In sum, then, we may say that "philosophy" has come to be understood at least in modern times as a general term covering the various disciplines just enumerated.
Baumgarten did good service in severing aesthetics from the other philosophic disciplines, and in marking out a definite object for its researches.
The name doctor scholasticus was applied originally to any teacher in such an ecclesiastical gymnasium, but gradually the study of dialectic or logic overshadowed the more elementary disciplines, and the general acceptation of " doctor " came to be one who occupied himself with the teaching of logic. The philosophy of the later Scholastics is more extended in its scope; but to the end of the medieval period philosophy centres in the discussion of the same logical problems which began to agitate the teachers of the 9th and 1 oth centuries.
Besides the three main disciplines the student takes up according to his tastes other subjects, such as rhetoric (ma`ani wabayan), logic (mantiq), prosody (`arud), and the doctrine of the correct pronunciation of the Koran (gira'a watajwid).
It was manifestly one of the disciplines in which a position of finality was attainable.
But, if we desire to keep by older landmarks and maintain a distinction between the two disciplines, a ground for doing so may be found in the fact that all the main definitions of logic point to the investigation of the laws of thought in a subjective reference - with a view, that is, by an analysis of the operation, to ensure its more correct performance.
It has been well said that statistics furnish the means by which the railway manager disciplines his property; this is the aspect of control.
Those on the Germanic mark and on the allodium and beneficium) were models of learning and sagacity, all were dominated by his general idea and characterized by a total disregard for the results of such historical disciplines as diplomatic. From this crucible issued an entirely new work, less well arranged than the original, but richer in facts and critical comments.
It is not till we come to Aristotle - the encyclopaedist of the ancient world - that we find a demarcation of the different philosophic disciplines corresponding, in the main, to that still current.
The position assigned to logic by Kant is not, in all probability, one which can be defended; indeed, it is hard to see how Kant himself, in consistency with the critical doctrine of knowledge, could have retained many of the older logical theorems, but the precision with which the position was stated, and the sharpness with which logic was marked off from cognate philosophic disciplines, prepared the way for the more thoughtful treatment of the whole question.
"Philosophy," as a term of general application, was not, indeed restricted by Aristotle or his successors to the disciplines just enumerated.
It is, indeed, only from the standpoint of such a theory that the definitions and divisions of the different philosophical disciplines adopted in this article can be said to hold good.