In determining the errors of the screw of the Potsdam form FIG.
There is, besides, a powerful determining cause in the uniform character and undivided extent of its dry interior.
Him succeeded, not only in showing that such a difference exists, but in measuring it, and hence determining a tolerably approximate value of the mechanical equivalent of heat.
Thus he demonstrated that the forms of the land exercise a directive and determining influence on climate, plant life, animal life and on man himself.
Now was to be seen the determining influence of sea-power even in those days.
Among the later followers of Basilides, actual magic played a determining part.
With this end in view he expounded to the Berlin academy in 1849 a mode of determining an elliptic orbit from three observations, and communicated to that body in 1851 a new method of calculating planetary perturbations by means of rectangular coordinates (republished in W.
The geological structure and the mineral composition of the rocks are often the chief causes determining the character of the land forms of a region.
logical, political and commercial development of the subject runs the determining control exercised by crust forms acting directly or indirectly on mobile distributions; and this is the essential principle of geography.
The commercial importance of such free interchange of traffic is the controlling factor in determining the gauge of any new railway that is not isolated by its geographical position.
History had always been a favourite study with him, and Mably's Observations sur l'histoire appears to have had considerable influence in determining him to the choice of some special period for historic research.
He therefore abstained from determining for each case the specific heats of the solutions he employed, and contented himself with the above approximation.
The same type of calorimeter is used in determining the heat of solution of a solid or liquid in water.
The mountain mass, moreover, is not less important in causing a complete separation between the atmospheric conditions on its opposite flanks, by reason of the extent to which it penetrates that stratum of the atmosphere which is in contact with the earth's surface and is effective in determining climate.
Since 1890 further and more rigorous application of the telegraphic method of determining longitudes differentially with Greenwich has resulted in a slight correction (amounting to about 2" of arc) to the previous determination by the same method through Suez.
The period from about 1880 has been an era of boundary-making in Asia, of defining the politicogeographical limits of empire, and of determining the responsibilities of government.
The diurnal mountain winds are very strongly marked on the Himalaya, where they probably are the most active agents in determining the precipitation of rain along the chain - the monsoon currents, as before stated, not penetrating among the mountains.
At a printing-press established in Walther's house by Regiomontanus, Purbach's Theoricae planetarum novae was published in 1472 or 1473; a series of popular calendars issued from it, and in 1474 a volume of Ephemerides calculated by Regiomontanus for thirty-two years (1474-1506), in which the method of "lunar distances," for determining the longitude at sea, was recommended and explained.
would give negative, surd or imaginary values; Diophantus then traces how each element of the equation has arisen, and formulates the auxiliary problem of determining how the assumptions must be corrected so as to lead to an equation (in place of the "impossible" one) which can be solved rationally.
Kepler's Problem, namely, that of finding the co-ordinates of a planet at a given time, which is equivalent - given the mean anomaly - to that of determining the true anomaly, was solved approximately by Kepler, and more completely by Wallis, Newton and others.
Their recollection of his conduct during the congress of Chatillon was the determining fact at this crisis; his professions at Lyons or Paris had not the slightest effect; his efforts to detach Austria from the coalition, as also the feelers put forth tentatively by Fouche at Vienna, were fruitless.
The material, brick and terra-cotta, is the determining cause of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic 1 This palace was originally the property of the Pesaro family, and afterwards of the duke of Este, and finally of the republic, which used it as a dwelling-place for royal guests before letting it to Turkish merchants.
The Congressional Enabling Act of the 30th of April 1802 followed that alternative of the North-West Ordinance which provided for five states in determining the boundaries, and in consequence the Indiana and Michigan districts were detached.
Cotton seed meal, in the absence of sufficient stock to consume it, is also used extensively as a fertilizer, and for this purpose it is worth, determining the price on the same basis as used above for the seed, from $19 to $20 per ton.
The data are not numerous and distinct enough to settle the question beyond determining general limits: for reasons given above the book can hardly have been composed before about zoo B.C., and if, as is probable, a Septuagint translation of it was made (though the present Septuagint text shows the influence of Aquila), it is to be put earlier than 50 B.C. Probably also, its different parts are of different dates.
The problem of determining an orbit may be regarded as coeval with Hipparchus, who, it is supposed, found the moving positions of the apogee and perigee of the moon's orbit.
The modern method of determining orbits from three or four observations was first developed by C. F.
In 1892 Dorpfeld began a series of excavations in the district between the Acropolis and the Pnyx with the object of determining the situation of the buildings described by Pausanias as existing in the neighbourhood of the Agora, and more especially the position of the Enneacrunus fountain.
Ignatius returned to Venice in the middle of January 1524; and, determining to devote himself for a while to study, he set out for Barcelona, where he arrived in Lent.
It is necessary, therefore, to avoid reactions involving such intermolecular migrations when determining the orientation of aromatic compounds.
It is well known that singly, doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms affect the physical properties of substances, such as the refractive index, specific volume, and the heat of combustion; and by determining these constants for many substances, fairly definite values can be assigned to these groupings.
Standard solutions are prepared by weighing out the exact amount of the pure substance and dissolving it in water, or by forming a solution of approximate normality, determining its exact strength by gravimetric or other means, and then correcting it for any divergence.
A factor of considerable importance in determining boiling-points of isomers is the symmetry of the molecule.
In such crystals each component plays its own part in determining the physical properties; in other words, any physical constant of a mixed crystal can be calculated as additively composed of the constants of the two components.
These two works interrupted the execution of the Ring and formed the stepping-stones to Parsifal, a work which may perhaps be said to mark a further advance in that subtlety of poetic conception which, as we have seen, gave the determining impulse to Wagner's true musical style.
The compiler, in combining these materials, is called upon to examine the various sources of information, and to form an estimate of their value, which he can only do if he have himself some knowledge of surveying and of the methods of determining positions by astronomical observation.
more surprising as the Chinese astronomers are credited with having made use of the gnomon as early as 1000 B.C. for determining latitudes.
The ocean separating Europe from he was dependent upon dead reckoning, for although various methods for determining a longitude were known, the available astronomical ephemerides were not trustworthy, and errors of 30 in longitude were by no means rare.
5 A When Hs was translated we have no definite means of determining.
This, however, is not immediately connected with the Passover, and is of more significance as determining the exact date of Pentecost.
There is no means of determining the date of his conversion.
Maw, explored the central part of the Great Atlas with the special object of investigating its flora and determining its relation to that of the mountains of Europe.
Many experiments have been made with a view of separating the two potential-differences which must exist in any cell made of two metals and a liquid, and of determining each one individually.
Hitherto the example of the Roman Church had exercised no exclusive determining influence on ritual development even in the West.
by determining the rotation of the plane of polarization of a solution, or, chemically, by taking advantage of its property of reducing alkaline copper solutions.
Volumetric methods are used, but the uncertainty of the end of the reaction has led to the suggestion of special indicators, or of determining the amount of cuprous oxide gravimetrically.
The development of the rubber industry has now reached a stage at which more exact methods of determining the chemical composition and physical properties (strength and elasticity) of rubber are required.
The fear of being imprisoned in a convent for the rest of her life was the determining cause of her irresistible outburst of energy.
While determining its atomic weight, he thought it desirable, for the sake of accuracy, to weigh it in a vacuum, and even in these circumstances he found that the balance behaved in an anomalous manner, the metal appearing to be heavier when cold than when hot.
Now a11A11= alla22a33...ann, wherein all is not to be changed, but the second suffixes in the product a 22 a 33 ...a nn assume all permutations, the number of transpositions necessary determining the sign to be affixed to the member.
If 4) = rx.sx, the Y2 =1 normal form of a:, can be shown to be given by (rs) 4 .a x 4 = (ar) 4s: 6 (ar) 2 (as) 2rxsy -I- (as) 4rx; 4) is any one of the conjugate quadratic factors of t, so that, in determining rx, sx from J z+k 1 f =o, k 1 is any root of the resolvent.
2 - 9 m 2 (1 3 m 2)) 2 we have a cubic equation for determining m 2 as a function of the absolute invariant.
To determine them notice that R = (a6) and then (f, a 5) 5 = - R 5 (k1 +k2+k3) (f, a 4 5) 5 = - 5R5 (m 1 k 1+ m 2 k 2+ m 3 k 3), (f, a352) 5 = -10R5 (m21ke +m2k2+m3k3) three equations for determining k 1, k2, k3.
These were drawn up in the language of the country, a Romance dialect (1288 being the date of the most ancient written code), and are remarkable for the manner in which they define the rights of the sovereign, determining the reciprocal obligations of the viscount and his subjects or vassals.
Newcomb, was used from 1882 to 'goo; and since then the value 8.80" has been employed, having been adopted at a Paris conference in 1896.1 Five fundamentally different methods of determining the distance of the sun have been worked out and applied.
Owing to the difficulties inherent in determining the position of so faint an object among a great number of stars, the results have taken about ten years to work out.
Since then, two elaborate series of observations made with the zenith telescope for the purpose of determining the variation of latitude and the constant of aberration have been carried on by Professor C. L.
Of the three methods which have been described, the first two are generally the most suitable for determining the moment or the magnetization of a permanent magnet, and the last for studying the changes which occur in the magnetization of a long rod or wire wl?E:n subjected to various external magnetic forces, or, in other words, for determining the relation of I to H.
Under the influence of the transient current, the galvanometer needle undergoes a momentary deflection, or " throw," which is proportional to Q, and therefore to 8B, and thus, if we know the deflection produced by the discharge through the galvanometer of a given quantity of electricity, we have the means of determining the value of 8B.
The ballistic method is largely employed for determining the relation of induction to magnetizing force in samples of the iron and steel used in the manufacture of electrical machinery, and especially for the observation of hysteresis effects.
Several arrangements have been devised for determining hysteresis more easily and expeditiously than is possible by the ballistic method.
The method, though tedious in operation, is very accurate, and is largely employed for determining the magnetic quality of bars intended to serve .as standards.
- Since in air B = H, the ballistic method of measuring induction described above is also available for determining the strength of a magnetic field, and is more often employed than any other.
The primary coil carried the magnetizing current; the secondary, which was wound inside the other, could be connected either with a ballistic galvanometer for determining the induction, or with a Wheatstone's bridge for measuring the resistance, whence the temperature was calculated.
Soc. d'Encouragement, 1898, pp. 36-76), chiefly with the object of determining their suitability for the construction of permanent magnets.
Owing to the difficulty of determining the magnetization I and the susceptibility K with accuracy, it has not yet been possible to submit this formula to a quantitative test, but it is said to afford an indication of the results given by actual experiment.
It is not surprising that with so highly developed an arterial system Limulus and Scorpio should have a highly developed mechanism for determining the flow of blood to the respiratory organs.
The fundamental method of research which Riemann employed has just been alluded to; the results will be best indicated in his own words: "The methods in use hitherto for treating functions of a complex variable always started from an expression for the function as its definition, whereby its value was given for every value of the argument; by our investigation it has been shown that, in consequence of the general character of a function of a complex variable, in a definition of this sort one part of the determining conditions is a consequence of the rest, and the extent of the determining conditions has been reduced to what is necessary to effect the determination.
In the Berlin Memoirs for 1778 and 1783 Lagrange gave the first direct and theoretically perfect method of determining cometary orbits.
1825) he devised a method for determining vapour densities at temperatures up to 1400° C., and, partly with F.
The difficulty of determining in any case the exact significance of the title of a German count, illustrated by the above, is increased by the fact that the title is generally heritable by all male descendants, the only exception being in Prussia, where, since 1840, the rule of primogeniture has prevailed and the bestowal of the title is dependent on a rent-roll of £3000 a year.
The proud minister had been resisted p in his plans of reform at home by the Jesuits, and, determining to attack the power of the order, first deprived them of all temporal power in the state of Maranhao and Para.
To this Scotus opposed an indeterminism of the extremest type, describing the will as the possibility of determining itself motivelessly in either of two opposite senses.
(1235-1270), the last man of genius whom the Arpads produced, did something to curb the aristocratic misrule which was to be one of the determining causes of the collapse Bela IV.
4to, Paris, 1799) contains methods for calculating the movements of translation and rotation of the heavenly bodies, for determining their figures, and resolving tidal problems; the second, especially dedicated to the improvement of tables, exhibits in the third and fourth volumes (1802 and 1805) the application of these formulae; while a fifth volume, published in three instalments, 1823-1825, comprises the results of Laplace's latest researches, together with a valuable history of progress in each separate branch of his subject.
(iv.) Thus the problems of determining the roots of an equation P = o and of finding the factors of P, when P is a rational integral function of x, are the same.
a succession of numbers corresponding to the numbers I, 2, 3, ...) which possesses the property that, by starting far enough in the sequence, the range of variation of all subsequent terms can be made as small as we please, but (x+h) n always lies between the two values determining the range.
Cubic equations were solved geometrically by determining the intersections of conic sections.
His method for determining approximate values of the roots of equations is far in advance of the Hindu method as applied by Cardan, and is identical in principle with the methods of Sir Isaac Newton and W.
Anne's only daughter, Suzanne, had married in 1505 her cousin, Charles of Bourbon, count of Montpensier, the future constable; and the question of the succession of Suzanne, who died in 1521, was the determining factor of the treason of the constable de Bourbon (1523).
His father advised him to revise his philological and philosophical studies, and read over Calvin's Institutions, before finally determining.
Conditions affecting the cost of opening, developing and working the mine or determining the methods to be adopted.
Submarine activity in the open Mediterranean and Aegean had no small influence in determining the final abandonment of the Gallipoli enterprise and in preventing its resumption in the later stages of the war.
As a rule these equations are established immediately by determining the component acceleration of the fluid particle which is passing through (x, y, z) at the instant t of time considered, and saying that the reversed acceleration or kinetic reaction, combined with the impressed force per unit of mass and pressure-gradient, will according to d'Alembert's principle form a system in equilibrium.
22 „ determining the age of their predecessors or of past events.
He seems to have left the defence of his kingdom to others, occupying himself with the more congenial work of excavating the foundation records of the temples and determining the dates of their builders.
The systems with the highest dates are placed first in the list; where a writer has produced more than one system, these are grouped together, the highest dates proposed by him determining his place in the series.
Moreover, there will always be a difficulty in determining what belongs to his actual vision and what to the literary skill or free invention of the author, seeing that the visionary must be dependent on memory and past experience for the forms and much of the matter of the actual vision.
How much of this is fabulous there seems no means at present of determining, but some of the statements are made by veracious travellers - D'Orbigny and Tschudi.
Fischer has proposed formulae for the important disaccharoses, and in conjunction with Armstrong devised a method for determining how the molecule was built up, by forming the osone of the sugar and hydrolysing, whereupon the hexosone obtained indicates the aldose part of the molecule.
In the mechanical analysis of the soil, after separation of the stones and fine gravel by means of sieves, the remainder of the finer earth is subjected to various processes of sifting and deposition from water with a view of determining the relative proportions of sand, silt and clay present in it.
Very slight differences in climate appear to cause very great differences in the quality of the tobacco, and ordinary meteorological records are of little use in determining the suitability or not of a region for a particular kind of leaf; this essential point must be determined by experiment.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
The chief of these are the following: the relation of vassal and lord; the principle that every holder of land is a tenant and not an owner, until the highest rank is reached, sometimes even the conception rules in that rank; that the tenure by which a thing of value is held is one of honourable service, not intended to be economic, but moral and political in character; the principle of mutual obligations of loyalty, protection and service binding together all the ranks of this society from the highest to the lowest; and the principle of contract between lord and tenant, as determining all rights, controlling their modification, and forming the foundation of all law.
But the members of the feudal court met, not to fulfil a duty owed to the community, but a private obligation which they had assumed in return for the fiefs they held, and in the history of institutions it is differences of this sort which are the determining principles.
A counterpoise was placed on the solenoid end of the balance beam to act against the attraction of the solenoid, the position of the counterpoise determining the length of the arc in the crucible.
The decisive factor in determining membership in the League was the historical right of the citizens of a town to participate in Hanseatic privileges abroad.
He probably worked some two generations before the time of Moronobu, but there is no reason to believe that his labors had any material share in determining the creation and trend of the new school.
He was the first to employ mercury for the air-pump, and devised a method of determining longitude at sea by observations of the moon among the stars.
In Naevius, Plautus, Ennius and Cato are represented the contending forces which strove for ascendancy in determining what was to be the character of the new literature.
Hence the end of the Social war, and of the Civil war, which arose out of it, is most clearly a determining factor in Roman literature, and to.
Other methods consist in determining the vapour tension by means of the vaporimeter of Geissler, or the boiling point by the ebullioscope.
Dielectric constant.-Since all electric charge consists in a state of strain or polarization of the dielectric, it is evident that the physical state and chemical composition of the insulator must be of great importance in determining electrical phenomena.
The simplest method of determining it numerically is, therefore, that adopted by Faraday.4 Table Dielectric Constants (K) of Solids (K for Air = I).
Whether, however, these were taken immediately by Pope from Shaftesbury, or whether they came to him through the papers which Bolingbroke had prepared for his use, we have no means of determining.
No rule can be given for determining with certainty the day on which any given Jewish year begins without entering into the minutiae of their irregular and complicated calendar.
The Self as a primary, determining entity, he would not therefore admit.
Practical Determination Of Densities The methods for determining densities may be divided into two groups according as hydrostatic principles are employed or not.
In the group where the principles of hydrostatics are not employed the method consists in determining the weight and volume of a certain quantity of the substance, or the weights of equal volumes of the substance and of the standard.
The separate determination of the volume and mass of such substances as gunpowder, cotton-wool, soluble substances, &c., supplies the only means of determining their densities.
It consists in determining the air expelled from a vessel by the vapour of a given quantity of the substance.
These are hollow glass beads of variable density; they may be prepared by melting off pieces of very thin capillary tubing, and determining the density in each case by the method just previously described.
Biltz, Practical Methods for determining Molecular Weights (1899).
Gutbier (Ann., 1905, 34 2, p. 266) by reduction of the dioxide obtained 127.6; Marckwald, by determining the ratio of telluric acid to tellurium dioxide, obtained 126.85; H.
Soc., 1907, 91, p. 1849), by determining the ratio of tellurium dioxide to oxygen and by analysis of tellurium tetrabromide, obtained 127.60, and V.
Struve also points out that by attaching a fine scale to the focusing slide of the eye-piece, and knowing the coefficient of expansion of the metal tube, the means would be provided for determining the absolute change of the focal length of the object-glass at any time by the simple process of focusing on a double star.
The instrument so altered was in use at the Cape Observatory from March 1881 till 1887 in determining the parallax of some of the more interesting southern stars.
A special microscope is introduced for determining the division errors of the scales.
Of course, for many purposes, mean conditions may be adopted and mean scale-values be found which are applicable with considerable pre cision to small angles or to comparatively crude observations of large distances; but the highest refinement is lost unless means are provided for determining the scale-value for each observer at each epoch of observation.
All attempts to dispense with a lead and line and to measure the depth by determining the pressure at the bottom have hitherto failed when applied to depths greater than 200 fathoms; a new hydraulic manometer has been tried on board the German surveying ship " Planet."
Sarasin and longer series of experiments by Tornde and Kriimmel this relation is shown to be so close that the salinity of a sample can be ascertained by determining the index of refraction.
One portion is used for determining the oxygen and nitrogen, the other for the carbonic acid.
Although observations on marine currents were made near land or between islands even in antiquity, accurate observations on the high seas have only been possible since chronometers furnished a practicable method of determining longitude, i.e.
strata by means of borings, either for the purpose of determining the Coal resources of Great Britain.
As determined the ego is theoretical, as determining it is practical; ultimately the opposed principles must be united by showing how the ego is both determining and determined.
The second part deals with chronological and mathematical questions, and has been of great service in determining the principal epochs of ancient history.
Another circumstance determining the bent of his mind was the character of the time.
Tradition reports that this pamphlet had considerable weight in determining the ministry to retain Canada.
We reach surer ground after the Conquest, for then the great seals, monumental effigies, and coins become more and more serviceable in determining the forms the crown took.
They are seen to be united under the relation of cause and effect, determining and determined, which turns out to mean that they are merely passing manifestations of some single entity or energy which constitutes the real unknown essence of the things that come before our knowledge.
It was used for taking the altitudes of sun, moon and stars; for calculating latitude; for determining the points of the compass, and time; for ascertaining heights of mountains, &c.; and for construction of horoscopes.
Many experiments have been made with a view to determining the difference in chemical constitution of marcasite and pyrites, but with no very definite results.
The process of determining the area or volume of a given figure therefore involves two separate processes; viz.
the direct measurement of certain magnitudes (usually lengths) in terms of a unit, and the application of a formula for determining the area or volume from these data.
It is also convenient to regard as coming under mensuration the consideration of certain derived magnitudes, such as the moment of a plane figure with regard to a straight line in its plane, the calculation of w]iich involves formulae which are closely related to formulae for determining areas and volumes.
In the case, therefore, of any solid whose cross-section at distance x from one end is a quadratic function of x, the position of the crosssection through the centroid is to be found by determining the position of the centre of gravity of particles of masses proportional to So, S2, and 4S 1, placed at the extremities and the middle of a line drawn from one end of the solid to the other.
There is a tendency, moreover, to accord to the conferences the function of determining the tests of ministerial standing in the Congregational denomination.
system was consolidated by the Educational Unification Act of 1904, in conformity with which the university regents have become a legislative body, subordinate to the state legislature, for determining the general educational policy of the state, and a commissioner of education acts as the chief executive, advisory and supervisory,.
The remaining history of the Ottoman Empire up to Dec. 1921 has chiefly to do with the deliberations of the Allied Conference in determining the conditions of peace.
Experiments, which will be described most conveniently when we discuss methods of determining the frequencies of sources, prove conclusively that for a given note the frequency is the same whatever the source of that note, and that the ratio of the frequencies of two notes forming a given musical interval is the same in whatever part of the musical range the two notes are situated.
An obvi us method of determining the velocity of sound in air consists in starting some sound, say by firing a gun, and stationing an observer at some measured distance from the gun.
We shall now describe some of the methods of determining frequency.
Determining to enter active politics, he gave up his legal studies without qualifying for the bar, and in 1881 was elected to the New York legislature as a regular Republican, although in opposition to the "boss" of the assembly district for which he was a candidate.
The development of the theory of structures has been largely directed to determining the arrangements of material which are most economical, especially in the superstructure.
In finding the line of pressure some principle such as the principle of least action must be used in determining the reactions at the crown and springings, and some assumptions must be made of not certain validity.
For longer bridges the funicular polygon affords a method of determining maximum bending moments which is perhaps more convenient.
Many assumptions are made in treating of the flexure of a continuous structure which are not strictly true; no assumption is made in determining the stresses on a frame except that the joints are flexible, and that the frame shall be so stiff as not sensibly to alter in form under the load.
In 1849 he published the first results obtained by his method for determining the speed of propagation of light (see Light), and in 1850 with E.
Nor were the Greek signs without effect in determining the names of the manazil, 2 the late appearance of which, in a complete form, removes all difficulty in accounting for the various foreign influences brought to bear upon them.
Another factor, and that the determining one, soon came to the aid of the Greeks.
Camerarius, professor of botany and medicine at Tubingen, published a letter on the sexes of plants, in which he refers to the stamens and pistils as the organs of reproduction, and states the difficulties he had encountered in determining the organs of Cryptogamic plants.
Personal rather than doctrinal reasons had by far the larger part in determining the fate of Nestorius, who was sacrificed to the agreement between the two great schools.
In 1615 he planned and carried into practice a new method of finding the dimensions of the earth, by determining the distance of one point on its surface from the parallel of another, by means of a triangulation.
First, however, it is necessary to describe briefly the origin and previous history of these romantic freebooters who during the second half of the 17th century were the determining factor of Polish and Muscovite politics.
But at all three elections, though money and intrigue were freely employed, they were not the determining factors of the contest.
on matters of faith arose, "a lawful and free council, determining according to Scripture, is the best judge on earth."
the Old Body) is a mixture of Presbyterianism and Congregationalism; each church manages its own affairs and reports (1) to the district meeting, (2) to the monthly meeting, the nature of each report determining its destination.
The Associations of North and South are distinct institutions, deliberating and determining matters pertaining to them in their separate quarterly gatherings.
of the Jewish text and of the Samaritan text of the Pentateuch, the establishing of a critical text of the Septuagint, a careful study of the several versions directed to determining when real variants are implied and what they are.
He carried criticism beyond literary analysis and literary appreciation to the task of determining the worth of the documents as records, the validity of the evidence.
The figures are in most, if not in all cases artificial, though the means now fail us of determining upon what principles they were calculated.
Accordingly we lack the materials for determining the distinction which probably existed between the roeh, the hozeh and the kosem.
In relation to the earliest social stage, we need consider nothing but the amount of labour employed in the production of an article as determining its exchange value; but in more advanced periods price is complex, and consists in the most general case of three elements - wages, profit and rent.
In addition to this simple meaning it has also, both in the philosophical and the colloquial speech of India a technical meaning, denoting "a person's deeds as determining his future lot."
The mutual relations of palaeontology and embryology and comparative anatomy as means of determining the ancestry of animals are most interesting.
The determining factor is no doubt to be sought in his relationship with C. Marius, the husband of his aunt Julia.
The method of determining readings and renderings by vote was not favourable to the consistency and literary character of the Version.
latitude, and which made the following grants bearing upon the history of New Hampshire by their inducement to settlement, by determining the boundaries or by causing strife through their conflicts with one another: to John Mason, who has been called " the founder of New Hampshire," on the 9th of March 1622, a grant of the region between the Salem and Merrimac rivers, under the name of Mariana; to John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges jointly, on the loth of August 1622, a grant of the region between the Merrimac and Kennebec rivers for 60 m.
Long before his time, however, the issue had been narrowed down to determining exactly how far the pope should be allowed to interfere in French ecclesiastical affairs.
This early hostility to Alexius had a great influence in determining the course of his future career, and thereby helped to determine the history of the First Crusade, of which Bohemund may be regarded as the leader.
One very helpful factor in determining which is the principal carrier of any form is the coincidence of the zone of a particular insect with that of any disease.
While Ronsard and Antoine de Bail were most influenced by Greek models, du Bellay was more especially a Latinist, and perhaps his preference for a language so nearly connected with his own had some part in determining the more national and familiar note of his poetry.
In its tertiary stages - and also earlier - this disease yields in the most rapid and unmistakable fashion to iodides; so much so that the administration of these salts is at present the best means of determining whether, for instance, a cranial tumour be syphilitic or not.
It can be estimated quantitatively by mixing a dilute solution with potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid in excess, adding excess of zinc sulphate, neutralizing the excess of free acid with sodium bicarbonate, and determining the amount of free iodine by a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.
The south-east course of the middle-section rivers is the result of many changes from the initial drainage; the Mesozoic and Tertiary upwarprngs were probably very influential in determining the present general courses.
The cuesta begins where its determining limcstone begins, in west-central New York; there it separates the lowlands that contain the basins of lakes Ontario and Erie; thence it curves to the north-west through the province of Ontario to the belt of islands that divide1 Georgian Bay from Lake Huron; then westward throtigh the land-arm between lakes Superior and Michigan, and south-westward into the narrow points that divide Green Bay from Lake Michigan, and at last westward to fade away again with the thinning out of the limestone; it is hardly traceable across the Mississippi river.
Several rapids and the Falls of St Anthony (determining the site of Minneapolis) are signs of immaturity, resulting from superposition through the drift on the under rock.
The tilting of the great block resulted in presenting a strong slope to the east, facing the deserts of the Basin Range province and in large measure determining their aridity; and a long moderate slope to the west.
The aggregate thickness of the Proterozoic systems in the Lake Superior region is several miles, as usually computed, but there are obvious difficulties in determining the thickness of such great systems, especially when they are mtich metamorphosed.
Oil was produced in 1908 in sixteen states., This productive area is divided by the United States Geological Survey into six fields (in addition to some scattering states) with reference to the quality of oil that they produce, such quality determining their uses.
He does not, however, enjoy a free hand in finally determining the foreign policy of the government.
7r72, which, in reality, is equivalent tol determining a square equal in area to a circle, engaged the attention of mathematicians for many centuries.
Apollonius' genius takes its highest flight in Book v., where he treats of normals as minimum and maximum straight lines drawn from given points to the curve (independently of tangent properties), discusses how many normals can be drawn from particular points, finds their feet by construction, and gives propositions determining the centre of curvature at any point and leading at once to the Cartesian equation of the evolute of any conic.
He accepted also the division into five zones; he quotes approvingly the assertion of Hipparchus that it was impossible to make real advances in geography without astronomical observations for determining latitudes and longitudes.
To collate a manuscript is to observe and record everything in it which may be of use towards determining what stood in the source or the sources from which it is derived.
This analysis does not disclose, nor indeed is it possible to discover, what was the determining element for Tertullian; in fact he was under the dominion of more than one ruling principle, and he felt himself bound by several mutually opposing authorities.
This is called the Dionysian or Great Paschal Period, from its having been employed by Dionysius Exiguus, familiarly styled " Denys the Little," in determining Easter Sunday.
Appended to the London edition of the solar and lunar tables are two short tracts - the one on determining longitude by lunar distances, together with a description of the repeating circle (invented by Mayer in 1752), the other on a formula for atmospheric refraction, which applies a remarkably accurate correction for temperature.
15Swp, water, and p rpov, a measure), an instrument for determining the density of bodies, generally of fluids, but in some cases of solids.
c. 52, § 123, it was further enacted that the same instruments and methods should be employed in determining the duty upon imported spirits as should in virtue of any Act of Parliament be employed in the determination of the duty upon spirits distilled at home.
The disappointment thus inflicted on Russia was a determining cause of the outbreak of the Crimean War (see Kinglake, Invasion of the Crimea, chap. iii.).
In the solution of this problem the common sense of Wellington and of Castlereagh, with whom the duke worked throughout in complete harmony, played a determining part; it was mainly owing to their influence that France escaped the dismemberment for which the German powers clamoured, and which was advocated for a while by Lord Liverpool and the majority of the British cabinet.
But occasionally one or more drafts are mixed together, when price is the determining factor.
This looks indeed as if the square of the period were the determining quantity.
Experiment (c) is, however, generally taken to mean that this closeness of packing cannot be the sole determining cause, for it is argued that if a closed vacuum tube can show both wide and narrow lines according to the mode of discharge, density alone cannot account for the change.
When we compare together electric discharges the intensity of which is altered by varying, the capacity, we are unable to form an opinion as to whether the effects observed are due to changes in the density of the luminous material or changes of temperature, but the experiments of Sir William and Lady Huggins 1 with the spectrum of calcium are significant in suggesting that it is really the density which is also the determining factor in cases where different concentrations and different spark discharges produce a change in the relative intensities of different lines.
Somewhere about this period of More's life two things happened which gave in opposite directions the determining impulse to his.
Further, according to Fichte, on the one hand the Ego posits itself as determined through the non-Ego - no object, no subject; this is the principal fact about theoretical reason; on the other hand, the Ego posits itself as determining the non-Ego - no subject, no object; this is the principal fact about practical reason.
No real advance in metaphysics can take place, and natural science itself is in some danger, until the true history of the evidences of the laws of mechanical force is restored; and then it will soon appear that in the force of collision what we know is not material points determining one another's opposite accelerations, but bodies by force of impenetrable pressure causing one another to keep apart.
At the same time, while the independence of metaphysics leads us to metaphysical realism, this is not to deny the value of psychology, still less of logic. Besides the duty of determining what we know, there is the duty of determining how we know it.
The telescope B serves to observe the scale attached to the magnet when determining the magnetic meridian, and to observe the sun or star when determining the geographical meridian.
The above method of determining the geographical meridian has the serious objection that it is necessary to know the error of the chronometer with very considerable accuracy, a matter of some difficulty when observing at any distance from a fixed observatory.
Hence in more recent patterns of magnetometer it is usual to do away with the transit mirror method of observing and either to use a separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object, which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.
In the case of the Kew pattern unifilar the same magnet that is used for the declination is usually employed for determining H, and for the purposes of the vibration experiment it is mounted as for the observation of the magnetic meridian.
Creak, and has been found to give satisfactory results on board ship. The circle is provided with two needles in addition to those used for determining the dip, one (a) an ordinary dip needle, and the other (b) a needle which has been loaded at one end by means of a small peg which fits into one of two symmetrically placed holes in the needle.
The determining factor in politics was the conduct of the war.
How much older they may have been we have no means of determining, but our authorities agree in assigning to them a dateless antiquity.
There is some difficulty in determining how far the Essenes separated themselves locally from their fellow-countrymen.
In 1767 he published a volume of sermons, which gained him the acquaintance of Lord Shelburne, an event which had much influence in raising his reputation and determining the character of his subsequent pursuits.
He was presented with the freedom of the city of London, and it is said that his pamphlet had no inconsiderable share in determining the Americans to declare their independence.
The Russian explorer Prjevalsky, although he was not, strictly speaking, an explorer of Tibet, did much incidentally towards determining the conformation of its north-eastern and eastern mountain systems. His third journey Explorers.
The analysis of air was conducted by determining the amount of oxygen present and assuming the remainder to be nitrogen.
("On an Anomaly encountered in determining the Density of Nitrogen Gas," Proc. Roy.
Idiosyncrasy plays a considerable part in determining the effects, some people being particularly susceptible; death has occurred in five minutes from the appearance of the first symptoms, but when a narcotic has been administered at the same time as the poison the development is proportionately slow.
Hippocrates, writing about 450 B.C., expresses his belief in the influence of environment in determining disposition, and in the reaction of these upon feature, 4 a view in which he is supported later by Trogus.
There are several weak points in this reasoning, and a more accurate way of determining the best proportions is to try different mixtures of cement, stones and sand, filling them into different pails of the same size, and then ascertaining, by weighing the pails, which mixture is the densest.
In determining the amount of water to be added, several things must be considered.
Colour, therefore, must be correlated with some determinant (determining factor) for pattern, and it cannot, therefore, exist alone in an animal's coat.
This etymological connexion, suggested by Jensen (Kosmologie, 84), brings the festival of Purim into close relation with the Babylonian New Year festival known as Zagmuku, in which one of the most prominent ceremonials was the celebration of the assembly of the gods under the presidency of Marduk (Merodach) for the purpose of determining the fates of the New Year.
Local conditions of exposure to the sun, protection from cold winds, or the reverse, are of primary importance in determining the climate and the corresponding vegetation.
In determining the choice of stocks, the nature of the soil in which the grafted trees are to grow should have full weight.
The characters employed by experts for determining a species of yeast are the sum of its peculiarities as regards form and size: the shapes, colours, consistency, &c., of the colonies grown on certain definite media; the optimum temperature for spore-formation, and for the development of the "veils"; and the behaviour as regards the various sugars.
There he remained for thirteen years, and it was during this period that he devised his well-known method for determining vapour densities, and carried out his experiments on the dissociation of the halogens.
Whereas carbon renders isomerism possible in organic compounds, cobalt and platinum are the determining elements in inorganic chemistry, the phenomena being exhibited especially by complex ammoniacal derivatives.
An example may prove this, but before quoting it, the question of determining b must be decided; this results immediately from the above quotation, b being the volume Vat the absolute zero (T =0); so the volume of isomers ought to be compared at the absolute zero.
In philosophy he found the basis for positing a, collective human will, revealing in its activities the materials for determining ethical laws.
The chief difficulty in this method lay in determining the effective distances of the bulbs of the thermometers from the axis of the cylinder, and in ensuring uniformity of flow of heat along different radii.
Feeling, which Epicurus declared to be the means of determining what is good, is subordinated to a reason which adjudicates between competing pleasures with the view of securing tranquillity of mind and body.
Baille about 1870 a repetition of Cavendish's experiment for determining the mean density of the earth, his original work was mainly concerned with.
It is by no means an injudicious plan before laying out a system of water-meadows, which is intended to be at all extensive, to prepare a small trial plot, to aid in determining a number of questions relating to the nature and quantity of the water, the porosity of the soil, &c.
His long Leopold L reign of 48 years was of great importance for Austria, as determining both the internal character and the external policy of the monarchy.
The minister of war controlled the common army, but even the laws determining the method by which the army was to be recruited had to be voted separately in each of the parliaments.
The settlement with Hungary consisted then of three parts: - (1) the political settlement, which was to be permanent and has since remained part of the fundamental constitution of the monarchy; (2) the periodical financial settlement, determining the partition of the common expenses as arranged by the Quota-Deputations and ratified by the parliaments; (3) the Customs Union and the agreement as to currency - a voluntary and terminable arrangement made between the two governments and parliaments.
The first important regulations which were issued under the law of 1867 applied to Dalmatia, and for that country between 1872 and 1876 a series of laws and edicts were issued determining to what extent the Slavonic idioms were to be recognized.
The north and south direction of the river has been largely determined by faults, though the geologists of the Egyptian Survey are finding that the influence of faulting in determining physical outline has, in some cases, been overestimated.
Astronomy played a considerable part in religious matters for fixing the dates of festivals and determining the hours of the night.
The Viking raids were one of the determining causes of the establishment of the feudal monarchies of western Europe, but the untameable freebooters were themselves finally subdued by the Church.
The quality of Portland cement is ascertained by its analysis and by determining its specific gravity, fineness, mechanical strength Tesfing.
Although the rocks throughout the Southern Uplands have a persistent northeasterly and south-westerly strike, and though this trend is apparent in the bands of more rugged hills that mark the outcrop of hard grits and greywackes, nevertheless geological structure has been much less effective in determining the lines of ridge and valley than in the Highlands.
other ways of determining a "ty pe" will be obvious by reference to the diagram, fig.
Such differentiation may be measured by determining the correlation between the position or the time of production and the character of the organs produced, the methods by which the correlation is measured being those described in the article Error, Law Of.
Thus in the story of the good layman Citta, it is an aspiration expressed on the deathbed; 2 in the dialogue on the subject, it is a thought dwelt on during life, 3 in the numerous stories in the Peta and Vimana V atthus it is usually some isolated act, in the discussions in the Dhamma Sangani it is some mental disposition, which is the Karma (doing or action) in the one life determining the position of the individual in the next.
Descartes used the curve to solve sextic equations by determining its intersections with a circle; mechanical constructions were given by Descartes (Geometry, lib.
In the earlier time marriages between Jewish men and Canaanite women seem to have been not uncommon; whether (outside of Herod's family) there were marriages with foreigners in the Greek period we have no means of determining.
The long, straight, level-backed ridges which divide the Argandab, the Tarnak and Arghastan valleys, and flank the route from Kandahar to Ghazni, determining the direction of that route, are outliers of this system, which geographically includes the Khojak, or Kwaja Amran, range in Baluchistan.
There can be no doubt that the series as a whole is the equivalent of the Gondwana system, and when the country has been more closely examined the association of marine fossils with Gondwana plants will be of the greatest value in determining the precise homotaxis of the Indian deposits.
Before leaving it for Queen's College, Oxford, in 1673, he had observed the change in the variation of the compass, and at the age of nineteen, he supplied a new and improved method of determining the elements of the planetary orbits (Phil.
On the voyage he noticed the retardation of the pendulum in approaching the equator; and during his stay on the island he observed, on the 7th of November 1677, a transit of Mercury, which suggested to him the important idea of employing similar phenomena for determining the sun's distance.
348) of a method extensively used in the 18th and 19th centuries for determining the solar parallax by means of the transits of Venus.
He investigated the expansibility of gases by heat, determining the coefficient for air as 0.003665, and showed that, contrary to previous opinion, no two gases had precisely the same rate of expansion.
He studied the whole subject of thermometry critically; he introduced the use of an accurate air-thermometer, and compared its indications with those of a mercurial thermometer, determining the absolute dilatation of mercury by heat as a step in the process.
Hence one of the best methods of determining the magnifying power of a telescope to measure the diameter of the emergent pencil of rays, after the FIG.
The instrument is thus a theodolite, although, compared with its other dimensions, feeble as an apparatus for the measurement of absolute altitudes and azimuths, although capable of determining these co-ordinates with considerable precision.
Hislop he took a distinguished part in the victory of Mehidpur (December 21, 1817), as also in the subsequent work of following up the fugitives, determining the conditions of peace and settling the country.
Person and Hess avoided the error of water sticking to the ice by using dry ice at various temperatures below o° C., and determining the specific heat of ice as well as the latent heat of fusion.
The Value Of The International Electrical Units Has By This Time Been So Accurately Determined In Absolute Measure That They Afford A Very Good, Though Indirect, Method Of Determining The Mechanical Equivalent Of Heat.
The determination of stellar parallaxes is a matter of great difficulty on account of the minuteness of the angle to be measured, for in no case does the parallax amount to I"; moreover, there is always an added difficulty in determining an annual change of position, for seasonal instrumental changes are liable to give rise to a spurious effect which will also have an annual period.
It is greatly to be desired that a general survey of the heavens, or cf typical regions of the heavens, should be made with a view to determining all the stars which have an appreciable parallax.
There is another method of determining stellar distances, which is applicable to a few double stars.
Proper Motions of Stars.-The work of cataloguing the stars and determining their exact positions, which is being pursued on so large a scale, naturally leads to the determination of their proper motions.
This result, while it does not afford any means of determining the parallaxes of individual stars, enables us to determine the mean parallax of a group of stars, if we may assume their peculiar motions practically to cancel one another.
According to its discoverer it represents the oldest account of the Babylonian Deluge story extant; and he considers it of fundamental importance for determining the age of Israel's earliest traditions, since he would regard it as having been written "before Abraham had left his Babylonian home in Ur of the Chaldees."
It is the age of discussion used as a universal solvent, before it has been brought to book by a deliberate unfolding of the principles of the structure of thought determining and limiting the movement of thought itself.
Once embarked upon such an analysis, where valid process from assured principles gave truth, Aristotle could find little difficulty in determining the formula of demonstrative knowledge or science.
Hence the importance of determining how first principles are established.
So again in determining the " import " of propositions, it is no accident that in all save existential propositions it is to the familiar rubrics of associationism - co-existence, sequence, causation and resemblance - that he refers for classification, while his general formula as to the conjunctions of connotations is associationist through and through.
The ideal method of determining by direct experiment the relation between the total heat and the specific heat of a vapour is that of Joule and Thomson, which is more commonly known in connexion with steam as the method of the throttling calorimeter.
It is evident that this is a very delicate method of determining the wetness z, but, since with dry saturated steam at low pressures this formula always gives negative values of the wetness, it is clear that Regnault's numerical coefficients must be wrong.
The method of deducing the specific heat from Regnault's formula for the variation of the total heat is evidently liable in a greater degree to the objections which have been urged against his method of determining the specific heat, since it makes the value of the specific heat depend on small differences of total heat observed under conditions of greater difficulty at various pressures.
Hence that climatic characteristic of the entire Pacific Coast - already referred to and which is of extreme importance in determining the life-zones of California - the great amount of total annual heat supply at comparatively high latitudes.
These last examples are important because they illustrate the immense difficulty of determining the true significance of any isolated piece of evidence.
Nevertheless the latter continues because of its presence in the primary sources, but it is no longer a determining factor, since its presupposition - the Messianic kingdom on earth - has been obscured.
The Holy Spirit, the determining factor in the religious life, uses the Bible as his means, and calls the intelligence into action.
"For my part," he says, "I take my stand in human anatomy"; and what he everywhere insists upon is "the necessity, in each particular case, of an intelligent designing mind for the contriving and determining of the forms which organized bodies bear."
The problem of determining the possible configurations of equilibrium of a system of particles subject to extraneous forces which are known functions of the positions of the particles, and to internal forces which are known functions of the distances of the pairs of particles between which they act, is in general determinate For if n be the number of particles, the 3n conditions of equilibrium (three for each particle) are equal in number to the 351 Cartesian (or other) co-ordinates of the particles, which are to be found.
It is easily seen that, in the process of determining the masscentre, any group of particles may be replaced by a single particle whose mass isequal to that of the group, situate at the mass-centre of the group.
The graphical methods of determining the moment of inertia of a plane system of particles with respect to any line in its plane may be briefly noticed.
This indicates an experimental method of determining g with considerable accuracy, using the formula g 41r2l/T2.
For different parallel axes, the period of a small oscillation varies as ~i, or ~f (GO+OP); this is least, subject to the condition (4), when GO=GP=,c. The reciprocal relation between the centres of suspension and oscillation is the basis of Katers method of determining g experimentally.
Cylindrical Wheels and Smooth Racks.In designing cylindrical wheels and smooth racks, and determining their comparati* motion, it is sufficient to consider a section of the pair of pieces made by a plane perpendicular to the axis or axes.
Any other convenient figure may be assumed for the path of contact, and the corresponding forms of the teeth found by determining what curves a point T, moving along the assumed path of contact, will trace on two disks rotating round the centres of the wheels with angular velocities bearing that relation to the component velocity of T along TI, which is given by Principle II.
which is useful in determining the original tension required to enable a belt to transmit a given force between two pulleys.
In 1847 he took charge of the longitude department of the United States Coast Survey, where he was among the first to make use of the electric telegraph for the purpose of determining the difference of longitude between two stations, and he introduced the method of registering transit observations electrically by means of a chronograph.
At the international conference, which met at Paris in 1896 for the purpose of elaborating a common system of constants and fundamental stars to be employed in the various national ephemerides, Newcomb took a leading part, and at its suggestion undertook the task of determining a definite value of the constant of precession, and of 1 Lionville, t.
Without determining the French style, Italian intercourse helped to stimulate its formation and development.
In theology the appearance of dualism is sporadic and has not the fundamental, determining importance which it has in metaphysics.
It has been said that chemistry is of little avail in determining the value of a wine, and this is undoubtedly true as regards the bouquet and flavour, but there is no gainsaying the fact that many hundreds of analyses of the wines of the Gironde have shown that they are, as a class, distinctly different in the particulars referred to from wines of the claret type produced, for instance, in Spain, Australia or the Cape.
But he made no reference to his work till 1783, when he presented to the Royal Society some "Observations on Mr Hutchins's experiments for determining the degree of cold at which quicksilver freezes."
The majority of the others are instances of gratuities given after the decision, and it is to be regretted that the judgment of the peers gives us no means of determining how such gifts were looked upon, whether or not the acceptance of them was regarded as a " corrupt " practice.
The treatise De cursibus ecclesiasticis, discovered in 1853, is a liturgical manual for determining the hour of divers nocturnal offices by the position of the stars.
for determining the acceleration of the Pendulum in Lat.
He taught, if he did not discover, the obliquity of the ecliptic, is said to have introduced into Greece the gnomon (for determining the solstices) and the sundial, and to have invented some kind of geographical map. But his reputation is due mainly to his work on nature, few words of which remain.
It was his purpose to show that the forms of thought (which he sought to isolate from the peculiarities incident to the organic body) were not merely customary means for licking into convenient shape the data of perception, but entered as underlying elements into the constitution of objects, making experience possible and determining the fundamental structure of nature.
The determining feature of their recent history has been the attempt made by the Russian government (since 1881) and the Orthodox Greek Church (since 1883) to russify and convert the inhabitants of the province, Germans and Esths alike, by enforcing the use of Russian in the schools and by harsh and repressive measures aimed at their native language.
The next clue towards determining the period of Zoroaster is, that Darius I.
On the death of the Shah Rukh in 1446 he was succeeded by his son Ulugh Bey, whose scientific tastes are demonstrated in the astronomical tables bearing his name, quoted by European writers when determining the latitude of places in Persia.
At the beginning stands the usual introductory matter, such as the tables for determining the date of Easter, the calendar, and the general rubrics.
He appears at this time to have already formed the belief that important achievements as a thinker were possible to him, and at more than one critical period in his career this belief was the decisive factor in determining his conduct.
His laborious operations for determining the mean density of the earth, carried on by Henry Cavendish's method (1838-1842), yielded for it the authoritative value of 5.66.
This conformation of the country has been a powerful influence in determining its history and development.
The determining cause of the formation of the tubers is not certainly known, but Professor Bernard has suggested that it is the presence of a fungus, Fusarium solani, which, growing in the underground shoots, irritates them and causes the swelling; the result is that an efficient method of propagation is secured independently of the seed.
Tacitus belonged to the highest official and senatorial class, Juvenal apparently to the middle class and to that of the struggling men of letters; and this difference in position had much influence in determining the different bent of their genius, and in forming one to be a great national historian, the other to be a great social satirist.
37, 38) is our chief guide to determining the original extent of the second group of laws (vi.
That Wykeham, who was clearly an extremely good man of business, should, when clerk of the works, have played a considerable part in determining what works should be done and the general character of the buildings with which he was connected, we may believe; but to think that this attorney and notary, this keeper of the king's dogs (20th Aug.
In attempting to calculate the effect of this surface-tension in determining the form of a drop of the liquid, Segner took account of the curvature of a meridian section of the drop, but neglected the effect of the curvature in a plane at right angles to this section.
Although much progress has been made in determining the value and constancy of morphological characters, we are still in need of a sufficiently comprehensive and easily applied scheme of classification, partly owing to the existence in the literature of imperfectly described forms, the life-history of which is not yet known, or the microscopic characters of which have not been examined with sufficient accuracy and thoroughness.
That the sun on midsummer day rises nearly, but not quite, in line with the "avenue" and over the Friar's Heel, has long been advanced as the chief argument in support of the theory that Stonehenge was a temple for sun-worship. On the supposition that this stone was raised to mark exactly the line of sunrise on midsummer's day when the structure was erected, it would naturally follow, owing to well-known astronomical causes, that in the course of time the direction of this line would slowly undergo a change, and that, at any subsequent date since, the amount of deviation would be commensurate with the lapse of time, thus supplying chronological data to astronomers for determining the age of the building.
from Hamburg and 84 from Stettin, its situation, so far from being prejudicial to its growth and prosperity, as was formerly often asserted, has been, in fact, the principal determining factor in its rapid rise to the position of the greatest industrial and commercial city on the continent of Europe.
For the methods of determining the formulae and results stated above see J.
This geographical fact has had a great deal to do in determining the character of the Eastern Church.
We have next to examine the manner in which he used it, and here we are met at the outset by the difficulty of determining with exactness what authorities he is following at any one time; for of the importance of full and accurate references he has no idea, and often for chapters together he gives us no clue at all.
This last is the cardinal fact in determining treatment.
By determining to admit no new freemen the voters became reduced to between 30 and 60.
Whether Simon of Gitta ever exhibited his skill in Rome we have no means of determining, but at all events the compound Simon, resulting from the fusion of him with his predecessor, is brought to Rome by popular legend, and represented as enjoying great influence with Nero.
The boundary dispute involved the interpretation of the words, quoted above, in the treaties of 1825 and 1867 defining the boundary of the Russian (later American) possessions, and also the determining of the location of Portland Canal, and the question whether the coastal girdle should cross or pass around the heads of the fjords of the coast.
The use made by James of earlier material is as important for determining the terminus a quo of its own date as the use of it by later writers for the terminus ad quem.
It need hardly be said that this method of determining the mean type of a race, as being that of its really existing and most numerous class, is altogether superior to the mere calculation of an average, which may actually be represented by comparatively few individuals, and those the exceptional ones.
In determining whether the races of mankind are to be classed as varieties of one species, it is important to decide whether every two races can unite to produce fertile offspring.
Outside of his dialectic, it was in ethics that Abelard showed greatest activity of philosophical thought; laying very particular stress upon the subjective intention as determining, if not the moral character, at least the moral value, of human action.
PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES, the problem of determining the motion of three bodies moving under no influence but that of their mutual gravitation.
As practically attacked it consists in the problem of determining the perturbations or disturbances in the motion of one of the bodies around the principal or central body, produced by the attraction of the third.
The importance of determining whether there is such a thing as telegony is sufficiently evident.
The abundance of petrified coniferous wood in rocks of various ages has led many botanists to investigate the structure of modern genera with a view to determining how far anatomical characters may be used as evidence of generic distinctions.
For some years after his appointment he devoted himself specially, with Francois Marcet (1803-1883), to the investigation of the specific heat of gases, and to observations for determining the temperature of the earth's crust.
With their teleological views of the world they naturally predicated an active principle pervading it and determining it.
The treatise on "Mechanics" in Lardner's Cyclopaedia was partly written by him; and his interest in more purely astronomical questions was evidenced by two communications to the Astronomical Society's Memoirs for 1831-1833 - the one on an observation of Saturn's outer ring, the other on a method of determining longitude by means of lunar eclipses.
The chief agents in determining the climate are the vast masses of water in the southern hemisphere and the elevation of the land.
In such a case the first essential in determining the yield is to ascertain the rainfall.
In estimating the evaporation to be deducted from the rainfall for the purpose of determining the flow into a reservoir, it is important to bear in mind that the loss from a constant water surface is nearly one and a half times as great as from the intermittently saturated land surface.
But in determining the capacity of reservoirs intended to yield a supply of water equal to the mean flow of two, three or more years, the error, though on the safe side, caused by assuming the evaporation to be proportional to the rainfall, is too great to be neglected.
The objection to the insanitary effect of the meter-payment system has, in some places, been sought to be removed by providing a fixed quantity of water, assumed to be sufficient, as the supply for a fixed minimum payment, and by using the meter records simply for the purpose of determining what additional payment, if any, becomes due from the water tenant.
Mechanical devices for determining weights or comparing the masses of bodies may be classified as (a) equal-armed balances, (b) unequal-armed balances, (c) spring balances and (d) automatic machines.
In using these machines there is seldom any question of determining the weight to any great nicety, and rapid action is generally of high importance.
In determining the dimensions of corresponding drums of cone pulleys it is evident that for a crossed belt the sum of the radii of each pair remains a constant, since the angle a is constant, while for an open belt a is variable and the values of the radii are then obtained by solving the equations r 1 = l/ir - c(a sin a + cos a) + 2c sin a, r 2 = l/7r - c(a sin a +cos_a) - lc sin a.
Repeating this construction for all values of a between o° and 90°, we obtain a curve BPC, which can be used for determining the ratios of corresponding drums of cone pulleys or of conical drums for open belts.
Oscil., a copy being presented to me, in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy, and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness, in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth, and earth from the sun; in determining a problem about the moon's phase, and putting a limit to the sun's parallax, which shews that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion, and understood it; so that a while after, when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly, in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth, if I had not known the duplicate proportion before, I could not but have found it now.
He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid, and he gave a method of determining it.
He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects, true in theory but difficult to execute.
On The Counting System It Will Be Found That, In Determining The Number Of Shillings In The Remainder, We Subtract 5S.
in determining the rate of a " dividend "), approximate expression of the divisor in terms of the largest unit is sufficient.
Eclecticism is not open to the superficial objection of proceeding without a system or test in determining the complete or incomplete.
The operation of determining the value of the resistance R therefore consists in altering the ratio of the three resistances P, Q,, and S, until the galvanometer indicates no current through it when the battery circuit is completed or closed by the key.
Many of them came to own land in ten or a dozen counties remote from each other, a fact which was of the greatest importance in determining the character of English feudalism.
Though the Lancastrians ~ made much play with the watchword of loyalty to the crown, and though the Yorkists never forgot to speak of the need for strong and wise governance, and the welfare of the realm, y~ personal and family enmities had in many cases more effect in determining their action than a zeal for King Henrys rights or for the prosperity of England.
It wits perhaps characteristic of Gladstone, though it was unquestionibly unfortunate, that, in determining on this radical change of policy, he consulted few, if any, of his previous colleagues.
Considerations such as these have been used for determining the series of values of the independent variable, and the irrational functions thereof in the theory of Abelian integrals, but the theory seems to be worthy of further investigation.
This distinction is, however, not so important as it appears at first sight, for their connexion with the bone is only of a secondary nature, and, although it happens conveniently that in the great majority of cases the division between the bones coincides with the interspace between the third and fourth tooth of the series, still, when it does not, as in the mole, too much weight must not be given to this fact, if it contravenes other reasons for determining the homologies of the teeth.
This is very distinct in the canine teeth of the Carnivora, and is a useful guide in determining the homologies of the teeth of the two jaws.
The carbides of iron play an important part in determining the properties of the different modifications of the commercial metal, and are discussed under Iron And Steel.
From this time until the beginning of 1099 Godfrey appears as one of the minor princes, plodding onwards, and steadily fighting, while men like Bohemund and Raymund, Baldwin and Tancred were determining the course of events.
Uncertainty as to the authorities determining religious belief - Scripture, tradition, Fathers, Doctors - is now, at least potentially, at an end; the pope can rule every point definitely, if he sees good to do so.
The main existing groups of the Filicaceae may now be briefly described, with special reference to the characters of gametophyte and sporophyte, which have been found of value in determining affinities.
Hydropterideae.-Two very distinct orders of heterosporous Filicales, the Salviniaceae and the Marsiliaceae, are included in this group. The difficulty of determining their exact relationship to the other orders of Ferns is increased by the more or less completely aquatic habit of the plants and the modifications and reductions in structure associated with this.
The determining feature of this is the Pagasaeus Sinus (Gulf of Volo), a landlocked basin, extending from Pagasae at its head to Aphetae at its narrow outlet, where the chain of Pelion, turning at right angles to its axis at the end of Magnesia, throws out a projecting line of broken ridges, while on the opposite side rise the heights of Othrys.
But, as with Socrates, their power of making a right choice is limited by their degree of knowledge or of ignorance, and the vexed question of the relation of this determining intelligence to the human will is left unsolved.
The science of morality must be content in its search for causes to recognize the rationality of choice as a real determining agent in human affairs.
Humanitarian moralists, who hesitate to believe in the retributive theory of punishment because, as they think, its aim is not the criminal's future well-being but merely the vindication through pain of an outrage upon the moral law which the criminal need never have committed, might welcome a theory which urges that the sole aim of punishment should be the exercise of an influence determining the criminal's future conduct for his own or the social good.
How are we to emerge from the barren circle of affirming (I) that wisdom is the sole good and unwisdom the sole evil, and (2) that wisdom is the knowledge of good and evil; and attain some method for determining the particulars of good conduct?
But beyond this nature did not seem to go in determining the relations of the sexes; accordingly, we find that community of wives was a feature of Zeno's ideal commonwealth, just as it was of Plato's; while, again, the strict.
In Christianity, on the other hand, we early find that the method of moralists determining right conduct is to a great extent analogous to that of jurisconsults interpreting a code.
Its theoretical basis is the principle of egoism; while, for practically determining the particulars of duty it makes morality entirely dependent on positive law and institution.
In his treatise on Eternal and Immutable Morality his main aim is to maintain the 1 In spite of Hobbes's uncompromising egoism, there is a noticeable discrepancy between his theory of the ends that men naturally seek and his standard for determining their natural rights.
A notion so vague could not possibly be used with any precision for determining the subordinate rules of morality; but in fact Cumberland does not attempt this; his supreme principle is designed not to rectify, but merely to support and systematize, common morality.
His account of the sanction, again, is sufficiently comprehensive, including both the internal and the external rewards of virtue and punishments of vice; and he, like later utilitarians, explains moral' obligation to lie in the force exercised on the will by these sanctions; but as to the precise manner in which individual is implicated with universal good, and the operation of either or both in determining volition, his view is indistinct if not actually inconsistent.
But in fact the difference between intuitionists and utilitarians as to the method of determining the particulars of the moral code was complicated with a more fundamental disagreement as to the very meaning of " moral obligation."
Sometimes they consider moral intuition as determining the comparative excellence of conflicting motives (James Martineau), or the comparative quality of pleasures chosen (Laurie), which seems to be the same view in a hedonistic garb; others hold that what is intuitively perceived is the rightness or wrongness of individual acts - a view which obviously renders ethical reasoning practically superfluous.
It is more important to notice the general effect of his philosophy on the method of determining the particulars of morality as well as of law (as it ought to be).
With Price, again, he holds that rightness of intention and motive is not only an indispensable condition or element of the rightness of an action, but actually the sole determinant of its moral worth; but with more philosophical consistency he draws the inference - of which the English moralist does not seem to have dreamt - that there can be no separate rational principles for determining the " material " rightness of conduct, as distinct from its " formal " rightness; and therefore that all rules of duty, so far as universally binding, must admit of being exhibited as applications of the one general principle that duty ought to be done for duty's sake.
He considers that this fundamental rule or imperative " act on a maxim which thou canst will to be law universal " supplies a sufficient criterion for determining particular duties in all cases.
He assumes throughout that the pleasant is the opposite of what is painful, and seems unaware of the difficulty of determining by means of terms so highly abstract the specific character of moral action.
We may consider the axis and the plane as a single concept, the axis determining the plane, or the plane the axis.
The problem of determining the perturbations of the (2) Q heavenly bodies is perhaps the most complicated with which the mathematical astronomer has to grapple; and the forms under which it has to be studied are so numerous that they cannot be easily arranged under any one head.
This is called the osculating orbit: The essential principle of Lagrange's elegant method consists in determining the variations of this osculating ellipse, the co-ordinates and velocities of the planet being ignored in the determination.
In all that precedes we have considered only two variables as determining the position of the planet, the latter being supposed to move in a plane.
The problem of determining the changes is, however, simpler than others in perturbations.
The fundamental problem of practical astronomy is that of determining by measurement the co-ordinates of the heavenly bodies as already defined.
The problem of determining the zenith distance of a celestial object now reduces itself to that of measuring the angle between the direction of the object and the direction of the vertical line realized in one of these ways.
This is one of the most troublesome problems in astronomy because, owing to the ever varying density of the atmosphere, arising from differences of temperature, and owing to the impossibility of determining the temperature with entire precision at any other point than that occupied by the observer, the amount of refraction must always be more or less uncertain.
The processes of measuring great portions of the earth, and of determining geographical positions, require both astronomical observations proper, and determinations made with instruments similar to those of astronomy.
George Purbach (1423-1461) introduced into Europe the method of determining time by altitudes employed by Ibn Junis.
Cauchy published in 1842-1845 a method similarly conceived, though otherwise developed; and the scope of analysis in determining the movements of the heavenly bodies has since been perseveringly widened by the labours of Urbain J.
The modern lunar theory began with Newton, and consists in determining the motion of the moon deductively from the theory of gravitation.
His most important contribution to the subject consisted in working out by extremely elegant mathematical processes the method of determining the motion of the perigee.
Flamsteed's mode of determining right ascensions.
The only liberty which he admits is a certain power of suspending the deliberative process and determining the direction of the intellect.
From Permian times onward, in fact, the Irish area lay on the western margin of the seas that played so large a part in determining the geology of Europe.
Childers was the original chairman of this commission, which was appointed in 1894 with the object of determining the fiscal contribution of Ireland under Home Rule, and after his death in 1896 The O'Conor Don presided.
Eisenlohr and others, with the view of determining the direction of the vibrations in polarized light (vide infra), but the results have not been consistent, and H.
But the most important case, on account of its practical application to determining the sign of a crystal, is that in which the light is plane polarized and circularly analysed or the reverse.
Thus constructed, the ' prism produces no lateral shift of the transmitted pencil; a conical pencil, incident directly, has nearly constant polarization over its extent, and consequently the error in determining the polarization of a parallel pencil, incident not quite normally, is a minimum.
Within two years of their first discovery, he had constructed approximately accurate tables of the revolutions of Jupiter's satellites, and he proposed their frequent eclipses as a means of determining longitudes, not only on land, but at sea.
The rocks which form it are often strormgl3 folded, but the folding is of ancient date and strikes obliquely acrosm the massif and has had no influence in determining its outline.
The influence of Saturn comes next in determining it, that of all the other planets is much smaller.
Mill's principle, though sound in the abstract, has, except in a few cases, little practical value in determining the admissibility of hypotheses, and in practice any rule which tends to discourage hypothesis is in general undesirable.
Detroit was founded in 1701 by Antoine Laumet de la Mothe Cadillac (c. 1661-1730), who had pointed out the importance of the place as a strategic point for determining the control of the fur trade and the possession of the North-west and had received assistance from the French government soon after Robert Livingston (1654-1725), the secretary of the Board of Indian Commissioners in New York, had urged the English government to establish a fort at the same place.
Archimedes contributed to the knowledge of these curves by determining the area of the parabola, giving both a geometrical and a mechanical solution, and also by evaluating the ratio of elliptic to circular spaces.
Obviously the position of a normal eye free from accommodation is immaterial for determining the magnification.
A fine scale with known intervals is put on the stage plate, and by determining the distance between the graduations of the objective micrometer formed through the same objective, by means of the screw micrometer ocular, the magnification of the objective is determined.
When determining the magnification the microscope must be used under exactly the same conditions: neither the length of the tube nor the focal length of the objective may be altered.
It There are many methods for determining the focal length of the objective.
These are the dimensions necessary for determining the magnification of the microscope, viz.
Besides this indirect method of determining the magnification there is also a direct one, in which it is not necessary to first measure f 2 or A.
The course of the light within the drawing prism must be taken into account when determining the distance of the scale from the exit pupil.
In such circumstances, however, a flower has been called symmetrical, provided the parts of the other whorls are normal, - the permanent state of the pistil not being taken into account in determining symmetry.
Thomson's tide gauge, tidal harmonic analyser and tide predicter are famous, and among his work in the interest of navigation must be mentioned his tables for the simplification of Sumner's method for determining the position of a ship at sea.
Mabillon's masterpiece was the De re diplomatica (1681; and supplement, 1704) in which were first laid down the principles for determining.
Trustworthy data for determining its nature are lacking.
In connexion with the study of alternating or varying electric current, appliances are required for determining the mode in which the current varies.
I must develop a means of determining if this is the case.
My last chore is determining if I have slain the nefarious tipster or if she now sits in my van with a look of fury painted on her beautiful face.
Jenn gazed towards the wall, mentally determining her chances at taking on six guardsmen and getting them all over the wall before more came or worseâ€”before Others showed up.
This test is useful in determining whether lymphocytes that appear abnormal are present, and whether internal organs are affected by Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
activitynot directly related to the trading activities are considered irrelevant in determining the locality of profits.
The main change will be over the role of the appointed actuary, who plays the central role in determining bonuses.
Page 13: " Oximetry is an essential adjunct in determining whether to make a referral.
GGT is also useful in determining the cause of a high alp.
Determining factors appear to be genetic predisposition coupled with the presence of sufficient circulating androgens.
UNHCR recognizes that States may have recourse to accelerated procedures in determining asylum applications.
appoint any person to carry out the function of determining such appeals on her behalf.
Determining whether Shakespeare uses archaisms consciously requires a close examination of his language word by word.
Beside their use for determining astronomical events astrolabes were used as teaching tools in the late Middle Ages.
The results highlight the importance of reserve requirements in determining the welfare effects of a more generous bailout.
In determining this one should consider whether the information is significantly biographical.
Research efforts are directed toward determining the causative processes and taphonomic state of exceptionally preserved fossil biotas (e.g.
bipolar (affective) disorderlocus determining risk of bipolar affective disorder.
Determining what constitutes a syntax error is not always clear-cut.
The measurement of thermal diffusivity by laser flash is an alternative way of determining the thermal conductivity of liquid alloys.
determining the demography of Victorian Scotland through Record Linkage Information on this project will be online shortly.
Evaluation of the magnitude of such losses is important for determining thermal noise levels in bonded suspensions for gravitational wave detectors.
determine, the large increase in their equity is often the biggest determining factor.
determinee is responsible for what his command does in determining the outcome of battle.
determinespan>determining where the ants were and where they were going, I found a good spot and sat and stared.
Methods The analytical methodology for determining dioxin and PCB concentrations in cows ' milk has already been reported 15.
What is needed is some method of determining the direction of dome failure based on continuous near-real-time data.
He is also studying how germ cell determining mechanisms evolved in vertebrate embryos.
However, the large increase in their equity is often the biggest determining factor.
Using the laser range finder to determine the range enhances your accuracy in determining the unknown position's location.
gaugeain gages are used for determining the strains of components under load.
A portable, battery-operated meter for determining the Brewster angles of faceted gemstones using polarized laser light is described.
The difference in the shear modulus has been suggested as the main factor in determining the hardness of the multilayer system.
Galton's primary interest in fingerprints was as an aid in determining heredity and racial background.
Back to top 2 Is the current method of determining the location of new hydrants the most appropriate?
Also, the amount of pointer indirection is taken into account when determining similarity.
market individualism and the generation of procedural criteria are not sufficient for determining social and educational justice.
It is capable of determining latitude, longitude, and altitude of the individual user.
Determining the evolutionary changes in MCPH genes through the primate lineages to lower mammals.
lineaments of the region and determining which are active fault zones ' .
The primary focus will be on investigating lineaments of the region and determining which are active fault zones ' .
A key element within the Part IIA regime for determining whether a site poses a risk, is the pollutant linkage concept.
Among the ~100 000 genes whose sequences will then be known will be those determining longevity.
loset sometimes it does seem that a sense of perspective can be lost when determining what is reasonable.
The various classes of users (stakeholders) of the OFR should be considered when determining materiality.
Page^ This, then, is the traditional system for determining the morality of actions.
Other methods of determining the machines orientation can be examined for applications where sighting the unit is not suitable.
A transit of Venus, as it is called, was once of great practical observational importance for determining the solar parallax.
peculiaritycal peculiarities of a medium play a prominent role in determining the learning experience.
We are interested in determining to what degree changes in climate will affect plant phenology.
protocol suites use different methods for determining the MAC address of a device.
prudent insurer in fixing the premium or determining whether to accept the risk.
using the laser range finder to determine the range enhances your accuracy in determining the unknown position's location.
Assessment of ankle reflexes is of limited value in determining risk of ulceration.
The indexing and lists provide prospective registrants with a structured basis for determining names and viewing those selected by other registrants.
self-selection mechanism determining the skill profile of foreign workers.
These observations assist in determining the vehicle suspension settings because the tire sidewall flexing forms part of the vehicle suspension.
Another important factor when determining focusing is whether or not the pictures look softer toward the edges.
In addition, we are using in vitro gene shuffling to study the domains determining specificity of Pto.
Determining water content in human nails with a portable near-infrared spectrometer.
sternal fractures: determining the risk of cardiac injury.
Determining the Context As mentioned above, you can determine the context of the currently executing subroutine in Perl with wantarray.
taken into consideration in determining the source of profits.
using tartaric acid as a standard for determining the titer of your NaOH is probably good enough - at least for TA measurements.
techniques developed is the method for determining the values of parameters.
The former is a truly accurate timepiece - capable of determining the time to within a minute throughout the sunlit year.
The dilution caused by the addition of the cell suspension should not be considered in determining the potency titre.
trajectoryrete phase is modeled by determining the trajectories of a representative sample of particles.
Triangulation A method of determining the location of an unknown point, as in GPS navigation, by using the laws of plane trigonometry.
Accordingly I hid myself in some thick underwood, determining to devote the ensuing hours to reflection on my situation.
Marxism understands a dialectical unity of humanism and naturalism in determining the origins and aspects of consciousness.
ERA can help by Determining whether or not zinc whiskers are present in dust samples taken from regions within an installation.
In this endeavour he forms with Herbart an opposition to the philosophies of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, which aimed at objective and absolute knowledge, and also to the criticism of Kant, which aimed at determining the validity of all human knowledge.
The formation of spores is used as an analytical method for determining whether a yeast is contaminated with another species, - for example: a sample of yeast is placed on a gypsum or porcelain block saturated with water; if in ten days at a temperature of 52Ã‚° F.
For the special purpose of determining the solar parallax this instrument has been used in a most refined and perfect manner by Dr Halm at the Cape of Good Hope (Annals of the Cape Observatory, vol.
north of Philadelphia) to educate candidates for the ministry; and the synod in 1738 passed an act, aimed at the Log College, providing that all students not educated in the colleges of New England or Great Britain should be examined by a committee of synod, thus depriving the presbyteries of the right of determining in the case.
Hence, when one approached a deity with an inquiry as to the outcome of some undertaking, the reading of the signs on the liver afforded a direct means of determining the course of future events, which was, according to current beliefs, in the control of the gods.
Colding, who in 1843 presented to the Royal Society of Copenhagen a paper entitled "Theses concerning Force," which clearly stated the "principle of the perpetuity of energy," and who also performed a series of experiments for the purpose of determining the heat developed by the compression of various bodies, which entitle him to be mentioned among the founders of the modern theory of energy, we come to Dr James Prescott Joule of Manchester, to whom we are indebted more than to any other for the establishment of the principle of the conservation of energy on the broad basis on which it has since stood.
Previous to determining the mechanical equivalent of heat by the most accurate experimental method at his command, Joule established a series of cases in which the production of one kind of energy was accompanied by a disappearance of some other form.
Further, the preliminary survey over the proposed route, necessary for deciding the length and types of cable required, can afford merely an approximation to the depth in which the cable actually lies, since accidents of wind and weather, or lack of observations for determining the position, cause deviations, often of considerable importance, from the proposed route.
But the popes, Gregory III., Zachary and Stephen II., determining at any cost to espouse the national cause and to aggrandize their own office, continued to rely upon the Franks.
Nicholas fixed his residence in Rome, which he began to rebuild and to fortify, determining to render the Eternal City once more a capital worthy of its high place in Europe.
The next step was taken by Cranmer, who wrote a letter to the king, praying to be allowed to remove the anxiety of loyal subjects as to a possible case of disputed succession, by finally determining the validity of the marriage in his archiepiscopal court.
All tadpoles are provided with more or less distinct lines of muciferous sensory crypts or canals, which stand in immediate relation to the nerve branches and are regarded as organs of a special sense possessed by aquatic vertebrates, feeling, in its broadest sense, having been admitted as their possible use, and the function of determining waves of vibration in the aqueous medium having been suggested.
The introduction of the phylogenetic factor has very much increased the difficulty of determining homologies; for the data necessary for tracing phylogeny can only be obtained by the study of a series of allied, presumably ancestral, forms. One of the chief difficulties met with in this line of research, which is one of the more striking developments of modern morphology, is that of distinguishing between organs which are reduced, and those which are really primitive.
It will be seen that as each successive aspect of geographical science is considered in its natural sequence the conditions become 2 For numerous special instances of the determining causes of town sites, see G.
In the convention he supported the large-state party, favoured a strong executive, advocated the suppression of the slave trade, and opposed the counting of slaves in determining the apportionment of representatives.
In production of gold in 1907 Esmeralda county ranked first with $8,533,617 (nearly 70% of the total); Nye county's output was $1,547,408, Lincoln county's $929,775, ' Apart from their commercial uses, the Sutro Tunnel and the shafts of the Comstock Lode have been employed for scientific investigations, with the object of classifying igneous rocks, determining the variations of temperature, and the character of electrical manifestations beneath the earth's surface, and the relation between the structure of rocks and their rate of cooling.
Besides many papers communicated to the academy of sciences, of which he became a member in 1714, he published Memoires pour servir d l'histoire et au progres de l'astronomie (St Petersburg, 1738), in which he gave the first method for determining the heliocentric co-ordinates of sun-spots; Memoire sur les nouvelles decouvertes au nord de la mer du sud (Paris, 1752), &c.
pp. 454-4 68, 503-519) was in his fullest vigour, afforded not the least evidence that he had ever dissected a couple even of birds 6 with the object of determining their relative position in his system, which then, as before, depended wholly on the configuration of bills, wings and feet.
When a new celestial body, say a planet or a comet is discovered, the astronomer meets with the problem of determining the orbit from several observed positions of the body.
The problem of determining a heliocentric orbit first presented itself to Kepler, who actually determined that of Mars.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.