the later part of the Secondary epoch, and that the Australian continent, when separated, became divided into islands before the south-eastern part of the Asiatic did so.
aspera, Spirifer verneuili, &c., and these the latter geologist assigns to the Devonian epoch.
These struggles constitute the entire political history of Geneva up to about 1535, when a new epoch of unrest opens with the adoption of Protestantism.
H.*) C. THE Modern Church The issue in 1564 of the canons of the council of Trent marks a very definite epoch in the history of the Christian Church.
Vrchlicky, a master of verse and a perfect cosmopolitan, and tech, who took the material for his epics from Czech history, are the outstanding names of this epoch.
The Sophistic epoch of Greek philosophy was, in great part, such a negative reaction against the self-confident assertion of the nature-philosophies of the preceding age.
Next ensues a long epoch of obscurity.
The Vasa period of Polish history which began with the election of Sigismund, son of John III., king of Sweden, was the Sigis- epoch of last and lost chances.
A later period, that of the miserable epoch of Augustus III., is described very graphically in the memoirs of Matuszewicz, first edited by Pawinski at Warsaw in 1876.
From him may be said to date the formation of anything like a national Polish theatre, so that his name marks an epoch.
His adventurous life, his forcible character, the position of his state as a barrier between the Indian and the Russian empires, and the skill with which he held the balance in dealing with them, combined to make him a prominent figure in contemporary Asiatic politics and will mark his reign as an epoch in the history of Afghanistan.
The peace of Westphalia (1648) marks a distinct epoch in the history of education in Germany.
He studied medicine at GÃ¶ttingen, 1 7771 7 80, attending at the same time Kaestner's mathematical course; and in 1779, while watching by the sick-bed of a fellow-student, he devised a method of calculating cometary orbits which made an epoch in the treatment of the subject, and is still extensively used.
There is a continuous transition between the Senonian and Danian, proving that the Algerian region did not participate in the immersion which occurred in Provence and in the Corbieres of southern France during the Danian epoch.
He closes one epoch of Old Testament criticism; by his influence he retards the development of the next.
Before passing to the new epoch it must suffice to make a simple reference to the philological work of Gesenius and Ewald, which assisted a sounder exegesis and so secured for later criticism a more stable basis.
pledged the town to his brother Baldwin, archbishopelector of Trier, and it remained in the possession of the electors until it was absorbed by France during the Revolutionary epoch.
TRILOBITES, extinct Arthropoda, formerly classified with the Crustacea, but of late years relegated to the Arachnida, which occurred abundantly in seas of the Cambrian and Silurian periods, but disappeared entirely at the close of the Palaeozoic epoch.
It is presumed that in the Glacial epoch the genus was exterminated except in the areas in western North America where it still persists.
This assembly seems to have been already in existence at the epoch of the Twelve Tables in 451 B.C., its electoral activity is perhaps attested in 447 B.C., and it appears as a legislative body in 357 B.C.
He acquired his knowledge of the men and intrigues of the Napoleonic epoch from Talleyrand.
The complexity of the glacial period and its subdivision into several glacial epochs, separated by interglacial epochs of considerable length (certainly longer than the postglacial epoch) has a structural consequence in the superposition of successive till sheets, alternating with non-glacial deposits, and also a physiographic consequence in the very different amount of normal postglacial erosion suffered by the different parts of the glacial deposits.
When the ice of the last glacial epoch had retreated so far that Its front lay on a northward slope, belonging to the drainage area of the Great Lakes, bodies of water accumulated in front of the ice margin, forming glacio-marginal lakes.
This epoch, indeed, is the epoch of maximum submerg,ence during the period, and the maximum since the Ordovician.
The Montana series, most of which is marine, was deposited in water deeper than that of the Colorado epoch, though the series is less widespread than the preceding.
This epoch of relative uplift and active erosion is sometimes called the Sierran or Ozarkian epoch.
This epoch of great deformation and warping marks the transition from the Tertiary to the Quaternary.
The principal terminal moraines are associated with the ice of the Wisconsin epoch.
The larger part of it seems to date from the closing stages of the Iowan epoch, but bess appears to have come into existence after other glacial epochs as well.
Some of the estimates make the lapse of time since the first glacial epoch more than a million years, while others make it no more than one-third as long.
The time since the last glacial epoch is but a fraction of the time since the first probably no more than a fifteenth or a twentieth.
Much has been written and more said concerning the existence of man in the United States before the last glacial epoch.
The annual yield of gold in the Appalachian belt had fallen off to about $500,000 in value, that of California had risen to $36,000,000, and was rapidly approaching the epoch of its culmination (1851I 853).
The ore of mercury had been discovered in California before the epoch of the gold excitement, and was being extensively worked, the yield in the year1850-1851being nearly 2,000,000 lb.
At some particular epoch the president has seemed to be gaining upon Congress, at other epochs Congress has seemed to be gaining upon the president.
formed an epoch in the history of mathematics generally, and had, of course, a marked influence on after investigations regarding circle-quadrature.
This genus was very abundant in the Secondary epoch, especially in Jurassic seas.
Such an epoch was the revival of Latin and Greek learning in the 15th century, and a modern scholar would for that reason naturally prefer to have a manuscript to work on, which was written immediately before this epoch to one which was written immediately after it.
They are generally but sparingly distributed over the earth's surface and can be traced back in time to the early Jurassic epoch.
The subdivision of the day (q.v.) into twenty-four parts, or hours, has prevailed since the remotest ages, though different nations have not agreed either with respect to the epoch of its commencement or the manner of distributing the hours.
By Reason Also Of The Fractional Excess Of The Length Of The Year Above 365 Days, It Likewise Happens That The Years Cannot All Contain The Same Number Of Days If The Epoch Of Their Commencement Remains Fixed; For The Day And The Civil Year Must Necessarily Be Considered As Beginning At The Same Instant; And Therefore The Extra Hours Cannot Be Included In The Year Till They Have Accumulated To A Whole Day.
There arose, however, at some undefined epoch a strife on the part of this tribe and some others with the rest of the Turks, because, as the latter allege, Ghuzz, the son (or grandson) of Yafeth (Japhet), the son of NO (Noah), had stolen the genuine rain-stone, which Turk, also a son of Yafeth, had inherited from his father.
1175); and Toghrul, son of Arslan, killed in 1194 by Inanej, son of his atabeg, Mahommed, who was in confederation with the Khwarizm shah of the epoch, Takash.
The town of Alaja was the creation of this sultan, as previously there existed on that site only the fortress of Candelor, at that epoch in the possession of an Armenian chief, who was expelled by Kaikobad, and shared the fate of the Armenian and Frankish knights who possessed the fortresses along the coast of the Mediterranean as far as Selefke (Seleucia).
The writings which he produced at this period created a new epoch in the history of modern English theological scholarship. In 1855 he published the first edition of his History of the New Testament Canon, which, frequently revised and expanded, became the standard English work upon the subject.
The Dibranchia, with only one pair of branchiae, one pair of renal organs, and one pair of genital ducts, are much more recent, not appearing till the end of the Secondary epoch, and therefore must be regarded as descended from the Tetrabranchia.
The passions excited during the stormy epoch of the Reform Bill had long passed away.
Among other collections is that of the Korner museum with numerous reminiscences of the Goethe-Schiller epoch, and of the wars of liberation (1813-15), and containing valuable manuscripts and relics.
This marks an epoch in the career of John Ruskin; and the year 1860 closed the series of his works on art strictly so called; indeed, this was the last of his regular works in substantial form.
The arrival of the first railway train, on the 9th of February 1880, marked a new epoch in the history of Santa Fe, which until then had remained essentially a Mexican town; but with the discontinuance of the wagon caravans over the old trail, it lost its importance as the entrepot for the commerce of the South-west.
The names in -io- seem to have been evenly distributed over the Italian area and not to mark any particular tribe or epoch.
The Reformation was a fateful epoch in the history of church architecture.
A new epoch began from the return of St Paul and St Barnabas to Antioch after their first missionary journey, when they called together the church and narrated their experiences, and told how " God had opened to the Gentiles the door of faith " (Acts xiv.
The Kritik and the Wissenschaftslehre belonged to the revolutionary epoch of the " Rights of Man," and produced as great a revolution in thought as the French Revolution did in fact.
Nevertheless, the first half of the 13th century may be regarded as the grand epoch of medieval papal history.
Character of The essential features of this new epoch in the the Avignon history of the papacy, beginning with the two popes Papacy.
The crisis which the Catholic Church underwent, during this terrible epoch, was the greatest in all her history: for while everything was thrown into the utmost confusion by the life and death struggles of the rival popes, while the ecclesiastical revenues and emoluments were used almost exclusively for the reward of partisan service, while everywhere the worldliness of the clergy had reached its highest pitch, heretical movements, by which the whole order of the Church was threatened with overthrow, were gaining strength in England, France, Italy, Germany and especially in Bohemia.
All that could be done in that cause, during this stormy epoch, was done by Eugenius.
By this means he introduced a new epoch in the history of the papacy and of civilization: Rome, the centre of ecclesiastical life, was now to become the centre of literature and art.
In the reaction that followed the chaos of the Revolutionary epoch men turned to the papacy as alone giving a foothold of authority in a confused and quaking world.
An important epoch in the history of Silesia is marked by the year 1740, when the dominion of Austria was exchanged for that of Prussia.
There are still enormous glaciers about the head of the Brahmaputra, but the glacial epoch of the Chang-t'ang highlands has passed away, though comparatively recently.
It was at this troubled epoch that Chyang Chub Gyaltshan, better known as Phagmodu from the name of his native town, appeared on the scene.
Solutrian Epoch >>
The rite of extreme unction was introduced in the crusading epoch, although it was already usual to anoint the bodies of dead priests.
18) as that from which the era of Tyre begins, may refer to the epoch which Justin mentions.
The De jure exerted little influence on the practice of belligerents, yet its publication was an epoch in the science.
(1785-1821), was an important epoch in the history of Hesse-Cassel.
But the year 188 4 was also an epoch to be marked.
History Of Mission Fields The continuity of missionary enthusiasm maintained through the primitive, the medieval, and the modern periods of the Church's history, operating at every critical epoch, and surviving after periods of stagnation and depression, is a very significant fact.
Montgelas' ambition was now to raise Bavaria to the rank of a first-rate power, and he pursued this object during the Napoleonic epoch with consummate skill, allowing fully for the preponderance of France - so long as it lasted - but never permitting Bavaria to sink, like so many of the states of the confederation of the Rhine, into a mere French dependency.
His exposition of the methods of Homer and Sophocles is especially suggestive, and he may be said to have marked an epoch in the appreciation of these writers, and of Greek literature generally.
the summer is propagated by the mosquito (Anopheles claviger) marks a new epoch; the most diverse theories as to its origin had hitherto been propounded, but it is now possible to combat it on a definite plan, by draining the marshes, protecting the houses by fine mosquito-proof wire netting (for Anopheles is not active by day), improving the water supply, &c., while for those who have fever, quinine (now sold cheaply by the state) is a great specific. A great improvement is already apparent; and a law carried in 1903 for the Bonifica dell' Agro Romano compels the proprietors within a radius of some 6 m.
The troubles of Italy, which pressed heavily on Venice at this epoch, suspended Aldo's labours for a while.
The philosophical writings, which mark a distinct epoch in the development of modern thought, can here be considered in two Phlloa only of the many aspects in which they present themselves sophy.
Among the famous dramatic pieces of this epoch was the Andre Chenier (1843) of Edouard Wacken (1819-1861), who was a lyric rather than a dramatic poet; also the comedies of Louis Labarre (1810-1892) and of Henri Delmotte (1822-1884).
1784) founded the university of Bonn, and in 1798, amid the confusion of the revolutionary epoch, it ceased to exist.
More than this, the Caspian was also, it is pretty certain, at the same epoch, and later, in direct communication with the Sea of Azov, no doubt by way of the Manych depression; for in the limans or lagoons of the Black Sea many faunal species exist which are not only identical with species that are found in the Caspian, but also many which, though not exactly identical, are closely allied.
In the opinion of Russian geologists the separation of the Caspian from the great ocean must have taken place at a comparatively recent geological epoch.
At the same time, the epoch of maximum or minimum was retarded, about 4 hours at 4 in., and nearly 12 hours at io in., where the maximum temperature was reached between 1 and 2 A.M.
But at that epoch the law of inheritance was in such a case unsettled, and their right was not clear.
Older Pal aeolil/zic Period .T he earliest traces of mans handiwork are found either at the end of the pre-Glacial epoch, or in an inter-Glacial period, but it is a disputed point whether the latter is the first of a series of such periods.
This movement had become so powerful by the troubles of the epoch that, had no other current of influence set in, the entire class of freemen must soon have disappeared.
Altogether, Germany has seen no more fascinating epoch, none more full of life, movement and color.
In spite of the clamour of the mediatized princes for the restoration of their liberties, no attempt was made to reverse the essential changes in the territorial disposition of Germany made during the revolutionary epoch.
The exuberance of the epoch of Liberation gave place to a dull lethargy in things political, relieved only by the Philhellenism which gave voice to the aspirations of Germany under the disguise of enthusiasm for Greece.
A similar movement began among the Protestants after the commercial crisis of 1873, which forms an epoch in German thought, since it was from that year that men first began to question the economic doctrines of Liberalism, and drew attention to the demoralization which seemed to arise from the freedom of speculation and the influence of the stock exchangea movement which in later years led to some remarkable attempts to remedy the evil by legislation.
The accession of Maria Theresa to the throne of the Habsburgs marks an important epoch in the history of Austria.
The social, religious and educational reforms of Maria Theresa also mark her reign as the true epoch of transition from medieval to modern conditions in Austria.
The mountain range that runs out towards the north-east of Sicily is composed of crystalline rocks precisely similar to those forming the parallel range of Aspromonte in Calabria, but both of these are girt about by sedimentary strata belonging in part to an early Tertiary epoch.
But its results make it a marked epoch in Sicilian history, and the Athenian plans, if successful, would have changed the whole face of the West.
The minuter account of Dionysius belongs to Syracusan history; but his position, one unlike anything that had been before seen in Sicily or elsewhere in Hellas, forms an epoch in the history of Europe.
His alliance with Rome marks a great epoch in the history of the Greek nation.
The genius of Thucydides has given to the struggle the importance of an epoch in world history, but his view is open to two main criticisms-0) that the war was in its ultimate bearings little more than a local disturbance, viewed from the standpoint of universal history; (2) that it cannot be called a war in the strict sense.
The most prosperous epoch of its commercial history began in the latter half of the 15th century, precisely at the period when its political power began to wane.
It was not till the great colonizing epoch of the 8th and 7th centuries B.C., when the name " Hellene " came into use as the antithesis of " barbarian," that the Greek race came to be conscious of itself as a peculiar people; it was yet some three centuries more before Hellenism stood fully declared in art and literature, in politics and in thought.
In the Tertiary epoch alligators, crocodiles and long-snouted gavials existed in Europe.
Egyptian objects of the age of the XVIIIth Dynasty are found in the Greek islands and on the mainland among remains of the Mycenaean epoch, and on the other hand the products of the workshops of Crete and other centres of that culture are found in Egypt and are figured as tribute of the Keftiu in the tomb-paintings, though we have no information of any war with or conquest of that people.
But the honor of inaugurating an epoch marked by greater precision belongs to Germany.
what was even then practically a dead language, as dead as Latin was to the medieval monks in Italy who wrote and spoke it, Erman selected for special investigation those texts which really represented the growth of the language at different p~riods, and, as he passed from one epoch to another, compared and consolidated his results.
His son Amenophis III., C. 1400 u.c., was a mighty builder, especially at Thebes, where his reign marks a new epoch in the history of the great temples, Luxor being his creation, while avenues of rams, pylons, &c., were added on a vast scale to Karnak.
Pouqueville, who spent no less than ten years as French General Consul at Iannina, had special facilities for obtaining firsthand information and although his observations and deductions seemed at times somewhat suspect to the British they were later recognized as being truest to the realities of the epoch.
The splendid cultivation of metrical art threw other branches into the shade; and the epoch VIII.
A new epoch in the language began, and the rapidity and matchless facility of the new poetry was the wonder of Steffens himself.
The trend of the evolution of the plant kingdom has been in the direction of the establishment of a vegetation of fixed habit and adapted to the vicissitudes of a life on land, and the Angiosperms are the highest expression of this evolution and constitute the dominant vegetation of the earth's surface at the present epoch.
Amongst Dicotyledons the gamopetalous forms are admitted to be the highest development and a dominant one of our epoch.
He survived into the era of Kant, Goethe and Schiller, but he was not of it, and it would have been unreasonable to expect that he should in old age pass beyond the limits of his own epoch.
However, the i spirit of that great legal classic seems to have in a measure dwelt with and inspired the inferior men who were recasting his work; the Institutes is better both in Latinity and in substance than we should have expected from the condition of Latin letters at that epoch, better than the other laws which emanate from Justinian.
The martial character of their population made them formidable enemies to the Romans, whose troops were at this epoch mainly barbarians, the settled and civilized subjects of the empire being as a rule averse from war.
The fish of Lake Aral belong to fresh-water species, and in some of its rapid tributaries the interesting Scaphirhynchus, which represents a survival from the Tertiary epoch, is found.
Yet the document is of great interest, as in it we find formulated for the first time in an official despatch those exalted ideals of international policy which were to play so conspicuous a part in the affairs of the world at the close of the revolutionary epoch, and issued at the end of the 10th century in the Rescript of Nicholas II.'
469.) This appointment marked an epoch in German university education; Wittenberg became the school of the nation; the scholastic methods of instruction were set aside, and in a Discourse on Reforming the Studies of Youth Melanchthon gave proof, not only that he had caught the Renaissance spirit, but that he was fitted to become one of its foremost leaders.
When in 1817 he went abroad to further his education, Germany was about to celebrate the tercentenary of the Reformation; and thus early he conceived the ambition to write the history of that great epoch.
Although, outside the information we get from Christian chroniclers, this age is for the people of the north one of complete obscurity, it is evident that the Viking Age corresponds with some universal disturbance or unrest among the Scandinavian nations, strictly analogous to the unrest among more southern Teutonic nations which many centuries before had heralded the break-up of the Roman empire, an epoch known as that of the Folk-wanderings (V olkerwanderungen).
At first the raids are made in the summer: the first wintering in any new scene of plunder forms an epoch so far as that country or region is concerned.
In 1892 Dr Luis Cordero was elected, his administration again plunging the country into an epoch of internal disturbance.
In such a state of things it was the business of the philosopher to set forth the outlines of the coming epoch, as they were already moulding themselves into shape, amidst what the ordinary eye saw only as the disintegration of the old forms of social life.
Even philosophy with Hegel at this epoch was subordinate to religion; for philosophy must never abandon the finite in the search for the infinite.
An end had already come to the brilliant epoch at Jena, when the romantic poets, Tieck, Novalis and the Schlegels made it the headquarters of their fantastic mysticism, and Fichte turned the results of Kant into the banner of revolutionary ideas.
" A new epoch," he says, " has arisen.
mark the beginning of a new epoch in German lyric poetry.
Kleber was undoubtedly one of the greatest generals of the French revolutionary epoch.
Griesbach's fame rests upon his work in New Testament criticism, in which he inaugurated a new epoch.
During the Permian epoch Sokotra may have been a land surface, forming part of the great mass of land which probably existed in this region at that epoch, and gave the wide area for the western migration of life which presently took place, and by which the eastern affinities in Sokotra may be explained.
The two dialogues occasionally make interesting references to personages of the epoch.
It may be worth while to recall the contemporary condition of India at that epoch.
While the political movement represented by Khammurabi may have been proceeding for some time prior to the appearance of the great conqueror, the period of c. 2250 B.C., when the union of the Euphratean states was effected by Khammurabi, marks the beginning of a new epoch in the religion as well as in the political history of the Euphrates valley.
SOLUTRIAN EPOCH, in archaeology, the name given by G.
Those of the first series are artistically chipped upon the two faces and the end, and are readily distinguishable from the flints of the preceding Mousterian epoch.
Large thin spear-heads; scrapers with edge not on the side but on the end; flint knives and saws, but all still chipped, not ground or polished; long spear-points, with tang and shoulder on one side only, are also characteristic implements of this epoch.
- This is the most glorious epoch in the history of Islam.
Peck's The Jacksonian Epoch (New York, 1899) is an account of national politics from 1815 to 1840, in which the antagonism of Jackson and Clay is emphasized.
The Wang dynasty perished in 1392, an important epoch in the peninsula, when Ni Taijo, or Litan, the founder of the present dynasty, ascended the throne, after his country had suffered severely from Jenghiz and Khublai Khan.
Meanwhile he had been a regular contributor, first to the Literary Gazette, edited by his friend John Morley, and then to the Saturday Review at its most brilliant epoch.
His aim was to form a vivid conception of Greek life as a whole; and his books and lectures marked an epoch in the development of Hellenic studies.
marks an epoch in French history by his work as an organizer and statesman.
The meeting of the Cortes summoned by him at Madrid in 1394 marked a great epoch in the establishment of a practically despotic royal authority, based on the consent of the commons, who looked to the crown to protect them against the excesses of the nobles.
The reign of this prince, who assumed the government in 1775, is the most brilliant epoch in the history of SaxeWeimar.
Being deeply stirred by the best ideas of the Revolutionary epoch, he found a more congenial sphere for the display of his great powers in his new position.
Between the pastoral period and the era of wheat was the golden epoch of Californian history.
The initial impulse to this increase was the beginning of the " fruit epoch " in these counties, combined with a railway " rate-war " following the completion to the coast in 1885 of the Santa Fe, and an extraordinary land boom prevailing from 1886 to 1888.
On the other hand the Tuscan cities managed to prolong the reign of liberty to a much later epoch, no podestd ever quite succeeding here in his attempts to establish the rule of his dynasty.
PHANARIOTES, a name derived from Phanar, the chief Greek quarter at Stamboul, where the oecumenical patriarchate is situated, and applied to those members of families resident in the Phanar quarter who between the years 1711 and 1821 were appointed hospodars of the Danubian principalities; that period of Moldo-Wallachian history is also usually termed the Phanariote epoch.
Hence in the case of dead languages or past forms of living languages, it is often very difficult to define with precision what the sounds of the past epoch were.
At a much later epoch it was introduced into the Latin alphabet by the emperor Claudius to represent y, and the sound which was written as i or u in maximus, maxumus, &c.
The oldest records in Aramaic were found at Sindjirli, in the north of Syria, in 1890, and date to about Boo B.C. At this epoch the Aramaic. Aramaic alphabet, or at any rate the alphabet of these records, is but little different from that shown upon the Moabite stone.
The Nabataean inscriptions belong to a different epoch and a different style.
But its value lies mainly in the light cast on ecclesiastical thought in certain quarters during the epoch in question.
The year 1000 marks no epoch in medieval history.
Upon the whole, therefore, it would seem that not only was there no one middle age common to all branches of human evolution, except the period more definitely marked as the dark age, but that those characteristics which are generally regarded as "medieval" were by no means limited to a single epoch of European history.
elements a, e are called the amplitude and epoch (or initial phase), respectively.
The features of their life in Scotland, which is the most important epoch in the history of the order, seem to resemble closely those of the secular canons of England and the continent.
The Brachyura anomala, or Dromiidea, "have preserved the external characters and probably also the organization of the Brachyura of the Secondary epoch" (Milne-Edwards and Bouvier, 1901).
Its members distingushed themselves in the local wars of that epoch; and during the 14th century they espoused the English cause for some time, afterwards transferring their support to the side of France.
Like the other schiomachists of their epoch, they fought with phantoms in a visionary realm.
It is only certain that at this epoch the fabric of Catholic faith was threatened with various forms of prophetic and Oriental mysticism, symptomatic of a widespread desire to grasp at something simpler, purer and less rigid than Latin theology afforded.
The church itself at this epoch lent its influence to the prevalent enthusiasm.
The fascination of pure study was so powerful, the Italians at that epoch were so eager to recover the past, that during the 15th century we have before our eyes the spectacle of this great nation deviating from the course of development begun in poetry by Dante and Petrarch, in prose by Boccaccio ism to and Villani, into the channels of scholarship and anti- - quarian research.
To be a gentleman in Italy meant at this epoch to be a man acquainted with the rudiments at least of scholarship, refined in diction, capable of corresponding or of speaking in choice phrases, open to the beauty of the arts, intelligently interested in archaeology, taking for his models of conduct the great men of antiquity rather than the saints of the church.
Speaking broadly, what France, Germany, Spain and England assimilated from Italy at this epoch was in the - first place the new learning, as it was then called.
To the Germans, as to all nations of that epoch, the Bible came as a new book, because they now read it for the first time with eyes opened by humanism.
What has chiefly to be noted regarding the achievements of the Spanish race in arts and letters at this epoch is their potent national originality.
The decorative sculpture of this epoch, whether combined with architecture or isolated in monumental statuary, ranks for grace and suavity with the best of Sansovino's.
Whether we regard Spain, the Netherlands, or Germany at this epoch, we find a national impress stamped upon the products of the plastic and the decorative arts, notwithstanding the prevalence of certain forms derived from the antique and Italy.
But the greatest name of the epoch, the name which is synonymous with the Renaissance in France, has yet to be uttered.
Yet learning did not at this epoch become a marked speciality in England.
Tragedies in the style of Seneca, rivalling Italian and French dramas of the epoch, were produced.
Depicting feudalism in the vivid colours of an age at war with feudal institutions, breathing into antique histories the breath of actual life, embracing the romance of Italy and Spain, the mysteries of German legend, the fictions of poetic fancy and the facts of daily life, humours of the moment and abstractions of philosophical speculation, in one homogeneous amalgam instinct with intense vitality, this extraordinary birth of time, with Shakespeare for the master of all ages, left a monument of the Re- naissance unrivalled for pure creative power by any other product of that epoch.
He approved the constitution which was decided upon, believing, as he said, "that it was the best constitution which could be obtained at that epoch, and that this or a dissolution awaits our choice, and is the only alternative."
No marine deposits younger than those just mentioned - all belonging to a pre-Cambrian epoch - are found in the central portion of Finland; and the greater part of the country has probably been dry land since Palaeozoic times.
Since the epoch of Alexander the Great IIarran had been a famous centre of pagan and Hellenistic culture; its people were Syrian heathens, star-worshippers versed in astrology and magic. In their temples the planetary powers were propitiated by blood-offerings, and it is probable that human victims were occasionally sacrificed even as late as the 9th century of our era.
The third covers the period between 1831 and Clerk Maxwell's enunciation of the electromagnetic theory of light in 1865 and the invention of the self-exciting dynamo, which marks another great epoch in the development of the subject; and the fourth comprises the modern development of electric theory and of absolute quantitative measurements, and above all, of the applications of this knowledge in electrical engineering.
With Rabbi Aqiba (q.v.) and the synods of Jamnia (about 90 and 118 A.D.) a definite epoch in Judaism begins.
The conversion to Baptist views of Adoniram Judson and Luther Rice (1812), who had just been sent, with others, by the newly-formed American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions to open up missionary work in India, marks an epoch in American Baptist history.
Its alloy with tin (bronze) was the first metallic compound in common use by mankind, and so extensive and characteristic was its employment in prehistoric times that the epoch is known as the Bronze Age.
It was entirely covered with the bottom moraine of the great ice-sheet of the Glacial Epoch, resting upon Silurian sandstones and limestones.
At this epoch the North Sea and the Baltic were connected along the line of Vener, Vetter, Hjelmar and Malar.
Of wild flowering plants only a very few are endemic species (though more are endemic varieties); the bulk are immigrants after the last glacial epoch.
The French philosopher Descartes, who died at Christina's court at Stockholm in 1650, found his chief, though posthumous, disciple in Andreas Rydelius (1671-1738), bishop of Lund, who was the master of Dalin, and thus connects us with the next epoch.
In former ages the tree covered a large portion of the more northern part of the island, as well as of Ireland; the numerous trunks found everywhere in the mosses and peat-bogs of the northern counties of England attest its abundance there in prehistoric times; and in the remoter post-Glacial epoch its range was probably vastly more extended.
These, in part, are rooted in the primeval Indo-European days, though their ultimate form dates only from the Aryan epoch.
This gradual Iranianization of the Parthian Empire is shown by the fact that the subsequent Iranian traditions, and Firdousi in particular, apply the name of the Parthian magnates (Pahiavan) to the glorious heroes of the legendary epoch.
1521; 927 A.H.) with his Timurnama; the stormy epoch of the first Safawid rulers, who succeeded at last in reuniting for some time the various provinces of the old Persian realm into one great monarchy, furnished T~Iasimi (died after 1560; 967 A.H.) with the materials of his Shahnma, a poetical history of Shah IsmaIl and Shah Tahmasp. Another Sha/inama, celebrating Shah Abbas the Great, was written by Kamali of Sabzevar; and even the cruelties of Nadir Shah were duly chronicled in a pompous epic style in Ishratis SM/mama-i- Ndir (i~49; 1162 A.H.).
The church and other buildings of his erection remained till the installation, in 1082, of the first Norman abbot, who inaugurated the new epoch by commencing a new church.
He was an obscure republican student when the Spanish revolutionary movement of 1854 took place, and the young liberals and democrats of that epoch decided to hold a meeting in the largest theatre of the capital.
Looking eastwards from the Kaisargarh, one can again count the backs of innumerable minor ridges, smaller wrinkles or folds formed during a process of upheaval of the Suliman Mountains, at the close of a great volcanic epoch which has hardly yet ceased to give evidence of its existence.
It shows few traces of dynamic disturbance, but has been carved, mainly by erosion since the Miocene epoch, into many caverns, of which the Mammoth Cave is the largest.
Its internal resources were assiduously developed; trade, agriculture, civic justice and religion were fostered; while at no epoch in its post-exilic history did Israel enjoy an equal measure of social happiness (1 Macc. xiv.
Deprived of her most valuable colonies both in the East and in the West, and thoroughly defeated on the continent, her humiliation was the beginning of a new epoch in history.
The literary excellence of the work, and the flashes of light which it throws across a momentous but dark epoch of history, combine to give it exceptional importance among the relics of late Roman literature.
It deserves to be noted here that the former, the theology of the Aufklarung, was, like that of the deists, destined to a short-lived notoriety; whereas the solid, accurate and scholarly researches of the rationalist critics of Germany, undertaken with no merely polemical spirit, not only form an epoch in the history of theology, but have taken a permanent place in the body of theological science.
Hither were removed, from the old and new museums, the national gallery of pictures, the statuary of the Christian epoch and the numismatic collection.
The battle of the White Hill marks an epoch in the history of Bohemia.
The work produced an immense sensation and created a new epoch in the treatment of the rise of Christianity.
The great terminal moraine of the glacial epoch crosses the N.E.
A new epoch may be said to begin with H.
The notices which he has left us of Neapolitan society at this epoch are interesting, and, it was now, perhaps, that he met Boccaccio for the first time.
De Sade's Life of the poet (Amsterdam, 1764-1767) marks an epoch in the history of his numerous biographies; but this is in many important points untrustworthy, and it has been superseded by Gustav Koerting's exhaustive volume on Petrarcas Leben and Werke (Leipzig, 1878).
Those words mark an epoch in the history of thought.
After the war Leibnitz began a new epoch, both by his philosophy with its law of continuity in phenomena, and by his systematic attempt to collect sources through an association (1670).
Each historian chooses his own epoch or century and his own subject, and spends his life mastering such traces of it as he can find.
It can, however, be shown that the obliquity cannot vary more than two or three degrees within a million of years of our epoch.
Mediterranean region, but more widely spread in Europe during the Pleistocene epoch, and also introduced into many European countries.
The real problem is as to the beginning and end of this epoch, which is divided into three periods of uneven length; viz.
The second period of the epoch, during which Jerusalem is to be peopled and built, and at the end of which the Messiah is to be cut off, is much more difficult to determine.
In the early Pleistocene epoch, when South America became connected with North America, some of the glyptodonts found their way into the latter continent.
It is not unlikely that the customs of these Aaoi sacr Alkol went back to the epoch of the Persian monarchy.
A new epoch of investigation was inaugurated by John Forster, who began a new scrutiny of the accumulated material and published his first volume in 1875.
de Mortillet to the second epoch of the Quaternary Age, and to the earliest in his system of cave-chronology.
The epoch was characterized by cold wet climate, by the supposed existence of Man of the Olom type, that is, nearly as dolichocephalous as the Neanderthal type, but with superciliary ridges flat, and frontal bones high, and by the occurrence of the musk-ox, the horse, the cave-bear, Rhinoceros tichorhinus and the mammoth.
His sensitive nature was subjected to extreme suffering, arising mainly from the opposition aroused by his sympathy with the revolutionary ideas of the 1848 epoch.
1818), who was more than any other man both the representative of an epoch fast vanishing and the harbinger of the new spirit that was stirring young Rumania.
He it was who ushered in the new epoch, and for close upon forty years he stood at the head of almost every literary undertaking.
Hence, if no other agency is invoked, at an epoch say xXmoo years ago, the sun's heat would have been greater than now by the factor 1-+x/3n, where n X 6000° is taken for the sun's present mean temperature.
It seems possible that n is not a large number, and if we take x equal, say, to 200, we come to the most recent estimate - the astronomical - of the date of the earth's glacial epoch, when the sun's radiation was certainly not much more than it is now, while this factor would differ materially from unity.
The separation of the English and French buccaneers, who together presented a united front to the Spanish fleet in 1685, marks the beginning of the third and last epoch in their history.
The two spirits of antagonism and association are the two great social principles, and on the degree of prevalence of the two depends the character of an epoch.
At the close of the Anglo-Saxon epoch we find a group of freemen differentiated from the ordinary ceorls because of their greater independence and better personal standing.
The part which treats of the aim, foundation and methods of the science of history is valuable; but what is most distinctive in Buchez's theory - the division of historical development into four great epochs originated by four universal revelations, of each epoch into three periods corresponding to desire, reasoning and performance, and of each of these periods into a theoretical and practical age - is merely ingenious (see Flint's Philosophy of History in Europe, i.
Moreover, it was an epoch of trouble: the great Schism of the West, the profound divisions which were its result, the abuses which were to issue in the Reformation, were conditions little favourable for a reorganization of the ecclesiastical laws.
During the Carolingian epoch the custom grew up of granting these as regular heritable fiefs or benefices, and by the 10th century, before the great Cluniac reform, the system was firmly established.
Thirdly, there comes an epoch in which the self or me is subordinated.
The East typifies the infinite, Greece the finite or reflective epoch, the modern era the stage of relation or correlation of infinite and finite.
Besides, the tendency of applying a formula of this sort to history is to assume that the elements are developed in a certain regular or necessary order, whereas this may not at all be the case; but we may find at any epoch the whole mixed, either crossing or co-operative, as in the consciousness of the individual himself.
Except during the stirring epoch 1258-1265 there was little that was dramatic or striking in the events of the reign.
The reign which began with this unwonted quietness was perhaps the most important epoch of all English medieval Edward!
mx REVOLUTIONARY EpocH, THE REACTION, AND THE
For above all the world needed peace, in order to recover from the exhaustion of the revolutionary epoch; and this peace, bought at so great a cost, could be preserved only by the honest co-operation of Great Britain in the great international alliance based on the treaties.
It is impossible to exaggerate the importance, not only for England but for the world at large, of the epoch which culminated in the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832.
When Condorcet described the Tenth Epoch in the long development of human progress, he was sure not only that fulness of light and perfection of happiness would come to the sons of men, but that they were coming with all speed.
The type is, moreover, common among the mammals of the early Eocene, and still more so in those of the Jurassic epoch; this forming one of the strongest arguments in favour of the tritubercular theory.
- That mammals have become differentiated from a lower type of vertebrates at least as early as the commencement of the Jurassic period is abundantly testified by the occurrence of the remains of small species in strata of that epoch, some of which are mentioned in the articles Marsupialia and Monotremata.
Possibly mammalian remains also occur in the antecedent Triassic epoch, some palaeontologists regarding the South African Tritylodon as a mammal, while others consider that it was probably a reptile.
His theory is that in the early Cretaceous epoch the animals of the world were mostly aerial, amphibious, aquatic or arboreal; the flora of the land being undeveloped as compared with its present state.
On the other hand, towards the close of the Cretaceous epoch (when the Chalk was in course of deposition), the spread of a great upland flora vastly extended the territory available for mammalian life.
Accordingly, it was at this epoch that the small ancestral insectivorous mammals first forsook their arboreal habitat to try a life on the open plains, where their descendants developed on the one hand into the carnivorous and other groups, in which the toes are armed with nails or claws, and on the other into the hoofed group, inclusive of such monsters as the elephant and the giraffe.
In Siberia and northern Europe species of an African type survived till a comparatively late epoch, so that the present relegation of the group to tropical Asia and Africa may be regarded as a modern feature in distribution.
Hippopotamuses, on the contrary, are now exclusively African, although they were represented in tropical Asia during the Pliocene and over the greater part of Europe at a later epoch.
Among De Morgan's miscellaneous writings may be mentioned his Explanation of the Gnomonic Projection of the Sphere, 1836, including a description of the maps of the stars, published by the Useful Know ledge Society; his Treatise on the Globes, Celestial and Terrestrial,1845, and his remarkable [[Book]] of Almanacks (2nd edition, 1871), which contains a series of thirty-five almanacs, so arranged with indices of reference, that the almanac for any year, whether in old style or new, from any epoch, ancient or modern, up to A.