You are defended from being a trifler.
Alright, so you defended me.
It is surrounded with walls and towers, and defended by a large moated castle of great strength.
"I'm not afraid of the wildlife, I'm cautious," he defended quickly.
He appointed visitors for the universities and great public schools, and defended the universities from the attacks of the extreme sectaries who clamoured for their abolition, even Clarendon allowing that Oxford "yielded a harvest of extraordinary good and sound knowledge in all parts of learning."
The parishioners, violently excited at the time about the law of patronage, received him with open hostility; and tradition asserts that his uncle defended him on the pulpit stair with a drawn sword.
Lana never thought she'd end up in the middle of a forest, defended by the PMF against those who seemed to want to start a second East-West civil war.
Blue Town, the older part of the town, with the dockyard, is defended by strong modern-built fortifications, especially the forts of Garrison Point and Barton's Point, commanding the entrance of both the Thames and the Medway.
"I remember you declined," he defended archly.
His sword defended him as if possessed, yet when he went to strike, he found his blows ill timed and clumsy.
At this point was another passage of the river, defended by the castle which gives its name to the spot, and which stands on a high hill overhanging the right bank, its base washed by an abundant stream, the Sanjeh (Gr.
Sackett's Harbor was the starting-point of a force of 700 men under a Pole named von Schultz, who in November 1838, during the uprising in Upper Canada (Ontario) attempted to invade Canada, was taken prisoner near Prescott, was tried at Kingston, being defended by Sir John Macdonald, and with nine of his followers was executed in Kingston in December.
The question, for all that, was not finally settled until the council of Constance (1414), when their cause was triumphantly defended by Pierre d'Ailly and Gerson.
But on the 2nd of October the fortress, which had been heroically defended, was taken by assault.
Menahem's system of bi-literal and uni-literal roots was violently attacked by Dunash ibn Labrat, and as violently defended by the author's pupils.
Only Mums defended him, as most mothers do.
Some disputed his arguments, others defended them.
But when he returned to the house convinced that Moscow would not be defended, he suddenly felt that what before had seemed to him merely a possibility had now become absolutely necessary and inevitable.
"I didn't know about any of this until we came down here for a visit," she defended.
"She's coughing and gagging," Carmen defended.
"It isn't like that at all," Lori defended.
He never had a problem with it before, She defended.
He watched her form as she struck and defended.
Belief in a primitive historical revelation, once universal among Christians, has almost disappeared; but belief in a very early and highly moral theism is stoutly defended, chiefly on Australian evidence, by Andrew Lang (The Making of Religion and later works).
Samuel Clarke, who defended Newton's view of the world against Leibnitz's strictures, is perhaps chiefly interesting to.
If polytheism is to be seriously defended at all, the basis must be empiricist.
Cesare's dominion at once began to fall to pieces; Guidobaldo, duke of Urbino, returned to his duchy with Venetian help; and the lords of Piombino, Rimini and Pesaro soon regained their own; Cesena, defended by a governor faithful to Cesare, alone held out.
His Histoire des causes premieres was among the first attempts at a history of philosophy, and in his work on Epicurus, following on Gassendi, he defended Epicureanism against the general attacks made against it.
Sulla was defended by Cicero and Hortensius, and acquitted.
It was defended in 196 B.C. against Antiochus the Great of Syria, after which its inhabitants were received as allies of Rome.
He mentions in another place that when at Verona the king was anxious to transfer the accusation of treason brought against Albinus to the whole senate, he defended the senate at great risk.
Stolypin defended the ukaz of the 2nd of June 1907, which in flat contradiction of the provisions of the fundamental laws altered the electoral law without the consent of the legislature, on the ground that what the autocrat had granted the autocrat could take away.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
Already during his brother's lifetime, as duke of Schleswig, Valdemar had successfully defended Denmark against German aggression.
at the top. The terre-plein is well and smoothly paved, and is defended by a crenellated parapet.
In the campaign Mr Taft boldly defended his course from the platform, and apparently lost few votes on account of this opposition.
In 1533, in an important synod, he defended against Martin Bucer the principles of religious freedom as well as his own doctrine and life.
When at last the question arose of giving the Christian world a new pope, this time sole and uncontested, Pierre d'Ailly defended the right of the cardinals, if not to keep the election entirely in their own hands, at any rate to share in the election, and he brought forward an ingenious system for reconciling the pretensions of the council with the rights of the Sacred College.
His dismissal along with other officers was the occasion of another paper controversy in which Conway was defended by Horace Walpole, and gave rise to much constitutional dispute as to the right of the king to remove military officers for their conduct in parliament - a right that was tacitly abandoned by the Crown when the Rockingham ministry of 1765 reinstated the officers who had been removed.
He was a Whig member of the United States senate in 1831-1837, and as such took a prominent part in the legislative struggle over the United States Bank, whose rechartering he favoured and which he resolutely defended against President Jackson's attack, opposing in able speeches the withdrawal of deposits and Secretary Woodbury's " Specie Circular of 1836.
He had long known Armand Marc, comte de Montmorin, the foreign secretary, and, as matters became more strained from the complications with the princes and counts of the empire, he entered into daily communication with the minister, advised him on every point, and, while dictating his policy, defended it in the Assembly.
He defended himself ably against Archbishop Thomas Arundel, but in February he was condemned and was degraded from the priesthood.
In later speeches, too, he defended protection rather as a policy under which industries had been called into being than as advisable if the stage had been clear for the adoption of a new policy.
Only after Suvarov had valiantly defended Kinburn did he take heart again, and besiege and capture Ochakov and Bender.
It is defended by two distinct lines of works.
While the bishop publicly defended the royal measures, Nordin became the king's private adviser.
His philosophic theory was identical with that of Pomponazzi, whose De immortalitate animi he defended and amplified in a treatise De mente humana.
These two bodies nominally formed the legislature, the Tribunate merely discussing the bills sent to it by an important body, the Council of State; while the Corps Legislatif, sitting in silence, heard them defended by councillors of state and criticized by members of the Tribunate; thereupon it passed or rejected such proposals by secret voting.
Manilius was later accused by the aristocratical party on some unknown charge and defended by Cicero.
On the 7th of January 1 794 Robespierre, who on a former occasion had defended Camille when in danger at the hands of the National Convention, in addressing the Jacobin club counselled not the expulsion of Desmoulins, but the burning of certain numbers of the Vieux Cordelier.
3 1911, when the police, after a time reinforced by soldiers, were kept at bay for many hours by two foreign burglars who defended themselves in a house with Mauser pistols, and who ultimately perished when the building caught fire and was burnt.
Here he supported the Consensus-Union, and afterwards defended himself in the pamphlets Die erste Generalsynode der evang.
Two years later, with that degree of moral courage which was one of his distinguishing characteristics, as it has been of his descendants, he, aided by Josiah Quincy, Jr., defended the British soldiers who were arrested after the "Boston Massacre," charged with causing the death of four persons, inhabitants of the colony.
Sharp's proposed association of the parasitic wingless insects in a group Anapterygota cannot, however, be defended as natural; and recent researches into the structure of these forms enables us to associate them confidently with related winged orders.
These he defended with great ability, but with so much heat that Erasmus joined in demanding his expulsion from the city.
'While the necessary operations were in progress, the fleet occupied temporary bases in Skye and Mull and in the defended harbour of Lough Swilly in Ireland, and the absence of the fleet was successfully concealed.
Eustace was knighted in 1147, at which date he was probably from sixteen to eighteen years of age; and in 1151 he joined Louis in an abortive raid upon Normandy, which had accepted the title of the empress Matilda, and was now defended by her husband, Geoffrey of Anjou.
Before he could pass the river with safety it was necessary to subdue certain fortresses, one of which was for several days vigorously defended by the governor, Yussuf Kothual, a Kharizmian.
Strongly in agreement with the Hegelian tradition, he defended and amplified it in Die gegenweirtige Aufgabe der Philosophie (1852) and Verstehen and Beurteilen (1877).
From Sackett's Harbor American expeditions against York (now Toronto) and Fort George respectively set out in April and May 1813; though scantily garrisoned it was successfully defended by General Jacob Brown (who had just taken command) against an attack, on the 29th of May, of Sir George Prevost with a squadron under Sir James Lucas Yeo.
It was heroically defended against Shapur (Sapor) II., who unsuccessfully besieged it thrice.
Though never admitted into the inner circle of the king's associates, he found the king the most appreciative of readers and stimulating of companions, and the queen one of the most faithful of his friends; in biographical works and on other occasions he always defended the memory of the unfortunate monarch.
Their first operation was the siege of Nicaea, defended by a Seljuk garrison, but eventually captured, with the aid of Alexius, after a month's siege (June 18).
He established himself in 1824 on the rock-fortress of Thaba Bosigo, where, in 1831, he successfully defended himself against Mosilikatze; and thereafter became second only to that chief among the natives north of the Orange River.
During this period the revolt of the African prince Gildo was suppressed (398); Italy was successfully defended against Alaric, who was defeated at Pollentia (402) and Verona (403); and the barbarian hordes under the Goth Radagaisus were destroyed (406).
He belonged to what was called the Great German party, and opposed the project of reconstituting Germany under the leadership of Prussia; he defended the government against the liberal and democratic opposition; at this time he began the struggle against the secularization of schools, which continued throughout his life.
In a great meeting at Cologne in March 1887 he defended and justified his action, and claimed for the Centre full independence of action in all purely political questions.
Thus, in regard to the Jay treaty, he defended the constitutional right of the house to consider the treaty, but he did not urge rejection in this specific case.
Under the name of "Anti-Masons" able leaders united those who were discontented with existing political conditions, and the fact that William Wirt, their choice for the presidency in 1832, was not only a Mason but even defended the Order in a speech before the convention that nominated him, indicates that simple opposition to Masonry soon became a minor factor in holding together the various elements of which the party was composed.
The identification of Marash with Germanicia has been disputed, but successfully defended by Sir W.
The following year, the question of the intervention of kings in the election of bishops having been raised in a pamphlet by Charles Hersent (Optatus Gallus de cavendo schismate, 1640), Marca defended what were then called the liberties of the Gallican Church, in his celebrated treatise De concordia sacerdotii et imperii, seu de libertatibus ecclesiae gallicanae (1641).
After the Bourbon restoration Lanjuinais consistently defended the principles of constitutional monarchy, but most of his time was given to religious and political subjects.
In May 1 775 a British schooner in the Mystic defended by a force of marines was taken by colonial militia under General John Stark and Israel Putnam, - one of the first conflicts of the War of Independence.
On the other hand, the epistle has been defended by Bleek, Neander, Reuss, B.
The execution of Robespierre on the 28th of July had ended the Terror, and Babeuf - now self-styled "Gracchus" Babeuf - defended the men of Thermidor and attacked the fallen terrorists with his usual violence.
The king of Navarre, who defended this deed, had, however, many friends in France and was in communication with Edward III.; and consequently John was forced to make a treaty at Mantes and to compensate him for the loss of Angouleme by a large grant of lands, chiefly in Normandy.
At his trial he was defended and betrayed by the infamous Leonard MacNally, and was convicted of treason; and after delivering an eloquent speech from the dock, was hanged on the 20th of September 1803.
In America he was defended by John Jay and John Adams, and after stating his case to Congress was allowed to return to Paris (1781) to settle his affairs.
We seem forced to accept a practical criterion for purposes of interpretation rather than one which can be theoretically defended against all adverse criticism.
The Zohar, that farrago of absurdity and spiritual devotion, was the weapon with which these Christians defended Jewish literature against hostile ecclesiastic bodies (Abrahams, Jew.
Farragut, with a powerful fleet, ascended the Mississippi past Forts Jackson and St Philip, which defended the approach to New Orleans, and a military force under General B.
A constitution of 1868 gave suffrage to the blacks, and disfranchised all whites made ineligible to office under the proposed Fourteenth Amendment to the national Constitution, and also (practically) those who had by word, pen or vote defended secession.
Grant's advance on this centre, then defended by General A.
In a tract entitled The Absolute Unlawfulness of Stage Entertainments (1726) Law was tempted by the corruptions of the stage of the period to use unreasonable language, and incurred some effective criticism from John Dennis in The Stage Defended.
On the following morning the French reached Regensburg and at once proceeded to assault its medieval walls, but the Austrian garrison bravely defended it till the last of the stragglers was safely across on the north bank.
Since that period it has remained nominally a part of the Turkish empire; but with the decline of Turkish power, and the general disintegration of the empire, in the first half of the 18th century, a then governor-general, Ahmed Pasha, made it an independent pashalic. Nadir Shah, the able and energetic usurper of the Persian throne, attempting to annex the province once more to Persia, besieged the city, but Ahmed defended it with such courage that the invader was compelled to raise the siege, after suffering great loss.
Of the Spaniards, Palafox, after his defeat at Tudela had most gallantly defended Saragossa a second time (Dec. 20, 1808-Feb.
718), archbishop of Toledo, revived and vehemently defended the expression Christus Filius Dei adoptivus, and was aided by his much more gifted friend Felix, bishop of Urgella.
15th, 1900), the first of a series intended to correct and replace Renan's presentation of that great subject, was promptly censured by Cardinal Richard, archbishop of Paris; and though scholarly and zealous ecclesiastics, such as the Jesuit Pere Durand and Monseigneur Mignot, archbishop of Albi, defended the general method and several conclusions of the article, the aged cardinal never rested henceforward till he had secured a papal condemnation also.
Judge Chase was defended by the ablest lawyers in the country, including Luther Martin, Robert Goodloe Harper (1765-1825), Philip Barton Key (1757-1815), Charles Lee (1758-1815), and Joseph Hopkinson (1770-1842).
He subdued the Gascons, and defended Narbonne against the infidels.
It was, however, no doubt at his wish that his chaplain wrote the Life of Julian the Apostate, in reply to Dr Hickes's sermons, in which the lawfulness of resistance in extreme cases was defended.
Joining forces, the Danes and English captured York, although it was defended by two Norman castles.
This opinion, defended by Bonaventura, Alexander of Hales, Scotus and others, soon became and is now generally accepted.
In recent times Anglican orders have been defended by A.
Once he had defended the monastic orders, advocating their reform and not their suppression, supported the rural clergy and idealized the village priest in his Parocho da Aldeia, after the manner of Goldsmith in the Vicar of Wakefield.
Alfriend's Life of Jefferson Davis (Cincinnati, 1868), which defended him from the charges of incompetence and despotism brought against him; E.
Durban harbour is defended by batteries with heavy modern guns.
Like his master, he defended Plato - or what he considered to be the Platonic theory - against the attacks of Aristotle.
Thus he defended the universalia ante rem as exemplars existent in the divine intelligence, and censured Aristotle's doctrine of the eternity of the world.
Kronstadt, now the sole flourishing trade centre in the kingdom, defended itself with hired mercenaries against the robber barons.
The other army corps and all the fortresses followed his example, Komarom, heroically defended by Klapka, being the last to capitulate (Sept.
Against the charge of an undue insistence on the external graces of manner Chesterfield has been adequately defended by Lord Stanhope (History, iii.
Among the later Cathars of Europe we find the repudiation of marriage defended on the ground that the only true marriage is of Christ with his bride the Virgin church, and perhaps this is why Paulicians and Thonraki would not make of marriage a religious rite or sacrament.
His assault seawards was made mainly on Achradina,1 but the city was defended by a numerous soldiery and by what seems to have been still more formidable, the ingenious contrivances of Archimedes, whose engines dealt havoc among the Roman ships, and frustrated the attack on the fortifications on the northern slopes of Epipolae (Liv.
The isthmus connecting the island with the mainland, which was defended by strong fortifications erected by Charles V.
The theory of a development of Greek medicine from the rites of Asclepius, though defended by eminent names, must accordingly be rejected.
Rabelais not only lectured on Galen and Hippocrates, but edited some works of the latter; and Michael Servetus (1511-1553), in a little tract Syruporum universa ratio, defended the practice of Galen as compared with that of the Arabians.
He shared and defended many of Sydenham's principles, and in the few medical observations he has left shows himself to be even more thorough-going than the "English Hippocrates."
Notwithstanding these decisions, it was insisted by those who defended the revival of the ceremonial use of incense that it was a legal custom of the Church of England.
At his trial Dinizulu was defended by W.
1914 the channel was known to be defended by a number of batteries, some of them armed with very heavy guns.
Elected deputy, he attached himself to the moderate party, and defended the liberty of the press.
At a pastoral conference in 1856 he boldly defended evangelical freedom as regards the legal sanctity of Sunday.
In April 1900 it was successfully defended against the Boers under Christiaan de Wet by a Cape force of Irregulars commanded by Colonel E.
Under the Restoration he defended Liberal principles in the Constitutionnel, of which he was the founder.
On his return to Paris in 1791 he defended the rights of San Domingo before the National Assembly.
His first book, The Perpetuity of a Regenerate Man's Estate (1627), defended one of the main Calvinistic positions, and The Unloveliness of Love-locks and Health's Sickness (1628) attacked prevailing fashions without any sense of proportion, treating follies on the same footing as scandalous vices.
Prynne now attacked the bishops and the Roman Catholics and defended the taking up of arms by the parliament.
This change became gradually more apparent in his preaching and in his conferences with his clerical associates, and occasioned much controversy in the ecclesiastical courts where, however, he successfully defended his position.
Among the factors, economic, geographic, political and social, which combined to bring about the decline of the Hanseatic League, none was probably more influential than the absence of a German political power comparable in unity and energy with those of France and England, which could quell particularism at home, and abroad maintain in its vigour the trade which these towns had developed and defended with their imperfect union.
It is defended by nine forts on the right bank of the Vistula and by three on the left bank, and, with Warsaw, Novo-Georgievsk and BrestLitovsk, forms the Polish "quadrilateral."
The principal formation is coralline limestone; the eastern coast is defended by coral reefs, and the neighbouring sea (extending as far as New Guinea, and thus demonstrating a physical connexion with that land) is shallow, and abounds in coral in full growth.
in circuit, and is defended by a citadel on the south-west.
The entrance from Chesapeake Bay is defended by Fortress Monroe on Old Point Comfort and by Fort Wood on a small island called the Rip Raps near the middle of the channel; and at Portsmouth, a few miles up the Elizabeth river, is, an important United States navy-yard.
The form Jehovah was used in the 16th century by many authors, both Catholic and Protestant, and in the 17th was zealously defended by Fuller, Gataker, Leusden and others, against the criticisms of such scholars as Drusius, Cappellus and the elder Buxtorf.
Nearly opposite the town is Wilton Castle, which defended the ford in the disturbed reign of Stephen, and suffered in the Civil Wars, being held for the Parliament and burned by the Royalists.
above sea-level and is defended from inundations by an embankment above the town, called the Murallon.
In this he defended the forensic aspect of the gospel.
Brought up in the nurture and admonition of Canning, he defended Roman Catholic emancipation, and thought the duke of Wellington's government unworthy of national confidence.
Its fertile surroundings, its central position at the junction of several great roads, and the natural strength of its position, defended by a river along two-thirds of its circumference, all combined to make Verona one of the richest and most important cities in northern Italy, although its extent within the walls was not large.
Bravely defended by the Austrian general Berger until the 1st of July 1849, it was then captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the insurrection.
in the volume Unitarianism Defended, 1839.
Of military antiquities the most remarkable are Tyrone's ditches, near Poyntzpass; and the pass of Moyry, the entry into the county from the south, which was fiercely contested by the Irish in 1595 and 1600, is defended by a castle.
Calais, formerly a celebrated fortress, is defended by four forts, not of modern construction, by a citadel built in 1560, which overlooks it on the west, and by batteries.
At the time of the Sicilian Vespers (1282), which drove the French out of Sicily, Messina bravely defended itself against Charles of Anjou, and repulsed his attack.
About the year 1500, the liberties of the town, long defended against the encroachments of the popes, were entirely abolished.
The Tory party and the established church were defended in the Critical Review (1756-1817), founded by Archibald Hamilton and supported by Smollett, Dr Johnson and Robertson.
After a short stay at Constantinople, which his son Constantine had successfully defended against renewed incursions by the Avars, Heraclius resumed his attacks upon the Persians (627).
Defoe declared that Lord Annesley was preparing the army in Ireland to join a Jacobite rebellion, and was indicted for libel; and prior to his trial (1715) he published an apologia entitled An Appeal to Honour and Justice, in which he defended his political conduct.
It was defended by James I.
In the last action he was severely wounded by the explosion of a powder-wagon and he was soon after shut up in Devizes by Waller, where he defended himself until relieved by the victory of Roundway Down on the 13th of July.
The discovery that the poet had printed secretly 1500 copies of The Patriot King caused him to publish a correct version in 1749, and stirred up a further altercation with Warburton, who defended his friend against Bolingbroke's bitter aspersions, the latter, whose conduct was generally reprehended, publishing a Familiar Epistle to the most Impudent Man Living.
It is provided with a large dry-dock and is defended by fortifications of a modern type.
Osiander, maintaining the infusion of Christ's righteousness into the believer, impugned the Lutheran doctrine of imputation; Chemnitz defended it with striking ability.
A fortress defended the north-west corner of the town, and was captured by the English from the Mahrattas in October 1803.
In 1336 it was besieged by the English under William, Lord Montacute, afterwards 1st earl of Salisbury, but was successfully defended by Black Agnes of Dunbar, countess of March, a member of the Murray family.
Scanty remains of walling and of buildings of the Roman period exist above ground; traces of a large rectangular platform were found in 1876, and part of the thermae in 1829; it occupied the summit of a hill defended by ravines, called Piano di Civita.
His speeches were apt to be prolix, and he defended their prolixity on principle (i.
Having adopted the reformed doctrines in 1552 and 1 553, it fell into the hands of the French through treachery, and was heroically and successfully defended against Charles V.
At first the French were successful and captured several Piedmontese fortresses, but after besieging Turin, which was skilfully defended by the duke, for several months, they were completely defeated by Victor and Prince Eugene of Savoy (1706), and eventually driven out of the other towns they had captured.
In 76 B.C. he was sued by C. Fannius Chaerea for 50,000 sesterces (about 400), and was defended by Cicero in a famous speech.
He then brilliantly defended Komarom for two months, and finally surrendered on honourable terms. Klapka left the country at once, and lived thenceforward for many years in exile, at first in England and afterwards chiefly in Switzerland.
In contrast to the majority of Italian cardinals of his day, Cajetan was a man of austere piety and fervent zeal; and if, from the standpoint of the Dominican idea of the supreme necessity of maintaining ecclesiastical discipline, he defended the extremist claims of the papacy, he also proclaimed that the pope should be "the mirror of God on earth."
On the 18th of October the Swedes invested the fortress-monastery of Czenstochowa, but the place was heroically defended; and after a seventy days' siege the besiegers were compelled to retire with great loss.
In the beginning of the 13th century the village received municipal rights; in 1232 it was captured and burned by the landgrave Conrad of Thuringia and his allies; in 1631 it was taken by William of Hesse; in 1760 it was successfully defended by General Luckner against the French; and in 1761 it was occupied by the French and unsuccessfully bombarded by the Allies.
In a like spirit of moderation he opposed the Thermidorian reaction, and defended Barere, Billaud-Varenne the Collot d'Herbois from the accusations launched against them on the 22nd of March 1795.
Himself denounced on the 20th of May 1795, he was defended by his brother Thomas, but only escaped condemnation by the vote of amnesty of the 4th of Brumaire, year IV.
He graduated in arts, and claims to have graduated in medicine (of this there is no record at Paris), published six lectures on " syrups " (the most popular of his works), lectured on geometry and " astrology " (from a medical point of view) and defended by counsel a suit brought against him (March 1538) by the medical faculty on the ground of his astrological lectures.
The frontier of Dacia was successfully defended against the Scythians and Sarmatians, and a tract of territory reconquered in north Britain.
On the 8th of June the propositions extracted from the De Ecclesia were again taken up with some fulness of detail; some of these he repudiated as incorrectly given, others he defended; but when asked to make a general recantation he steadfastly declined, on the ground that to do so would be a dishonest admission of previous guilt.
He served in this body from 1835 until 1843, and here the marked inconsistency which characterized his public life became manifest; for when John Tyler had become president, had been "read out" of the Whig party, and had vetoed Whig measures (including a tariff bill), for which Cushing had voted, Cushing first defended the vetoes and then voted again for the bills.
His brother Honore (1581-1649), first duke of Chaulnes, was governor of Picardy and marshal of France (1619), and defended his province successfully in 1625 and 1635.
In 1773 there appeared in the Public Advertiser one of Franklin's cleverest hoaxes, " An Edict of the King of Prussia," proclaiming that the island of Britain was a colony of Prussia, having been settled by Angles and Saxons, having been protected by Prussia, having been defended by Prussia against France in the war just past, and never having been definitely freed from Prussia's rule; and that, therefore, Great Britain should now submit to certain taxes laid by Prussia - the taxes being identical with those laid upon the American colonies by Great Britain.
He assisted the first efforts of the Reformation at Magdeburg (1524), at Goslar (I 531) and at Einbeck (1534); took an active part in the debates at Schmalkalden (1537), where he defended the use of the sacrament by the unbelieving; and (1539) spoke out strongly against the bigamy of the landgrave of Hesse.
and live in square mud-plastered houses called tembe which can be easily fortified and defended.
It is defended by several batteries armed with modern heavy guns.
In 1526 he was at the abortive conference of Baden, and in January 1528 drafted and defended the ten theses for the conference of Bern which established the new religion in that city.
On his death (29th of April 1417) she took upon herself the guardianship of their young son Louis III., and in her capacity of regent defended the duchy against the English.
The clergy naturally stoutly defended the powers which they had long enjoyed and believed to be rightly theirs.
The idea of the supreme power on earth of a general council of Christendom, deliberating in the name of the Holy Spirit, convoked, if necessary, independently of the popes, was defended by many, and advocated by the university of Paris.
Considered the bulwark of the kingdom on that side, Bilbeis was by the Moslems defended with strong fortifications.
Worth in the early morning of the 8th of September these buildings were defended by more than io,000 Mexicans under Generals Leon, Alvarez and Perez, and they were captured only after a most desperate fight, which cost the Americans 787 killed and wounded and the Mexicans at least 2000 killed, wounded, and prisoners.
To enter the city by way of the Tacubaya causeway it was still necessary for the Americans to capture Chapultepec. This hill, defended by about 4000 Mexicans under General Nicolas Bravo, was bombarded on the 12th of September, and was carried by assault on the 13th.
corps; for the left division failed to storm La Haye Sainte, which was most gallantly defended, and Picton's division met the remainder of D'Erlon's corps face to face, engaging them in a murderous infantry duel in which Picton fell.
He acquiesced in the fall of Robespierre in 1794, but later defended Barere and others among his colleagues, declaring that he himself had constantly signed papers without reading them, as it was physically impossible to do so in the press of business.
He finally forced his way with provisions and reinforcements into Rennes, which he successfully defended till June 1357, when the siege was raised in pursuance of the truce of Bordeaux.
At a meeting held in January 1766, in protest against the Stamp Act, it was declared, that "Whereas it appears from ancient Records and other Memorials of Incontestible Validity that our Ancestors with a great Sum Purchased said township, with great Peril possessed and Defended the Same, we are Born free (having never been in bondage to any), an inheritance of Inestimable Value," and a penalty of 20S.
Fremont is on the site of a favourite abode of the Indians, and a trading post was at times maintained here; but the place is best known in history as the site of Fort Stephenson, erected during the War of 1812, and on the 2nd of August 1813 gallantly and successfully defended by Major George Croghan (1791-1849), with 160 men, against about T000 British and Indians under Brigadier-General Henry A.
His methods cannot always be defended, and were explained by himself, only on grounds of necessity and the character of the electorate with which he had to deal.
He held the most rigid views on the sanctity of marriage and against easy divorce, and vehemently defended them in controversies with Robert Dale Owen and others.
deep, was defended by counterscarp galleries.
or areas, could be defended in the last resort as a keep. In addition to this the terreplein was retrenched.
At Chi-Kuan Fort the terreplein of the fort had been covered with entanglements defended by machine guns on the gorge parapets, and the Japanese could make no way.
licius, the bridge defended by Horatius.
In October of the same year, however, he returned to Saxony, excusing himself by asserting that his lands had not been defended according to the emperor's promise.
The castle, formerly the ducal residence, is in the Bergstadt, defended by moats, and surrounded by beautiful gardens.
But Rousseau had not, like Montesquieu, a position which guaranteed him from serious danger; he was not wealthy like Helvetius; he had not the wonderful suppleness and trickiness which even without his wealth would probably have defended Voltaire himself; and he lacked entirely the "bottom" of Freron and Diderot.
Palmer, who had been advising the British government during these negotiations, and who (4th August 1871) had defended the treaty in the House of Commons, was briefed on behalf of Great Britain.
Cicero defended one of its members in an extant speech.
At the same time a piece was cut off the park to prevent the undue contraction of the Place by the necessary bringing forward of the palace, and the pits which played a certain part in the revolution of 1830 when the Dutch defended the park for a few days against the Belgians were filled up. The Palais de la Nation was constructed between 1779 and 1783, also during the Austrian period.
The Boca Grande was filled with stone after the city had been captured three times, because of the ease with which an enemy's ships could pass through it at any time, and the narrow and more easily defended Boca Chica, 7 m.
thick, and is defended by several formidablelooking forts, which have long been dismantled, but are still in a good state of preservation.
During the civil wars Marcus Brutus, the lieutenant of Lepidus, held out within its walls against Pompeius in 78 B.C., and in 44 B.C. the place was successfully defended by D.
Exchanged during the winter, he defended Berkeley Castle for a short time against Rainsborough, but was soon in the field again.
They also, in the absence of certainty, allowed a large scope to probability as a motive to action, and defended their doctrine on this point with greater care and skill.
The upright and considerate manner in which he treated the provincials won him their affection, but at the same time brought upon him the hatred of Nero, who felt specially aggrieved because Soranus had refused to punish a city which had defended the statues of its gods against the Imperial commissioners.
But these measures proved inadequate, and in 1533 the lord marcher, Ostafi Daszkiewicz, the hero of Kaniev, which he had successfully defended against a countless host of Turks and Tatars, was consulted by the diet as to the best way of defending the Ukraine permanently against such inroads.
Talleyrand had constantly defended the rights of France's old ally Saxony in the name of the principle which his master Louis XVIII.
Laud defended Richard Montague, who had aroused the wrath of the parliament by his pamphlet against Calvinism.
During the time he held this office he publicly defended the Dominicans against the university of Paris, commented on St John, and answered the errors of the Arabian philosopher, Averroes.
Bryennius successfully defended the walls of Constantinople against the attacks of Godfrey of Bouillon (1097); conducted the peace negotiations between Alexius and Bohemund, prince of Antioch (ll08); and played an important part in the defeat of Malik-Shah, the Seljuk sultan of Iconium (1116).
In his theology he laid stress on the Gospel and on no sectarian opinions - he was, however, a pre-millenarianite - and he worked with men as much more "advanced" than himself as Henry Drummond, whom he eagerly defended against orthodox attack, and George Adam Smith.
To the south of the town stands a modern palace, defended by earthworks and Krupp guns.
The cause of the Ciceronians was defended by the elder Scaliger in 1531 and 1536, and by Etienne Dolet in 1535, and the controversy was continued by other scholars down to the year 1610.
The claims of verse composition have since been judiciously defended by the Hon.
The Confederates, not dismayed thereby, effected their junction and moved on Corinth, which was defended by Rosecrans and 23,000 Federal troops.
The full Arab name is El Golea'a el Menia'a, or the " little fortress well defended."
Though undoubtedly sparing his Swedes unduly, to the just displeasure of the allies, Charles John, as commander-in-chief of the northern army, successfully defended the approaches to Berlin against Oudinot in August and against Ney in September; but after Leipzig he went his own way, determined at all hazards to cripple Denmark and secure Norway.
The discussions on the budget entirely monopolized public attention for the year, and while the measure was defended by Mr Lloyd George in parliament with much suavity, and by Mr Asquith, Sir Edward Grey and Mr Haldane outside the House of Commons with tact and moderation, the feelings of its opponents were exasperated by a series of inflammatory public speeches at Limehouse and elsewhere from the chancellor of the exchequer, who took these opportunities to rouse the passions of the working-classes against the landed classes and the peers.
After the second Restoration he became a member of the Chamber of Peers, in which he ably defended the cause of popular liberty against the attacks of the ultra-royalists.
On the land side the town was formerly defended by a fosse, and there are still considerable remains of the old wall, including the handsome South Gate of the 15th century.
He took the doctrines of Zeno and Cleanthes and crystallized them into a definite system; he further defended them against the attacks of the Academy.
On the south side of the town pleasant gardens extend along the old Singel, or outer canal, and there is a large open space, the Van der Werf Park, named after the burgomaster, Pieter Andriaanszoon van der Werf, who defended the town against the Spaniards in 1574 This open space was formed by the accidental explosion of a powdership in 1807, hundreds of houses being demolished, including that of the Elzevir family of printers.
In his Institutes of Theology, no material modification is attempted on the doctrines of Calvinism,which he received with all simplicity of faith as revealed in the Divine word, and defended as in harmony with the most profound philosophy of human nature and of the Divine providence.
Fortification was well understood, as may still be seen in the remains of walled and escarped strongholds on hills and in steep ravines, while lagoon-cities like Mexico had the water approaches defended by fleets of boats and the causeways protected by towers and ditches; even after the town was entered, the pyramid-temples with their surrounding walls were forts capable of stubborn resistance.
an attempt was made to carry out a consolidation of the internal debt, which failed; the army was reduced and reorganized, and the northern frontier was defended by military colonies," formed partly of civilized Seminole Indians from the United States.
It is the chief fortress near the Bulgarian frontier, being defended by a ring of powerful modern forts.
He was recalled to active service during the Hundred Days, and as commander of the army of the Var he defended the south of France against the Austrians.
On the other hand, we learn from Herodotus of the great serpent which defended the citadel of Athens; the Roman genius loci took the form of a serpent; a snake was kept and fed with milk in the temple of Potrimpos, an old Slavonic god.
In 92 he defended his uncle P. Rutilius Rufus, who had been unjustly accused of extortion in Asia.
Blaye is also defended by the Fort Pâté on an island in the river and the Fort Medoc on its left bank, both of the 17th century.
Otho's advanced guard successfully defended Placentia against Alienus Caecina, and compelled that general to fall back on Cremona.
There is only one main entrance, on the north side (A), defended by three separate iron doors.
The fourth and last school - the "laxists" - carried this principle a step farther, and held that a practice must be unobjectionable, if it could prove that any one "grave Doctor" had defended it; even if dancing on Sunday had hitherto lain under the ban of the church, a single casuist could legitimate it by one stroke of his pen.
He was not popular with his subjects, who even brought an accusation against him in Rome, on which occasion he was defended by Tiberius.
History comes nearer to philosophy; and Aristotle's Constitutions were known to his enemy Timaeus, who attacked him for disparaging the descent of the Locrians of Italy, according to Polybius (xii.), who defended Aristotle.
He says that Aristotle (I) divided his commentationes and arts taught to his pupils into i wrspuch and IcKpoarcKa; (2) taught the latter in the morning walk (iwOcvov 7rEpi-rraTov), the former in the evening walk (SaXcvew 71Epi-zrarov); (3) divided his books in the same manner; (4) defended himself against Alexander's letter, complaining that it was not right to his pupils to have published his acroamatic works, by replying in a letter that they were published and not published, because they are intelligible only to those who heard them.
Since the demolition of its fortifications in 1807, it has been defended only by some small forts.
In the civil wars of 1641 the place was besieged by O'Neal and the Northern Irish forces; but it was gallantly defended by Sir Henry Tichbourne, and after a long blockade was relieved by the Marquess of Ormond.
The harbour, protected by breakwaters, with a lighthouse at the entrance, is well defended from the north winds, but those from the south, south-east, and south-west prove sometimes highly dangerous.
He was eventually estranged from Hume, and defended James Beattie's attack on that philosopher.
he decided to wait no longer, and six heavy columns of attack advanced against the suburbs defended by St Cyr and now also by the leading troops of the main army.
At first inclined to conservatism, he afterwards became an exponent of the mediating theology (Vermittelungs-theologie), and ultimately a liberal theologian and advanced critic. Associating himself with the "German Protestant Union" (Deutsche Protestanten-verein), he defended the community's claim to autonomy, the cause of universal suffrage in the church and the rights of the laity.
Adroit politicians flattered the king's vanity, defended his follies and taught him how to violate the spirit of the constitution while keeping the letter of the law.
The new law officer defended his conduct with the assertion that his alliance in politics had been with Mr George Grenville, and that the connexion had been severed on his death.
Further, he defended against the Stoics the Peripatetic doctrine of the eternity of the world and the indestructibility of the human race.
Besides these detached forts and their connecting roads, the north of Britain was defended by Hadrian's wall (figs.
It was defended by a deep ditch, which can still be traced, and by walls, a portion of which, on the eastern side, constructed of rectangular blocks of tufa, was brought to light in 1897.
It is defended in a monograph by H.
From the main gate, which was defended by a tower, a strong passage led between the outer wall and an inner one to an inner gate, thence to a propylaeum or double porch, with two wooden columns on each side, adjoining which were chambers for guards.
On several occasions he defended the cause of moderation and justice against the fanatical crusaders, but he never had the energy to make it prevail.
Of the special regard which Henry seemed to have conceived for him Latimer took advantage to pen the famous letter on the free circulation of the Bible, an address remarkable, not only for what Froude justly calls " its almost unexampled grandeur," but for its striking repudiation of the aid of temporal weapons to defend the faith, "for God," he says, "will not have it defended by man or man's power, but by His Word only, by which He hath evermore defended it, and that by a way far above man's power and reason."
During the second half of this missionary period of his life he superintended as bisho p the churches of Pennsylvania, defended the Moravian colonies against the Indians at the time of war between France and England, became the apologist of his body against the attacks of the Lutherans and the Pietists, and did much to moderate the mystical extravagances pf Zinzendorf, with which his simple, practical and healthy nature was out of sympathy.
found it defended by a castle built by a king of Damascus; but at the beginning of the following century the Arabian geographer Yaqut speaks of it as deserted and overthrown.
In 1357 it was unsuccessfully defended by the wife of Francesco Ordelaffi, lord of Forli, against the papal troops under Albornoz.
Nothing, however, remains of the former enceinte or even of the famous old citadel defended by General Chasse in 1832, except the Steen, which - has been restored and contains a museum of arms and antiquities.
After the establishment of Belgian independence Antwerp was defended only by the citadel and an enceinte of about 22 m.
In 1476 the Venetians successfully defended Kotschinos against a Turkish siege; but in 1657 Kastro was captured by the Turks from the Venetians after a siege of sixty-three days.
Sidon, Tyre and Aradus, though now connected with the mainland, were built originally upon islands; the Phoenicians preferred such sites, because they were convenient for shipping and easily defended against attack.
The antiquity of the Ossianic poems was defended in the introduction by Archibald Clerk to his edition of the Poems of Ossian (1870).
At Salem he was a member of the congregation of Roger Williams, whom he resolutely defended in his trouble with the New England clerical hierarchy, and excited by Williams's teachings, cut the cross of St George from the English flag in token of his hatred of all symbols of Romanism.
Works, p. 166) has defended Grotius, affirming that his work "is perhaps the most complete that the world has yet owed, at so early a stage in the progress of any science, to the genius and learning of one man."
The Lombard princes, who had frequently defended their city against the Saracens, succumbed before Robert Guiscard, who took the castle after an eight months' siege and made Salerno the capital of his new territory.
From 1709 to 1712 he defended.
Jurieu defended the doctrines of Protestantism with great ability against the attacks of Antoine Arnauld, Pierre Nicole and Bossuet, but was equally ready to enter into dispute with his fellow Protestant divines (with Louis Du Moulin and Claude Payon, for instance) when their opinions differed from his own even on minor matters.
Barcelona was formerly surrounded by a strong line of ramparts, and defended, or more correctly, overawed by a citadel on the north-east, erected in 1715 by Philip V.; but these fortifications being felt as a painful restriction on the natural development of the city, were, in spite of the opposition of the central government, finally abolished by the local authorities in 1845.
In 1828 it was gallantly defended by Soliman Pasha, who, after holding out from the middle of May until the end of June, was allowed to march out with the honours of war.
Its name was originally Magh Allo, that is, Plain of the Allo (the old name used by Spenser for this part of the river), and the ford was defended by a castle, built by the Desmonds, the ruins of which remain.
In 1662 as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza on her marriage to Charles II., it came into the possession of the English, and they defended it against Mulai Ismail in 1680, but in 1684 it was decided, on account of expense, to abandon the place to the Moors.
seems to be the first who made it an axiom that strongholds are only to be defended by artillery, the defence before his time having relied mostly on small firearms. He was the inventor of defence by a system of sluices, which proved of the highest importance for the Netherlands.
It was defended by Fort Fisher, a heavy earthwork on the peninsula between the ocean and Cape Fear river, manned by 1400 men under Colonel William Lamb.
The fortress was bravely defended, and the siege was raised on the approach of succour from the allied cities.
In 1768 Monge became professor of mathematics, and in 1771 professor of physics, at Mezieres; in 1778 he married Mme Horbon, a young widow whom he had previously defended in a very spirited manner from an unfounded charge; in 1780 he was appointed to a chair of hydraulics at the Lyceum in Paris (held by him together with his appointments at Mezieres), and was received as a member of the Academie; his intimate friendship with C. L.
Though this theory was not generally adopted by the ancients, it has been defended, but not with complete success, by some modern writers.
Lessing's theory of the origin of the epigram is somewhat fanciful, but no other critic has offered so many pregnant hints as to the laws of epigrammatic verse, or defended with so much force and ingenuity the character of Martial.
In 1672 the town was besieged by the bishop of Munster, but it was successfully defended, and in 1698 its fortifications were improved under Coehoorn's direction.
A scholar and a linguist, he was a match for the diplomats of the Christian powers, against whom he successfully defended the interests of his country.
This non-Semitic system, which is found, in many instances, on alternate lines with a regular Semitic translation, in other cases in opposite columns to a Semitic rendering, and again without any Semitic equivalent at all, has been held by one school, founded and still vigorously defended by the distinguished French Assyriologist, Joseph Halevy, to be nothing more than a priestly system of cryptography based, of course, on the then current Semitic speech.
Having obtained possession of a region of impenetrable forest, they defended themselves with a valour which, becoming part of their national character, raised them to the rank of a powerful and conquering nation.
He, however, proved quite unfit for his high position; he rejected the advice of Alaric and lost in consequence the province of Africa, the granary of Rome, which was defended by the partisans of Honorius.
He was educated at Oxford, and was first brought into notice by his controversy with Dr Henry Chandler regarding the Irish massacre, in which he defended Charles I.
After much unnecessary delay, at a time when prompt action was required, the prince on the 23rd of September entered Brussels and, with little opposition, occupied the upper or court portion of it, but when they attempted to advance into the lower town the troops found the streets barricaded and defended by citizens in arms. Desultory fighting between the soldiers and the insurgents continued for three days until, finding that he was making no headway, the prince ordered a retreat.
This review, which owed much of its success to Waller's energy, defended the intense preoccupation of the new writers with questions of style, and became the depository of the Parnassian tradition in Belgium.
During the time of its prosperity Amarapura was defended by a rampart and a large square citadel, with a broad moat, the walls being 7000 ft.
He energetically defended the republic against the Boulangist agitation, and took an equally courageous part in the Dreyfus affair.
While the prisoner defended himself with the calmest dignity and self-possession, Coke burst into the bitterest invective, brutally addressing the great courtier as if he had been a servant, in the phrase, long remembered for its insolence and its utter injustice - "Thou hast an English face, but a 'Spanish heart!"
Full of an extreme reverence for the common law which he knew so well, he defended it alike against the court of chancery, the ecclesiastical courts, and the royal prerogative.
In 1641 it declared for the Roman Catholic party, and in 1650 it was gallantly defended by Hugh O'Neill against the English under Cromwell.
HADRIAN'S WALL, the name usually given to the remains of the Roman fortifications which defended the northern frontier of the Roman province of Britain, between the Tyne and the Solway.
A deep moat was dug outside it by Tukulti-Inaristi or Tukulti-Masu (about 1270 B.C.), and it was further defended on the land side by a salkhu or outwork.
6.3) for a decree of Hadrian respecting the Jews, but he is best known as the writer of a Dialogue (between Papiscus, an Alexandrian Jew, and Jason, who represents the author) on the witness of prophecy to Jesus Christ, which was approvingly defended by Origen against the reproaches of Celsus.
The prisoner is defended by an officer, whom he may himself appoint, and can be acquitted by a simple majority, but only be condemned by a two-thirds majority.
Henry defended his rights with vigour and once again Germany was ravaged by war, for although he was unpopular in Bavaria he was strongly supported by the Saxons, who, since the time of Henry IV., had always been ready to join in an attack on the, monarchy, and he had little difficulty in driving Albert the Bear from the land.
The Spanish troops and the army of the League invaded the Rhenish Palatinate, which was defended by Fredericks remaining adherents, Christian of Brunswick and Count Ernst von Mansfeld, but after several battles it passed completely into the possession of the imperialists.
At a later stage in his reign he was guilty of an act of even grosser selfishness; for after the War of the Polish Succession, in which he supported the claims of Augustus III.,elector of Saxony,he yielded Lorraine to Stanislaus Leszczynski, whose claims had been defended by France, and through whom France ultimately secured this beautiful German province.
In Baden, Wurttemberg and Hanover the railways were almost entirely the property of the state, but in all other parts public and private lines existed side by side, an arrangement which seemed to combine the disadvantages of both systems. In 1871 threequarters of the railway lines belonged to private companies, and the existence of these powerful private corporations, while they were defended by many of the Liberals, was, according to the national type of thought, something of an anomaly.
They were measures in which the state no longer, as in the school inspection law or in the introductiqn of civil marriage, defended its prerogatives against the Church, but assumed itself a direct control over ecclesiastical matters.
It was badly drawn up tion and badly defended.
Puttkammer, who had now become minister of the interior, defended the practice, and a royal edict of 4th January 1882 affirmed the monarchical character of the Prussian constitution, the right of the king personally to direct the policy of the state, and required those officials who held appointments of a political nature to defend the policy of the government, even at elections.
Another result of the personal government by the emperor was that it was impossible, in dealing with recent history, to determine how far the ministers of state were really responsible for the measures which they defended, and how far they were the instruments and mouthpieces of the policy of the emperor.
The National-Sozialer Verein defended the union of Monarchy and Socialism.
In Prussia a majority of the Tipper House and a very large minority of the Lower House (193 to 206) voted for an amendment expressly empowering the police to break up meetings in which anarchistic, socialistic or communistic doctrines were defended in such a manner as to be dangerous to society; the Saxon Conservatives demanded that women at least should be forbidden to attend socialistic meetings, and it remained illegal for any one under twenty-one years of age to be present at a political meeting.
Wood was attacked by Bishop Burnet in a Letter to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry (1693, 4to), and defended by his nephew Dr Thomas Wood, in a Vindication of the Historiographer, to which is added the Historiographer's Answer (1693), 4to, reproduced in the subsequent editions of the Athenae.
The nephew also defended his uncle in An Appendix to the Life of Bishop Seth Ward, 1697, 8vo.
In the 9th century it is said to have repulsed the Saracens; in the 10th it defended itself against the Narentine pirates, and Simeon, tsar of the Bulgarians.
The establishment is defended by strong fortifications.
the Spur, on the summits of Monte Peraldo at a height of 1650 ft., - the circuit being little less than 12 m., and all the important points along the line being defended by forts or batteries.
The Germans, so long accustomed to rule, now saw their old ascendancy threatened, and they defended it with an energy that increased with each defeat.
The Czechs also were offended; they arranged riots at Prague; the professors in the university refused to lecture unless the German students were defended from violence; Gautsch resigned, and Thun, who had been governor of Bohemia, was appointed minister.
That is to say, the Siceliot level represents the general Greek level as it stood before the wars in which Athens won and defended her dominion.
Panormus alone was stoutly defended by its Gothic garrison.
He defended the land stoutly, even against his brother.
Media, Polybius says, was defended by a chain of Greek cities from barbarian incursion (x.
His death occurred at Alikin (1218), a village near Damascus, while the Franks were besieging Damiettathe firs~ operation of the Fifth Crusadewhich was defended by al-Kamil~ to whom his father kept sending reinforcements.
It is defended by forts, and serves as a place of banishment for criminals from Brazil.
On this headland stands an abandoned monastery of St Anthony, amidst the ruins of a medieval castle, which belonged to the Venetian family of the Venieri, and was gallantly though fruitlessly defended against the Turkish general Barbarossa in 1537.
This step further irritated Gloucester, who drew up and presented to the king a long and serious list of charges against Beaufort; but the council defended the policy of the cardinal and ignored the personal accusations against him.
He submitted to various eminent Parisian thinkers a manuscript copy of the Meditations, and defended its orthodoxy against numerous clerical critics.
On leaving Oxford he went to the bar, and as early as 1890 became a K.C. In 1887 he unsuccessfully defended Mr R.
He defended the action of Carlstadt, when he dispensed the Eucharist in an "evangelical fashion."
Henry had defended the papacy against Luther in 1521 and had received in return the title "defender of the faith."
The former route appeared to be chosen by the English, and Bruce stationed his army in a position where it was defended by a cleugh, or ravine of the Bannockburn, and by two morasses between which was a practicable but narrow neck of firm land.
Of the guard that defended Holyrood " the gentlemen and the rabble, when they saw all danger over, killed some and put the rest in prison, where many of them died of their wounds and hunger," a parallel to the Dunottar cruelties not usually mentioned by historians (" Balcarres Memoirs ").
He defended the fort of Issy at the siege of Paris, and served in Corsica and in Algeria in 1873.
For the next few years he defended the Ukraine against the Tatars and Cossacks, and in 1617 was involved in a war with the Porte owing to the unauthorized interference of the Polish nobles in the affairs of Wallachia and Moldavia.
The right wing was defended by some 700 men of the 2nd Division, who were reinforced by 1300 of the Guards.
Its walls are little inferior in height and massiveness to those of Peking, while its gates are handsomer and better defended than any at the capital.
A few years later, however, he had reversed his position, and zealously defended the supremacy of the pope.
In 1895 he defended the workers' right to strike, but in 1903, as head of the Government (1901-5), he crushed a railway strike by rushing a bill through Parliament making illegal a stoppage of work by those engaged in the public and semi-public services.
The British forces, under General Oswald, took Zante, Cephalonia and Cerigo in 1809, and Santa Maura in 1810; Colonel (afterwards Sir Richard) Church (q.v.), reduced Paxo in 1814; and after the abdication of Napoleon, Corfu, which had been well defended by General Donzelot, was, by order of Louis XVIII., surrendered to Sir James Campbell.
Opposed to absolutism, Louis took great interest in the work of organizing the Bavarian constitution (1818) and defended it against Metternich and the Carlsbad Decrees (1819); he was also one of the most zealous of the ardent Philhellenes in Germany at the time.
Jesus defended them by the example of David, who had eaten the shewbread, which only priests might eat, and had given it to his hungry men.
He also defended Crete against the Turks; and subsequently was killed in a reconnaissance at Friuli.
When Danton was arrested, Legendre at first defended him, but was soon cowed and withdrew his defence.
Again, in Winckelmann and seine Zeit (1805) Goethe vigorously defended the classical ideals of which Winckelmann had been the founder.
For these reasons rather than from any ecclesiastical scruples Fox visited and resided in his new diocese; and he occupied Norham Castle, which he fortified and defended against a Scottish raid in Perkin Warbeck's interests (1497).
Each year the number of anti-slavery petitions received and presented by him increased; perhaps the climax was in 1837, when Adams presented a petition from twenty-two slaves, and, when threatened by his opponents with censure, defended himself with remarkable keenness and ability.
In 1783 he had married a daughter of the Captain Michael Cresap (1742-1775), who was unjustly charged by Jefferson, in his Notes on Virginia, with the murder of the family of the Indian chief, John Logan, and whom Martin defended in a pamphlet long out of print.
He defended Massachusetts against threatened parliamentary interference once more in 1645-1646.
The Anabaptists insisted on freedom in the matter, and Bernardino Ochino conditionally defended plurality of wives.
The castle was successfully defended in 1216 against the French under the dauphin Louis by Hubert de Burgh, who was also the founder of the Maison Dieu established for the accommodation of pilgrims. The title of mayor as chief municipal officer first occurs about the middle of the 13th century, when the town was governed by a mayor and twelve jurats.
Its citadel was courageously defended by the patriots (1822); in 1825 the city was burnt to the ground by Ibrahim Pasha.
Even after Vigilius had approved the comdemnation of the Three Chapters, Pelagius defended them, and even published a book on the subject.
Their villages, however, are often of substantial appearance: with houses of untrimmed stones, occasionally with two storeys, built on hills, and invariably defended by a bank, a stone wall or a hedge.
But in his eagerness to seize the whole inheritance of his rival, Louis drove his daughter and heiress, Mary of Burgundy, into marriage with Maximilian of Austria (afterwards the emperor Maximilian I.),who successfully defended Flanders after a savage raid by Antoine de Chabannes.
Almost the same plot was enacted at Nagpur, where the honour of the British name was saved by the sepoys who defended the hill of Sitabaldi against enormous odds.
C. Gutteridge, with an introduction, where Nelson's action is defended, and a.
The harbour is defended by Fort Taylor, built on the island of Key West in 1846, and greatly improved and modernized after the Spanish-American War of 1898.1898.
The next revolt broke out in 464, when a severe earthquake destroyed Sparta and caused great loss of life; the insurgents defended themselves for some years on the rock-citadel of Ithome, as they had done in the first war; but eventually they had to leave the Peloponnese and were settled by the Athenians at Naupactus in the territory of the Locri Ozolae.
and S., which are defended by small forts.
The old city (ciudad vieja) occupies a low rocky headland that projects westward between the estuary and an almost circular bay which forms the harbour; it was once enclosed with walls and defended by small forts, all of which have been removed.
He subsequently defended a woman of Arretium, whose freedom was impugned on the ground that Sulla had confiscated the territory of that town.
In the following year he defended Marcus (or Manius) Fonteius on a charge of extortion in Gaul, using various arguments which might equally well have been advanced on behalf of Verres himself .
Though Clarke can thus be defended against this and similar criticism, his work as a whole can be regarded only as an attempt to present the doctrines of the Cartesian school in a form which would not shock the conscience of his time.
A slow death may be defended indeed on moral grounds if regeneration has been compassed, ' but it is only another form of capital punishment.
Left to themselves, the Christians henceforward defended themselves only in isolated cases in the fortified cities; for the most part they witnessed the disappearance of the Byzantine power without regret.
In the following year (656) the leaders of the rebels came once more from Egypt and Irak to Medina with a more numerous following; and the caliph again tried the plan of making promises which he did not intend to keep. But the rebels caught him in a flagrant breach of his word, 4 and now demanded his abdication, besieging him in his own house, where he was defended by a few faithful subjects.
In the Frankfort parliament he was leader of the extreme Right; and after its break-up he was zealous in promoting the Unionist policy of Prussia, which he defended both in the Prussian diet and in the Erfurt parliament.
On the slope of Lookout Hill (185 ft.) within the park is a shaft erected in 1895 to the memory of the Maryland soldiers who valiantly defended the rear of the American army at the battle of Long Island.
In Boehme's spirit, Schelling defended his idea of God as the only way of vindicating for God the consciousness which naturalism denies, and which ordinary theism emptily asserts.
On the 19th of June he laid siege to La Roche-aux-Moines, the fortress which defended Angers and commanded the Loire valley; but on the approach of a royal army under Prince Louis on the 2nd of July his Poitevin barons refused to risk a pitched battle, and he fled hastily to La Rochelle.
Here it is defended by a fine wall of opus quadratum of tufa, in alternate courses of headers and stretchers.
The area of the place was apparently twice extended, a further portion of the narrow plateau, which now bears the name of Civita Vecchia, being each time taken in and defended by a mound and ditch; the nearer and better-preserved is about z m.
In consequence, largely, of the dangers attending its navigation, it was not visited by the European traders of the 16th-18th centuries so frequently as other regions north and east, but in the Rio Pongo, at Matakong (a diminutive island near the mouth of the Forekaria), and elsewhere, slave traders established themselves, and ruins of the strongholds they built, and defended with cannon, still exist.
This was condemned by certain archbishops and theologians as the repetition of the five condemned propositions of Jansen, and Gerberon defended it, under the name of "Abbe Valentin" in Le Miroir sans tache (Paris, 1680).
A breakwater protects its mouth; it has a lighthouse, and is defended by a fort on Signal Hill.
Lord Camden was a strenuous opponent of Fox's India Bill, took an animated part in the debates on important public matters till within two years of his death, introduced in 1786 the scheme of a regency on occasion of the king's insanity, and to the last zealously defended his early views on the functions of juries, especially of their right to decide on all questions of libel.
The remainder of the massive defences remain, with twenty bastions, in the hands of the military authorities; the works for laying the surrounding country under water on the eastern side have been modernized, and the western side defended by a cordon of forts crowning the hills and extending down to the port of Neufahrwasser.
Early advanced against it with 12,000 veterans, defeated General Lew Wallace with about 3500 men at Monocacy Bridge on the 6th, and on the 11th appeared before the fortifications, which were at the time defended by only a few thousand raw troops; the city was saved by the timely arrival of some of Grant's veterans.
From 1835 to 1861 many leading Virginians defended slavery as a blessing and as part of a divinely established order.
Such a view may be defended somewhat as follows.
On the side next the sea the town is defended by a citadel and other fortifications, and the entrance to the harbour is protected by a lighthouse.
As he was not gifted with the qualifications of the orator, he seldom appeared at the tribune; but in the various committees he defended all forms of popular liberties, and at the same time delivered, in a series of powerful pamphlets, under the pseudonym of "Timon," the most formidable blows against tyranny and all political and administrative abuses.
When the slave power became more aggressive, in and after the year 1831, Clay defended the right of petition for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, and opposed Calhoun's bill forbidding the use of the mails to "abolition" newspapers and documents.
In this dispute, which made a great sensation in the country, the popular party successfully defended Leslie, and thus obtained the sympathy of the enlightened portion of the community.
In 1641 it was garrisoned and defended by the earl of Cork.
This appeared to Bacon justifiable and right, because the prerogative would be defended and preserved intact.
At Freiburg, on the 22nd of July 1762, the Prussians defended themselves successfully against the superior forces of the Austrians.
In 1169 Owen Gwynedd died and was buried in Bangor cathedral after a reign of 33 years, wherein he had successfully defended his own realm and had done much to bring about that union of all Wales which his grandson was destined to complete.
The belief that the Powers controlling man's life are willing upon occasion to disclose something of their purpose, has led to widespread rites of divination, which Plato described as the " art of fellowship between gods and men," and the Stoics defended on grounds of a priori religious expectation as well as of universal experience.
He had to contend with Count Leudast, the governor of Tours; despite all the king's threats, he refused to give up Chilperic's son Meroving, who had sought refuge from his father's wrath at the sanctuary of St Martin; and he defended Bishop Pretextatus against Chilperic, by whom he had been condemned for celebrating the marriage of Merovech and Queen Brunhilda.
Opposite San Felipe is the easily defended peninsula of La Mola (256 ft.
Restored to the British in 1762, it was in 1782 heroically but unsuccessfully defended by General Murray.
He objected to Luther's counsel to deny the existence of a second marriage; abused John Frederick, elector of Saxony, for not coming to support him; and caused bigamy to be publicly defended.
The army troops, divisions and mounted brigades consist of 56 regiments of yeomanry; 14 batteries and 14 ammunition columns R.H.A., 151 batteries and 55 ammunition columns R.F.A., 3 mountain batteries and ammunition column, and 14 heavy batteries and ammunition columns R.G.A.; 28 field companies, 29 telegraph companies, railway battalion, &c., R.E.; 204 battalions infantry (including to of cyclists, the Honourable Artillery Company, and certain corps of the Officers' Training Corps training as territorials); 60 units A.S.C.; 56 field ambulances, 23 general hospitals and 2 sanitary companies R.A.M.C. Told off to the defended seaports are 16 groups of garrison artillery companies and 58 fortress and electric light companies R.E.
above sea-level, divided from the surrounding country by deep ravines, and accessible only on the west, where it was defended by a wall and fosse.
A proclamation now continued the "state of religion" begun the previous year; but mass was celebrated in the queen's household, and Lord James himself defended it with his sword against Protestant intrusion.
The national party was represented by the three great Riksfdrestandare, or presidents of the realm, of the Sture family (see Sture), who, with brief intervals, from 1470 to 1520 successively defended the independence of Sweden against the Danish kings and kept the national spirit alive.
again they had defended their own and the national liberties against foreign foes.
by excluding not only his unhappy son but also that son's whole family from the succession - an act of injustice which has never been adequately defended.
Bilberg (1646-1717), who, in various theses and discussions, defended the new ideas against the scholastic Aristotelianism of the orthodox churchmen.
Ehrensvard (1745-1800); while the Kantian dialectic was worthily defended by D.
The semi-independent Araucanians, whose territory is slowly being occupied by the whites, are concentrated in the eastern forests of Bio-Bio, Malleco and Cautin, all that remains to them of the Araucania which they so bravely and successfully defended for more than three centuries.
Bishop Balderic (918-76) successfully defended the see against the Northmen, and received from the emperor Otto I.
In 1876 a committee of the General Assembly of that Church reported on them so adversely that Smith demanded a formal trial, in the course of which he defended himself with consummate ability and eloquence.
1826), who had led raiders thither from Tennessee; on the 12th of May it was formally occupied by troops from New Orleans, and was successfully defended by Brig.-Gen.
A darker passage does not occur in the annals of the English Reformation than this murder of an able and high-spirited man, whose worst offence was that he defended as best he could from the hand of the spoiler the property in his charge.
He had won laurels in a public disputation at Augsburg in 1514, when he had defended the lawfulness of putting out capital at interest; again at Bologna in 1515, on the same subject and on the question of predestination; and these triumphs had been repeated at Vienna in 1516.
The right of asylum, however, had once more to be defended by a deputation sent to the emperor Tiberius.
Built on the narrow strip of sand which separates the lake from the gulf, Goletta is defended by a fort and battery.
Sulla captured it in 89 B.C. by setting on fire the wooden breastwork by which it was defended, and new fortifications were erected.
In 1788 he was a member of the state convention which ratified the Federal constitution for Maryland, in1788-1792and in 1795 of the House of Delegates (where in 1788 and 1789 he defended the right of slave-owners to manumit their slaves), and in1792-1795of the state executive council.
A year later (15th of July 1761) the British defended the heights of Vellinghausen with what Ferdinand himself styled "indescribable bravery."
In 1811 he made the acquaintance of James Mill, whose introduction to him arose out of the publication of Mill's tract entitled Commerce Defended.
Luisa Sigea was both an orientalist and a Latin poetess, while Publia Hortensia de Castro, after a course of humanities, philosophy and theology, defended theses at Evora in her eighteenth year.
As a delegate from Dorchester, his father's church, to the Synod of 1662, he opposed the Half-Way Covenant adopted by the Synod and defended by Richard Mather and by Jonathan Mitchell (1624-1668) of Cambridge; but soon afterwards he "surrendered a glad captive" to "the truth so victoriously cleared by Mr Mitchell," and like his father and his son became one of the chief exponents of the Half-Way Covenant.
He defended himself in an Apologie au roi (1625), and was liberated in September, his sentence being commuted to banishment for life.
In 1812 the fort was successfully defended against an attack of the Indians by its commandant Captain Zachary Taylor, and in 1817 was abandoned.
Jehangir tells us in his autobiography that before his father Akbar built the present fort, the town was defended by a citadel of great antiquity.
In 1562 he allied himself with the prince of Conde, took Bourges, and defended Rouen from September to October 1562 against the royal army.
Returning to Normandy in 1574, he defended Domfront, which was being besieged by Marshal de Matignon, but was forced to capitulate on the 25th of May.
The wide separation of the two Montenegrin columns offered the Turks a tempting opportunity of manoeuvre on interior lines, but, for the reasons given above, Hasan Riza was obliged to refrain, and the Montenegrin northern group broke through a series of passively defended positions one after the other.
defended by a few obsolete guns, although by the Union Treaty it is one of the four fortresses that must be maintained.
Other interesting buildings are the house in which Pasquale Paoli lived while Corte was the seat of his government (1755 to 1769), and the house of another patriot, Giampietro Gaffori, whose wife defended it from the Genoese in 1750.
Neither must it be forgotten that in the previous war in 1745 an unhappy young lieutenant, Baker Phillips by name, whose captain had brought his ship into action unprepared, and who, when his superior was killed, surrendered the ship when she could no longer be defended, was shot by sentence of a courtmartial.
Gretser, who also defended Baronius' acceptance of Arculf's narrative against Casaubon.
Delhi, once more attacked by a Mahratta army under the Mahratta chief Holkar in 1804, was gallantly defended by Colonel Ochterlony, the British resident, who held out against overwhelming odds for eight days, until relieved by Lord Lake.
The magazine was attacked by the mutineers, but the little band defended to the last the enormous accumulation of munitions of war stored there, and, when further defence was hopeless, fired the magazine.
After 1873 he practised law in Chicago, was the Democratic candidate for governor of Illinois in 1880, became a Populist in 1894, and defended the railway strikers in Chicago in the same year.
During the Northern War between Sweden and Russia, it was courageously defended (1700), but after the battle of Poltava it succumbed, and was taken in July 1710 by the Russians.
Monterrey was defended by a Mexican force of about io,000 under General Pedro de Ampudia.
In the neighbourhood (between Andria and Corato), during the siege of Barletta by the French in 1503, the town being defended by the Spanish army, a combat took place between thirteen picked knights of Italy and France, which resulted in favour of the former: it has been celebrated by Massimo d'Azeglio in his Disfida di Barletta.
By many he has been called an Arian, by many his orthodoxy has been defended.
The site thus chosen had an excellent anchorage and was defended by the river from the Mahrattas, who harried the districts on the other side.
The Elizabethan administration had successfully defended its own existence and the Protestant faith against able and powerful antagonists, but this had not been accomplished without enforcing severe measures of repression and punishment upon those of the opposite faith.
He drew up the petition of the academy to the government, in which he defended the maintenance of this asylum of the national language against Austrian intervention.
There was still one fierce parliamentary struggle, in which Deal(defended the Composition (Ausgleich) of 1867, both against the Kossuthites and against the Left-centre, which had detached itself from his own party under the leadership of Kalif an Tisza (q.v.).
It is seldom more than a few feet above the sealevel, while at places it is below it, and it has consequently to be defended by an extensive _ system of dykes or embankments resembling those of Holland.
Dunes or sand-hills, though rare on the protected mainland, occur on Sylt and other islands, while the small flat islands called Halligen are being washed away where not defended by dykes.
In his doctrine of virtue the distinctive Peripatetic position regarding the importance of external goods was defended by him with emphasis against the assaults of the Stoics.
The people of the more rugged and remoter groups of this division are by race survivors of the early Celtic stock, which, being driven by successive invaders from the open and fertile country of the Eastern Division, found refuges in the less inviting but more easily defended lands of the west.
This broad comprehensiveness, which to outsiders looks like ecclesiastical anarchy, is the characteristic note of the Church of England; it may be, and has been, defended as consonant with Christian charity and suited to the genius of a people not remarkable for logical consistency; but it makes it all the more difficult to say what the religion of Englishmen actually is, even within the English Church.
The port is defended by batteries armed with modern heavy guns.
Conservatives attacked him; Radicals defended him.
It has three entrances; the principal, and the only one practicable for large vessels, is to the south of the town, and is defended by two strong forts, at Drottningskar on the island of Asps, and on the islet of Kungsholm.
He accompanied Edward in his temporary flight to the Continent, and on his return to England had a share in the victory of Barnet and Tewkesbury and defended London from the Lancastrians: In 1473 he became guardian and governor to the young prince of Wales, and for the next few years there was no man in England of greater responsibility or enjoying more considerable honours in the royal service.
At Oxford he first adhered to the conservative side, and defended the doctrines of the church against Hooper; but his confidence was somewhat shaken by another public disputation which he had with Peter Martyr.
To the Indians he preached through an interpreter, and their interests he boldly and successfully defended by attacking the whites 1 Edwards recognized the abuse of impulses and impressions, opposed itinerant and lay preachers, and defended a well-ordered and well-educated clergy.
He edited his father's incomplete History of the Work of Redemption, wrote in answer to Stephen West, A Dissertation Concerning Liberty and Necessity (1797), which defended his father's work on the Will by a rather strained interpretation, and in answer to Chauncy on universal salvation formulated what is known as the " Edwardean," New England or Governmental theory of the atonement in The Necessity of the Atonement and its Consistency with Free Grace in Forgiveness (1785).
He was strongly opposed to the War of 1812, and was a leader in the movement culminating in the Hartford Convention, which he defended in a series of open letters published in 1824, and in his inaugural address as mayor of Boston.
The great magazine was gallantly defended for a time by nine Britons under Lieutenant Willoughby, and was blown up by them when all hope of relief had vanished.
Parthenope was situated where Naples now stands, upon the splendid natural acropolis formed by the hill of Pizzofalcone, and defended on the land side by a fosse which is now the Strada di Chiaja, and a massive wall, of which remains may still be traced at the back of the existing houses.
More jurist than theologian, John defended the rights of the papacy with rigorous zeal and as rigorous logic. For the restoration of the papacy to its old independence, which had been so gravely compromised under his immediate predecessors, and for the execution of the vast enterprises which the papacy deemed useful for its prestige and for Christendom, considerable sums were required; and to raise the necessary money John burdened Christian Europe with new taxes and a complicated fiscal system, which was fraught with serious consequences.
Padua and Verona were besieged; the latter, defended by Novello's son Jacopo, was soon captured.