Darius fled northwards from Ecbatana upon his approach.
The king in question must be Darius Hystaspis (521-485 B.C.).
The fraud was short-lived, and Darius I.
death by Alexander in 327, whose history went up to the death of Darius, Alexander's general Ptolemy, afterwards king in Egypt, Nearchus who commanded the fleet that sailed from the Indus to the Persian Gulf, Onesicritus who served as pilot in the same fleet, Aristobulus who was with Alexander in India, Clitarchus, a contemporary, if not an eye-witness, important from the fact that his highly coloured version of the life of Alexander became the popular authority for the succeeding centuries.
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Darius is an ex-marine and Alecia is a preschool teacher.
He was through the Cicilian Gates before the Persian king, Darius III., had sent up a force adequate to hold them.
His passage through Cilicia was marked by a violent fever that arrested him for a while in Tarsus, and meantime a great Persian army was waiting for him in northern Syria under the command of Darius himself.
Darius fled eastwards into Media and again Alexander waited till he had secured the provinces to the south.
As the story was reproduced, variations were freely introduced according to the bent of different times and peoples; in the Persian version Alexander (Iskander) became a son of Darius; among the Mahommedans he turned into a prophet, hot against idols; the pen of Christian monks made him an ascetic saint.
The real name of the usurper was, as Darius tells us, Gaumata, a Magian priest from Media; this name has been preserved by Justin i.
We have no means of explaining this statement, nor can we fully understand all the incidents connected with his usurpation; but the attempts of modern authors to prove that Gaumata in reality was the genuine Smerdis and Darius a usurper have failed.
occupants of these seven tombs were kings might be inferred from the sculptures, and one of those at Nakshi Rustam is expressly declared in its inscription to be the tomb of Darius Hystaspis, concerning whom Ctesias relates that his grave was in the face of a rock, and could only be reached by means of an apparatus of ropes.
and Darius II.
Before Cambyses set out to Egypt, he secretly caused him to be murdered (Darius in the Behistun Inscr.
To cut Alexander's communications with the rear, Darius now committed the error of entangling his large force in the mountain defiles.
Alexander turned, and near the town of Issus fought his second pitched battle, sending Darius and the relic of his army in wild flight back to the east.'
In Asia Alexander learnt that Bessus had taken the diadem as Darius' successor in Bactria, but so soon as he marched against him Aria rose in his rear, and Alexander had to return in all haste to bring the revolt under.
The book of Haggai contains four short prophecies delivered between the first day of the sixth month and the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month - that is, between September and December - of the second year of Darius the king.
The unfinished one is perhaps that of Arses, who reigned at the longest two years, or, if not his, then that of Darius III.
See also Darius; Persia: Ancient History; and Caliphate.
Brother of Darius I., and, according to Herodotus, the trusted adviser of his nephew Xerxes.
Herodotus makes him a principal figure in epic dialogues: he warns Darius not to attack the Scythians (iv.
1311 b, he had previously killed Xerxes' son Darius, and was afraid that the father would avenge him; according to Ctesias, Pers.
69, he killed Xerxes first and then pretended that Darius had murdered him, and instigated his brother Artaxerxes to avenge the parricide.
"This land Persis," says Darius, in an inscription at Persepolis, "which Ahuramazda has given to me, which is beautiful and rich in horses and men, according to the will of Ahuramazda and myself it trembles before no enemy."
the "enemies," a general name of the rapacious nomads, used also for the Turanian tribes), Mardi, Dropici, Sagartii (called by Darius Asagarta, in the central desert; cf.
But from then only the inhabitants of Persis proper were considered as the rulers of the empire, and remained therefore in the organization of Darius free from taxes (Herod.
But Carmania, with the Sagartians, the Utians (called by Darius Yautiya), and other tribes, formed a satrapy and paid tribute (Herod.
and the inscriptions of Darius).
Darius founded a new city about 30 m.
So the Persian kings fixed their residence at Susa, which is always considered as the capital of the empire (therefore Aeschylus wrongly considers it as a Persian town and places the tomb of Darius here).
The legends are in Aramaic characters and Persian (Pahlavi) language; among them occur Artaxerxes, Darius (from a dynast of this name the town Darabjird, "town of Darius," in eastern Persia seems to derive its name), Narses, Tiridates, Manocihr and others; the name Vahuburz seems to be identical with Oborzos, mentioned by Polyaenus vii.
attempted to restore the old empire of Cyrus and Darius, and in 212 A.D.
In the reign of Darius, however, the Susianians attempted to revolt, first under Assina or Atrina, the son of Umbadara, and later under Martiya, the son of Issainsakria, who called himself Immanes; but they gradually became completely Aryanized, and their agglutinative dialects were supplanted by the Aryan Persian from the south-east.
Like Paris and other Trojans, he had an Oriental name, Darius.
at the battle of Pellene), and his descendants, by the oracles of Onomacritus, persuaded Darius to undertake their restoration.
2 On the place of Palestine in Persian history see Persia: History, ancient, especially § 5 ii.; also Artaxerxes; Cambyses; Cyrus; Darius, &C.
Also, the revolt which broke out in the Persian provinces at this juncture may have extended to Palestine; although) the usurper Darius encountered his most serious opposition in the north and north-east of his empire.
An outburst of Jewish religious feeling is dated in the second year of Darius (520), but whether Judah was making a bold bid for independence or had received special favour for abstaining from the above revolts, external evidence alone can decide.
Towards the close of the reign of Darius there was a fresh revolt in Egypt; it was quelled by Xerxes (485-465), who did not imitate the religious tolerance of his predecessors.
Under Darius Codomannus (336-330) the advancing Greek power brought matters to a head, and at the battle of Issus in 333 Alexander settled its fate.
- lxvi.; Malachi), but a consecutive sketch is impossible.4 1 Thus a decree of Darius I.
2 In addition to this, the Egyptian story of the priest Uza-hor at the court of Cambyses and Darius reflects a policy of religious tolerance which illustrates the biblical account of Ezra and Nehemiah (Brugsch, Gesch.
The next historical notice is dated in the second year of Darius (520) when two prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, came forward to kindle the Judaeans to new efforts, and in spite of opposition the work went steadily onwards, thanks to the favour of Darius, until the Temple was completed four years later (Ezra v.
the account ascribed to the time of Darius, Ezra v.
12),which otherwise is quite ignored, appears to have been used for the times of Darius (i Esdras iv.
7; but the assumption that Darius, as in i Esdras, helped the Jews against them can with difficulty be maintained.
sqq.) or Darius (I Esdras iv.
Darius and Xerxes were repulsed in their efforts to subjugate the Greek Peninsula, and Alexander the Great conquered their successor Darius III.
78, one of the associates of Darius), then Maraphis (eponym of the Maraphian tribe), then another Artaphrenes, then Darius.
64, called by Darius Haumavarka); and the historians of Alexander mention a march through Gedrosia, where he lost his whole army but seven men (Arrian vi.
Cyrus The Younger, Son of Darius II.
When, after the victories of Alcibiades, Darius II.
At the same time Darius fell ill and called his son to his deathbed; Cyrus handed over all his treasures to Lysander and went to Susa.
At the root of the work lies a theory, whencesoever derived, which identified the Goths with the Scythians, whose country Darius Hystaspes invaded, and with the Getae of Dacia, whom Trajan conquered.
It was inhabited by an Iranian tribe, the Parthava of the inscriptions of Darius; the correct Greek form is HapOvaioc. Parthia became a province of the Achaemenian and then of the Macedonian Empire.
Here Arsaces and his brother Tiridates are derived from the royal house of the Achaemenids, probably from Artaxerxes II.; the young Tiridates is insulted by the prefect Agathocles or Pherecles; in revenge the brothers with five companions (corresponding to the seven Persians of Darius) slay him, and Arsaces becomes king.
But, as Darius said, nobody had the courage to oppose the new king, who ruled for seven months over the whole empire.
Darius says that he destroyed some temples, which Darius restored, and took away the herds and houses of the people (Behistun Inscr.
It is certain that Smerdis transferred the seat of government to Media; and here in a castle in the district of Nisaya he was surprised and killed by Darius and his six associates in October 521.
In the next year, another pseudo-Smerdis, named Vahyazdata, rose against Darius in eastern Persia and met with great success.
See DARIUS (I.) and PERSIA, Ancient History.
These, however, in spite of more than one revolt, continued to supply fleets to the Persians down to the time of the Macedonia invasion (332 B.C.), and inland Syria remained comparatively peaceful first under its own local governors, and, after Darius, as a satrapy, till its subjugation by Alexander.
Alexander, who set out as king of the Macedonians and captaingeneral of the Hellenes, assumed after the death of Darius the.
The number of his wives did not go beyond two, and the second, the daughter of Darius, he did not take till a year before his death.
49), which Aristagoras, the tyrant of Miletus, showed to Cleomenes, the king of Sparta, in 504, whose aid he sought in vain in a proposed revolt against Darius, which resulted disastrously in 494 in the destruction of Miletus.
"The Persians," he adds, "say that Zoroaster lived under Hystaspes, but do not make it clear whether by this name they mean the father of Darius or another Hystaspes.
He is nowhere mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions of the Achaemenidae, although Darius and his successors were without doubt devoted adherents of Zoroastrianism.
In former times the assertion often was, and even now is often put forward, that Vishtaspa was one and the same person with the historical Hystaspes, father of Darius I.
Hutaosa is the same name as Atossa: but in history Atossa was the wife of Cambyses and Darius.
The country was overrun several times by Darius and his generals, and the Thracian Greeks contributed 120 ships to the armament of Xerxes (Herod.
Under the name of Mouru this place is mentioned with Bakhdi (Balkh) in the geography of the Zend-Avesta (Vendidad, ed Spiegel, 1852-1863), which dates probably from at least 1200 B.C. Under the name of Margu it occurs in the cuneiform (Behistun) inscriptions of the Persian monarch Darius Hystaspis, where it is referred to as forming part of one of the satrapies of the ancient Persian Empire.
By the earlier Greek authors (Herodotus, Thucydides and often in Xenophon) it is rendered by i»rapxos lieutenant, governor," in the documents from Babylonia and Egypt and in Ezra and Nehemiah by pakha, " governor "; and the satrap Mazaeus of Cilicia and Syria in the time of Darius III.
Cyrus the Great divided his empire into provinces; a definitive organization was given by Darius, who established twenty great satrapies and fixed their tribute (Herodot.
99 sqq.), in connexion with the tale of the invasion of Darius, makes of Scythia a kind of chessboard 4000 stades square on which the combatants can make their moves quite unhindered by the great rivers: the other (16-20), founded on what he learned from Greeks of Olbia and supplemented by the tales of the 7th century traveller Aristeas of Proconnesus, is not very far removed from first-hand information and can be made more or less to tally with the lie of the land.
About 512 B.C. Darius, having conquered Thrace, made an invasion bf Scythia, which, according to the account of Herodotus, he crossed as far as the Oarus, a river identified with the Volga, burned the town of Gelonus and returned in sixty days.
Ctesias says that the whole campaign only took fifteen days and that Darius did not get beyond the Tyras (Dniester).
It seems best to believe that Darius made an incursion in order to secure the frontier of the Danube, suffered serious reverses and retired with loss, and that this offered too good a chance to be missed for a moral tale about the discomfiture of the Great King by a few poor savages.
After the retreat of Darius the Scythians made a raid as far as Abydos, and even sent envoys to King Cleomenes III.
97) states that the Arabs brought every year to Darius as tribute woo talents of frankincense.
ARTAPHERNES, more correctly Artaphrenes, brother of Darius Hystaspis, and satrap of Sardis.
His son, of the same name, was appointed (490), together with Datis, to take command of the expedition sent by Darius to punish Athens and Eretria for their share in the Ionian revolt.
By the last pass, which was apparently unknown to Alexander, Darius crossed the mountains prior to the battle of Issus.
Under the Persian empire Cilicia was apparently governed by tributary native kings, who bore a name or title graecized as Syennesis; but it was officially included in the fourth satrapy by Darius.
Pinches, which gave a synopsis of Babylonian history from a Babylonian point of view, and was compiled in the reign of Darius.
Darius, in fact, entered Babylon as a conqueror; after the murder of the Magian it had recovered its independence under Nidinta-Bel, who took the name of Nebuchadrezzar III., and reigned from October 521 B.C. to August 520 B.C., when the Persians took it by storm.
521 Darius, son of Hystaspes.
514 Darius restored.
SCYLAX OF CARYANDA (in Caria), Greek historian, lived in the time of Darius Hystaspis (521-485 B.C.), who commissioned him to explore the course of the Indus.
14), and probably also a history of the Carian hero Heracleides, 1 prince of Mylasae, who distinguished himself in the revolt against Darius (Herodotus v.
The battle in which Alexander overthrew Darius in 331 B.C., though named in the old books after Arbela, was probably fought at Gaugamela, some 60 m.
1-6, in the eighth month of the second year of Darius; (b) chap. i.
- viii., on the fourth day of the ninth month of the fourth year of Darius.
- viii.), dated from the fourth year of Darius, contains an inquiry whether the fast days that arose in the captivity are still to be observed, with a comforting and encouraging reply of the prophet.
Thus throughout the first eight chapters the scene is Jerusalem in the early part of the reign of Darius.
The former prophecy is closely linked to the situation and wants of the community of Jerusalem in the second year of Darius I., and relates to the restoration of the temple and, perhaps, the elevation of Zerubbabel to the throne of David.
Only crude brick ruins and rubbish heaps remain on the site, but a few relics conveyed to Alexandria and Europe in the Roman age have come down to our day, notably the inscribed statue of a priest of Neith who was high in favour with Psammetichus III., Cambyses and Darius.
x., Alexander's despatch to Darius III.; Arrian ii.
It was said to have been founded by Megarians and Argives under Byzas about 6S7 B.C., but the original settlement having been destroyed in the reign of Darius Hystaspes by the satrap Otanes, it was recolonized by the Spartan Pausanias, who wrested it from the Medes after the battle of Plataea (479 B.C.) - a circumstance which led several ancient chroniclers to ascribe its foundation to him.
Cabira) in 39 B.C. to Darius, son of Pharnaces, and in 36 B.C. to Polemon, son of a rhetorician of Laodicea on the Lycus.
The Persian invasions of Darius and Xerxes, with the consequent importance of maritime strength and the capacity for distant enterprise, as compared with that of purely military superiority in the Greek peninsula, caused a considerable loss of prestige which Sparta was unwilling to recognize.
In 344, or one of the following years, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic. In 342 Philip led a great expedition north "comparable to nothing in antiquity since Darius' famous march to Scythia."
Working with some inscriptions from Persepolis which were found to contain references to Darius and Xerxes, Grotefend had established the phonetic values of certain of the Persian characters, and his successors were perfecting the discovery just about the time when the new Assyrian finds were made.
It chanced that there existed on the polished surface of a cliff at Behistun in western Persia a tri-lingual inscription which, according to Diodorus, had been made by Queen Semiramis of Nineveh, but which, as is now known, was really the work of King Darius.
The explanation is found, so the Assyriologist assures us, in the fact that both Hebrew and Greek historians, writing at a considerable interval after the events, and apparently lacking authentic sources, confused the peaceful occupation of Babylon by Cyrus with its siege and capture by a successor to that monarch, Darius Hystaspes.
This name of Haroyu, as it is written in the Vendidad,or Hariwa,as it appears in the inscriptions of Darius, is a cognate form with the Sanskrit Sarayu, which signifies " a river," and its resemblance to the ethnic title of Aryan (Sans.
Artaxerxes Ii., surnamed Mnemon, the eldest son of Darius II., whom he succeeded in the spring of 404.
The name Artaxerxes was adopted by Bessus when he proclaimed himself king after the assassination of Darius III.
II), to Darius (Nothus 423 B.C. or rather Codomannus 336 B.C., ib.
The "adversaries of Judah and Benjamin" offered to assist but were repulsed, and they raised such opposition to the progress of the work that it ceased until the second year of Darius (521520 B.C.).
is ascribed to the time of Darius.
Xerxes) and Artaxerxes (the son and grandson of Darius respectively) breaks the account of the temple under Cyrus and Darius, and is concerned with the city walls (iv.
The account of the unsuccessful opposition to the temple in the time of Darius (v.
The beginning of the reply of Darius is wanting (vi.
Against the supposition that the names refer to Cambyses and Pseudo-Smerdis who reigned after Cyrus and before Darius, see H.
Against the view that Darius is D.
3 Its account of a return in the time of Darius scarcely arose after Ezr.
3 (Darius), and between the grant by Cyrus in iii.
7 (it is not certain that he held Phoenicia) and the permit of Darius in i Esdr. iv.
22 to Darius (336-33 2 B.C.).
This excited the suspicions of the Persians, and Darius compelled them to surrender their ships and pull down their walls.
AMYNTAS I., king of Macedonia (c. 54 0 -498 B.C.), was a tributary vassal of Darius Hystaspes.
Gerizim was set up by Manasseh in the reign of Darius Codomannus, i.e.
about 332 B.C. It is possible that he is correct in placing the building of the temple at the later date, but probably he errs in connecting it with the secession of Manasseh, which, according to Nehemiah, occurred a century earlier; it has been suggested that he has confused Darius Codomannus with his predecessor, Darius Nothus.
Soon afterwards Demaratus fled to Darius, who gave him the cities of Pergamum, Teuthrania and Halisarna, where his descendants were still ruling at the beginning of the 4th century (Xen.
He reigned for a short time, but was defeated by Hydarnes, and afterwards by Darius himself, taken prisoner in Rhagae (Rai), and executed in Ecbatana (520 B.C.; see inscription of Darius at Behistun).
Xenophon says it was subdued by the Assyrians; Curtius that 6000 Hyrcanians were in the army of Darius III.
The worship of Cybele was characteristic of Thrace, whither it spread from Asia Minor at a very early period, and it deserves notice that Hypsipyle and Myrina (the name of one of the chief towns) are Amazon names, which are always connected with Asiatic Cybele-worship. Coming down to a better authenticated period, we find that Lemnos was conquered by Otanes, one of the generals of Darius FIG.
From the time of Darius the Persian monarchs issued a gold coinage, and reserved to themselves the right of doing so; but they allowed their satraps and vassal states to coin silver and copper money at discretion.
On the banks of the Danube, a little above the city, are some remains of the piles of a bridge said by a very doubtful tradition to have been built by Darius (c. 500 B.C.).
According to Darius in the Behistun inscription and Herod.
After the death of Cambyses, the younger line of the Achaemenidae came to the throne with Darius, the son of Hystaspes, who was, like Cyrus, the great-grandson of TeIspes.
Cyrus, Darius and all the later kings of Persia call themselves Achaemenides (Hakhamanishiya).
With Darius III.
The name Achaemenes is borne by a son of Darius I., brother of Xerxes.
BESSUS, satrap of Bactria and Sogdiana under Darius III.
Alexander pursued the Persian king on his flight to the East (summer 330), Bessus with some of the other conspirators deposed Darius and shortly afterwards killed him.
Before his execution his nose and ears were cut off, according to the Persian custom; we learn from the Behistun inscription that Darius I.
Of the Persians, however, not even Darius is traceable at Thebes; on the other hand, there is no support for the tradition that Cambyses destroyed its monuments.
Smith), and Cparda of Darius in the Behistun inscription (Robertson Smith); whilst, according to Winckler (K.A.T.
Cyrus, recalled to Susa by the illness of Darius, left him in entire control of his satrapy.
Here, near the town of Kharga, the ancient Hebi, is a temple of Ammon built by Darius I., and in the same oasis are other ruins of the period of the Ptolemies and Caesars.
and by Darius Hystaspes, and at length finished by Ptolemy Philadelphus.
There are also a few references to Egypt of later date down to the reign of Darius.
During the XXVth and XXVIth Dynasties silver of the treasury of Harshafe (at Heracleopolis Magna) was commonly prescribed in contracts, and in the reign of Darius we hear of silver of the treasury of Ptah (at Memphis).
Aryandes, satrap of Egypt, is said by Herodotus to have been punished by Darius for coining money of equal fineness with that of the king in Persia: thus coinage had then begun in Egypt.
Diodorus names a series of Egyptian kings who were law-givers, ending with Amasis (Ahmosi II.) and Darius.
From the time of the XXVth Dynasty there is a great increase in written documents of a legal character, sales, loans, &c., apparently due to a change in law and custom; but after the reign of Darius I.
Sales of slaves occur in the XXVth Dynasty, and contracts of servitude are found in the XXVIth Dynasty and in the reign of Darius, appearing as if the consent of the slave was then required.
Darius, 521486 B.C., proved himself a .V Y.
The inscriptions of Pefteuauneit, priest of Neith at Sais, and from his position the native authority who was most likely to be consulted by, Cambyses and Darius, tells of his relations with these two kings.
Amyrtaeus (Amnertais) of Sais, perhaps a son of Pausiris and grandson of the earlier Amyrtaeus, revolted from Darius II.
From this brief re-establishment of Persian dominion (counted by Manetho as Dynasty XXXI.) no document survives except one papyrus that appears to be dated in,the reign of Darius III.
When Alexander had defeated Darius III., his murderer Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, tried to organize a national resistance in the east.
The name originally belonged to one of the tribes of the Persians, which included the clan of the Achaemenidae, from which sprang the royal family of Cyrus and Darius (Herod.
The capital of Cyrus was soon supplanted by Persepolis, founded by Darius; but in Pasargadae remained a great treasury, which was surrendered to Alexander in 336 after his conquest of Persis (Arrian iii.
107) forty years, about 6 2 4-5 8 4 B.C. That he was the real founder of the Median empire is proved by the fact that in Darius's time a Median usurper, Fravartish, pretended to be his offspring (Behistun inscr.
Of their populations Herodotus mentions the Bactrians, Chorasmians, Sogdians and Sacae as contributing their contingents to the armies of the great king Darius.
The biblical history is a " canonical " history which looks back to the patriarchs, the exodus from Egypt, the law-giving and the covenant with Yahweh at Sinai, the conquest of Palestine by the Israelite tribes, the monarchy, the rival kingdoms, the fall and exile of the northern tribes, and, later, of the southern (Judah), and the reconstructions of Judah in the times of Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes.
Chronicles, with the book of Ezra and Nehemiah, makes a continuity between the old Judah which fell in 586 and the return (time of Cyrus), the rebuilding of the temple (Darius), and the reorganization associated with Nehemiah and Ezra (Artaxerxes).
The Samaritans - the Jews ignored in their records all other inhabitants of Palestine - courted his favour, but the Jews kept faith with Darius so long.
The principal ruin, a temple of Ammon, built under Darius, is of sandstone, 142 ft.
In the time of Darius Hystaspes (zoo B.C.) we find the region now called Afghanistan embraced in the Achaemenian satrapies, and various parts of it occupied by Sarangians (in Seistan), Arians (in Herat), Sattagydians (supposed in highlands of upper Helmund and the plateau of Ghazni), Dadicae (suggested to be Tajiks), Aparytae (mountaineers, perhaps of Safed Koh, where lay the Paryetae of Ptolemy), Gandarii (in Lower Kabul basin) and Paktyes, on or near the Indus.
In the time of Darius (see Persia) the valley of the Indus was a Persian satrapy.
When Darius in 516 B.C. caused the great Behistun inscription to be engraved, it was Persia.
The Aramaic alphabet passed into India with the staff of subordinate officials by whom Darius organized his conquests there.
i Ahasuerus is the father of Darius the Mede, who "was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans" after the conquest of Babylon and death of Belshazzar.
Who this Darius was is one of the most difficult questions in ancient history.
Darius may possibly have acted under Cyrus as governor of Babylon, but this view is not favoured by Dan.
25, for Darius (v.
Here the sequence of the reigns in the Biblical writer and in the profane historians - in the one, Cyrus, Ahasuerus, Artaxerxes, Darius; in the other, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius - led in the past (Ewald, &c.) to the identification of Ahasuerus with Cambyses (529-522 B.e.), son of Cyrus.
Most students are agreed that he must be a monarch of the Achaemenian dynasty, earlier than Artaxerxes I.; and opinion is divided between Darius Hystaspes and Xerxes.
In support of the former view it is alleged, among other things, that Darius was the first Persian king of whom it could be said, as in Esther i.
1, that he "reigned from India even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and seven and twenty provinces"; and that it was also the distinction of Darius that (Esther x.
Golenischeff, "Stele de Darius" in Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie et l'archeologie egyptiennes et assyriennes, xiii.
was preceded by the voluntary surrender of Cyprus, which formed part of Darius's " fifth satrapy."
above the plain, Darius I.,.
The inscriptions are composed in the three languages which are written with cuneiform signs, and were used in all official inscriptions of the Achaemenian kings: the chief place 1 A passage in the inscription runs: - "Thus saith Darius the king: That which I have done I have done altogether by the grace of Ahuramazda.
C. Thompson, who published their results in 1907 under the title, The Inscription of Darius the Great at Behistun, including a full illustrated account of the sculptures and the inscription, and a complete collation of the text.
Long before the Christian era the satrapies of Darius com.prehended roughly an immense range of territory, from the Mediterranean to the Indus and, from the Caucasian chain and Jaxartes to the Persian Gulf and Arabian Ocean.
68; the Maka of Darius, the modern Mekran), to whom the name Aethiopiansis also occasionally applied (Herod.
The Trii,es principal, according to the inscriptions of Darius of the which closely agree with Herodotusare the Iranians.
To these belong the Carmanians and the Utians (Yutiya), who are mentioned expressly by Darius as inhabiting a district in Persis (Beh.
The Hyrcanians (Varkdna in Darius, Zend Vehrkna) on the eastern corner of the Caspian, in the fertile district of Astarabad.
The Drangians (Zarankcf in Darius, Sarangians in Herod.
They are mentioned in the lists of Darius, also by the Greeks after Alexander.
Darius mentions the district of Margu but, like Herodotus, omits them from his list of peoples; so that ethnographically they are perhaps to be assigned to the Arians.
Though found neither in the inscriptions of Darius nor in the Greek authors, the name Turan must nevertheless be of great antiquity; for not merely is it repeatedly found in the Avesta, under the form Tura, but it occurs already in a hymn, which, without doubt, originates from Zoroaster himself, and in which the Turanian Fryana and his descendants are commemorated as faithful adherents of the prophet (Yasna, 46, 62).
all the northern nomadsas Sacae; and this statement is confirmed by the inscriptions of Darius.
In Firdousi, the legendary princes are followed, almost without a break, by Ardashir, the founder of the Sassanid dynasty: the intervening episode of Darius and Alexander is not drawn from native tradition, but borrowed from Greek literature (the Alexander-romance of the Pseudo-Callisthenes) in precisely the same way as among the nations of the Christian East in the middle ages.i Needless to say, however, this long period saw the Saga much recast and expanded.
These fundamental features of Iranian sentiment encounter us not only in the doctrine of Zoroaster and the confessions of Darius, but also in that magnificent product of the Persia of Islamthe Sufi mysticism.
Thus it cannot be doubted that the king Vishtaspa, who received Zoroasters doctrine and protected him, must have ruled in eastern Iran: though strangely enough scholars can still be found to identify him with the homonymous Persian Hystaspes, the father of Darius.
The next clue towards determining the period of Zoroaster is, that Darius I.
The educated community who had embraced the pure doctrine in its completeness scarcely recognized them, and the inscriptions of Darius ignore them.
It was, however, only natural that its adherents should be won, first and chiefly, among the countrymen of the prophet, and its further success in gaining over all the Iranian tribes gave it a national stamp. So the Susan translation of Darius Behistun inscrrption TThese ideas are strongly exposed in a polemic against the Christians contained in an official edict of the Persian creed to the Armenians by Mihr Narseh, the vizier of Yazdegerd IT.
The Sassanid Empire, indeed, is completely dominated by this formalism and ritualism; but the earlier testimony of Darius in his inscriptions and the statements in Herodotus enable us still to recognize the original healthy life of a religion capable of awakening the enthusiastic devotion of the inner man.
Cyprus and the Greek islands on the coast of Asia Minor also submitted, Samos being taken by Darius.
The usurpation of Smerdis (522521 nc.) and his death at the hands of Darius was the signal for numerous insurrections in Babylon, Susiana, Persis, Media, Armenia and many of the Eastern provinces.
But, within two years (521519), they were all crushed by Darius and his generals.
Darius followed in his steps Organiz.8- and completed the vast structure.
His role, indeed, don of was peculiarly that of supplementing and perfecting Darius.
And far removed as the Persians are from disavowing their proud sense of nationality (a Persian, the son of a Persian, an Aryan of Aryan stock says Darius of himself in the inscription on his tomb) yet equally vivid is the feeling that they rule the whole civilized world, that their task is to reduce it to unity, and that by the will of Ahuramazda they are pledged to govern it aright.
Darius in his inscriptions always names them immediately after the Persians.
The highest rank was held by the descendants of the six great families, whose heads stood by Darius at the killing of the Magian.
This Darius replaced by a new capital, ~feiwes deeper in the centre of the country, which bore the ~name Persian (Pdrsa), the Persepolis (q.v.) of the later Greeks.
The actual capital of the empire was therefore Susa, where Darius I.
The winter months the kings chiefly spent in Babylon: the hot summer, in the cooler situation of Ecbatana, where Darius and Xerxes built a residence on Mt Elvend, south of the city.
After his defeat of Nabonidus, Cyrus ~ proclaimed himself King of Babel; and the same title was born by Cambyses, Smerdis and Darius.
Darius went still farther.
the inscription of Darius on the Bosporus, Herod.
530, Dittenberger, Sylloge 2~ SO, also, on co,ins)a clear proof that the Persians had already begun to recognize the independent and important position of Greek civilization.i Darius I.
A reform in the coinage was effected by Darius, who struck the Daric (Pers.
piece of gold; the word has nothing to do with the name of Darius), a gold piece of 130 grains (value about 23s.); this being equivalent to 20 silver pieces (Median shekels, at-yXoi) of 86.5 grains (value according to the then fate of silverI33/4 silver to I goldabout is.
In the district of Herat, Darius established a great water-basin, designed to facilitate the cultivation of the steppe (Herod.
But this design is still more patent in his completion of a great canal, already begun by Necho, from the Nile to Suez, along which several monuments of Darius have been preserved.
It has already been mentioned, that, in his efforts to concifiate the Egyptians, Darius placed his chief reliance on the priesthood: and the same tendency runs throughout the imperial policy toward the conquered races.
Darius allowed the restoration of the Temple; and Artaxerxes I., by the protection accorded to Ezra and Nehemiah, made the foundation of Judaism possible (see JEws: ~ 19 sqq.).
The Persian kingsnone more so than Darius, whose religious convictions are enshrined in his inscriptions and, with the kings, their people, were ardent professors of the pure doctrine of Zoroaster; and the Persians settled in the provinces diffused his creed throughout the whole empire.
The position of the Persian monarchy as a world-empire is characteristically emphasized in the buildings of Darius and Xerxes in Persepolis and Susa.
Though, unlike Cyrus and Cambyses, Darius made no new expeditions of conquest, yet a great empire, which is not bounded The wars by another equally great, but touches on many small against tribes and independent communities, is inevitably Greece.
We have already seen that the attempt of Darius to control the predatory nomads in the nortI~ led to his expedition against the Scythians; this, again, led tc the incorporation of Thrace and Macedonia, whose king Perdiccm submitted.
Darius, indeed, numbers the cityunder the name of Karkaamong his dominions: as also the Maxyam (Maciya) on the Syrtes (Andreas, Verhandl.
Nevertheless, Darius left European Greece to itself, till the support accorded to the ronian and Carian insurgents by Athens and Eretria (499 B.C.) made war inevitable.
The only really brutal tyrants were Darius II., who was completely dominated by his bloodthirsty wife Parysatis, and Artaxerxes III.
In the other civilized countries, indeed, the old passion foi freedom had been completely obliterated; and after the days of Darius I.apart from the Greek, Lycian and Phoeniciar townsnot a single people in all these provinces dreamed 01 shaking off the foreign dominion.
and Darius II., these insurrections were still rare.
The collapse of the Athenian power Later Wars before Syracuse (413 B.C.) induced Darius II.
I, 331 B.C.) and, still more completely, after the assassination of Darius avenged according to the Persian laws, on the perpetrators Alexander regarded hiI~ise1f as the legitimate head of the Persian Empire, and therefore adopted the dress and ceremonial of the Persian kings.
King Darius is called on an inscription a Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan of Aryan race; and the followers of the Zoroastrian religion in their earliest records never give themselves any other title but Airyavo don ghavo, that is to say, Aryan races.
Most of them, and these 1 longest, date from the time of Darius, but we have specims as late as Artaxerxes Ochus.
Ormuzd, who created this earth and that heaven, who created n and mans dwelling-place, who made Darius king, the one and y king of many.
He fled to Darius III., who received him with distinction.
In 338 Bagoas killed the king and all his sons but the youngest, Arses, whom he raised to the throne; two years later he murdered Arses and made Darius III.
When Darius attempted to become independent of the powerful vizier (xt.Mapxos), Bagoas tried to poison him too; but Darius was warned and forced him to drink the poison himself (Diod xvii.
1) that a monarch "Darius the Mede" received the kingdom of Babylon after the fall of the native Babylonian house, although it is evident, from i.
Unsuccessful attempts have been made to identify this mythical Darius with the Cyaxares, son of Astyages, of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, and also with the Darius of Eusebius, who was in all probability Darius Hystaspis.
There is not only no room in history for this Median king of the Book of Daniel, but it is also highly likely that the interpolation of "Darius the Mede" was caused by a confusion of history, due both to the destruction of the Assyrian capital Nineveh by the Medes, sixty-eight years before the capture of Babylon by Cyrus, and also to the fame of the later king, Darius Hystaspis, a view which was advanced as early in the history of biblical criticism as the days of the Benedictine monk, Marianus Scotus.
It is important to note in this connexion that Darius the Mede is represented as the son of Xerxes (Ahasuerus) and it is stated that he established 120 satrapies.
Darius Hystapis was the father of Xerxes, and according to Herodotus (iii.
Darius the Mede entered into possession of Babylon after the death of Belshazzar; Darius Hystaspis conquered Babylon 1 Prince, Dan.
2 Certain tablets published by Strassmaier, bearing date continuously from Nabonidus to Cyrus, show that neither Belshazzar nor "Darius the Mede" could have had the title "king of Babylon."
In fine, the interpolation of a Median Darius must be regarded as the most glaring historical inaccuracy of the author of Daniel.
Syene is twice mentioned (as Seveneh) in the prophecies of Ezekiel, and papyri, discovered on the island, and dated in the reigns of Artaxerxes and Darius II.
In 491 he went to Aegina to punish the island for its submission to Darius, but the intrigues of his colleague once again rendered his mission abortive.
Khuzistan (meaning "the land of the Khuz") was a part of the Biblical Elam, the classical Susiana, and appears in the great inscription of Darius as Uvaja.
With the exception of Babylonian dated tablets and some Egyptian inscriptions, we possess no contemporary evidence about the reign of Cambyses but the short account of Darius in the Behistun inscription.
The date is given by Darius, whereas the Greek authors narrate the murder after the conquest of Egypt.
This is the account of Darius, which certainly must be preferred to the traditions of Herodotus and Ctesias, which ascribe his death to an accident.
Darius describes himself in an inscription as of Aryan stock, Daraya h va h us ariyahci'aah.
It has a population of about 5000, and extensive orchards of orange and lemon trees and immense plantations of date-palms. Legend ascribes the foundation of the city to Darius, hence its name Darab-gerd (Darius-town).
S., is known as the Kalah i Darab, or citadel of Darius, and consists of a series of earthworks arranged in a circle round an isolated rock.
94), but by the inscriptions of Darius at Persepolis and Naksh-i-Rustam.
Cyrus, Cambyses and Darius.
While Histiaeus was practically a prisoner at the court of Darius, he acted as regent in Miletus.
The aid given to him by Athens and Eretria, and the burning of Sardis, were the immediate cause of the invasion of Greece by Darius.
It surrendered without a struggle to Cyrus, but two sieges in the reign of Darius Hystaspis, and one in the reign of Xerxes, brought about the destruction of the defences, while the monotheistic rule of Persia allowed the temples to fall into decay.
Thapsacus was the crossing-place of Darius Codomannus, before and after his defeat (Arrian ii.
Scythian envoys sought her aid to stem the invasion of Darius; to her the Greeks of Asia Minor appealed to withstand the Persian advance and to aid the Ionian revolt; Plataea asked for her protection; Megara acknowledged her supremacy; and at the time of the Persian invasion under Xerxes no state questioned her right to lead the Greek forces on land and sea.
The name, which first occurs in the cuneiform inscriptions of Darius Hystaspis, supplanted the earlier Urardhu, or Ararat, but its origin is unknown.
In 1881 he married a daughter of Darius Ogden Mills (1825-1910), a prominent financier.
Under the tombs of Darius I.
Their name first occurs in connexion with the expedition of Darius Hystaspis (555 B.C.) against the Scythians, in the course of which they were brought under his sway, but they regained their freedom on his return to the East.
In 333 B.C., after the battle of Issus, it was delivered over by treachery to Parmenio, the general of Alexander the Great; the harem and treasures of Darius had here been lodged.
Darius, with six other conspirators devised a way to break into the closed palace.
So it ceased unto the second year of the reign of Darius dowriest homie of Persia.
Then without a word more and before Darius could stop him, the other immortal stumbled out of the sanctuary.
Darius also has the support of other satraps such as his father Hystaspes.
It is now that we get definite evidence as to the reach of Alexander's designs; for Darius opened negotiations in which he ultimately went so far as to offer a partition of the empire, all west of the Euphrates, to be Alexander's.
It was near Nineveh that Darius was waiting with the immense host which a supreme effort could muster from all parts of the empire.
He had become a puppet in the hands of his cousin Bessus and the Persian magnates with him (see Darius and at this extremity they stabbed him and allowed Alexander to become master only of his corpse (summer 330).
Hence the kings buried at Nakshi Rustam are probably, besides Darius, Xerxes I., Artaxerxes I.
Since Cyrus was buried in Pasargadae, which moreover is mentioned in Ctesias as his own city,' and since, to judge from the inscriptions, the buildings of Persepolis commenced with Darius I., it was probably under this king, with whom the sceptre passed to a new branch of the royal house, that Persepolis became the capital 4 (see Persia: Ancient History, V.
The locality described by Diodorus after Cleitarchus corresponds in important particulars with Takhti Jamshid, for example, in being supported by the ' This statement is not made in Ctesias (or rather in the extracts of Photius) about Darius II., which is probably accidental; in the case of Sogdianus, who as a usurper was not deemed worthy of honourable burial, there is a good reason for the omission.
The vast ruins, however, of Takhti Jamshid, and the terrace constructed with so much labour, can hardly be anything else than the ruins of palaces; as for temples, the Persians had no such thing, at least in the time of Darius and Xerxes.
When Darius had killed the usurper Smerdis and gained the crown, a new usurper, Vahyazdata, who likewise pretended to 1 To the Pateiskhoreis belongs the lance-bearer of Darius, "Gobryas (Gaubaruva) the Patishuvari," mentioned in his tombinscription; they occur also in an inscription of Esarhaddon as Patush-ara, eastwards of Media, in Choarene at the Caspian gates; the Kyrtii are the Kurds.
be Smerdis, the son of Cyrus, rose in Yautiya, but was defeated in two battles by Darius's generals and put to death (Behistun inscription).
(2) A Persian, father of Darius I., under whose reign he was governor of Parthia, as Darius himself mentions in the Behistun inscription (2.65).
12; but both in a context relating to the history of the Temple), and (b) by the otherwise inaccurate statement that the Temple was finished according to the decree of " Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes king of Persia " (Ezra vi.
Even Hecataeus of Miletus (549-472 B.C.), the author of a Periodos or description of the earth, of whom Herodotus borrowed the terse saying that Egypt was the gift of the Nile, retained this circular shape and circumfluent ocean when producing his map of the world, although he had at his disposal the results of the voyage of Scylax of Caryanda from the Indus to the Red Sea, of Darius' campaign in Scythia (513), the information to be gathered among the merchants from all parts of the world who frequented an emporium like Miletus, and what he had learned in the course of his own extensive travels.
We can make a list of Scythian kings - Spargapeithes, Lycus, Gnurus, Saulius (whose brother, the famous Anacharsis, travelled over all the world in search of wisdom, was reckoned a sage among the Greeks and was slain among his own people because they did not like his foreign ways), and Idanthyrsus, the head king at the time of Darius, probably the father of Ariapeithes.
It was only when Darius Hystaspis, the representative of the Aryan race and the Zoroastrian religion, had re-conquered the empire of Cyrus, that the old tradition was broken and the claim of Babylon to confer legitimacy on the rulers of western Asia ceased to be acknowledged (see DARIUs).
He appeared in Jerusalem along with Haggai, in the second year of Darius Hystaspis (520 B.C.), to warn and encourage the 1 A connexion with a divine name (cf.
After this triumph the noblest houses of Jerusalem hold, each by itself, a great lamentation over a martyr " whom they have pierced " (or " whom men have The historical occasion of the emergence of Haggai and Zechariah was supplied by the series of revolts following the succession of Darius in 522 (cf.
When after the assassination of Smerdis all the Iranian tribes, the Babylonians and the Armenians rebelled against Darius and the Persian rule, "a man of the name of Fravartish (i.e.
The military qualities of the Greeks were appreciated, and so, too, was Greek science, where it touched the immediately useful; a Greek captain was entrusted by Darius with the exploration of the Indus; a Greek architect bridged the Bosporus for him; Greek physicians (e.g.
Documents dated in the thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth years of Darius are not uncommon, but apparently at the very end of his reign, some years after the disaster of Marathon, Egypt was induced to rebel.
The site, now Tell el Maskhuta, has yielded several important monuments, including the best preserved of the trilingual stelae of Darius which commemorated his work on the canal.
This mode of writing was obviOusly alone employed in the state-services since Darius I.; and so may be explained the fact that, under, the Achaemenids, the Persian language rapidly declined, and, in the inscriptions of Artaxerxes III., only appears in an extremely neglected guise (see CUNEIFORM INscRIPTIONs, ALPHABET).
Darius was no more a conquistador than Augustus.
Analogously in an edict, of which a later copy is preserved in an inscription (see above), Darius commands Gadatas, the governor of a domain (irap6.~urot) in Magnesia on the Maeander, to observe scrupulously the privileges of the Apollo-sanctuary.
r instance, if we take a sentence from an inscription of Darius Auramazda hya imam bumim ada hya avam asmnam ada hya trtiyam ada hya siytim ada rniartiyahya hya Dkrayavauni shayathiyam akunaush aivam paruvnam khshayathiyam, would be in Zend Ahuro mazdgo y imAm bemim adat ye aom asmanem adat y ishim adat y shgitim adat mashyahe y dflraya~vohum khshaetem erenaot OyUm pourunam khshaetem.
from the city in a mountain gorge of Mount Elvend is the so-called Ganjnama (treasure-deed), which consists of two tablets with trilingual cuneiform inscriptions cut into the rock and relating the names and titles of Darius I.
Sparta had despatched an army in 490 to aid Athens in repelling the armament sent against it by Darius under the command of Datis and Artaphernes: but it arrived after the battle of Marathon had been fought and the issue of the conflict decided.
Darius tells how he was able to quell the rebellions with the help of seven nobles.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.