I stopped briefly enough to thank Pual who looked disappointed to be out of the drama.
In all of thirty minutes, some sort of drama would emerge once the inhabitants awoke.
She was too traumatized and he too busy to deal with another source of drama.
He didn't need this type of drama, and she was too good for a man like him in her life.
"Don't have time, don't want the drama," he replied and swiped his T-shirt from the ground.
Aside from drama, it was going to take half an eternity to straighten out the underworld without the distraction of a woman in his life.
She felt almost human again after the drama of her week.
She wasn't good at handling drama; Evelyn had always been like a perfect older sister, capable of patience and listening.
Making his way to the first floor, Jackson noticed he was feeling weary from all this drama, and also a little hungry.
He was very much in the mood for a fun, air headed bimbo after all the drama today, but that would be near impossible.
She studied him apprehensively, reminded of her cousins, when they were caught up in some sort of drama.
His policy in encouraging the drama has already been mentioned: among his friends he could count three of the greatest Greek writers - the poet Sophocles and the historians Herodotus and Thucydides.
he wrote the article Drama, and biographies of Ben Jonson and other dramatists; and he became an important contributor to the present work.
He had already begun his work of toleration, for he had recently produced a drama (Die Juden, 1749), the motive of which was to prove that a Jew can be possessed of nobility of character.
From 1814 to 182S Moratin lived in Italy and France, compiling a work on the early Spanish drama (Origenes del teatro espanol).
A partisan of French methods, Moratin published in 1762 his Desengano al teatro espanol, a severe criticism of the national drama, particularly of the auto sacramental; and his protests were partly responsible for the prohibition of autos three years afterwards (June 1765).
The story of Silenus was often the subject of Athenian satyric drama.
Its contrasts are like those of an architectural scheme, not those of a landscape or a drama.
There is hardly one of Wagner's orchestral innovations which is not inseparably connected with his adaptation of music to the re q uirements of drama; and modern conductors, in treating Wagner's orchestration, as the normal standard by which all previous and contemporary music must be judged, are doing their best to found a tradition which in another fifty years will be exploded as thoroughly as the tradition of symphonic additional accompaniments is now exploded in the performances of Bach and Handel.
Joncieres, however, adhered to the recognized forms of the French opera and did not model his works according to the later developments of the Wagnerian "music drama."
'LIVIUS ANDRONICUS (c. 284-204 B.C.), the founder of Roman epic poetry and drama.
The Romans and Italians had an indigenous drama of their own, known by the name of Satura, which prepared them for the reception of the more regular Greek drama.
This the Latin drama first received from Livius Andronicus; but it did so at the cost of its originality.
A repeated perusal of this drama suggests the judgment that it is overpraised when ranked at no great distance from Shakespeare's national dramas.
It is said that he gave a great impetus to the dramatic representations which belonged to the Dionysiac cult, and that it was under his encouragement that Thespis of Icaria, by impersonating character, laid the foundation of the great Greek drama of the 5th and 4th centuries.
All we can reasonably believe is that he gave encouragement to poetry as he had done to architecture and the drama; Onomacritus, the chief of the Orphic succession, and collector of the oracles of Musaeus, was a member of his household.
Two special features, however, which characterize the celebration should here be noted: (a) The person of the high priest, who is throughout the entire drama the chief and indeed the sole actor.
He next turned to French literature, and to the early English drama and ballad literature.
Mendelssohn became a warm friend of Lessing, the hero of whose drama Nathan the Wise was drawn from the Dessau Jew.
In his later years he dabbled in literature and the drama, and interested himself in arboriculture in his retirement at Henley-on-Thames.
A drama by him, Flodden Field, was acted at His Majesty's theatre in 1903.
In the contests which followed there can be no doubt that the Palmyrene princes cherished the idea of an independent empire of their own, though they never threw over their allegiance to the Roman suzerain until the closing act of the drama.
measure for the success of the Sixth Crusade; and it has been seen that the battle of Gaza was an act in the long drama of strife between Egypt and northern Syria.
When all is said, the Crusades remain a wonderful and perpetually astonishing act in the great drama of human life.
By his wife Margarethe Schleierweber, the daughter of a French corporal, but renowned for her beauty and intellectual gifts, he was the father of Karl Friedrich Moritz Paul von Briihl (1772-1837), the friend of Goethe, who as intendant-general of the Prussian royal theatres was of some importance in the history of the development of the drama in Germany.
During this period most of his prose works - including Oper and Drama, Ober das Dirigieren, Das Judentum in der Musik - were given to the world.
As drama it stood immeasurably above any opera since Cherubini's Medee.
This preliminary drama soon proved to need another to explain it, which again finally needed a short introductory drama.
The conflict between her passionate fascination and her disgust at her father's vulgarity is finely realized both in music and drama; but, if we are able to appreciate it, then the operatic convention by which Senta avows her passion becomes crude.
Again, the appeal to " God's judgment " in the trial by battle in Lohengrin is a subject of which no earlier librettist could have made more than a plausible mess - which is the best that can be said for the music as music. But as dramatist Wagner compels our respect for the power that without gloss or apology brings before us the king, a model of royal fair-mindedness and good-nature, acquiescing in Telramund's monstrous claim to accuse Elsa without evidence, simply because it is a hard and self-evident fact that the persons of the drama live in an age in which such claims seemed reasonable.
Genuinely dramatic music, even if it seem as purely musical as Mozart's, must always be approached through its drama; and Wagner's masterpieces demand that we shall use this approach; but, as with Mozart, we must not stop on the threshold.
If we wish to know what Wagner means, we must fight our way through his drama to his music; and we must not expect to find that each phrase in the mouth of the actor corresponds word for note with the music. That sort of correspondence Wagner leaves to his imitators; and his views on " Leit-motifhunting," as expressed in his prose writings and conversation, are contemptuously tolerant.
While the hunting party is resting Siegfried tells stories of his boyhood, thus recalling the antecedents of this drama with a charming freshness and sense of dramatic and musical repose.
In his next work, Die Meistersinger, Wagner ingeniously made poetry and drama out of an explicit manifesto to musical critics, and proved the depth of his music by developing its everyday resources and so showing that its vitality does not depend on that extreme emotional force that makes Tristan and Isolde almost unbearably poignant.
Krehbiel, Studies in the Wagnerian Drama (1891); Jessie L.
The associations of his home, not far from Corinth, where Arion was said to have established the cyclic choruses of satyrs, may account for his preference for this kind of drama.
In 1834 the family moved to Munich, where the parents took leading roles in the classical German drama, until they retired from the stage: the mother in 1865 and the father in 1878.
The celebrated " homo sum " is a translation from Alexis, and the spirit of it breathes in many passages of the Greek drama.
His drama, Franz von Sickingen, published in 1859, is a work of no poetic value.
The whole tone, sentiment and form of Ottoman literature have been revolutionized by the new school: varieties of poetry hitherto unknown have been adopted from Europe; an altogether new branch of literature, the drama, has arisen; while the sciences are now treated and seriously studied after the system of the West.
He wrote with conspicuous success in almost every branch of literature - history, romance, ethics, poetry and the drama; and his influence on the Young Turk party of later days was profound.
Napoleon's short Spanish Campaign of 1809 is dealt with under Peninsular War (this article covering the campaigns in Spain, Portugal and southern France 1808-1814), and for the final drama of Waterloo the reader is referred to Waterloo Campaign.
His career as a dramatic author began with the exhibition of a drama in or about the year 235, and continued for thirty years.
The national cast of his genius and temper was shown by his deviating from his Greek originals, and producing at least two specimens of the fabula praetexta (national drama) one founded on the childhood of Romulus and Remus (Lupus or Alimonium Romuli et Remi), the other called Clastidium, which celebrated the victory of M.
Its Stadt-Theater, rebuilt in 1874, has room for 1750 spectators and is particularly devoted to operatic performances; the Thalia-Theater dates from 1841, and holds 1700 to "Soo people, and the Schauspielhaus (for drama) from 1900 people, and there are some seven or eight minor establishments.
Douglas is included in numerous collections of British drama.
There was a play by Chaeremon called Achilles the Thersites-slayer, probably a satyric drama, the materials of which were taken from the Aethiopis of Arctinus.
The taurobolium was probably a sacred drama symbolizing the relations of the Mother and Attis (q.v.).
Karadi in 1569 brought to light the earliest national drama, Balassi Menyhert.
As a sonnet writer none stands higher than Paul Szemere, known also for his rendering of Korner's drama Zrinyi (1818), and his contributions to the Elet es Literatura (Life and Literature).
The dramatic works of Charles Kisfaludy, brother of Alexander, won him enthusiastic recognition as a regenerator of the drama.
Several of the already mentioned lyric and epic poets were occasional writers also for the drama.
To these we may add the gifted but unfortunate Sigismund Czak6, Lewis Dobsa, Joseph Szigeti, Ignatius Nagy, Joseph Szenvey (a translator from Schiller), Joseph Gaal, Charles Hugo, Lawrence Toth (the Magyarizer of the School for Scandal), Emeric Vahot, Alois Degre (equally famous as a novelist), Stephen Toldy and Lewis Doczi, author of the popular prize drama Csok (The Kiss).
The principal merit of this author's drama Milton (1876) consists in its brilliance of language.
In the modern drama three great and clearly differentiated groups may be distinguished.
Moreover Silva possessed a knowledge of stagecraft, and, if he had lived, he might have emancipated the drama in Portugal from its dependence on foreign writers; but the triple licence of the Palace, the Ordinary and the Inquisition, which a play required, crippled spontaneity and freedom.
Fontenelle afterwards acknowledged the justice of the public verdict by burning his unfortunate drama.
The second act of the drama may be said to open with the irretrievable blunder of Nicias in letting the Spartan Gylippus first land in Sicily, and then march at the head of a small army, partly levied on the spot, across the island, and enter Syracuse by way of Epipolae, past Euryelus.
Tradition has involved and obscured the story, which is the origin of the legend of the tour de Nesle made famous by the drama of A.
on an island in the Tagus, which forms the scene of Schiller's famous drama Don Carlos.
The art of the Meistersingers has been immortalized by Richard Wagner in his music drama, Die Meistersinger (1868).
According to Suidas, he was the author of an historical drama named Sphinx, of an epic, Anthomeros, in 24 books (both lost) and a Strange History.
Histrio-mastix, published in 1633, was a violent attack upon stage plays in general, in which the author pointed out that kings and emperors who had favoured the drama had been carried off by violent deaths, which assertion might easily be interpreted as a warning to the king, and applied a disgraceful epithet to actresses, which, as Henrietta Maria was taking part in the rehearsal of a ballet, was supposed to apply to the queen.
The drama that has made Castro's reputation is Las Mocedades del Cid (1 599 ?), to the first part of which Corneille was largely indebted for the materials of his tragedy.
Trinidad Fernandez and Constantino Carrasco were two poets of merit who died young, the principal work of the latter being his metrical version of the Quichua drama, 011antay.
The best known of these are Jose Sebastian Barranca, the naturalist and antiquary, Jose Fernandez Nodal, and Gavino Pacheco Zegarra of Cuzco, who published translations of the Inca drama of 011antay, and Leonardo Villar, of Cuzco.
In 1833-1835 he published The Splendid Village; Corn-Law Rhymes, and other Poems (3 vols.), which included "The Village Patriarch" (1829), "The Ranter," an unsuccessful drama, "Keronah," and other pieces.
Tennyson was already writing copiously - "an epic of 6000 lines" at twelve, a drama in blank verse at fourteen, and so on: these exercises have, very properly, not been printed, but the poet said of them at the close of his life, "It seems to me, I wrote them all in perfect metre."
Believing that his work with the romantic Arthurian epics was concluded, Tennyson now turned his attention to a department of poetry which had long attracted him, but which he had never seriously attempted - the drama.
His latest drama, The Foresters, now received his attention, and in March 1892 it was produced at New York, with Miss Ada Rehan as Maid Marian.
xvii.); Perlesvaus by Nitze (1902); Legends of the Wagner Drama by J.
There are also a theatre (Schauspielhaus) in modern Renaissance style (1899-1902), devoted especially to drama, a splendid concert hall (Saalbau), opened in 1861, and numerous minor places of theatrical entertainment.
The so-called dark age of Japanese literature was not entirely unproductive: it gave the drama (No) to Japan.
Tradition ascribes the origin of the drama to a religious dance of a panto- Th D mimic character, called Kagura and associated with C raffia.
But the renaissance of nationalism (kokusui hoson) saved the venerable drama, and owing to th~ exertions of Prince Iwakura, the artist HOsho Kuro and Umewaka Minoru, it stands as high as ever in popular favor.
The classic drama NO and its companion the Kyogen had two children, the Joruri and the Kabuki.
It came into existence in KiOto and was thence transferred to Yedo (Tokyo), where the greatest of Japanese playwrights, Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1724), and a musician of exceptional talent, Takemoto Gidayu, collaborated to render this puppet drama a highly popular entertainment.
Gradually the Kabuki developed the features of a genuine theatre; the actor and the playwright were discriminated, and, the performances taking the form of domestic drama (Wagoto and Sewamono) or historical drama (Aragoto or Jidaimono), actors of perpetual fame sprang up, as Sakata TOjOrO and Ichikawa DanjinrO (1660-1704).
Men and women of all ranks began to visit it; the emperor himself consented (f 887) to witness a performance by the great stars of the stage at the private residence of Marquis Inouye; a dramatic reform association was organized by a number of prominent noblemen and scholars; drastic efforts were made to purge the old historical dramas of anachronisms and inconsistencies, and at length a theatre (the Yurabu-za) was built on purely European lines, where instead of sitting from morning to night witnessing one long-drawn-out drama with interludes of whole farces, a visitor may devote only a few evening-hours to the pastime.
Apart from philosophical researches and the development of the drama, as above related, the Tokugawa era is remarkable for folk-lore, moral discourses, fiction and a peculiar form of poetry.
Entering the army at seventeen, he left it two years afterwards; and at nineteen he produced Azemire, a two-act drama (acted in 1786), and Edgar, ou le page suppose, a comedy (acted in 1785), which were failures.
In the year after the war (240), when the armies had returned and the people were at leisure to enjoy the fruits of victory, Livius Andronicus substituted at one of the public festivals a regular drama, translated or adapted from the Greek, for the musical medleys (saturae) hitherto in use.
He was, however, the first to familiarize the Romans with the forms of the Greek drama and the Greek epic, and thus to determine the main lines which Latin literature followed for more than a century afterwards.
But he did not thereby denationalize the Roman drama.
He first vindicates the claims of his own age to literary pre-eminence, and then seeks to stimulate the younger writers of the day to what he regarded as the manlier forms of poetry, and especially to the tragic drama, which seemed for a short time to give promise of an artistic revival.
A little farther on, but below the Sacred Way, is another open space, of circular form, which is perhaps the iXcos or sacred threshing-floor on which the drama of the slaying of the Python by Apollo was periodically performed.
Thus poetry, the drama and polite literature form the subjects of separate chapters.
He was influenced by Isaac Luria on the mystical side, and on the poetical side by Italian drama of the school of Guarini (q.v.).
Luzzatto's most lasting work is in the realm of Hebrew drama.
Hedberg's drama Brdllopet pa Ulfasa (1865).
For a time at least " the drama's patrons " were content with the higher entertainment furnished them; in the end Garrick had to " please " them, like most other managers, by gratifying their love of show.
A ruder kind of drama, the amoebaean verse, or bucolic mime, developed into the only pure stream of genial poetry found in the Alexandrian School, the Idylls of Theocritus.
Written language was largely hierographic and heroic. The drama, the cult image, the pictograph, the synecdochic picture, the ideaglyph, were steps in a progress without a break.
The theatre, built under Goethe's superintendence in 1825, memorable in the history of art not only for its associations with the golden age of German drama, but as having witnessed the first performances of many of Wagner's operas and other notable stage pieces, was pulled down and replaced by a new building in 1907.
In the interval between the death of Ennius (169) and the advent of Accius, the youngest and most productive of the tragic poets, he alone maintained the continuity of the serious drama, and perpetuated the character first imparted to it by Ennius.
In the spring of 1822 two Turkish armies advanced southwards: one, under Omar Vrioni, along the coast of Western Hellas, the other, under Ali, pasha of Drama (Dramali), through Boeotia and Attica.
He held that its office was simply to record human actions and that it should be written as a drama.
His SOD, George Cabot Lodge (1873-1909), also became known as an author, with The Song of the Wave (1898), Poems, 1899-1902 (1902), The Great Adventure (1905), Cain: a Drama (1904), Herakles (1908) and other verse.
A national theatre was founded at Warsaw in 1765 under the influence of the court, but it was not till long afterwards that anything really national connected with the drama appeared in Poland.
He does so, and the same drama of plot and counter-plot is resumed.
Like the story of Perceval that of Tristan has been made familiar to the present generation by Richard Wagner's noble music drama, Tristan and Isolde, founded upon the poem of Gottfried von Strassburg; though, being a drama of feeling rather than of action, the story is reduced to its simple elements; the drinking of the love-potion, the passion of the lovers, their discovery by Mark and finally their death.
Weston, Legends of the Wagner Drama.
Aeschylus wrote a satyric drama on the subject.
His first important drama, Master Olof, which had been refused in 1872 by the theatrical authorities, was produced after repeated revision in 1878.
Two comedies drawn from medieval subjects, Gillets hemlighet (" The Secret of the Guild," 1880) and herr Bengt's Hustru (" Bengt's Wife," 1882), were followed by the legendary drama of Lycko Pers resa (" The Journal of Lucky Peter "), written in 1882 and produced with great success on the stage a year later.
In 1887 he returned to drama with the powerful tragedy Fadren, produced in Paris also as Le pere; this was followed in 1888 by Froken Julie, described as a naturalistic drama, to which he wrote a preface in the nature of a manifesto, directed against critics who had resented the gloom of Fadren.
Kamraterna (" Comrades," 1888), which belongs to the same group of six plays, was followed by Himmelriketsnycklar (" The Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven," 1892), a legendary drama, and by the historical dramas of Erik .k I V.
Wherever this figure has not become quite obscure, it represents that divine power which, whether simply owing to a fall, or as the hero who makes war on, and is partly vanquished by darkness, descends into the darkness of the material world, and with whose descent begins the great drama of the world's development.
It was enlarged and improved, the sale of drink was forbidden, and miscellaneous programmes of music, drama, and lectures were embarked upon.
One Remarkable Drama Charles Heavysege'S (1816-1876) Saul (1857) Belongs To Canadian Literature.
A Canadian Drama Hardly Exists; Among Its Best Works Are The Pleasantly Epigrammatic Plays Of F.
Poetry is the art of producing representations; (I) in words, rhythm and harmony (apyovia, " harmony " in the original sense); (2) of men like ourselves, or better as in tragedy, or worse as in comedy; (3) by means of narrative as in epic, or by action as in the drama.
Traces of foreign influence are observable in El Moro Exposito (1833), a narrative poem dedicated to John Hookham Frere; these are still more marked in Don Alvaro o La Fuerza del sino (first played on the 22nd of March 1835), a drama of historical importance inasmuch as it established the new French romanticism in Spain.
The educational institutions are numerous and of a high order, including a technical high school (with about 1100 students), which enjoys the privilege of conferring the degrees of doctor of engineering, doctor of technical sciences, &c., a veterinary college, a political-economic institution (Gehestiftung), with library, a school of architects, a royal and four municipal gymnasia, numerous lower grade and popular schools, the royal conservatorium for music and drama, and a celebrated academy of painting.
This must have had a considerable influence on the development of the sacred drama in England, but none of the French plays acted in England in the 12th and 1 3 th centuries has been preserved.
The first Spanish drama written by Jews was entitled "Esther," by Solomon Usque and Lazaro Gratiano, published in 1567; and there is another entitled "Comedia famosa de Aman y Mordechay," produced anonymously in Leiden in 1699.
And 1 In a letter dated the 4th of April 1882, referring to the publication of his drama Mary Stuart, Swinburne wrote, to Edmund Clarence Stedman: "Mary Stuart has procured me two satisfactions which I prefer infinitely to six columns of adulation in The Times and any profit thence resulting.
He translated three volumes of Charles Rollin's Histoire ancienne, wrote several plays - Der Misogyn, Der Freigeist, Die Juden- and in association with Mylius, began the Beitrdge zur Historre and Aufnahme des Theaters (1750), a periodical - which soon came to an end - for the discussion of matters connected with the drama.
Hitherto Lessing had, as a dramatist, followed the methods of contemporary French comedy as cultivated in Leipzig; Miss Sara Sampson, however, marks the beginning of a new period in the history of the German drama.
In October 1755 Lessing settled in Leipzig with a view to devoting himself more exclusively to the drama.
The latter is one of his best essays on criticism, defining with perfect lucidity what is meant by "action" in works of the imagination, and distinguishing the action of the fable from that of the epic and the drama.
The power of Minna von Barnhelm, Lessing's greatest drama, was also immediately recognized.
Without attaching himself to any particular system of philosophical doctrine, he fought error incessantly, and in regard to art, poetry and the drama and religion, suggested ideas which kindled the enthusiasm of aspiring minds, and stimulated their highest energies.
To this period also belong La Princesse Amalie (1828), and Marino Faliero (1829), a drama in the romantic style.
The following is a list of Kingsley's writings: - Saint's Tragedy, a drama (1848); Alton Locke, a novel (1849); Yeast, a novel (1849) Twenty-five Village Sermons (1849); Phaeton, or Loose Thoughts for Loose Thinkers (1852); Sermons on National Subjects (1st series,1852); Hypatia, a novel (1853); Glaucus, or the Wonders of the Shore (1855); Sermons on National Subjects (2nd series, 1854); Alexandria and her Schools (1854); Westward Ho I a novel (1855); Sermons for the Times (1855); The Heroes, Greek fairy tales (1856); Two Years Ago, a novel (1857); Andromeda and other Poems (1858); The Good News of God, sermons (1859); Miscellanies (1859); Limits of Exact Science applied to History (Inaugural Lectures, 1860); Town and Country Sermons 0860; Sermons on the Pentateuch (1863); Water-babies (1863); The Roman and the Teuton (1864); David and other Sermons (1866); Hereward the Wake, a novel (1866); The Ancient Regime (Lectures at the Royal Institution, 1867); Water of Life and other Sermons (1867); The Hermits (1869); Madam How and Lady Why (1869); At last (1871); Town Geology (1872); Discipline and other Sermons 1872); Prose Idylls (1873); Plays and Puritans (1873); Health and Education (1874); Westminster Sermons (1874); Lectures delivered in America (1875).
A few well-turned lines which have been preserved from Lycophron's tragedies show a much better style; they are said to have been much admired by Menedemus of Eretria, although the poet had ridiculed him in a satyric drama.
He had, moreover, considerable poetic faculty, and wrote a drama in three acts, entitled Die Entsagung (Berlin, 182 3).
was established, and whose works were popular - such an author as Thomson, whose Seasons was in every library, such an author as Fielding, whose Pasquin had had a greater run than any drama since The Beggar's Opera - was sometimes glad to obtain, by pawning his best coat, the means of dining on tripe at a cookshop underground, where he could wipe his hands, after his greasy meal, on the back of a Newfoundland dog.
The Austro-Prussian alliance had been only an interlude in tile great drama in which the two powers were playing rivul parts.
In the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries the old drama of Sicily was acted again.
That the Indian drama took its origin from the Greek is still maintained by some scholars, though hardly proved.
The word satura was originally applied to a rude scenic and musical performance, exhibited at Rome before the introduction of the regular drama.
Original compositions were also contained in these saturae, and among them the panegyric on Scipio, unless this was a drama.
In 1892 he published another volume of verse, including The Countess Kathleen (a romantic drama), which gave the book its title, and in 1893 The Celtic Twilight, a volume of essays and sketches in prose.
In the meantime he had followed The Countess Kathleen with another poetical drama, The Land of Heart's Desire, acted at the Avenue Theatre for six weeks in the spring of 1894, published in May of that year.
In 1889 he published The Wind among the Reeds, containing some of his best lyrics, and in 1900 another poetical drama, The Shadowy Waters.
Sometimes, as in the case of the feast of Osiris in Abydos, a veritable drama would be enacted, in which the whole history of the god, his sufferings and final triumph were represented in mimic form.
It was a veritable drama that was here enacted, and recalled in its incidents the story of Osiris, the divine proto type of all successive generations of the Egyptian dead.
The anonymous Ludus de Sancto Kanuto 3 (c. 1530) which in spite of its title, is written in Danish, is the earliest Danish national drama.
The burlesque drama assigned to Christian Hansen, The Faithless Wife, is the only one of its kind that has survived.
nothing to the development of the drama, except in the person of N.
The drama has long flourished in Denmark.
Historically, however, they are of no little interest, not only from the insight into the social life of the period which they afford, but from the important influence they exercised on the Elizabethan drama.
Finally chance gave him an opportunity to show his talents, and at the Porte Saint Martin he became the popular interpreter of romantic drama of the Alexandre Dumas type.
The drama of the subject has in this instance not interested him at all, but only the forms and designs of the figures, the realization of the quality of flesh surfaces by the subtlest use of the graving-tool known to him, and the rendering, by methods of which he had become the greatest of all masters, of the richness and intricacy of the forest background.
The whole movement, intended as a return to the kirk of Knox and Melville and the Covenanters, was a not unneeded protest against the sleepy " moderation," and want of spiritual enthusiasm, which invaded the established kirk in the latter part of the 18th century, a period in which she possessed such distinguished writers as John Home, author of the drama of Douglas, Robertson, the historian, and Dr Carlyle, whose amusing autobiography draws a perfect portrait of an amiable and highly educated " Moderate " and man of the world.
In 1776 some specimens of Schiller's lyric poetry had appeared in a magazine, and in1777-1778he completed his drama, Die Rduber, which was read surreptitiously to an admiring circle of schoolmates.
He did not even feel secure against extradition in Mannheim, and after several weeks spent mainly in the village of Oggersheim, where his third drama, Luise Millerin, or, as it was subsequently renamed, Kabale and Liebe, was in great part written, he found a refuge at Bauerbach in Thuringia, in the house of Frau von Wolzogen, the mother of one of his former schoolmates.
In this drama Schiller's powers as a realistic portrayer of people and conditions familiar to him are seen to best advantage.
In adopting verse instead of prose as a medium of expression, Schiller showed that he was prepared to challenge comparison with the great dramatic poets of other times and other lands; but in seeking a model for this higher type of tragedy he unfortunately turned rather to the classic theatre of France than to the English drama which Lessing, a little earlier, had pronounced more congenial to the German temperament.
The unwieldiness of the plot and its inconsistencies show, too, that Schiller had not yet mastered the new form of drama; but Don Carlos at least provided him with an opportunity of expressing ideas of political and intellectual freedom with which, as the disciple of Rousseau, he was in warm sympathy.
His whole conception of life and character had deepened since Don Carlos, and under the influence of Kant's philosophy the drama became the embodiment of ethical problems that are essentially modern.
The resplendent medieval colouring of the subject, the essentially heroic character of Joan of Arc, gave Schiller an admirable opportunity for the display of his rich imagination and rhetorical gifts; and by an ingenious alteration of the historical tradition, he was able to make the drama a vehicle for his own imperturbable moral optimism.
Between this drama and its successor, Die Brazil von Messina, Schiller translated and adapted to his classic ideals Shakespeare's Macbeth (1801) and Gozzi's Turandot (1802).
With Die Braut von Messina (1803) he experimented with a tragedy on purely Greek lines, this drama being as close an approximation to ancient tragedy as its medieval and Christian milieu permitted of.
In the poet's last completed drama, Wilhelm Tell (1804), he once more, as in Wallenstein, chose a historical subject involving wide issues.
Wilhelm Tell is the drama of the Swiss people; its subject is less the personal fate of its hero than the struggle of a nation to free itself from tyranny.
Wilhelm Tell was an attempt to win for the German drama a new field, to widen the domain of dramatic poetry.
The pieces which followed are: The Man of Destiny (written in 1895, played at Croydon in 1897 by Mr Murray Carson), a Napoleonic drama, which was revived at New York by Arnold Daly in 1904; You Never Can Tell (written in 1896, produced at the Strand Theatre in 1900), a farcical comedy; The Devil's Disciple (produced at New York by Richard Mansfield in 1897, and in London in 1899), the scene of which is laid in the War of American Independence, Caesar and Cleopatra (1898) and Captain Brassbound's Conversion (1898) - printed as Three Plays for Puritans (1900); The Admirable Bashville (Stage Society,' Imperial Theatre, 1903), a dramatization of Cashel Byron's Profession.
The mind coming through a thousand phases of mistake and disappointment to a sense and realization of its true position in the universe - such is the drama which is consciously Hegel's own history, but is represented objectively as the process of spiritual history which the philosopher reproduces in himself.
To Strassburg we owe Goethe's first important drama, Gotz von Berlichingen, or, as it was called in its earliest form, Geschichte Gottfriedens von Berlichingen dramatisiert (not published until 1831).
In estimating this drama we must bear in mind Goethe's own Strassburg life, and the turbulent spirit of his own age, rather than the historical facts, which the poet found in the autobiography of his hero published in 1731.
And to the sentimental rather than to the heroic side belongs also Stella, " a drama for lovers," in which the poet again reproduced, if with less fidelity than in Werther, certain aspects of his own love troubles.
Still another important work, however, was conceived, and in large measure written at this time, the drama of Egmont, which was not published until 1788.
But Egmont depends for its interest almost solely on two characters, Egmont himself and Klarchen, Gretchen's counterpart; regarded as a drama, it demonstrates the futility of that defiance of convention and rules with which the Sturm and Drang set out.
The literary results of these years cannot be compared with those of the preceding period; they are virtually limited to a few wonderful lyrics, such as Wanderers Nachtlied, An den Mond, Gesang der Geister fiber den Wassern, or ballads, such as Der Erlkonig, a charming little drama, Die Geschwister (1776), in which the poet's relations to both Lili and Frau von Stein seem to be reflected, a dramatic satire, Der Triumph der Empfindsamkeit (1778), and a number of Singspiele, Lila (1777), Die Fischerin, Scherz, List and Rache, and Jery and Beitely (1780).
A religious epic, DieGeheimnisse, and a tragedy Elpenor, did not, it is true, advance much further than plans; but in 1777, under the influence of the theatrical experiments at the Weimar court, Goethe conceived and in great measure wrote a novel of the theatre, which was to have borne the title Wilhelm Meisters theatralische Sendung; and in 1779 himself took part in a representation before the court at Ettersburg, of his drama I phigenie auf Tauris.
This I phigenie was, however, in prose; in the following year Goethe remoulded it in iambics, but it was not until he went to Rome that the drama finally received the form in which we know it.
The calm beauty of Greek tragedy is seen in the new iambic version of Iphigenie auf Tauris (1787); the classicism of the Renaissance gives the ground-tone to the wonderful drama of Torquato Tasso (1790), in which the conflict of poetic genius with the prosaic world is transmuted into imperishable poetry.
Classic, too, in this sense, were the plans of a drama on Iphigenie auf Delphos and of an epic, Nausikaa.
The former drama was finished in Italy and appeared in 1788, the latter was brought a step further forward, part of it being published as a Fragment in 1790.
It was Schiller, too, who induced him to undertake those studies on the nature of epic and dramatic poetry which resulted in the epic of Hermann and Dorothea and the fragment of the Achilleis; without the friendship there would have been no Xenien and no ballads, and it was his younger friend's encouragement which induced Goethe to betake himself once more to the "misty path" of Faust, and bring the first part of that drama to a conclusion.
The novel, hardly less than the drama, effected a change in the public attitude towards the poet.
It is a phantasmagory; a drama the actors in which are not creatures of flesh and blood, but the shadows of an unreal world of allegory.
For, as an interpreter of human character in the drama, Goethe is without a rival among modern poets, and there is not one of his plays that does not contain a few scenes or characters which bear indisputable testimony to his mastery.
Faust is Germany's most national drama, and it remains perhaps for the theatre of the future to prove itself capable of popularizing psychological masterpieces like Tasso and Iphigenie.
This was followed by Der Mensch and die elementarische Natur (Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1845), in three parts (Beitri ge) : (1) an historical and philosophical dissertation on the relations of mankind and the "soul of nature," largely influenced by Schelling, (2) a dissertation on the juridical side of the question, De fragmento Vegoiae, being the thesis presented for his degree, (3) a lyrical drama, Erlinde.
Inscriptions, local legends, Sanskrit literature, and the drama disclose the survival of Brahman influence during the next six centuries (250 B.C. - A.D.
In 1837, when the curtain rises upon the drama of British interference in Afghanistan, the usurper, Dost Mahommed Barakzai, was firmly established at Kabul.
The drama closed with a bombastic proclamation from Lord Ellenborough, who had caused the gates from the tomb of Mahmud of Ghazni to be carried back as a memorial of " Somnath revenged."
If the present limits be slightly extended in either direction so as to include Delhi and Patna, the United Provinces would contain the area on which almost the whole drama of Indian history has been played.
It is no longer merely the scene for the drama of the soul and God, nor is man independent of it, but man and nature constitute an organism, humanity being a part of the vaster whole.
She took no interest in the art, the drama or the literature of her day.
in the Brahma-vaivarta, in which Krishna's amours in Nanda's cow-station are dwelt upon in fulsome and wearisome detail; whilst the poet Jayadeva, in the 12th century, made her love for the gay and inconstant boy the theme of his beautiful, if highly voluptuous, lyrical drama, Gita-govinda.
Nor is he capable of painting the events in which he took a part, in their totality as a drama.
Kecskemet was the birthplace of the Hungarian dramatist J6zsef Katona (1792-1830), author of the historical drama, Bdnk-Bdn (1815).
In the drama the pedantry of the Revival, which had not injured romantic literature, made itself perniciously felt.
The Spanish drama, meanwhile, untrammelled by those false canons of pseudo-classic taste which fettered the theatre in Italy and afterwards in France, rose to an eminence in the hands of Lope de Vega and Calderon which only the English, and the English only in the masterpieces of three or four playwrights, can rival.
The Renaissance, far from being the re-birth of antiquity with its civilization confined to the Mediterranean, with its Hercules' Pillars beyond which lay Cimmerian darkness, was thus effectively the entrance upon a quite incalculably wider stage of life, on which mankind at large has since enacted one great drama.
Meanwhile the drama was emerging from the medieval mysteries; and the classical type, made popular by Garnier's genius, was elaborated, as in Italy, upon the model of Seneca and the canons of the three unities.
the Elizabethan drama, which in its totality is the real exponent of the English Renaissance, came into existence.
This drama very early freed itself from the pseudo-classic mannerism which imposed on taste in Italy and France.
It is also the subject of a ballad by Schiller and a drama by F.
A poet of a later generation might have sung of the great drama in this fashion.
He found time, however, to write a Swedish Chronicle, which is the earliest prose history of Sweden, a mystery-play, Tobiae comedia, which is the first Swedish drama, and three psalm-books, the best known being published in 1530 under the title of Nagre gudhelige vijsor (" Certain Divine Songs ").
saw the rise of secular drama in Sweden.
These plays were all acted by schoolboys and university youths, and when they went out of fashion among these classes the drama in Sweden almost entirely ceased to exist.
In spite of all the encouragement of the court, drama did not flourish in Sweden.
Journalism began to develop; the Swedish Academy was founded; the drama first learned to flourish in Stockholm; and literature began to take a characteristically national shape.
But his best work was his national drama of Gustaf Vasa (1783), written by the king in prose, and afterwards versified by Kellgren.
These are English philosophy in the writings of Herbert Spencer, French realism in the practice and the preaching of Zola, Norwegian drama mainly through Ibsen, and Danish criticism in the essays and monographs of Georg Brandes.
His drama of Master Olof in 1878 began the revolutionary movement.
Drama has rarely flourished in Sweden, but several of the poets mentioned above have written important plays, and, somewhat earlier, the socialistic problempieces of Anne Charlotte Edgren-Leffler, duchess of Cajanello (1849-1893), possessed considerable dramatic talent, working under a direct impulse from Ibsen; but her greatest gift was as a novelist.
Legend, poetry, drama and politics have from time to time been much occupied with the personality of Arnold of Brescia, and not seldom have distorted it, through the desire to see in him a hero of Italian independence and a modern democrat.
But we cannot conclude our brief survey of the national literature of Persia without calling attention to the rise of the drama, which has only sprung up in the beginning of The Drama the nineteenth century.
Like the Greek drama and the mysteries of the European middle ages, it is the offspringof purely religious ceremony, which for centuries has been performed annually during the first ten days of the month Muharramthe recital of mournful lamentations in memory of the tragic fate of the house of the caliph All, the hero of the Shiitic Persians.
(See further DRAMA: Persian.)
On the Persian drama, compare J.
de Freycinet's exploring voyage in the "Uranie" from 1817 to 1821, and on his return to France devoted himself to journalism and the drama.
They are either mythological travesties (resembling the satyric drama of Athens) or character comedies.
(with account of the Doric drama and fragments, 1864); J.
On the other hand Portugal gave birth to no considerable dramatist from the time of Gil Vicente, in the 16th century, until that of Garrett in the 19th, and it has failed to develop a national drama.
The history of the modern drama begins with religious plays, followed at a later period by moralities, and thence, by an easy transition, by the farce.
His first efforts belonged to the religious drama, and some of the more notable had edification for their object, e.g.
The return of SA de Miranda from Italy operated to transform the drama as well as lyric poetry.
Early in the 18th century the spirit of revolt against despotism led to an attempt at the restoration of the drama by authors sprung from the people, who wrote for spectators .
All its efforts failed, however, because its members lacked dramatic talents and, being out of touch with the people, could not create a national drama.
Figueiredo felt he had a mission to restore the drama, and wrote thirteen volumes of plays in prose and verse, but, though he chose national subjects, and could invent plots and draw characters, he could not make them live.
Finally, the bucolic poet Quita produced the tragedies Segunda Castro, Hermione and two others, but these imitations from the French, for all the taste they show, were stillborn, and in the absence of court patronage, which was exclusively bestowed on the Lisbon opera, then the best equipped in Europe, Portugal remained without a drama of its own.
The historical bent thus given to the drama was continued by the versatile Mendes Leal, by Gomes da Amorim and by Pinheiro Chagas, who all however succumbed more or less to the atmosphere and machinery of ultra-Romanticism, while the plays of Antonio Ennes deal with questions of the day in a spirit of combative liberalism.
In the social drama, Ernesto Biester, and in comedy Fernando Caldeira, also no mean lyric poet, are two of the principal names, and the latter's pieces, A Mantilha da Renda and A Madrugada, have a delicacy and vivacity which justifies their success.
Lopes de Mendonga treats of the literature of the 16th and 17th centuries in articles in the Annaes das sciencias e letras; and the Memorias de litteratura portugueza printed by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (1792-1814) contain essays on the drama and the Arcadia, but the 19th century has naturally received most attention.
The author examines the passions, discussing the mode in which they are treated in ancient and modern drama, poetry and romance.
Another detachment by the Mesta valley, marched on Drama.
The Bulgarian scheme of operations, necessarily offensive, suffered from the weakness of having two objectives - the Ovche Polye and Salonika - and being based on two main lines of communication diverging towards the rear - Kyustendil and Seres - Drama.
In addition to the old-established Opernhaus and Schauspielhaus, which are supported by the state, numerous private playhouses have been erected, notably the Lessing and the Deutsches theatres, and it is in these that the modern works by Wildenbruch, Sudermann, and Hauptmann have been produced, and it may be said that it is in Berlin that the modern school of German drama has its home.
In 1605 he completed his beautiful pastoral drama Granida, not published until 1615.
Glaucus was the subject of a satyric drama by Aeschylus.
He also was the subject of a lost drama of Aeschylus.
Before the arrival of Macquarie schools and churches had been erected, a newspaper, the Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, had been started, and attempts had been made to acclimatize the drama.
A dialogue is in reality a little drama without a theatre, and with scarcely any change of scene.
One branch of letters, the drama, is entirely founded upon it.
20) than the Pauline, Markan and Johannine of the drama of the incarnation and redemption.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to drama.
Charles de Remusat's Abelard (2 vols., 1845) remains an authority; it must be distinguished from his drama Abelard (1877), which is an attempt to give a picture of medieval life.
In 1851 appeared The Golden Legend, a long lyric drama based upon Hartmann von Aue's beautiful story of self-sacrifice, Der arme Heinrich.
1893); Sir William Hamilton: The Philosophy of Perception; a translation of Schwegler's Geschichte der Philosophie (1867; 12th ed., 1893); Jerrold, Tennyson and Macaulay, &c. (1868); On Materialism (1868); As Regards Protoplasm (1869; 2nd ed., 1872); Lectures on the Philosophy of Law (1873); Burns in Drama (1878); Text-Book to Kant (1881); Philosophy in the Poets; Darwinianism; Workmen and Work (1894); What 1s Thought ?
For the connexion of Dionysus with Greek tragedy see Drama.
He applies his mathematics to the drama; no writer excels him in artful construction, in the arrangement of dramatic scenes, in mere theatrical technique, in the focusing of attention on his chief personages.
These books had no immediate influence in Walachia and Moldavia, where fiction and the drama had developed under the influence, first, of Greek and then to an increasing extent of French, Italian and German models.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.