The Alexander cycle was no less popular in Great Britain.
At first an eight years' cycle was adopted, but it was found to be faulty, then the Jewish cycle of 84 years was used, and remained in force at Rome till the year 457, when a more accurate calculation of a cycle of 532 years, invented by Victorius of Acquitaine, took its place.
He programmed the computer to respond in training cycle mode and glanced at the communication link again.
21 shows the pressure-volume diagram of the Rankine cycle for one pound of steam where the initial pressure is 175 lb per square inch by the 19t, gauge, equivalent to 190 lb per square inch absolute.
The process whereby the independent hero of the Lanzelet (who, though his mother is Arthur's sister, has but the slightest connexion with the British king), the faithful husband of Iblis, became converted into the principal ornament of Arthur's court, and the devoted lover of the queen, is by no means easy to follow, nor do other works of the cycle explain the transformation.
They belong to the group of Protozoa, and, as already explained, have a double cycle of existence: (I) a sexual cycle in the body of the mosquito, (2) an asexual cycle in the blood of human beings.
She had to decline the last trip because it coincided with her monthly cycle - and this trip was cutting the time close.
Davis, " The Geographical Cycle," Geog.
On arriving at a certain height the lift ceases and the jenny is released, and by the continued pull of the rope, it runs up the jib; on arriving at an adjustable stop, the jenny is again locked, and the load can be lowered out; the hook can then be raised, when the jenny is automatically unlocked, and on paying out the rope the jenny gravitates to its first position, when the load is lowered and the cycle repeated.
Now when the Hebrews succeeded to these agricultural conditions and acquired possession of the Canaanite abodes, they naturally fell into the same cycle of religious ideas and tradition.
She was over two weeks late for her menstrual cycle and felt a little nauseous.
The author was an unnamed Austrian poet, but the story itself belongs to the cycle of sagas, which originated on the shores of the North Sea.
Lancelot, however, is not an original member of the cycle, and the development of his story is still a source of considerable perplexity to the critic.
In later Jewish custom the one-year cycle of reading of sections from the Pentateuch ends on the concluding day of Tabernacles, which is therefore known as the Rejoicing of the Law (Simhat Torah).
Marsyas, as well as Midas and Silenus, are associated in legend with Dionysus and belong to the cycle of legends of Cybele.
The pitch of a musical sound depends on the number of cycles passed through by the fluctuations of the pressure per unit of time; the loudness depends on the amount or the amplitude of the fluctuation in each cycle; the quality depends on the form or the nature of the fluctuation in each cycle.
The Arthurian cycle must have its own love-tale; Guenevere, the leading lady of that cycle, could not be behind the courtly ladies of the day and lack a lover; one had to be found for her.
Its results indeed were not only astounding at the time, but were such as to lead up to a new cycle of wars.
The difference between them and the Roman Church, at this period, was that they still followed the 84 years' cycle in computing Easter, which had been abandoned at Rome for the more accurate cycle of 532 years.
About the same time the cycle of paschal solemnities was extended to the ninth week before Easter by the institution of stational masses for Septuagesima, Sexagesima and Quinquagesima Sundays.
Half a century later the famous Gaon Seadiah, also of Sura, issued his Siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic. Besides the Siddur, or order for Sabbaths and general use, there is the Mahzor (cycle) for festivals and fasts.
(I) The Philistines, a foreign people whose presence in Palestine 2 The story of Joseph has distinctive internal features of its own, and appears to be from an independent cycle, which has been used to form a connecting link between the Settlement and the Exodus; see also Ed.
Pigeonneau, Le Cycle de la croisade et de la famille de Bouillon (Paris, 1877); H.
CUCHULINN (Cuchulinn; pronounced "Coohoollin"), the chief warrior in the Conchobar-Cuchulinn or older heroic (Ulster) cycle of Ireland.
At every stage of the geographical cycle the land forms, as they exist at that stage, are concerned in guiding the condensation and flow of water in certain definite ways.
The parasitic cycle has been broken, and the insect is no longer infected.
The Osiris cycle of legends seems to belong to these people.
If the cycle be broken at any point the parasite must die out, assuming that it has no other origin or mode of existence.
They live for some time in water or mud, occasionally entering the bodies of water snails, but undergo no change until they reach the lung of a frog, when the cycle begins anew.
Cleanthes is said to have held that all survive to the great conflagration which closes the cycle, Chrysippus that only the wise will.
As regards (b), external evidence has already suggested to scholars that there were Israelites in Palestine before the invasion; internal historical criticism is against the view that all the tribes entered under Joshua; and in (a) there are traces of an actual settlement in the land, entirely distinct from the cycle of narratives which prepare the way for (b).
- As the Sabbath was originally a religious feast, the question of the origin of the Sabbath resolves itself into an inquiry why and in what circle a festal cycle of seven days was first established.
2 See Pigonneau, Le Cycle de la croisade, &c. (Paris, 1877); and Hagenmeyer, Peter der Eremite (Leipzig, 1879).
Ultimately a cycle of 19 years was accepted, and it is the use of this cycle which makes the Golden Number and Sunday Letter, explained in the preface to the Book of Common Prayer, necessary.
In fact, it does for the Robin Hood cycle what a few years before Sir Thomas Malory had done for the Arthurian romances - what in the 6th century B.C. Peisistratus is said to have done for the Homeric poems.
The ancient British and Celtic churches followed the cycle of 84 years which they had originally received from Rome, and their stubborn refusal to abandon it caused much bitter controversy in the 8th century between their representatives and St Augustine of Canterbury and the Latin missionaries.
Cathbu (Cathbad), the Druid connected with Conchobar, king of Ulster, in the older cycle is accompanied by a number of youths (Ioo according to the oldest version) who are desirous of learning his art, though what this consisted in we are not told.
The cycle contains a large number of episodes, such as the gaining of the champion's portion and the tragical death by the warrior's hand of his own son Connlaech.
In fact, the four quarters of the moon supply an obvious division of the month; and, wherever new moon and full moon are religious occasions, we get in the most natural way a sacred cycle of fourteen or 1 See, further, E.
Short of suppressing mosquitoes, the parasitic cycle may theoretically be broken by preventing them from giving the infection to man or taking it from him.
Altogether the gallery contains twenty rooms, one being assigned to the complete cycle of the "History of Saint Ursula," by Carpaccio; another to Giambellino and to the Celliniani; and a whole wall of a third being occupied by the famous Veronese, "11 Convito in casa di Levi."
Warden says one every moon cycle.
The standard of comparison generally adopted for this purpose is obtained by calculating the efficiency of an engine working according to the Rankine cycle.
The book of Judges with its " monotonous tempo - religious declension, oppression, repentance, peace," to which Wellhausen 4 refers as its ever-recurring cycle, makes us familiar with these alternating phases of action and reaction.
Thus began the cycle of the twelve labours.
By a re-elevation of a peneplain the rivers of an old land surface may be restored to youthful activity, and resume their shaping action, deepening the old valleys and initiating new ones, starting afresh the whole course of the geographical cycle.
For all other immortals, they get only one shot at a mate in its life cycle.
Hence to reduce a date according to this era to our own reckoning, it is necessary, for common years, to add 283 years and 240 days; but if the date belongs to the first three months of the year following the intercalation, or, which is the same thing, if in the third year of the Julian cycle it falls between the 30th of August and the end of the year, we must add 283 years and 241 days.
The cycle of Indiction was very generally followed in the Roman empire for some centuries before the adoption of the Christian era.
Usually, however, he is styled son of Sualdam, an Ulster warrior who plays a very inferior part in the cycle.
The cycle of Old Testament subjects is equally limited.
p. 411), the cycle of reactions probably being as follows: NO 2 [[Nhoh-Hno 2 +Hno]]; HNO-}-RI-CHI+RNO (CH3CH2NO-->CH 3 CH: N OH).
But it is not certain that the two belong to the same cycle of tradition; Kirjath-jearim and Baal-Judah are identified only in later writings, and the behaviour of Saul's daughter (2 Sam.
Again, we may calculate the osmotic work done, and, if the whole cycle of operations be supposed to occur at the same temperature, the osmotic work must be equal and opposite to the electrical work of the first operation.
812), also known as Guillaume Fierabrace, St Guillaume de Gellone, and the Marquis au court nez, was the central figure of the southern cycle of French romance, called by the trouveres the geste of Garin de Monglane.
The cycle of Guillaume has more unity than the other great cycles of Charlemagne or of Doon de Mayence, the various poems which compose it forming branches of the main story rather than independent epic poems. There exist numerous cyclic MSS.
in the British Museum contains eighteen chansons of the cycle.
The cycle of twenty or more chansons which form the geste of Guillaume reposes on the traditions of the Arab invasions of the south of France, from the battle of Poitiers (732) under Charles Martel onwards, and on the French conquest of Catalonia from the Saracens.
The chansons de geste of the cycle of Guillaume are: Enfances Garin de Monglane (15th century) and Garin de Monglane (13th century), on which is founded the prose romance of Guerin de Monglane, printed in the 15th century by Jehan Trepperel and often later; Girars de Viane (13th century, by Bertrand de Barsur-Aube), ed.
Jeanroy, "Etudes sur le cycle de Guillaume au court nez" (in Romania, vols.
The conclusions arrived at by earlier writers are combated by Joseph Bedier in the first volume, "Le Cycle de Guillaume d'Orange" (1908), of his Legendes epiques, in which he constructs a theory that the cycle of Guillaume d'Orange grew up round the various shrines on the pilgrim route to Saint Gilles of Provence and Saint James of Compostella - that the chansons de geste were, in fact, the product of 11th and 12th century trouveres, exploiting local ecclesiastical traditions, and were not developed from earlier poems dating back perhaps to the lifetime of Guillaume of Toulouse, the saint of Gellone.
The closed figure a c d e a is variously called a hysteresis curve or diagram or loop. The area f HdB enclosed by it represents the work done in carrying a cubic centimetre of the iron through the corresponding magnetic cycle; expressed in ergs this work is I HdB.
Fleming, it 47r requires about 18 foot-pounds of work to make a complete mag netic cycle in a cubic foot of wrought iron, strongly magnetized first one way and then the other, the work so expended taking the form of heat in the mass.
When a hysteresis curve is to be obtained, the procedure is as follows: The current is first adjusted by means of R to such a strength as will fit it to produce the greatest + and - values of the magnetizing force which it is intended to apply in the course of the cycle; then it is reversed several times, and when the range of the galvanometer throws has become constant, half the extent of an excursion indicates the induction corresponding to the extreme value of H, and gives the point a in the curve fig.
When the magnetizing current is twice reversed, so as to complete a cycle, the sum of the two deflections, multiplied by a factor depending upon the sectional area of the specimen and upon the constants of the apparatus, gives the hysteresis for a complete cycle in ergs per cubic centimetre.
of a crowd of small compass needles (representative of magnetic molecules) is proportional to the 1.6th power of the aggregate maximum magnetic moment before or after completion of the cycle.
per cycle at an induction of 8000, being 1 6 times the loss shown by Ewing's specimen at the same induction.
In many experiments, however, different inductions and frequencies are employed, and the hysteresis-loss is often expressed as ergs per cubic centimetre per cycle and sometimes as horse-power per ton.
per cycle being approximately represented by o 002 B1.56 when the maximum limits of B were ± 9000.
There was considerable hysteresis, the energy-loss per cycle being fairly represented by W =0.000549513 2 ' 238.
When the strong magnetizing field is gradually diminished to zero and then reversed, the needles pass from one stable position of rest to another through a condition of instability; and if the field is once more reversed, so that the cycle is completed, the needles again pass through a condition of instability before a position of stable equilibrium is regained.
Hence in performing a cycle there is a waste of energy corresponding to what has been termed hysteresis-loss.
In one case the hysteresis loss per cubic centimetre per cycle was 16,100 ergs for B =1 5,900, and only 1200 ergs for B = 20,200, the highest induction obtained in the experiment; possibly it would have vanished before B had reached 21,000.2 These experiments prove that actual friction must be almost entirely absent, and, as Baily remarks, the agreement of the results with the previously suggested deduction affords a strong verification of Ewing's form of the molecular theory.
Like the Scyths they were pressed towards the west by yet newer swarms, and with the coming of the Huns Scythia enters upon a new cycle, though still keeping its old name in the Byzantine historians.
Thus an individual living body is not only constantly changing its substance, but its size and form are undergoing continual modifications, the end of which is the death and decay of that individual; the continuation of the kind being secured by the detachment of portions which tend to run through the same cycle of forms as the parent.
The term "rulers" appears to be derived from Manichean speculation, or from the same cycle of myth which is reflected in Cor.
Sundry manuscripts of the yet more extensive compilation which begins with the Grand Saint Graal also refer to Map as having composed the cycle in conjunction with Robert de Borron, to whom, as a rule, the Grand Saint Graal and Merlin are exclusively assigned.
The growth of popularity of the cycle, and later of the motor-car, has been a principal factor in the wide development of a tendency to leave London during the ” week-end,” that is to say, as a rule, for Saturday afternoon and Sunday.
The "Cycle of the White Rose" - the white rose being the badge of the Stuarts - composed of members of the principal Welsh families around Wrexham, including the Williams-Wynns of Wynnstay, lasted from 1710 until some time between 1850 and 1860.
is said to produce fully developed gonads, and if kept in aquaria with Tubifex, the number of infected worms steadily increases, a fact pointing to the whole cycle being passed through, without the intermediation of a vertebrate host.
The two genera agree closely in form and structure and may possibly belong to the cycle of the same or of allied species.
There is no evidence that she had originally any connexion with the Robin Hood cycle.
It is adorned with a cycle of religious paintings by Heinrich von Hess (1798-1863), and the dome is supported by sixtyfour monoliths of grey Tyrolese marble.
The display is apparently an annual one, though with considerable differences in intensity, and the cycle of its more abundant returns has not yet been determined.
The cycle of development taken by the Malacocotylea has been generally regarded as an alternation of one or more asexual generations with a sexual one.
Some authors looking upon these as parthenogenetic ova regard the developmental cycle as one composed of an alternation of parthenogenetic and of sexual generations.
Others again consider that the whole cycle is a metamorphosis which, beginning in the Heterocotylea as a direct development, has become complicated in the Holostomidae by a larval history, and finally in the Malacocotylea has acquired additional complexity by the intercalation of two larval forms, and is thus spread over several generations.
Then, as different stories grew up round the person of a particular hero, they formed a connected cycle of legend, the centre of which was the person of the hero (e.g.
The second cycle contains the epics of Finn (Fionn, Fingal) mac Cumhail, and his son Oisin (Ossian), the bard and warrior, chiefly known from the supposed Ossianic poems of Macpherson.
He is first spoken of in Nennius's History of the Britons (9th century), and at greater length in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (12th century), at the end of which the French Breton cycle attained its fullest development in the poems of Chretien de Troyes and others.
More important in the West, however, was the cycle of legends gathering round the figure of Charlemagne, forming what was known as " the matter of France."
The romances of this cycle, of Germanic (Frankish) origin and developed probably in the north of France by the French (probably in the north of France) contain reminiscences of the heroes of the Merovingian period, and in their later development were influenced by the Arthurian cycle.
Another famous hero and centre of a 14th-century cycle of romance was Amadis of Gaul; its earliest form is Spanish, although the Portuguese have claimed it as a translation from their own language.
Best, The Irish Mythological Cycle and Celtic Mythology (1903); L.
That he was an Ephrathite and lived at Ramah may only be due to the incorporation of one cycle of specifically local tradition; the name of his grandfather Jeroham (or Jerahmeel, so Septuagint) suggests a southern origin, and one may compare the relation between Saul and the Kenites (I Sam.
Perlesvaus, Welsh, Peredur), the hero of a comparatively small, but highly important, group of romances, forming part of the Arthurian cycle.
In both cases the romance follows the prose rendering of Borron's Joseph of Arimathea and Merlin, and precedes a Mort Artus, thus forming part of a complete cycle.
The Fructidorian Directors contemptuously rejected the overtures for peace which Pitt had recently made through the medium of Lord Malmesbury at Lille; and they further illustrated their desire for war and plunder by initiating a forward policy in central Italy and Switzerland which opened up a new cycle of war.
A cycle of tales is devoted to a strange humorous being called Yehl or Yelch, i.e.
The cult of Anubis must at all times have been very popular in Egypt, and, belonging to the Isis and Serapis cycle, was introduced into Greece and Rome.
For that work the Augustan age, as the end of one great cycle of events and the beginning of another, was eminently suited, and a writer who, by his gifts of imagination and sympathy, was perhaps better fitted than any other man of antiquity for the task, and who through the whole of this period lived a life of literary leisure, was found to do justice to the subject.
Dorian states usually had in common the " Doric " dialect, a peculiar calendar and cycle of festivals of which the Hyacinthia and Carneia were the chief, and certain political and social institutions, such as the threefold " Dorian tribes."
The 5th-century tradition that the Heracleid kings of Macedon were Temenid exiles from Argos may belong to the same cycle.
The common calendar and cycle of festivals, observed by all Dorians (of which the Carneia was chief), and the distribution in Greece of the worships of Apollo and Heracles, which attained pre-eminence mainly in or near districts historically " Dorian," suggest that these cults, or an important element in them, were introduced comparatively late, and represent the beliefs of a fresh ethnic superstratum.
If after any series or cycle of transformations the body is restored to its initial state, we must have E=E 0, whence it follows that H= W.
The balance of work obtainable in such a cycle depends on the limits of temperature in a manner which forms the subject of the second law.
Any closed path or figure, such as ABCD, represents a complete cycle or series of operations, in the course of which the substance is restored to its original state with respect to temperature, intrinsic energy and other properties.
A cycle such as ABCD enclosed by parts of two isothermals, BC, AD, and two adiabatics, AB, CD, is the simplest form of cycle for theoretical purposes, since all the heat absorbed, H', is taken in during the process represented by one isothermal at the temperature o', and all the heat rejected, H", is given out during the process represented by the other at the temperature 0".
This is the cycle employed by Carnot for the establishment of his fundamental principle of reversibility as the criterion of perfect efficiency in a heat engine.
The area ABCD, representing the work, W, per cycle, is the difference (H' - H") of the quantities of heat absorbed and rejected at the temperatures 0 and 0".
As the temperature 0" is lowered, the area of the cycle increases, but since W can never exceed H', there must be a zero limit of temperature at which the pressure would vanish and the area of the cycle become equal to the whole heat absorbed at the higher temperature.
He therefore employed the corresponding expression for a cycle of infinitesimal range dt at the temperature t in which the work dW obtainable from a quantity of heat H would be represented by the equation dW =HF'(t)dt, where F'(t) is the derived function of F(t), or dF(t)/dt, and represents the work obtainable per unit of heat per degree fall of temperature at a temperature t.
With this definition of temperature 0, if the heat H is measured in work units, the expression of Carnot's principle for an infinitesimal cycle of range do reduces to the simple form dW/d9=H/0.
Combining this with the first law, for a Carnot cycle of finite range, if H is the heat taken in at 0', and H" is the heat rejected at 0", the work W done in the cycle is equal to the difference H' - H", and we have the simple relations, W/(0' - o") =H'/o' =H" o".
Then by relations (2) the heat, H, absorbed in the isothermal change BC, is to the work, W, done in the cycle ABCD in the ratio of o to (o' - o").
Finally, the substance is reconverted into the first state at the temperature 0", completing the cycle by the abstraction of a quantity of heat By the application of the first law, the difference of the quantities of heat absorbed and evolved in the cycle must be equal to the work represented by the area of the cycle, which is equal to (p' - p") (v" - v') in the limit when the difference of pressure is small.
At the same time the majority of the short episodic poems connected with the cycle have Gawain for their hero.
Hence it has been a practice, very extensively followed, to employ cycles or periods, consisting of a moderate number of years, and to distinguish and reckon the years by their number in the cycle.
Before the introduction of the Metonic cycle, the Olympic year began sometimes with the full moon which followed, at other times with that which preceded the summer solstice, because the year sometimes contained 384 days instead of 354.
Before its adoption the usual practice in Latin countries was to distinguish the years by their number in the cycle of Indiction.
For this purpose they adopted a cycle of eighty-four years, which is mentioned by several of the ancient fathers of the church, and which the early Christians borrowed from them for the regulation of Easter.
This cycle seems to be neither more nor less than the Calippic period of seventy-six years, with the addition of a Greek octaeteris, or period of eight years, in order to disguise its true source, and give it an appearance of originality.
Buccherius places the beginning of this cycle in the year 162 B.C.; Prideaux in the year 291 B.C. According to the account of Prideaux, the fifth cycle must have begun in the year 46 of our era; and it was in this year, according to St Prosperus, that the Christians began to employ the Jewish cycle of eighty-four years, which they followed, though not uniformly, for the regulation of Easter, till the time of the Council of Nice.
Soon after the Nicene council, the Jews, in imitation of the Christians, abandoned the cycle of eighty-four years, and adopted that of Meton, by which their lunisolar year is regulated at the present day.
It is not known for what reason the alteration was made; but it is conjectured that it was for the purpose of causing a newfrevolution of the cycle of nineteen years (which was introduced into the ecclesiastical computation about this time by Anatolius, bishop of Hierapolis) to begin with the first year of the reign of Diocletian.
In fact, 5777 being divided by 19 leaves for the year of the cycle.
Each day of the cycle has a particular name, and as it is a usual practice, in mentioning dates, to give the name of the day along with that of the moon and the year, this arrangement affords great facilities in verifying the epochs of Chinese chronology.
The order of the days in the cycle is never interrupted by any intercalation that may be necessary for adjusting the months or years.
The moons of the civil year are also distinguished by their place in the cycle of sixty; and as the intercalary moons are not reckoned, for the reason before stated, namely, that during one of these lunations the sun enters into no new sign, there are only twelve regular moons in a year, so that the cycle is renewed every five years.
Thus the first moon of the year 1873 being the first of a new cycle, the first moon of every sixth year, reckoned backwards or forwards from that date, as 1868, 1863, &c., or 1877, 1882, &c., also begins a new lunar cycle of sixty moons.
The cycle of sixty is formed of two subordinate cycles or series of characters, one of ten and the other of twelve, which are joined together so as to afford sixty different combinations.
The name of the first year, or of the first day, in the sexagenary cycle is formed by combining the first words in each of the above series; the second is formed by combining the second of each series, and so on to the tenth.
In the Chinese history translated into the Tatar dialect by order of the emperor K'ang-hi, who died in 1721, the characters of the cycle begin to appear at the year 2357 B.C. From this it has been inferred 8th May.
The characters given to that year 2357 B.C. are Kea-shin, which denote the 41st of the cycle.
We must, therefore, suppose the cycle to have begun 2397 B.C., or forty years before the reign of Yao.
The mathematical tribunal has, however, from time immemorial counted the first year of the first cycle from the eighty-first of Yao, that is to say, from the year 2277 B.C.
The early poems of the cycle sometimes contain curious information on the Frankish methods in war, in council and in judicial procedure, which had no parallels in contemporary institutions.
Gradually most of the chansons de geste were attached to the name of Charlemagne, whose poetical history falls into three cycles: - the geste du roi, relating his wars and the personal history of himself and his family; the southern cycle, of which Guillaume de Toulouse is the central figure; and the feudal epic, dealing with the revolts of the barons against the emperor, the rebels being invariably connected by the trouveres with the family of Doon de Mayence.
The earliest poems of the cycle are naturally the closest to historical truth.
The tale bears marks of high antiquity, and presents one of the few incidents in the French cycle which may be referred to a mythic origin.
The wars of Charlemagne with his vassals are described in Girart de Roussillon, Renaus de Montauban, recounting the deeds of the four sons of Aymon, Huon de Bordeaux, and in the latter part of the Chevalerie Ogier, which belong properly to the cycle connected with Doon of Mayence.
The Latin chronicle, wrongly ascribed to Turpin (Tilpinus), bishop of Reims from 753 to Boo, was in reality later than the earlier poems of the French cycle, and the first properly authenticated mention of it is in 1165.
The most important works on the Charlemagne cycle of romance are: - G.
Herrtage, Emil Hausknecht, Octavia Richardson and Sidney Lee (1879-1881), the romance of Duke Huon of Bordeaux containing a general account of the cycle by Sidney Lee; the Karlamagnussaga, by, C. R.
And the world of the spirit and the world of nature continue to have this distinction, that the latter moves only in a recurring cycle while the former certainly also makes progress."
But in the derivant valley peneplains developed in the present cycle of denudation, and there are residual summits also; in the Connecticut Valley trap ridges, of which Mt Tom and Mt Holyoke are the best examples; at Mt Holyoke, lava necks; occasionally in the lowlands, ridges of resistant sandstone, like Deerfield Mountain near Northampton; in the Berkshire Valley, summits of resistant schists, like Greylock, the highest summit in the state.
- Leaf 3 of the Tonalamatl, or sacred cycle of 260 days, from the Aubin collection.
Figure of the god Texcatlipoca, surrounded by the 20 day symbols of the sacred cycle of 260 days, tonalanaatl.
It has been thought that they were added to bring the cycle up to seven."
He is acquainted with the poems of the epic cycle, the Cypria, the Epigoni, &c. He quotes or otherwise shows familiarity with the writings of Hesiod, Olen, Musaeus, Bacis, Lysistratus, Archilochus of Paros, Alcaeus, Sappho, Solon, Aesop, Aristeas of Proconnesus, Simonides of Ceos, Phrynichus, Aeschylus and Pindar.
He was less productive as a poet than either Ennius or Accius; and we hear of only about twelve of his plays, founded on Greek subjects (among them the Antiope, Teucer, Armorum Judicium, Dulorestes, Chryses, Niptra, &c., most of them on subjects connected with the Trojan cycle), and one praetexta (Paulus) written in connexion with the victory of Lucius Aemilius Paulus at Pydna (168), as the Clastidium of Naevius and the Ambracia of Ennius were written in commemoration of great military successes.
On the decay of these structures the phosphates are returned to the inorganic world, thus completing the cycle.
METONIC CYCLE, in chronology, a period of 19 years during which there are 235 lunations, so called because discovered by Meton.
In 1551 a marble statue of a seated man was found in the cemetery of the Via Tiburtina: on the sides of the seat were carved a paschal cycle, and on the back the titles of numerous writings.
An antique persuasion, that the grand cycle of creation opened under the first sign, has been transmitted to modern cognizance by Dante (Inf.
The nomenclature not only of the hours of the day and of their minutest intervals was supplied by it, but of the months of the year, of the years in the Oriental sixty-year cycle, and of the days in the " little cycle " of twelve days.
The discovery of definite laws in this region might at first sight seem hopeless; but the argument rests on an implied postulate of stability and continuity of constitution of material substances, so that after a cycle of transformations we expect to recover them again as they were originally - on the postulate, in fact, that we do not expect them to melt out of organized existence in our hands.
By the scheme introduced in these memorable terms the course of seven years is divided into two cycles, the first cycle (of four years) having two parallel courses: (1) without Greek or Latin, and (2) with Latin, and with optional Greek at the beginning of the third year.
In the second cycle (of three years) those who have been learning both Greek and Latin, and those who have been learning neither, continue on the same lines as before; while those who have been learning Latin only may either (1) discontinue it in favour of modern languages and science, or (2) continue it with either.
As an alternative to the second cycle, which normally ends in the examination for the baccalaureat, there is a shorter course, mainly founded on modern languages or applied science and ending in a public examination without the baccalaureat.
240, 306; Hippolytus, Paschal Cycle and Chronicle; Origen, in Levit.
Other methods of expressing the year 29 appear in Hippolytus's Paschal Cycle and Chronicle, and in the Abgar legend (ap. Eusebius, H.E.
92b), as originated by Hippolytus's Paschal cycle of A.D.
Susanna, where the point lies in the name Daniel " God is judge "), Esther, Judith, Tobit (and the Ahiqar cycle of stories), the story of Zerubbabel (i Esd.
But the sermons or discourses of the homiletic Midrashim are classified according to the reading of the Pentateuch in the Synagogue, either the three year cycle, or else according to the sections of the Pentateuch and Prophetical books assigned to special and ordinary Sabbaths and festival days.
the famous tale of Fled Bricrend or Bricriu's Feast of the Ultonian cycle.
The Mongols, Tibetans, Chinese and other neighbouring nations have a cycle or series of twelve animals, viz.
The Mongolian peoples not only count their lunar months by these signs, but they reckon the successive days by them, rat-day, bull-day, tiger-day, &c., and also, by combining the twelve signs in rotation with the elements, they obtain a means of marking each year in the sixty-year cycle, as the woodrat year, the fire-tiger year, &c. This method is highly artificial, and the reappearance of its principle in the Mexican and Central American calendar is suggestive of importation from Asia.
where the Aztecs are recorded to have celebrated in 1195 thefestival of tying up the " bundle of years " and beginning a new cycle.
The cycle of 52 years was reckoned by combining these signs in rotation with numbers up to 13, thus: I rabbit, 2 reed, 3 flint, 4 house, 5 rabbit, 6 reed, &c. By accident this calendar may be exactly illustrated with a modern pack of cards laid out in rotation of the four suits, as, ace of hearts, 2 of spades, 3 of diamonds, 4 of clubs, 5 of hearts, 6 of spades, &c. In the Mexican ritual calendar of the days of the year, the same method is carried further, the series of twenty day-signs being combined in rotation with numbers up to 13; as this cycle of days only reaches 260, a series of nine other signs are affixed in addition, to make up the 365-day year.
interest depends on its resemblance to the calendar-system of central and eastern Asia, where among Mongols, Tibetans, Chinese, &c., series of signs are thus combined to reckon years, months and days;: for instance, the Mongol cycle of 60 years is recorded by the zodiac or series of 12 signs - mouse, bull, tiger, &c., combined.
Of all Mexican festivals the most solemn was that of the xiuhmolpilli, or " year-binding," when the 52-year cycle or bundle of years came to an end.
place three or four times, would happen again at the end of a cycle.
re-kindle the fires of the land, the sacred fire on the teocalli of the war-god blazed up again, and the people began with feasting and rejoicing the new cycle.
Siedlecki, " Contribution a l'etude de la structure et du cycle evolutif de Spirochaete pallida, Schaud.," Bull.
The Cycle of Spring (1917), Sacrifice (1917), and other plays; the novels, The Home and the World (1919), The Wreck (1921); as well as a volume of letters, Glimpses of Bengal (1921), and the short stories Hungry Stones German East Africa Tanganyika Territory) Scale.]: 7.500,000 0 50 100, 50 Boundary 19141Le r ial921 Railways - - - Roads - - - - - (1916) and Mashi (1918); and republished lectures, Sadhana, or the Realization of Life (1913), Nationalism (1917), Personality (1917).
The above conveys the cycle of ideas within which Paul's reflection worked.
When, however, we turn to the numerous fragments of authentic Manichaean liturgies and hymns lately discovered in Turfan in East Turkestan, Mani's direct indebtedness to the cycle of Magian legends rather than to Chaldaic sources (as Kessler argued) is clearly exhibited.
Lake Cliff, Cycle and Oak Lawn parks are amusement grounds.
These large divisions need physiographic subdivision, which will now be made, following the guide of structure, process and stage; that is, each subdivision or province will be defined as part of the earths crust in which some similarity of geological structure prevails, and upon which some process or processes of surface sculpture have worked long enough to reach a certain stage in the cycle of physiographic development.
Glacial action complicated the work of the latest cycle in the northern part of the system.
In view of all this it is possible to refer nearly every element of Appalachian form to its appropriate cycle and stage of development.
and their form to the normal urocesses of sculpture which, having become nearly quiescent at the close,of the Mesozoic cycle, became active again in Tertiary and later times.
The watercourses to-day are, as a rule, longitudinal, following the strike of the weaker strata in paths that they appear to have gained by spontaneous adjustment during the long Mesozoic cycle; but now and again they cross from one longitudinal valley to another by a transverse course, and there they have cut down sharp notches or water-gaps in the hard strata that elsewhere stand up in the long even-crested ridges.
The height is greatest along the inner or north-western border of the belt, and here a sub-mountainous topography has been produced by normal dissection, chiefly in the Tertiary cycle; the valleys being narrow because the rocks are resistant.
The peneplain is no longer in the cycle of erosion that witnessed its production; it appears to have suffered a regional elevation, for the riversthe upper Missouri and its branchesno longer flow on the surface of the plain, but in well graded, maturely opened valleys, several hundred feet below the general level.
provpee The province was uplifted and divided into great blocks by faults or monoclinal flexures and thus exposed to long-lasting denudation in a mid-Tertiary cycle of erosion; and then broadly elevated again, with renewed movement on some of the fault lines; thus was introduced in late Tertiary time the current cycle of erosion in which the deep canyons of the region have been trenched.
The results of the first cycle of erosion are seen in the widespread exposure of the resistant Carboniferous limestone as a broad platform in the south-western area of greater uplift through central Arizona, where the higher formations were worn away; and in the development of a series of huge, south-facing, retreating escarpments of irregular outline on the edges of the higher formations farther north.
With the renewal of uplift by which the earlier cycle of erosion was interrupted and the present cycle introduced, inequalities of surface due to renewed faulting were again introduced; these still appear as cliffs, of more nearly rectilinear front than the retreating escarpments formed in the previous cycle.
The few rivers of the region must have reached the quiescence of old age iii the earlier cycle, but were revived by uplift to a vigorous youth in the current cycle; and it is to this newly introduced cycle of physiographic evolution that the deep canyons of the Plateau province are due.
During the current cycle of erosion, several of the faults, whose scarps had been worn away in the previous cycle, have been brought to light again as topographic features by the removal of the weak strata along one side of the fault line, leaving the harder strata on the other side in relief; such scarps are known as fault-line scarps, in distinction from the original fault scarps.
The structure of the region previous to faulting was dependent on long antecedent processes of accumulation and deformation and the surface of the region then was dependent on the amount of erosion suffered in the prefaulting cycle.
When this old-mountain lowland was broken into blocks and the blocks were tilted, their attitude, but not their structure, was monoclinal; and in this new attitude they have been so maturely re-dissected in the ne~v cycle of erosion upon which they have now entered as to have gained elaborately carved forms in which the initial form of the uplifted blocks can hardly be perceived; yet at least some of them still retain along one side the highly significant feature of a relatively simple base-line, transecting hard and soft structures alike, and thus indicating the faulted margin of a tilted block.
If this be true, the southern district will furnish a good illustration of an advanced stage of the cycle of arid erosion, in which the exportation of waste from enclosed depressions by the wind has played an important part.
The Sierra Nevada may be described, in a very general way, as a great mountain block, largely composed of granite and deformed metamorphosed rocks, reduced to moderate relief in an earlier (Cretaceous and Tertiary?) cycle of erosion, sub-recently elevated with a slant to the west, and in this position sub-maturely dissected.
The region was by no means a peneplain before its slanting uplift; its surface then was hilly and in the south mountainous; in its central and still more in its northern part it was overspread with lavas which flowed westward along the broad open valleys from many vents in the eastern part: near the northern end of the range, eruptions have continued in the present cycle, forming many cones and young lava flows.
The mountains in the southern part of the block, which had been reduced to subdued forms in the former cycle of erosion, were thus given a conspicuous height, forming the High Sierra, and greatly sharpened by revived erosion, normal and glacial.
Some of the chief valleys are not cut in the floors of the old valleys of the former cycle, because the rivers were displaced from their former courses by lava flows, which now stand up as table mountains.
Farther south, through Oregon and northern California, many members of the coast ranges resemble the Cascades and the Sierra in offering well-attested examples of the uplift of masses of disordered structure, that had been reduced to a tame surface by the erosion of an earlier cycle, and that are now again more or less dissected.
An ascetic, who practised the whole cycle of medieval austerities, he was determined that Canada should be ruled by the church, and he desired for New France a Puritanism as strict as that of New England.
The cycle being completed, the first hour of the 8th day would return to Saturn, and all the others succeed in the same order.
The Metonic Cycle, Which May Be Regarded As The Chef D'Oeuvre Of Ancient Astronomy, Is A Period Of Nineteen Solar Years, After Which The New Moons Again Happen On The Same Days Of The Year.
The Period Of Meton, Therefore, Consisted Of Twelve Years Containing Twelve Months Each, And Seven Years Containing Thirteen Months Each; P And These Last Formed The Third, Fifth, Eighth, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Sixteenth, And Nineteenth Years Of The Cycle.
As It Had Now Been Discovered That The Exact Length Of The Lunation Is A Little More Than Twenty Nine And A Half Days, It Became Necessary To Abandon The Alternate Succession Of Full And Deficient Months; And, In Order To Preserve A More Accurate Correspondence Between The Civil Month And The Lunation, Meton Divided The Cycle Into 125 Full Months Of Thirty Days, And 110 Deficient Months Of Twenty Nine Days Each.
After The Metonic Cycle Had Been In Use About A Century, A Correction Was Proposed By Calippus.
At The End For Four Cycles, Or Seventy Six Years, The Accumulation Of The Seven And A Half Hours Of Difference Between The Cycle And 235 Lunations Amounts To Thirty Hours, Or One Whole Day And Six Hours.
In The Julian Calendar The Dominical Letters Are Readily Found By Means Of A Short Cycle, In Which They Recur In The Same Order Without Interruption.
This Period Is Called The Solar Cycle, Or The Cycle Of The Sun, And Restores The First Day Of The Year To The Same Day Of The Week.
At The End Of The Cycle The Dominical Letters Return Again In The Same Order On The Same Days Of The Month; Hence A Table Of Dominical Letters, Constructed For Twenty Eight Years, Will Serve To Show The Dominical Letter Of Any Given Year From The Corn Mencement Of The Era To The Reformation.
The Cycle, Though Probably Not Invented Before The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea, Is Regarded As Having Commenced Nine Years Before The Era, So That The Year One Was The Tenth Of The Solar Cycle.
To Find The Year Of The Cycle, We Have Therefore The Following Rule: Add Nine To The Date, Divide The Sum By Twenty Eight; The Quotient Is The Number Of Cycles Elapsed, And The Remainder Is The Year Of The Cycle.
Should There Be No Remainder, The Proposed Year Is The Twentyeighth Or Last Of The Cycle.
Thus, For 1840, We Have 1840-9966 2 1 G; Therefore (1849) R= 1, And The Year 1840 Is The First Of The Solar Cycle.
In Order To Make Use Of The Solar Cycle In Finding The Dominical Letter, It Is Necessary To Know That The First Year Of The Christian Era Began With Saturday.
The Dominical Letter Of That Year, Which Was The Tenth Of The Cycle, Was Consequently B.
The Following Year, Or The I 1Th Of The Cycle, The Letter Was A; Then G.
In This Manner It Is Easy To Find The Dominical Letter Belonging To Each Of The Twenty Eight Years Of The Cycle.
But At The End Of A Century The Order Is Interrupted In The Gregorian Calendar By The Secular Suppression Of The Leap Year; Hence The Cycle Can Only Be Employed During A Century.
In connecting the lunar month with the solar year, the framers of the ecclesiastical calendar adopted the period of Meton, or lunar cycle, which they supposed to be exact.
The lunations are supposed to consist of twenty-nine and thirty days alternately, or the lunar year of 354 days; and in order to make up nineteen solar years, six embolismic or intercalary months, of thirty days each, are introduced in the course of the cycle, and one of twenty-nine days is added at the end.
The mean length of the cycle is [[Table I]].
When the remainder is o, the proposed year is of course the last or 19th of the cycle.
The cycle of the sun brings back the days of the month to the same day of the week; the lunar cycle restores the new moons to the same day of the month; therefore 28 X 19 = 53 2 years, includes all the variations in respect of the new moons and the dominical letters, and is consequently a period after which the new moons again occur on the same day of the month and the same day of the week.
Besides the solar and lunar cycles, there is a third of 15 years, called the cycle of indiction, frequently employed in the computations of chronologists.
By extending it backwards, it will be found that the first of the era was the fourth of the cycle of indiction.
The number of any year in this cycle therefore 69391 days, agreeing exactly with nineteen Julian years.
By means of the lunar cycle the new moons of the calendar were indicated before the Reformation.
As the cycle restores these phenomena to the same days of the civil month, they will fall on the same days in any two years which occupy the same place in the cycle; consequently a table of the moon's phases for 19 years will serve for any year whatever when we know its number in the cycle.
When the remainder is o, the proposed year is the fifteenth of the cycle.
We have already seen that the year 1 of the era had Io for its number in the solar cycle, 2 in the lunar cycle, and 4 in the cycle of indiction; the question is therefore to find a number such, that Iv.
The Lunar Cycle Contained 6 939 Days 18 Hours, Whereas The Exact Time Of 235 Lunations, As We Have Already Seen, Is 235X29.530588= 6939 Days 16 Hours 31 Minutes.
But, Supposing This Correction To Have Been Made, It Would Have Again Become Necessary, At The End Of 308 Years, To Advance Them One Line Higher, In Consequence Of The Accumulation Of The Error Of The Cycle To A Whole Day.
Another Addition Of Eleven Gives Thirty Three For The Epact Of The Fourth Year; But In Consequence Of The Insertion Of The Intercalary Month In Each Third Year Of The Lunar Cycle, This Epact Is Reduced To Three.
In Like Manner The Epacts Of All The Following Years Of The Cycle Are Obtained By Successively Adding Eleven To The Epact Of The Former Year, And Rejecting Thirty As Often As The Sum Exceeds That Number.
They Are Therefore Connected With The Golden Numbers By The Formula (I), In Which N Is Any Whole Number; Andor A Whole Lunar Cycle (Supposing The First Epact To Be 11), They Are As Follows: 11, 22, 3, 14, 25, 6, 17, 28, 9, 20, I, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18, 29.
But The Order Is Interrupted At The End Of The Cycle; For The Epact Of The Following Year, Found In The Same Manner, Would Be 29 11=40 Or 10, Whereas It Ought Again To Be 1S To Correspond With The Moon'S Age And The Golden Number 1.
This Method Of Forming The Epacts Might Have Been Continued Indefinitely If The Julian Intercalation Had Been Followed Without Correction, And The Cycle Been Perfectly Exact; But As Neither Of These Suppositions Is True, Two Equations Or Corrections Must Be Applied, One Depending On The Error Of The Julian Year, Which Is Called The Solar Equation; The Other On The Error Of The Lunar Cycle, Which Is Called The Lunar Equation.
Thus The Epacts I 1, 22, 3, 14, &C., Become 10, 21, 2, 13, &C. On The Other Hand, When The Time By Which The New Moons Anticipate The Lunar Cycle Amounts To A Whole Day, Which, As We Have Seen, It Does In 308 Years, The New Moons Will Arrive One Day Earlier, And The Epacts Must Consequently Be Increased By Unity.
Thus The Epacts 11, 22, 3, 14, &C., In Consequence Of The Lunar Equation, Become 12, 23, 4, 15, &C. In Order To Preserve The Uniformity Of The Calendar, The Epacts Are Changed Only At The Commencement Of A Century; The Correction Of The Error Of The Lunar Cycle Is Therefore Made At The End Of 300 Years.
The Second Column, Corresponding To The Following Year In The Lunar Cycle, Must Have All Its Epacts Augmented By 11; The Lowest Number, Therefore, In The Column Is 12, Then 13, 14, 15 And So On.
The Reason For Doubling The 25 Was To Prevent The New Moons From Being Indicated In The Calendar As Happening Twice .On The Same Day In The Course Of The Lunar Cycle, A Thing Which Actually Cannot Take Place.
When The Golden Number Is 19, That Is To Say, In The Last Year Of The Lunar Cycle, The Supplementary Month Contains Only 29 Days.
In Order To Investigate A Formula For The Epact, Let Us Make E=The True Epact Of The Given Year; J =The Julian Epact, That Is To Say, The Number The Epact Would Have Been If The Julian Year Had Been Still In Use And The Lunar Cycle Had Been Exact;, S =The Correction Depending On The Solar Year; M =The Correction Depending On The Lunar Cycle; Then The Equation Of The Epact Will Be E=J S M; So That E Will Be Known When The Numbers J, S, And M Are Determined.
The Distribution Of The Embolismic Years, In Each Cycle Of 19 Years, Is Determined According To The Following Rule: The Number Of The Hebrew Year (Y) Which Has Its Commencement In A Gregorian Year (X) Is Obtained By The Addition Of 3761 Years; That Is, Y=X } 3761.
Divide The Hebrew Year By 19; Then The Quotient Is The Number Of The Last Completed Cycle, And The Remainder Is The Year Of The Current Cycle.
2 5 4 Sec., So That A Cycle Of Nineteen Of Such Years, Containing 6939 Days 16 Hours 33 Min.
The Year 5606 Was The First Of A Cycle, And The Mean New Moon, Appertaining To The 1St Of Tisri For That Year, Was 1845, October I, 15 Hours 42 Min.
Hence, Knowing Which Of The Years Are Embolismic, From Their Ordinal Position In The Cycle, According To The Rule Before Stated, The Times Of The Commencement Of Successive Years May Be Thus Carried On Indefinitely Without Any Difficulty.
To Find If A Year Is Intercalary Or Common, Divide It By 30; The Quotient Will Be The Number Of Completed Cycles And The Remainder Will Be The Year Of The Current Cycle; If This Last Be One Of The Numbers 2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 18, 21, 24, 26, 29, The Year Is Intercalary And Consists Of 355 Days; If It Be Any Other Number, The Year Is Ordinary.
Let C Denote The Number Of Completed Cycles, And Y The Year Of The Cycle; Then Y=30 C Y, And W= 5 (C) R 6 (7/ R 3 (U13) R (Rejecting Sevens).
To Find, As A Test, The Accurate Day Of The Week, The Proposed Year Of The Hegira, Divided By 30, Gives 45 Cycles, And Remainder 12, The Year Of The Current Cycle.
The Following Table, Taken From Woolhouse'S Measures, Weights And Moneys Of All Nations, Shows The Dates Of Commencement Of Mahommedan Years From 1845 Up To 2047, Or From The 43Rd To The 49Th Cycle Inclusive, Which Form The Whole Of The Seventh Period Of Seven Cycles.
- Divide the year of the Hegira by 30; the quotient is the number of cycles, and the remainder is the year of the current cycle.
Next divide the number of cycles by 7, and the second remainder will be the Number of the Period, which being found at the top of the table, and the year of the cycle on the left hand, the required day of the week is immediately shown.
The intercalary years of the cycle are distinguished by an asterisk.
It is now generally admitted that the representation of Arthur as world conqueror, Welt-Kaiser, is due to the influence of the Charlemagne cycle.
In the 12th century the Matiere de France was waning, the Matiere de Bretagne waxing in popularity, and public opinion demanded that the central figure of the younger cycle (for whatever the date of the subject matter, as a literary cycle the Arthurian is the younger) should not be inferior in dignity and importance to that of the earlier.
When we add to this the fact that the writers of the 12th century represented the personages and events of the 6th in the garb, and under the conditions, of their own time, we can understand the reason of the manifold difficulties which beset the study of the cycle.
Numerous parallels exist between the Arthurian and early Irish heroic cycles, notably the Fenian or Ossianic. This Fenian cycle is very closely connected with the Tuatha de Danaan, the Celtic deities of vegetation and increase; recent research has shown that two notable features of the Arthurian story, the Round Table and the Grail, can be most reasonably accounted for as survivals of this Nature worship, and were probably parts of the legend from the first.
The Divine Unity is incomprehensible, and can be known only through its Manifestations; to recognize the Manifestation of the cycle in which he lives is the supreme duty of man.
The sexes almost immediately couple; the female in from four to six days lays her eggs, numbering 500 and upwards; and, with that the life cycle of the moth being complete, both sexes soon die.
Assured that his explanation was true, Bradley corrected his observations for aberration, but he found that there still remained a residuum which was evidently not a parallax, for it did not exhibit an annual cycle.
There are large collieries in the neighbourhood of the town, the workings in some cases extending beneath the sea, and blastfurnaces, engineering works, cycle and motor works, shipbuilding yards and paper mills.
The cycle of vegetation begins in November.
By imagining that a dilute solution is put through a thermodynamic cycle we may deduce directly relations between its osmotic pressure and its freezing point.
In considering the corresponding relation for a solution instead of a pure liquid, possible differences in concentration make the column method difficult of application, and it is better to attach the problem by means of an imaginary cycle of isothermal operation.
By an imaginary cycle of operations we may then justify the application to solutions of the latent heat equation which we have already assumed as applicable.
But deliverance from this cycle of existences, which is conceived as misery, is promised by means of speculation and asceticism.
32) states that they were mentioned in Hesiod and in the Epigoni, an epic of the Theban cycle.
Further, we know that in the 8th century B.C., there were observatories in most of the large cities in the valley of the Euphrates, and that professional astronomers regularly took observations of the heavens, copies of which were sent to the king of Assyria; and from a cuneiform inscription found in the palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh, the text of which is given by George Smith,5 we learn that at that time the epochs of eclipses of both sun and moon were predicted as possible - probably by means of the cycle of 223 lunations or Chaldaean Saros - and that observations were made accordingly.
The balls A' and B' are then practically discharged, and the above cycle of operations may be repeated.
There are implement works and cycle works, and brewing is prosecuted.
He next put together a kind of anthology, containing epigrams by earlier and contemporary poets and himself, under the title of a Cycle of New Epigrams. About a hundred epigrams by Agathias have been preserved in the Greek Anthology and show considerable taste and elegance.
A new cold billet is then charged at the upper end of the hearth, and the new cycle begins by pushing out through B a second billet, and so forth.
In the Gentile churches, on the other hand, it seems to be well established that originally no yearly cycle of festivals was known at all.
This is due to a very definite influence upon the different portions of the cardiac cycle.
In the lowest leaf is directly the point of insertion of the pair one leaf is in above the first, leaf in the node, dividing front and the other and commences the leaf into similar halves, at the back; in the the second cycle.
If this arrangement is expressed by a fraction, the numerator of which indicates the number of turns, and the denominator the number of internodes in the spiral cycle, the fraction will be found to represent the angle of divergence of the consecutive leaves on the axis.
32, a, b, the cycle consists of five leaves, the 6th leaf being placed vertically over the 1st, the 7th over the 2nd and so on; while the number of turns between the 1st and 6th leaf is two; hence this arrangement is indicated by the fraction g.
- Cycle of thirteen leaves placed closely together so as to form FIG.
To illustrate the main features of the calculation, we may suppose that the surface is subject to a simple-harmonic cycle of temperature variation, so that the temperature at any time t is given by an equation of the form 0 - 0 0 = Asin 27rnt= A sin 27rt/T, (5) where 0 0 is the mean temperature of the surface, A the amplitude of the cycle, n the frequency, and T the period.
In this simple case the temperature cycle at a depth x is a precisely similar curve of the same period, but with the amplitude reduced in the proportion rn ', and the phase retarded by the fraction mx/27r of a cycle.
In the French romances Lancelot is a late addition to the Arthurian cycle, his birth is not recorded till long after the marriage of Arthur and Guenevere, and he is at least twenty years the junior of the queen.
If a man dies unreconciled to God through Christ, he must pass through another cycle of imprisonment in flesh; perhaps in a human, but with equal likelihood in an animal's body.
The relative frequency in the two positions seems to vary with the hour, the type of aurora, probably with the season of the year, and possibly with the position of the year in the sun-spot cycle.
The heroes and heroines of the Trojan cycle, such as Achilles, Ajax, Telamon, Cassandra, Andromache, were prominent figures in some of the dramas adapted from the Greek.
The more ancient account survived, however, he myth that Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis and Nephthys (a less who plays but a minor part in the Osiris cycle) were all Iren of the earth-god Keb and the sky-goddess Nut, born on five consecutive days added on at the end of the year (the flied epagomenal days).
These gods were together known as the great Ennead or cycle of A second series of nine deities, with Horus as its first iber, was invented at the same time or not long afterwards, was called the Lesser Ennead.
A new Sothic cycle began in A.D.
(1493-1519) in a cycle of poems written in the strophic form of the Nibelungenlied.
In the Dietrich cycle it descended to Egill was compelled to prove his skill as an archer by shooting an apple off the head of his three-year-old son; he is thus th of William Tell.
It has been held by some, however, that the first brood corresponds to the sporophyte generation of the higher plants, and that the rest of the cycle is the gametophyte generation.
While Theseus was in Crete, Minos, 1 The story of Theseus is a strange mixture of (mostly fictitious) political tradition, of aetiological myths invented to explain misunderstood acts of ritual and of a cycle of tales of adventure analogous to the story of the labours of Heracles.
Hardly less imposing in their calm, placid perfection are the poems with which, in friendly rivalry, Goethe seconded the more popular ballads of his friend; Der Zauberlehrling, Der Gott and die Bayadere, Die Braut von Korintli, Alexis and Dora, Der neue Pausias and Die schone Miillerin - a cycle of poems in the style of the Volkslied - are among the masterpieces of Goethe's poetry.
Thus, the Samaritans claim the traditions of the land; the Chronicler traces the connexion between " pre-exilic " and " post-exilic " Judaeans, ignoring and obscuring intervening events; the south Palestinian cycle of tradition is adapted to the history of a descent into and an exodus from Egypt; Zadokite priests are enrolled as Aaronites, and the hierarchical traditions ' A Samarian (or Ephraimite or N.
the " Deuteronomic " form of Samuel, and the dependence of the literary growth of Genesis and the account of the exodus and invasion of Palestine upon the " southern " cycle of tradition.
The cycle illustrates some interesting customs and is in every way valuable as a specimen of popular narrative.
Probably, as Gunkel, Dillmann and others suggest, it came originally from a cycle of stories different from that which contained the account of the Flood.
An entirely different cycle of legends relate the conquest of Scyros by Achilles.
The highest thermodynamic efficiency will be reached when the working substance is at the top of its temperature range while any heat is being received and at the bottom while any heat is being rejected - as is the case in the cycle of operations of the theoretically imagined engine of Carnot.
An air-engine working on this cycle would be intolerably bulky and mechanically inefficient.
It then takes in heat from the furnace, expanding in volume and forcing the piston (B) to rise, which completes the cycle.
The stages at which heat is taken from the furnace and rejected to the cooler (C) are approximately isothermal at the upper and lower limits of temperature respectively, and the cycle accordingly is approximately "perfect" in the thermodynamic sense.
Hayward and Tyler's "Rider" engine maybe mentioned as another small hot-air motor which follows nearly the Stirling cycle of operations.
Again and again individuals and groups turn back to the Semitic cycle of hopes and ideas, while the reconciliation of the two systems, Jewish and Graeco-Roman, becomes the task of exegetes and theologians.
Thus the Church touches and controls all realms of life, and the cycle is complete.
It is not till the 6th century of our era, in the reign of Justinian, that we find bubonic plague in Europe, a s a part of the great cycle of pestilence, accompanied by extraordinary natural phenomena, which lasted fifty years, and is described with a singular misunderstanding of medical terms by Gibbon in his forty-third chapter.
It is impossible, however, to pass over the great cycle of epidemics in the 14th century known as the Black Death.
When a machine undergoes alternate acceleration and retardation, so that at certain instants of time, occurring at the end of intervals called periods or cycles, it returns to its original speed, then in each of those periods or cycles the alternate excesses of energy and of work neutralize each other; and at the end of each cycle the principle of the equality of energy and work stated in 87, with all, its consequences, is verified exactly as in the case of machines of uniform speed.
Let e denote the quantity by which the energy exerted in each cycle of the working of the machine alternately exceeds and falls short of the work performed, and which has consequently to be alternately stored by acceleration and restored by retardation of the flywheel.
In the Trojan cycle alone we know of the two epics of Arctinus, the Little Iliad of Lesches, the Cypria, the Nostoi.
The Theban cycle is represented by the Thebaid (which Callinus, who was of the 7th century, ascribed to Homer) and the Epigoni.
Much, however, is to be gathered from the arguments of the Trojan part of the Epic Cycle (preserved in the Codex Venetus of the Iliad, a full discussion of which will be found in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1884, pp. 1-40).
In the later part of the same series of discussions (1837), and in his chief work (Die Sagenpoesie der Griechen, 1852), he investigated the structure of the Homeric poems, and their relation to the other epics of the Trojan cycle.
These epics had meanwhile been made the subject of a work which for exhaustive learning and delicacy of artistic perception has few rivals in the history of philology, the Epic Cycle of F.
Homestead And Exemption Laws 639 Cyclus oder die homerischen Dichter (Bonn, 1835-1849); on Proclus and the Cycle reference may also be made to Wilamowitz-M011endorf p. 328 seq.; E.
Yet they are not medieval in the same sense as the song of Roland or the Arthurian cycle.
The Manichaeans held that in every act of begetting, human or otherwise, a soul is condemned afresh to a cycle of misery by imprisonment in flesh - a thoroughly Indian notion, under the influence of which their perfect or elect ones scrupulously abstained from flesh.
If Stjernhjelm studied Opitz, Rosenhane took the French poets of the Renaissance for his models, and in 1650 wrote a cycle of one hundred sonnets, the earliest in the language; these were published under the title Venerid in 1680.
+ 1/n+ 271+ ., where, after the n th partial quotient, the cycle of partial quotients b 1, b2, ..., b n recur in the same order, is the type of a recurring simple continued fraction.
If bl, b2, ..., k J is the cycle of recurring quotients, then b n 2a1, b, bn_1, b 2 bn_2, b 3 = bn_3, &c.
In the case of a recurring continued fraction which represents N, where N is an integer, if n is the number of partial quotients in the recurring cycle, and pnr/gnr the nr th convergent, then p 2 nr - Ng2nr = (- I) nr, whence, if n is odd, integral solutions of the indeterminate equation x 2 - Ny 2 = I (the so-called Pellian equation) can be found.
If r be the number of quotients in the recurring cycle, we can by writing down the relations connectin g the successive p's and q's obtain a linear relation connecting p nr +m, t'(n-1)r +m, +m in which the coefficients are all constants.
First of all, the old popular traditions, so far as they had not yet been exhausted by Firdousi, were ransacked for new epic themes, and a regular cycle of national epopees gathered round the Book of Kings, drawn almost exclusively from the archives of the princes of Sejistan, the family of Firdousis greatest hero, Rustam.
The cycle of its transformations and successive condensations constitutes the life of the universe, the mode of existence proper to finite and particular being.
Then in due order a new cycle of development begins, reproducing the last in every minutest detail, and so on for ever.
The taste for romances of chivalry continued throughout the 5th century, but of all that were produced the only one that has come down to us is the Estorea do Imperador Vespasiano, an introduction to the Graal Cycle, based on the apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus.
The historian Barros tried his youthful pen in a romance of chivalry, the Chronica do Imperador Clarimundo, while in another branch, and a popular one in Portugal, the Arthurian cycle, the dramatist Ferreira de Vasconcellos wrote Sagramor or Memorial das proesas da segunda Tavola Redonda.
In certain cases where the tremor to which the jet is subjected is compound, the single path is replaced by two, three or even more paths, which the drops follow in a regular cycle.
As regards the ammonium carbonate accumulating in the soil from the conversion of urea and other sources, we know from Winogradsky's researches that it undergoes oxidation in two stages owing to the activity of the so-called " nitrifying " bacteria (an unfortunate term inasmuch as " nitrification " refers merely to a particular phase of the cycle of changes undergone by nitrogen).
(c X 600;) al X 1500, above.) (From Fischer's Vorlesungen uber Bakterien.) into the higher plants as sulphates, built up into proteids, decomposed by putrefactive bacteria and yielding SH 2 which the sulphur bacteria oxidize; the resulting sulphur is then again oxidized to SO 3 and again combined with calcium to gypsum, the cycle being thus complete.
In ecclesiastical affairs he acts with two governing bodies - (a) a permanent Holy Synod ('IEpa EuvoIos 'Etc/Ana - Las KwvoravTLvov7roXEws), consist ing of twelve metropolitans, six of whom are re-elected every year from the whole number of metropolitans, arranged in three classes according to a fixed cycle; (b) the Permanent National Mixed Council (AcapK4s 'E9vucOv a remarkable assembly, which is at once the source of great power by introducing a strong lay element into the administration, and of a certain amount of weakness by its liability to sudden changes of popular feeling.
And, further, this matter seems to belong to the same cycle of tradition as the story of Pilate's wife and his throwing the guilt of the Crucifixion of Jesus upon the Jews, and the testimony borne by the Roman guard (as well as the centurion) who kept watch by the cross (xxvii.
The anode residue is collected in the angular bottom of the tank, the electrolyte passes from the anode chamber to a series of tanks in which the more electro-negative constituents (silver, &c.) are chemically separated, and thence to the cathode chamber, where the copper is deposited electrolytically, thence it passes again to the anode chamber and so completes the cycle.
The rationale of the process is that the sulphite hardly acts upon the dissolved oxide of silver, but it reduces some of the cupric oxide to cuprous oxide, which reduces its equivalent of silver oxide to silver and reforming cupric oxide which passes through the same cycle.
Birmingham and Coventry may be specially mentioned as centres of the motor and cycle building industry.
He must have begun this about the year 405, and by 399 he had brought the dialogue to its highest perfection, especially in the cycle directly inspired by the death of Socrates.
The level varies with the season, and also from year to year, the maximum variation, covering a cycle of years, being about 5 ft.
I, 3, 4; these form a cycle.
2-6; 15 -20; 21, 22; another cycle.
6b, 7; 20-23; and the cycle xiii.
They belong to the same cycle of tradition and cannot be independent of each other.
It rests mostly upon a Sloveno-Greek text and is of the utmost interest for the study of this cycle of legends.
To the same cycle of oriental tales belongs the Halima, already described, which G.
The history of Bertoldo, which, though of Italian origin, reached Rumania through a Greek translation, belongs to the same cycle of rustic wisdom and cunning, and is the last representative of an old series of legends clustering round the figures of Solomon and Ashmodai, or Solomon and Markolph.
The whole of this popular literature belongs to what may be called the cycle of the Balkan nations, in every one of which exact parallels are to be found.
It does not appear that the affected lines follow in any way the sun-spot cycle.
The piece is obviously connected with the Easter cycle of liturgical drama, and the subject is treated in the York and Townley plays.
On the other hand, in the cycle of feasts occur the names of several which are probably of later date - e.g.
Since that time, in every properly appointed sulphuric acid manufactory, the following cycle of operations is carried out.
The mesenteries of the first cycle are complete (i.e.
The second cycle of mesenteries consists of six couples, each formed in an exocoele of the primary cycle, and in each couple the muscle-banners are vis-a-vis.
The third cycle comprises twelve couples, each formed in an exocoele between the primary and secondary couples, and so on, it being a general rule (subject, however, to exceptions) that new mesenterial couples are always formed in the exocoeles, and not in the entocoeles.
While the mesenterial couples belonging to the second and each successive cycle are formed simultaneously, those of the first cycle B are formed in successive pairs, each member of a pair being placed on opposite sides of the stomodaeum.
ment of the adult mesenteries and in the order of development of the first cycle.
The few exceptions will be dealt with later, but it may be stated here that even in these the first cycle of six couples of mesenteries is always formed, and in all the cases which have been examined the course of development described above is followed.
Hence in corals in which there is only a single cycle of mesenteries the septa are correspondingly few in number; where several cycles of mesenteries are present the septa are correspondingly numerous.
There may be six of these folds, one in each entocoele of the primary cycle of mesenteries; or there may be twelve, one in each exocoele and entocoele.
Thirty-two septa are present, six in the entocoeles of the primary cycle of mesenteries, I; six in the entocoeles of the secondary cycle of mesenteries, II; four in the entocoeles of the tertiary cycle of mesenteries, III, only four pairs of the latter being developed; and sixteen in the entocoeles between the mesenterial pairs.
(After Duerden.) every chamber between two primary mesenterial couples, one in the entocoele of the newly formed mesenterial couple of the secondary cycle, and one in each exocoele between a primary and a secondary couple.
These latter are in turn embraced by the couples of the tertiary cycle of mesenteries, and new septa are formed in the exocoeles on either side of them, and so forth.
(For an account of coral formations see Coral-Reefs.) In the present state of our knowledge the Zoantharia in which a primary cycle of six couples of mesenteries is (or may be inferred to be) completed by the addition of two pairs to the eight Edwardsian mesenteries, and succeeding cycles are formed in the exocoeles of the pre-existing mesenterial cycles, may be classed in an order Actinjidea, and this may be divided into the suborders Malacactiniae, comprising the soft-bodied Actinians, such as Actinia, Sagartia, Bunodes, &c., and the Scleractiniae, comprising the corals.
Moreover, there are some modern corals in which the secondary cycle of mesenteries departs from the Actinian plan.
- The Quete du Saint Graal, the only romance of which Galahad is the hero, is dependent on and a completion of the Lancelot development of the Arthurian cycle.
Professor Martin long since suggested that a key to the problems of the Arthurian cycle was to be found in a nature myth: Professor Rhys regards Arthur as an agricultural hero; Dr Lewis Mott has pointed out the correspondence between the so-called Round Table sites and the ritual of nature worship; but it is only with the discovery of the existence of Bleheris as reputed authority for Arthurian tradition, and the consequent recognition that the Grail story connected with his name is the earliest form of the legend, that we have secured a solid basis for such theories.
Pigeonneau, Le Cycle de la croisade et de la famille de Bouillon (1877); W.
So far as Arthur himself is concerned these parallels are with the Fenian, or Ossianic, cycle, in the case of Gawain with the Ultonian.
Of not one do we as yet possess a critical and comparative text, and in the absence of such texts the publication of any definite and detailed theory as to the evolution and relative position of the separate branches of the Arthurian cycle is to be deprecated.
The best general study of the cycle is to be found in Gaston Paris's manual La Literature franraise au moyen age (new and revised edition, 1905).
Lot's "Etudes sur la provenance du cycle arthurien," Romania, vols.
It may be regarded as derived from a wholly dependent sporogonium not unlike that of some of the simpler Bryophyta; the latter are assumed to have arisen from primitive Algal forms, in which, as the first step in the interpolation of the second generation in the life cycle, the fertilized ovum gave rise to a group of swarm spores, each of which developed into a new sexual plant.
A number of facts regarding the Algae, and also those relating to such deviations from the normal life cycle as apogamy or apospory, may be regarded as lending support to this view, which, in contrast to the theory of antithetic alternation, has been called that of homologous alternation.
Gudmund the Mighty and his family and neighbours are the heroes of these tales, which form a little cycle.
Of later times there are Droplaug's Sons' Saga (997-1007), written probably about I i io, and preserved in the uncouth style of the original (a brother's revenge for his brother's death is the substance of it; Brandkrossa pattr is an appendix to it), and the tales of Thorstein Hall of Side's Son (c. 1014) and his brother Thidrandi (c. 996), which belong to the cycle of Hall o' Side's Saga, unhappily lost; they are weird tales of bloodshed and magic, with idyllic and pathetic episodes.
There exists a cycle of national songs - sung to this day by the Serb bards (guslari) - concerning the battle of Kossovo, the treachery of Vuk Brankovich and the glorious heroism of Milosh Obilich.
They were, on the other hand, probably acquainted, a couple of millenniums before Meton gave it his name, with the nineteen-year cycle, by which solar and lunar years were harmonized; 1 they immemorially made observations in the meridian; regulated time by water-clocks, and used measuring instruments of the nature of armillary spheres and quadrants.
This is a cycle of 18 years II days, or 223 lunations, discovered at an unknown epoch in Chaldaea, at the end of which the moon very nearly returns to her original position with regard as well to the sun as to her own nodes and perigee.
A periodic character was thus indicated for the disturbance; and Laplace assigned its true cause in the near approach to commensurability in the periods of the two planets, the cycle of disturbance completing itself in about goo (more accurately 929) years.
Of prime importance for the earlier period are the stories known collectively as the Ulster cycle, among which the lengthy epic the Thin Bo Cualnge takes first place.
It would seem as if Ptolemy's description of Ireland answered in some measure to the state of affairs which we find obtaining in the older Ulster epic cycle.
Moreover, the kings of Tara mentioned in the Ulster cycle do not figure in any list of Milesian kings.
The oldest texts belonging to the heroic cycle are not preserved in any MS. before 110o, and though the sagas were certainly committed to writing several centuries before that date, it is evident that the monkish transcribers have toned down or omitted features that savoured too strongly of paganism.
In the calculation of Easter the Irish employed the old Roman and Jewish 84-years' cycle which they may have received from St Patrick and which had once prevailed all over Europe.
Shut off from the world, they were probably ignorant of the new cycle of 532 years which had been adopted by Rome in 463.
Bearing in mind how largely the Finn cycle is modelled on the older Ulster epic, works of originality composed between 1000 and 1600 are with one or two exceptions conspicuously absent.
But in the mythological account of Cagn given by Qing he appears as a kind of grasshopper, supernaturally endowed, the hero of a most absurd cycle of senseless adventures.
In the Kalewala much of the Jason cycle, including this part, recurs.
The rider through the fire wins Brunhild but this may belong to another cycle of ideas.
Civilization is a conditioned mediate tendency to perfection, to which religion is the final completion if carried out; it is the end of the second cycle expressed by the second formula, the Ens redeems existences.
29.2 A cycle of narratives deals with the promise that the barren Sarai (Sarah) should bear a child whose descendants would inhabit the land of Canaan.
sqq.), as an independent cycle used to form a connecting link, Luther, ib.
The movement from the south, which seems to account for a considerable cycle of the patriarchal traditions, belongs to the age after the downfall of the Israelite and(later)the Judaean monarchies when there were vital political and social changes.
Before the close of 1610 the memorable cycle of discoveries begun in the previous year was completed by the observation of the ansated or, as it appeared to Galileo, triple form of Saturn (the ring-formation was first recognized by Christiaan Huygens in 1655), of the phases of Venus, and of the spots upon the sun.
The work, which is imperfect at the beginning and end (breaking off in the year 627), is preceded by an introduction on the Christian methods of reckoning time and the Easter cycle.
CATHAY, the name by which China was known to medieval Europe and is still occasionally referred to in poetry, as in Tennyson's "Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay."
Thus, the account of David's conflicts with giant heroes and the conquest of Jerusalem and its district seems to belong to a cycle of Judaean tradition (cf.
- Diagram to illustrate the quincuncial aestivation, in which the parts of the flower are arranged in a spiral cycle, so that I and 2 are wholly external, 4 and 5 are internal, and 3 is partly external and partly overlapped by 1.
- Diagram to illustrate imbricated aestivation, in which the parts are arranged in a spiral cycle, following the order indicated by the figures I, 2, 3, 4, 5.
in a verticil, or at different heights in a spiral cycle.
89) the separate carpels are numerous and are arranged in a spiral cycle upon an elongated axis or receptacle.
The collection includes many fables that have come down from Phaedrus, some Oriental stories derived from Jewish sources, with many popular apologues that belong to the Renard cycle, and differ from those of older origin in that they are intended to amuse rather than to instruct.
This theory of working is founded on the Carnot cycle for a perfect heat motor, a perfect refrigerating machine being simply a reversed heat motor.
C.E., xxxvii., 18 74, 2 44), is simply a reversed Stirling air engine, the air working in a closed cycle instead of being actually discharged into the room to be cooled, as is the usual practice with ordinary compressedair machines.
In some machines used in the United States the cold air is not discharged into the rooms but is worked in a closed cycle, the rooms being cooled by means of overhead pipes through which the cold expanded air passes on its way back to the compressor.
A vapour compression machine does not, however, work precisely in the reversed Carnot cycle, inasmuch as the fall in temperature between the condenser and the refrigerator is not produced, nor is it attempted to be produced, by the adiabatic expansion of the agent, but results from the evaporation of a portion of the liquid itself.
Metonic Cycle >>
239), almost the only source of information regarding the epic cycle; on the question of authorship, see Christ § 637, and Sandys, p. 379; also D.
They consist essentially of a galvanometer of which the needle or coil has such a short natural periodic time that it can follow all the variations of a current which runs through its cycle in say i;nth second.
Callendar, " An Alternating Cycle Curve Recorder," Electrician, 41.582.
We thus find Prometheus in the position of the fire-bringer, or fire-stealer, and so connected with a very wide cycle of similar mythical benefactors.
Nearly a week early on her monthly cycle, she was caught unprepared.
There is the theory that the mates of Ancients are predestined like those of other immortals, that if the Ancients don't find their mates during the mates' life cycle, they never will.
One caught her attention immediately â€“ irregular menstrual cycle.
Whether that was the passing of the monthly cycle or her determination to make things better was a toss-up.
Though she expected him to continue the rapid cycle of changes, she couldn't help feeling this metamorphosis was different.
The line here is already part of Sustrans' National Cycle Route 1, which improves the prospects of success.
During the life cycle of any thing, it experiences the vicissitudes of life.
Most of our reserves are easily accessible by bicycle, with many close to the National Cycle Network.
accessible by bicycle, with many close to the National Cycle Network.
Funding targeted specifically at encouraging local activism could help to break the cycle.
And in the next cycle rule 5 is chosen and fires, with (happy Alison) removed from the working memory.
allosteric interactions at all stages of the reaction cycle.
Fishless Cycle: Instead of using a few hardy fish to start off the cycle, there is an option to use liquid ammonia.
These are called androgens and control the changes that occur during puberty as well as the production of sperm and the menstrual cycle.
The cycle of violence has contributed to an atmosphere of extreme mistrust and polarization, which has fuelled further antagonism and violence.