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colombia

colombia

colombia Sentence Examples

  • CALI, an inland town of the department of Cauca, Colombia, South America, about 180 m.

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  • The Church now has, besides these missions, others in India (1834), Siam (1840), China (1846),(1846), Colombia (1856), Brazil (1859),(1859), Japan (1859), Laos (1867),(1867), Mexico (transferred in 1872 by the American and Foreign Christian Union), Chile (transferred in 1873 by the same Union; first established in 1845), Guatemala (1882),(1882), Korea (1884)(1884) and the Philippine Islands (1899).

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  • Colombia is but inadequately represented by rough maps.

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  • What is most commonly recognized in Colombia as guaco, or Vejuco del guaco, would appear to be Mikania Guaco (Humboldt and Bonpland, Pl.

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  • The species of Scytalopus are as small as Wrens, mostly of a dark colour, and inhabit parts of Brazil and Colombia, one of them occurring so far northward as Bogota.

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  • Of Cupuliferae, Quercus in three species only reaches Colombia, but Fagus, with only a single one in North America, is represented by several from Chile southwards and thence extends to New Zealand and Tasmania.

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  • ATRATO, a river of western Colombia, South America, rising on the slopes of the Western Cordilleras, in 5° 36' N.

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  • Holland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Westphalia, Brunswick, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, (German) Silesia, Poland, Kutais, Uralsk, Turkestan, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Tunis, Egypt, West Africa, British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Manitoba, New Jersey, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mexico, Hayti, Trinidad, Colombia, Argentina [?], New Zealand.

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  • For Colombia we have F.

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  • As in Chile, Peru and Colombia, the ruling classes and the Church have taken little interest in the education of the Indians and mestizos.

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  • By the despatch of a squadron to South America he obtained satisfaction for injuries inflicted thirteen years previously upon an Italian subject by the United States of Colombia.

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  • above sea-level on the western side of the Cauca valley, one of the healthiest regions of Colombia.

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  • by Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia.

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  • The tapir also has an extensive range between the coast and the foothills of the Andes, and from northern Argentina to south-eastern Colombia.

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  • Roulini of Colombia.

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  • by Peru and Colombia.

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  • by Colombia.

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  • The rocks of Falcon are believed by Sievers to belong to the Andean system; while the outlying peninsula of Paraguana probably belongs, geologically, to the same massif as Goajira and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Maria in Colombia.

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  • This claim covers all eastern Ecuador and a large part of south-eastern is` Colombia.

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  • The question of the delimitation of the frontier between Peru and the neighbouring republics of Ecuador, Colombia,.

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  • An agreement was proposed between Peru and Ecuador in connexion with the limits of the respective republics, but difficulties were created to prevent this proposal from becoming an accomplished fact by the pretensions put forward by Colombia.

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  • 28), when the province declared its independence and sought an alliance with Colombia.

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  • Availing himself of the favourable moment, he obtained the enactment of the fundamental law of the 17th of December 1819, by which the republics of Venezuela and New Granada were henceforth to be united in a single state, under his presidency, by the title of the Republic of Colombia.

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  • Before his arrival, however, he issued simultaneously three separate decrees - one granting a general amnesty, another convoking a national convention at Ocana, and a third for establishing constitutional order throughout Colombia.

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  • Bolivar, Colombia >>

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  • A deal of study has been devoted to the cunning Tubal Cains, the surprising productions of whose handiwork have been recovered in the art provinces of Mexico and the Cordilleras, especially in Chiriqui, between Costa Rica and Colombia.

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  • The population of Cartagena 'is largely composed of blacks and mixed races, which form the predominant type on the lowland plains of northern Colombia.

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  • It was an important naval station under Spanish colonial rule, and is the principal naval station of Colombia.

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  • SANTA MARTA, a city and port of Colombia and the capital of a department of the same name, on a small bay 40 m.

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  • IBAGUE, or SAN Bonifacio De Ibague, a city of Colombia, and capital of the department of Tolima, about 60 m.W.

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  • At last, in 1810, the events in Spain which brought about the Peninsular War had divided the authorities in Spanish America, some of whom declared for Joseph Bonaparte, others for Ferdinand VII., others for Charles IV., and Miranda again landed, and got a large party together who declared a republic both in Venezuela and New Granada or Colombia.

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  • PASTO, a city of Colombia and capital of the department of Narino, about 36 m.

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  • as a partner, shortly afterwards proceeding to South America on business connected with negotiations for the granting of oil concessions in Ecuador, Colombia and Costa Rica.

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  • The third Pan-American Conference was held in the months of July and August 1906, and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay.

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  • Colombia - Peru, September 12, 1905.

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  • Colombia, December 30, 1908.

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  • The "Oriental" Andes of Colombia give birth to another great affluent of the Orinoco, the Arauca, which soon reaches the plain and parallels the Apure on the south.

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  • A transit trade with Colombia, via the Meta river, has been carried on by two small steamers, but subject to interruptions from political causes.

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  • BARRANQUILLA, a city and port of Colombia, South America, capital of a province of the same name in the department of Atlantico, on the left bank of the Magdalena river about 7 m.

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  • by rail from its seaport, Puerto Colombia.

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  • Owing to a dangerous bar at the mouth of the Magdalena the trade of the extensive territory tributary to that river, which is about 60 ho of that of the entire country, must pass in great part through Barranquilla and its seaport, making it the principal commercial centre of the republic. Savanilla was used as a seaport until about 1890, when shoals caused by drifting sands compelled a removal to Puerto Colombia, a short distance westward, where a steel pier, 4000 ft.

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  • It was largely due to his tact and good management, in concert with Lord Pauncefote, the British:ambassador, that negotiations for abrogating the ClaytonBulwer Treaty and for making a new treaty with Great Britain regarding the Isthmian Canal were successfully concluded at the end of 1901; subsequently he negotiated treaties with Colombia and with Panama, looking towards the construction by the United States of a trans-isthmian canal.

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  • Black blende containing ferrous sulphide, in amounts up to 15 or 20% isomorphously replacing zinc sulphide, is known as marmatite (from Marmato near Guayabal in Colombia, South America) and christophite (from St Christophe mine at Breitenbrunn near Eibenstock in Saxony).

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  • The rights of a state are said to be delegated when, as in Mexico, Brazil and Colombia, the constitution is created by a central national authority which also makes the states; state rights are residuary when independent states unite to delegate by a constitution certain.

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  • BOLIVAR, till 1908 a department of Colombia, bounded N.

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  • The capital, Cartagena on the Caribbean coast, was once the principal commercial entrepot of Colombia.

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  • by Colombia, S.E.

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  • Its boundary lines with Colombia and Peru were in 1909 still unsettled, large areas of territory being claimed by all three republics.

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  • On the 5th of November 1904, Colombia and Ecuador agreed to submit their dispute to the German emperor, and a convention of the 12th of September 1905 between Colombia and Peru established a modus vivendi for the settlement of their conflicting claims, in which Ecuador is likewise interested.

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  • The northern boundary line is described elsewhere (see Colombia).

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  • A small section of this line terminating on the Pacific coast is also in dispute, Ecuador claiming the main channel of the Mira as the dividing line, and Colombia claiming a small district south of that channel, the line running due west from the mouth of the most southern outlet of the Mira opening into Panguapi Bay, to a point of intersection with that river.

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  • The Trans-Andine region is similar to the neighbouring territories of the upper Amazon basin occupied by Colombia, Brazil and Peru - a great forest-covered plain descending gently toward the east, broken on its western margin by short spurs from the Andes enclosing highly fertile valleys, and by low, isolated ranges between the larger river courses, and traversed by large rivers flowing into the Napo and Maranon.

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  • The Coca forms the provisional boundary line between Ecuador and Colombia from its source to the Napo.

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  • Little is known of its course, or of the country through which it flows, which is provisionally occupied by Colombia.

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  • It forms the boundary line for some distance between Ecuador and Colombia, but near its mouth where the river turns northward Colombia has taken possession of the left bank and all the territory covered by its large delta.

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  • There are also herons, ibises, storks and cranes, including the great blackheaded white crane, Mycteria americana, which ranges from northern Argentina to Colombia.

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  • As in Colombia they are the artizans and small traders and the Indians are the farm labourers.

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  • The national capital is connected with the submarine cable at Santa Elena (via Guayaquil) and at Tumaco, in Colombia.

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  • Minerals.-The mineral resources are much inferior to those of Colombia and Peru.

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  • Some of these goods are sent into southern Colombia, but they are chiefly made for the local market.

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  • A political union was at once effected with New Granada and Venezuela on the basis of the republican constitution instituted at Cucuta in July 1821 - the triple confederation taking the name of Colombia.

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  • Roca, who next attained to power, effected a temporary settlement with Colombia, concluded a convention with England against the slave trade, and made a commercial treaty with Belgium.

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  • MEDELLIN, a city of Colombia and capital of the department of Antioquia, 150 m.

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  • MANIZALES, a city of Colombia and capital of the department of Caldas (up to 1905 the northern part of Antioquia, 75 m.

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  • BOGOTA, or Santa Fe De Bogota, the capital of the republic of Colombia, and of the interior department of Cundinamarca, in 4° 6' N.

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  • On the creation of the republic of Colombia, Bogota became its capital, and when that republic was dissolved into its three constituent parts it remained the capital of Nueva Granada.

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  • It has been the scene of many important events in the chequered history of Colombia.

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  • At the discovery of America, we are told by Humboldt, the plant was cultivated in all the temperate parts of the continent from Chile to Colombia, but not in Mexico.

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  • tuberosum is, according to Mr Baker, a native not only of the Andes of Chile but also of those of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia, also of the mountains of Costa Rica, Mexico and the south-western United States.

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  • otites was found more recently by Andre on the summit of Quindiu in Colombia, at a height of 11,483 ft.

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  • ANTIOQUTA, an interior department of the republic of Colombia, lying S.

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  • In 1828 after unsuccessful efforts to secure for him the command of the army, upon the death of Major-General Jacob Brown, and the nomination for the vice-president, on the ticket with John Quincy Adams, his friends succeeded in getting Harrison appointed as the first minister of the United States to Colombia.

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  • For some years after his return from Colombia he lived in retirement at North Bend, Ohio.

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  • Sarayacu in Peru, Cajamarca in the Peruvian Andes, and Antioquia in Colombia (Proc. Zool.

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  • BUCARAMANGA, a city of Colombia, capital of the department of Santander, about 185 m.

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  • Some years ago it was discovered that a bark imported from Colombia under the name of cuprea bark, or "hard" bark, and derived from Remijia pedunculata, Triana, and other species, contained quinine to the extent of 4 to 22%, and in 1881 this bark was exported in enormous quantities from Santander, exceeding in amount the united importations of all the other cinchona barks;: and by reason of its cheapness this has since that date been largely used for the manufacture of quinine.

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  • COLOMBIA, a republic of South America occupying the N.W.

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  • This makes Colombia fourth in area among the South American states.

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  • The boundary with Costa Rica was settled in 1900 by an award of the President of France, but the secession of Panama in 1903 gave Colombia another unsettled line on the north-west.

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  • Colombia is usually described as an extremely mountainous country, which is true of much less than half its total area.

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  • A small part of the northern Colombia, on the lower courses of the Atrato and Magdalena, extending across the country from the Eastern to the Western Cordilleras with a varying width of 100 to 150 m., not including the lower river basins which penetrate much farther inland, also consists of low, alluvial plains, partly covered with swamps and intricate watercourses, densely overgrown with vegetation, but in places admirably adapted to different kinds of tropical agriculture.

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  • The mountain chains which cover this part of Colombia are the northern terminal ranges of the great Andean system.

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  • In northern Ecuador the Andes narrows into a single massive range which has the character of a confused mass of peaks and ridges on the southern frontier of Colombia.

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  • The mountainous region of Colombia is subject to volcanic disturbances and earthquake shocks are frequent, especially in the south.

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  • Between Cocui and the southern frontier of Colombia there are no noteworthy elevations except the so-called Paramo de Suma Paz near Bogota, the highest point of which is 14,146 ft.

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  • 76 of Greemrich C There are few islands on the coast of Colombia, and the great majority of these are too small to appear on the maps in general use.

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  • 81° 24' W., nominally belongs to Colombia.

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  • The famous Pearl islands of the Gulf of Panama are claimed by Colombia, and their pearl oyster fisheries are considered a rentable asset by the government.

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  • North-west of Colombia in the Caribbean Sea are several small islands belonging to the republic, two of which (Great and Little Corn Is.) lie very near the coast of Nicaragua.

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  • The rivers of Colombia may be divided, for convenience of description, into three general classes according to the destination of their waters, the Pacific, Caribbean and Atlantic - the last R reaching their destination through the Amazon and Orinoco.

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  • It is worthy of note that the principal rivers of these three classes - the Patia, Cauca, Magdalena, Caqueta and Putumayo - all have their sources on the high plateaus of southern Colombia and within a comparatively limited area.

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  • The Mira has its principal sources in Ecuador, and for a short distance forms the boundary line between the two republics, but its outlets and navigable channel are within Colombia.

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  • The upper course of the Guaitara is known as the Carchi, which for a short distance forms the boundary line between Colombia and Ecuador.

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  • The most important rivers of Colombia, however, are the Magdalena and its principal tributary, the Cauca.

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  • They both rise on the high tableland of southern Colombia about 14,000 ft.

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  • above sea-level, beyond which point it descends precipitously from the plateaus of southern Colombia.

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  • There are many large tributaries of these rivers in the unexplored regions of south-eastern Colombia, but their names as well as their courses are still unsettled.

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  • The coast of Colombia faces on the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, and is divided by the Isthmus of Panama into two completely separated parts.

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  • The Caribbean coast of Colombia has only four ports engaged in international trade - Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta and Rio Hacha.

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  • Barranquilla, the principal port of the republic, is situated on the Magdalena, and its seaport, or landing-place, is Puerto Colombia at the inner end of Savanilla Bay, where a steel pier 4000 ft.

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  • The bay is slowly filling up, however, and two other landing-places - Salgar and Savanilla - had to be abandoned before Puerto Colombia was selected.

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  • The geology of Colombia is very imperfectly known, and it is only by a comparison with the neighbouring regions that it is possible to fmrm any clear idea of the geological structure and succession.

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  • Structurally, the four main chains of Colombia differ considerably from one another in geological constitution.

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  • In Ecuador the depression between the Eastern and Western Cordilleras is almost entirely filled with modern lavas and agglomerates; in Colombia the corresponding Cauca depression is almost free from such deposits.

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  • In the Central Cordillera volcanoes extend to about 5° N.; in the Western Cordillera they barely enter within the limits of Colombia; in the Cordillera of Bogota they are entirely absent.'

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  • - Were it not for the high altitudes of western Colombia, high temperatures would prevail over the whole country, except where modified by the north-east trade winds and the cold ocean current which sweeps up the western coast.

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  • Geologische Studien in der Republik Colombia (Berlin, 18 9 2 - 18 99), - a good geological bibliography will be found in part ii.

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  • These lowland plains and valleys comprise the climatic tropical zone of Colombia, which is characterized by high temperatures, and by excessive humidity and dense forests, an exception to the last-named characteristic being the open llanos where dry summers prevail.

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  • elevation, which include some of the most fertile and productive areas in Colombia; the temperate districts between 7500 and 10,000 ft., the cold, bleak and inhospitable paramos between 10,000 and 15,000 ft., and above these the arctic wastes of ice and snow.

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  • The geographical position of Colombia gives to it a fauna and flora largely characteristic of the great tropical region of the Amazon on the south-east, and of the mountainous regions of Central America on the north-west.

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  • The large rivers of Colombia and the lakes of the lowlands are filled with alligators, turtles, and fish, and several species of fish are highly esteemed by the natives as food.

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  • In bird and insect life Colombia is second only to Brazil.

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  • The largest and most conspicuous member of this interesting family is the Mycteria americans, the gigantic stork so frequently seen in the Amazon valley, and even more numerous about the lagoons of northern Colombia.

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  • Colombia also possesses many species of the beautiful little humming-bird, among which are the tiny Steganura Underwoodi and the sword-bill, Docimastes ensiferus, which were found by Mr Albert Millican on a bleak paramo 12,000 ft.

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  • In regard to insects, what has been said of Brazil will apply very closely to Colombia.

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  • There are other open plains in northern Colombia, sometimes covered with a shrubby growth, and the "mesas" (flat-topped mountains) and plateaus of the Cordilleras are frequently bare of trees.

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  • In north-eastern Colombia, where a part of the year is dry, the "curuas" form the prevailing species, but farther south, on the slopes of the Cordilleras up to an elevation of 1 0,000 ft., the wax-palm, or "palma de cera" (Ceroxylon andicola), is said to be the most numerous.

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  • Another widely distributed species in central Colombia is known as the "palmita del Azufral" in some localities, and as the "palma real" and "palma dolce" in others.

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  • Another palm of much economic importance in Colombia is the "tagua" (Phytelephas macrocarpa),which grows abundantly in the valleys of the Magdalena, Atrato and Patia, and produces a large melon-shaped fruit in which are found the extremely hard, fine-grained nuts or seeds known in the commercial world as vegetable ivory.

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  • Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata), valuable for its timber and colouring extract, and "roco" (Bixa orellana), the "urucn" of Brazil which furnishes the anatto of commerce, are widely distributed in central and southern Colombia, and another species of the first-named genus, the C. coariaria, produces the "divi-divi" of the Colombian export trade - a peculiarly shaped seed-pod, rich in tannic and gallic acids, and used for tanning leather.

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  • Southern Colombia, especially the eastern slopes of the Andes, produces another valuable tree, the Cinchona calisaya, from the bark of which quinine is made.

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  • The adventurous orchid-hunter, however, has penetrated deeply into their recesses in search of choice varieties, and collectors of these valuable plants are largely indebted to Colombia for their specimens of Cattleya Mendelli, Warscewiczii and Trianae; Dowiana aurea; Odontoglossum crispum, Pescatorei, vexillarium, odoratum, coronarium, Harryanum, and blandum; Miltonia vexillaria; Oncidium carthaginense and Kramerianum; Masdevalliae, Epidendra, Schomburgkiae and many others.

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  • Colombia is also the home of the American "Alpine rose" (Befaria), which is to be found between 9000 and 11,000 ft.

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  • It is claimed in Colombia that a species of wild potato found on the paramos is the parent of the cultivated potato.

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  • The number of the population of Colombia is very largely a matter of speculation.

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  • The large proportion of mestizos, if these percentages are correct, is significant because it implies a persistence of type that may largely determine the character of Colombia's future population, unless the more slowly increasing white element can be reinforced by immigration.

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  • The white contingent in the population of Colombia is chiefly composed of the descendants of the Spanish colonists who settled there during the three centuries following its discovery and conquest.

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  • According to Uricoechea there are at least twenty-seven native languages spoken in the western part of Colombia, fourteen in Tolima, thirteen in the region of the Caqueta, twelve in Panama, Bolivar and Magdalena, ten in Bogota and Cundinamarca, and thirty-four in the region of the Meta, while twelve had died out during the preceding century.

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  • Writing and reciting poetry are universal, and fill as important a place in social life as instrumental music. In Colombia, as elsewhere, much attention has been given to belles-lettres among the whites of Spanish descent, but as yet the republic has practically nothing of a permanent character to show for it.

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  • We are indebted to Humboldt for our earliest geographical descriptions of the northern part of the continent, but to the Italian, Augustin Codazzi, who became a Colombian after the War of Independence, Colombia is indebted for the first systematic exploration of her territory.

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  • The railway problem in Colombia is one of peculiar difficulty.

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  • From Bogota the Spaniards constructed two partially-paved highways, one leading down to the Magdalena in the vicinity of Honda, while the other passed down into the upper valley of the same river in a south-westerly direction, over which communication was maintained with Popayan and other settlements of southern Colombia and Ecuador.

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  • In 1906, according to an official statement, these lines were: (r) The Barranquilla and Savanilla (Puerto Colombia), 172 m.

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  • Colombia has no part in the carrying trade, however, her merchants marine in 1905 consisting of only one steamer of 457 tons and five sailing vessels of 1385 tons.

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  • The mineral resources of Colombia are commonly believed to be the principal source of her wealth, and this because of the precious metals extracted from her mines since the Spanish invasion.

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  • A later Colombian authority, Vicente Restrepo, whose studies of gold and silver mining in Colombia have been generally accepted as conclusive and trustworthy, after a careful sifting of the evidence on which these two widely diverse conclusions were based and an examination of records not seen by Humboldt and Soetbeer, reaches the conclusion that the region comprised within the limits of the republic, including Panama, had produced down to 1886 an aggregate of £127,800,000 in gold and £6,600,000 in silver.

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  • Platinum is said to have been discovered in Colombia in 1720, and has been exported regularly since the last years of the 18th century.

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  • Of the bulkier and less valuable minerals Colombia has copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc and mercury.

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  • According to a statistical summary issued in 1906 by the U.S. Bureau of Statistics, entitled "Commercial America in 1905," the latest official return to the foreign trade of Colombia was said to be that of 1898, which was: imports 11,083,000 pesos, exports 19,158,000 pesos.

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  • The government of Colombia is that of a centralized republic composed of 15 departments, 1 federal district, and 4 intendencias (territories).

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  • As the constituent assembly which amended the constitution, according to the president's wishes in 1905, was to continue in office until 1908 and to provide laws for the regulation of elections and other public affairs, it appeared that the president would permit no expression of popular dissent to interfere with his purpose to establish a dictatorial regime in Colombia similar to the one in Mexico.

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  • Although Bogota was reputed to be an educational centre in colonial times, so slight an influence did this exert upon the country that Colombia ended the 19th century with no effective public school system, very few schools and colleges, and fully 90% of illiteracy in her population.

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  • There has, been a long struggle between liberals and churchmen in Colombia, and at one time the latter completely lost their political influence over the government, but the common people remained loyal to the Church, and the upper classes found it impossible to sever the ties which bound them to it.

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  • In financial matters Colombia is known abroad chiefly through repeated defaults in meeting her bonded indebtedness, and through the extraordinary depreciation of her paper currency.

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  • It is also worthy of note that Panama refused to assume any part of this debt without a formal recognition of her independence by Colombia, and even then only a sum proportionate to her population.

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  • The internal debt of Colombia in June 1906 was as follows: Consolidated..

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  • The issue began in 1881 through the Banco Nacional de Colombia, its value then being equal to that of the silver coinage.

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  • been the legal standard in Colombia since 1857, but its use is confined almost exclusively to international trade.

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  • L.) History The coast of Colombia was one of the first parts of the American continent visited by the Spanish navigators.

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  • In 1740 it was restored, and it continued as long as the Spanish authority, including within its limits not only the present Colombia, but also Venezuela and Ecuador.

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  • In 1819 the great national hero, Bolivar (q.v.), effected a union between the three divisions of the country, to which was given the title of the Republic of Colombia; but in 1829 Venezuela withdrew, and in 1830, the year of Bolivar's death, Quito or Ecuador followed her example.

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  • One of his measures, by which New Granada became responsible for the half of the debts of the defunct republic of Colombia, gave serious offence to a large party, and he was consequently succeeded not, as he desired, by Jose Maria Obando, but by a member of the opposition, Jose Ignacio de Marquez.

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  • A congress at Bogota established a republic, with the name of the United States of Colombia, adopted a new federal constitution, and made Mosquera dictator.

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  • A movement was now set afoot in favour of a confederation of the three republics of Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela on the basis of the original conditions existing after the expulsion of Spanish authority, and a resolution was passed by the chamber of deputies to that effect.

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  • In 1883 the dispute in connexion with the boundary between Colombia and Venezuela was submitted by the two governments to the arbitration of Alphonso XII., king of Spain, and a commission of five members was appointed to investigate the merits of the respective claims. The decision in this dispute was finally given by the queen regent of Spain on the 16th of March 1891.

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  • President Nunez had no sooner returned to Colombia than the Liberals discovered that his political opinions had changed and had become strongly Conservative.

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  • Nunez, who had meanwhile assumed the presidential duties, now brought about a movement in favour of a fresh Act of Constitution for Colombia, and a new law to that effect was finally approved and promulgated on 4th August 1886.

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  • Under the terms of this act the federal system of government for Colombia was abolished, the states becoming departments, the governors of these political divisions being appointed by the president of the republic. Each department has a local legislative assembly elected by the people.

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  • Further complications arose in August, when trouble occurred between Colombia and Venezuela.

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  • On the one hand, there were grounds for believing that the Clericals and Conservatives in both countries were acting together; and, on the other, it was expected that President Castro of Venezuela would not be sorry to unite his own countrymen, and to divert their attention from internal affairs, by a war against Colombia.

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  • On the 18th of September the Venezuelans, who had entered Colombia, were totally routed near La Hacha, and after fierce fighting the insurgents at Colon were compelled to surrender on the 29th of November.

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  • In the autumn of that same year Colombia, exhausted and half ruined, was to suffer a further severe loss in the secession of Panama.

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  • Negotiations were set on foot with Colombia, and an arrangement - under what was known as the Hay-Herran treaty - was made to the following effect.

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  • Colombia agreed (1) to the transfer of the rights, under the concession, of the French company to the United States; (2) to cede, on a hundred years' lease, a right of way for the canal, and a strip of land 5 m.

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  • The United States agreed to pay Colombia (1) £2,000,000 down in cash, and, ten years later, an annual rental of £50,000, and further a share of the price paid to the French company, i.e.

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  • £8,000,000, in which Colombia held 50,000 shares.

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  • On the 3rd of November a revolution broke out at Panama, and the state seceded from Colombia and declared itself to be an independent republic. This opportune revolution was no doubt fomented by persons interested in the carrying through of the United States scheme for piercing the isthmus, but their task was one that presented no difficulties, for the isthmian population had been in a state of perennial insurrection against the central government for many years.

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  • Colombia thus sacrificed a great opportunity of obtaining, by the ratification of the Hay-Herran treaty, such a pecuniary recompense for the interest in the territory through which the canal was to be constructed as would have gone far to re-establish her ruined financial credit.

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  • He had been sent as a special envoy to Washington to protest against the recognition of Panama, and to attempt to revive the Hay-Herran treaty, and to secure favourable terms for Colombia in the matter of the canal.

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  • Having personal acquaintance with the success of the rule of President Porfirio Diaz in Mexico, General Reyes determined to set about the regeneration of Colombia by similar methods.

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  • The chief foreign treaties entered into by Colombia in the last quarter of the 19th century were: - (1) A treaty with Great Britain, signed on the 27th of October 1888, for the extradition of criminals; (2) a treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation with Italy, signed on the 27th of October 1892; (3) two protocols with Italy, signed respectively on the 24th of May and on the 25th of August 1886, in connexion with the affair of the Italian subject Cerruti; (4) a consular convention with Holland, signed on the 10th of July 1881; (5) a treaty of peace and friendship with Spain, signed on the 30th of January 1881; (6) a convention with Spain for the reciprocal protection of intellectual property; (7) a concordat with the Vatican, signed on the 31st of December 1887; (8) an agreement with the Vatican, signed on the 10th of August 1892, in connexion with ecclesiastical jurisdiction; (9) an agreement with the republic of San Salvador, signed on the 24th of December 1880, in regard to the despatch of a delegate to an international congress; (to) a treaty of peace, friendship and commerce with Germany, signed on the 23rd of July 1892; (t1) a treaty with the republic of Costa Rica, signed in 1880, for the delimitation of the boundary; (12) the postal convention, signed at Washington, on the 4th of July 1891; (13) a convention with Great Britain, signed on the 31st of July 1896, in connexion with the claim of Messrs Punchard, M`Taggart, Lowther & Co.; (t4) a treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation with Peru, signed on the 6th of August 1898; (15) an extradition treaty with Peru, signed on the 6th of August 1898; (16) a treaty of peace, friendship and defensive alliance with Venezuela, signed on the 21st of November 1896, and on the same date a treaty regulating the frontier commerce.

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  • Borda, Compendio de historia de Colombia (Bogota, 1890); Salvador Roldan Camacho, Notas de viaje (Bogota, 1890), and Escritos varios (Bogota, 1892); Dr Alfred Hettner, Reisen in den colombianischen Anden (Leipzig, 1888); Angel Lemos, Compendio de geografia de la Republica de Colombia (Medellin, 1894); Albert Millican, Travels and Adventures of an Orchid Hunter (London, 1891); J.

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  • Jalhay, La Republique de Colombia, geographie, histoire, &c. (Bruxelles, 1893) T.

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  • Otero, Historia Patria (Bogota, 1891); Lisimaco Palaii, La Republica de Colombia (1893); M.

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  • Perez, Atlas geogrdfico e historico de la Republica de Colombia (1893); R.

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  • Pereira, Les Etats Unis de Colombia (Paris, 1883); Felipe Perez, Geografia general, fisica y politica de los Estados Unidos de Colombia (Bogota, 1883); F.

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  • Loraine Petrie, The Republic of Colombia (London, 1906); Elisee Reclus, Geografia de Colombia (Bogota, 18 93); W.

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  • Geologische Studien in der Republik Colombia (Berlin, 1893); Ernesto Restrepo, Ensayo etnografico y arqueologico de la provincia de los Quimbayas (Bogota, 1892), and Estudios sobre los aborigines de Colombia (Bogota, 1892); Vicente Restrepo, Estudio sobre las minas de oro y plata de Colombia (Bogota, 1888, translated by C. W.

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  • Vergara y Velasco, Nueva geografia de Colombia (Bogota, 1892); Frank Vincent, Around and About South America (New York, 1890); R.

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  • A purely English settlement directed by a company in London was made at Old Providence, an island in the Caribbean Sea, now belonging to Colombia.

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  • Its main affluent is the Uaupes, which disputes with the headwaters of the Guaviari branch of the Orinoco the drainage of the eastern slope of the " oriental " Andes of Colombia.

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  • It rises in the Colombian Andes, nearly in touch with the sources of the Magdalena, and augments its volume from many branches as it courses through Colombia.

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  • from the Pacific Ocean, in a straight line, passing through the town of Pasto in southern Colombia.

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  • by Colombia, of which it was formerly a part, S.

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  • On the eastern boundary of the republic is the Serrania del Darien, an Andean range, partly in Colombia.

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  • Panama was a part of the viceroyalty of New Granada created in 1718, and in 1819 became a part of the independent nation of Colombia and in 1831 of New Granada, from which in 1841 Panama and Veragua provinces seceded as the state (short-lived) of the Isthmus of Panama.

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  • The empire of Brazil and the republics of Mexico and Colombia were recognized by Great Britainin the following year; the recognition of the other states was only postponed until they should have given proof cf their stability.

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  • To the north this coastal chain continues in small ridges or isolated hills along the Pacific as far as Colombia, always leaving the same valley more or less visible to the west of the western great chain.

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  • Of the two principal chains the eastern is generally called Los Andes, and the western La Cordillera, in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, where the eastern is likewise known as Cordillera Real de los Andes, while to the south of parallel 23° S.

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  • In Colombia the three principal chains are continuations of those under the equator, and show very slight traces of volcanic action, In the western chain, which is remarkable for its regularity, the highest peak is 11,150 ft., and the lowest pass 6725 ft.

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  • The Colombia.

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  • The UN acquiesced when the governments of Colombia, Mexico, and Central America invited the United States to send observers.

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  • Carbon dioxide removes the caffeine without spoiling the element which gives this Colombia coffee its full, rich character.

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  • The company insists it has " normal relations " with 12 unions in Colombia, including collective bargaining covering wages and working conditions.

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  • complicity in the assassination of 8 Sinaltrainal trade union leaders in Colombia since 1990.

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  • He initiated informal contacts with leftist guerrillas in neighboring Colombia.

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  • The Gabriel he writes about, and the Colombia in which he grows up, both seem very familiar and very immediate.

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  • inhabited by tribes that migrated north from what is now Colombia.

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  • inquisitors of press freedom in Colombia Luis Fernandes calls for international support as Colombian journalists seek to break the code of silence.

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  • kilo of cocaine in Colombia is £ 1 000.

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  • Colombian black-faced spider monkeys live in the mature rain forest of Colombia.

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  • The FARC vehemently opposes Plan Colombia for obvious reasons.

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  • More than 130 evangelical pastors have been assassinated in Colombia by the different armed groups over the past four years.

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  • February 1981 Has an eye operation in Bogotá, Colombia, to repair a damaged retina.

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  • Most of Nicaragua's Caribbean lowlands area was inhabited by tribes that migrated north from what is now Colombia.

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  • vacancyolombia Project: permanent vacancies for international observers/accompaniers in Colombia, see website.

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  • warned to beware of fake US Dollars, which are printed in Colombia.

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  • Population.-In population Argentina ranks second among the republics of South America, having outstripped, during the last quarter of the 19th century, the once more populous states of Colombia and Peru.

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  • - The second suborder of marsupials, the Paucituberculata, is exclusively South American, and typically represented by the family Epanorthidae, the majority of the members of which are extinct, their remains being found in the probably Miocene Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia, although one existing genus (Caenolestes) survives in Ecuador and Colombia.

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  • ATRATO, a river of western Colombia, South America, rising on the slopes of the Western Cordilleras, in 5° 36' N.

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  • Devonshire (retinasphalt), France, Spain, Italy, Asia Minor, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Rumania, Dalmatia, Istria, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Moravia, Bavaria, Elsass, Kutais, Armenia, Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Punjab, Assam, Sumatra, Algeria, Egypt, Maryland, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California, Louisiana, Texas, Cuba, Colombia, Brazil.

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  • In 1829 he furthered the secession of Venezuela from the republic of Colombia, and he became its first president (1830-1834).

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  • Soon after the close of the Civil War he was sent on a confidential mission to Colombia to secure its compliance with a treaty agreement (of 1846) permitting the United States to convey troops across the Isthmus of Panama.

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  • He began his life of adventure at the age of fifteen, joining the insurrectionary bands in the Romagna (1830-1831); was then in the United States, where he went to join his uncle Joseph, and in Colombia with General Santander (1832).

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  • CARTAGENA, Or CARTHAGENA, a city, seaport, and the capital of the department of Bolivar, Colombia, South America, on the Caribbean coast, in Io 2 5' 48" N., 75° 34' W.

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  • POPAYAN, a city of Colombia, capital of the department of Cauca, about 240 m.

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  • Seler, in "Der Grenzstreit zwischen den Republiken Costa Rica and Colombia," in Petermann's Mittheilungen, vol.

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  • Eugenio Alvarado, a Spanish commissioner for the boundary delimitation of Colombia with Brazil in 1759, informed the viceroy at Bogota that the rivers Arivari and Guayabero rise between Neiva and Popayan, and unite to take the composite name of Guaviare.

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  • The history of Europe furnishes several examples of secession or attempts to secede: in 1309 the Swiss cantons withdrew from the Empire and formed a confederacy from which, in 1843-1847, the Catholic cantons seceded and formed a new confederacy called the Sonderbund, which was crushed in the war that followed; in 1523 Sweden seceded from the Kalmarian Union formed in 1397 of Denmark, Sweden and Norway; and in 1814 Norway seceded and entered into a union with Sweden, from which, in the same year, it attempted to secede but was forcibly prevented; Norway, however, accomplished a peaceful secession from the Union in 1905 and resumed her independent status; in1848-1849Hungary attempted to withdraw from the union with Austria but the attempt was defeated; Prussia and other north German states withdrew in1866-1868from the German Confederation and formed a new one; a late instance of successful secession is that of Panama, which seceded in 1903 from the Republic of Colombia.

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  • The Trans-Andine territory occupied by Ecuador is a wedge-shaped area between the Coca and Napo, the provisional boundary line with Colombia, and a line running nearly west-south-west from Huiririma-chico (about lat.

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  • BOGOTA, or Santa Fe De Bogota, the capital of the republic of Colombia, and of the interior department of Cundinamarca, in 4° 6' N.

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  • The line decided upon, and accepted by Colombia, starts from the north shore of Calabozo Bay on the west side of the Gulf of Maracaibo, and runs west and south-west to and along the water-parting (Sierra de Perija) between the drainage basins of the Magdalena and Lake Maracaibo as far as the source in lat.

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  • Colombia holds possession as far south as the Napo in lat.

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  • lat., including territory occupied by Colombia, and the eastern half of the Ecuadorean department of Oriente, and Ecuador would extend her southern boundary line to the Putumayo, in long.

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  • The provisional line starts from the Japura river (known as the Caqueta in Colombia) in lat.

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  • 81° 24' W., nominally belongs to Colombia.

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  • In the Central Cordillera volcanoes extend to about 5° N.; in the Western Cordillera they barely enter within the limits of Colombia; in the Cordillera of Bogota they are entirely absent.'

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  • His firm and masterful government and wise measures did much to allay the spirit of unrest which had so long been the bane of Colombia, and though an attempt at assassination was made in the spring of 1906, the era of revolution appeared to be over.

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  • Of the two principal chains the eastern is generally called Los Andes, and the western La Cordillera, in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, where the eastern is likewise known as Cordillera Real de los Andes, while to the south of parallel 23° S.

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  • The cost in Colombia is 40% higher, than racemic bupivacaine.

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  • You are linked to the Christian children in Colombia who have seen their parents murdered and been taken captive as slave laborers and soldiers.

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  • PBI Colombia Project: permanent vacancies for international observers/accompaniers in Colombia, see website.

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  • Visitors are warned to beware of fake US Dollars, which are printed in Colombia.

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  • Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll was born in 1977 in Colombia.

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  • In 2010, while on tour in Colombia with The Jonas Brothers, 18-year-old Lovato decided to get a taste of the nightlife- without her father's knowledge.

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  • Gloria has come a long way from her time growing up in Colombia, and it appears that the actress has done the same, going from a young mom to a dental student, and later a model and actress.

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  • Born on July 10, 1972, in Barranquilla, Colombia, Sofia Vergara is the daughter of Margarita Vergara Dávila de Vergara, a homemaker, and Julio Enrique Vergara Robayo, a cattle farmer.

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  • She appeared in a Pepsi commercial in Colombia, and from there, her career took off and she moved to Bogotá.

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  • She not only furthered her career, but also escaped the unrest in her native Colombia after her older brother was murdered in 1998 during a kidnapping attempt.

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  • They're both natives of Colombia who ended up as single mothers of young sons, although now Gloria has moved on to marrying Ed O'Neill's character, Jay Pritchett.

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  • Gloria is always reflecting back to her time in Colombia and trying to bring its customs here to her life in California.

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  • Some of the service providers you'll find in the Americas include: Telcel (Mexico), Claro (Peru, Brazil), CTI Movil (Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay), Porta (Ecuador), Claro Chile (Chile), Enitel (Nicaragua), and Comcel (Colombia).

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  • Americans adopt children from Peru, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico, and the Philippines.

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  • La Isla Couture was founded in 2004, after a trip to my hometown of Cali, Colombia.

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  • Our embroidery, done 100% in Colombia, very much evokes Latin culture, colors and emotions.

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  • Colombia has one of the richest, if not the richest varieties of butterflies in the world, and that was inspiration for the other suit.

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  • After this, our fabric is finished in our design software program and sent to the mill in Colombia.

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  • We also are looking into donating funds to charitable organizations in Colombia.

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  • She founded, with the assistance of other individuals and groups, the Pies Descalzos Foundation in her native Colombia, which provides schools for poor children.

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  • My Latin Soulmate specializes in meeting people in Brazil, Venezuela, Peru and Colombia.

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  • Spanish telenovelas include telenovelas made in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Argentina, Chile and Venzuala.

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  • The network hires popular Latin actors from Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina and Puerto Rico.

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  • The award-winning telenovela, Betty La Fea, also known as Yo Soy Betty, La Fea, began in 1999 and ran through 2001 on the Colombia network, Radio Cadena Nacional (RCN).

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  • Betty La Fea was so successful in Colombia that it was eventually released to air on Telemundo in the USA.

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  • When you first think of Paul's Gourmet Foods, Bogota, you might mistakenly think that this small company is located in Bogotá, the capital of Colombia.

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  • Natalia Velez: The shores of Colombia bred this sultry model, who is also an actress and TV host.

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  • Born Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll in Colombia on the 2nd of February 1977, she showed a real talent for music at the tender age of 10, winning various local music competitions.

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  • Cumbia is usually associated with Colombia, but Mexico also has a long history of its own genre.

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    0
  • The government of Buenos Aires enacted that all children born to slaves after the 31st of January 1813 should be free; and in Colombia it was provided that those born after the 16th of July 1821 should be liberated on attaining their eighteenth year.

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    1
  • Partly because of political and social divisions thus revealed, conspiracies being rife in the decade 1820-1830, and partly as preparation for the defence against Mexico and Colombia, who throughout these same years were threatening the island with invasion, the captains-general, in 1825, received the powers above referred to; which became, as time passed, monstrously in disaccord with the general tendencies of colonial government and with increasing liberties in Spain, but continued to be the spiritual basis of Spanish rule in the island.

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    1
  • Spain, the United States, England, France, Colombia and Mexico were all involved in it, the first four continually.

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    1
  • The Sapiums of Colombia and Guiana are large trees resembling Hevea, and certain species furnish good rubber, especially the Sapium Jenmani of Guiana.

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  • by Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas, N.E., E.

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    1
  • With regard to the section between the Amazon and the Apaporis river, already settled between Brazil and Peru, the territory has been in protracted dispute between Peru, Ecuador and Colombia; but a treaty of limits between Brazil and Ecuador was signed in 1901 and promulgated in 1905.

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    1
  • The boundary with Colombia, fixed by treaty of April 24, 1907, follows the lower rim of the Amazon basin, as defined by Brazil.

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    1
  • by Colombia and Venezuela, E.

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    1
  • Its boundary with Colombia is unfixed, a decision by the king of Spain, as arbitrator, in March 1891, having been rejected by Venezuela.

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    1
  • This area, however, was subject to the settlement of the Colombia boundary line, and the measurement is only approximate.

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    1
  • The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.

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  • One species, the guacharo (Steatornis caripensis), or oil-bird, is commonly said to occur only in Venezuela, though it is found in Colombia and Ecuador also.

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    1
  • The public debt of Venezuela dates back to the War of Independence, when loans were raised in Europe for account of the united colonies of Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.

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    1
  • Shortly after the battle of Carabobo (June 24, 1821), by which the power of Spain in this part of the world was broken, Venezuela was united with the federal state of Colombia, which embraced the present Colombia and Ecuador; but the Venezuelans were averse to the Confederation, and an agitation was set on foot in the autumn of 1829 which resulted in the issue of a decree (December 8) by General Paez dissolving the union, and declaring Venezuela a sovereign and independent state.

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  • PERU (apparently from Biru, a small river on the west coast of Colombia, where Pizarro landed), a republic of the Pacific coast of South America, extending in a general N.N.W.-S.S.E.

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  • With the exception of parts of the Ecuador, Brazil and Bolivia frontiers, all the boundary lines have been disputed and referred to arbitration - those with Colombia and Ecuador to the king of Spain, and that with Bolivia to the president of Argentina, on which a decision was rendered on the 9th of July 1909.

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    1
  • At the end of the war, these loans, and sums owing to Chile and Colombia, raised the foreign debt to £4,000,000.

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    1
  • He was summoned back to Colombia when he had been absent for five years and, in spite of protests left the country on the 3rd of September 1826, followed by all.

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  • General Jose de Lamar, who commanded the Peruvians at Ayacucho, was elected president of Peru on the 24th of August 1827, but was deposed, after waging a brief but Early disastrous war with Colombia on the 7th of June Presidents.

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    1
  • In the case of Ecuador and Colombia a dispute arose in 1894 concerning the ownership of large tracts of uninhabited country in the vicinity of the headwaters of the Amazon and its tributaries.

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    1
  • The latter state claimed sovereignty over the Napo and Maranon rivers on the grounds of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction exercised over this section of territory during the period of Spanish dominion, the government of Colombia asserting that these ecclesiastical rights to which Colombia became entitled after her separation from the Spanish crown carried also the right of absolute ownership. In a treaty signed by the three interested states in 1895 a compromise was effected by which Colombia withdrew a part of the claim advanced, and it was agreed that any further differences arising out of this frontier question should be submitted to the arbitration of the Spanish crown.

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  • The product of Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador amounted in 1900 to £2,481,000 and to £2,046,000 in 1905.

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    1
  • The next step was to secure, by permanent political institutions, the independence which had been so dearly purchased; and, accordingly, on the 30th of August 1821 the constitution of Colombia was adopted with general approbation, Bolivar himself being president, and Santander vice-president.

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    1
  • The Spaniards, though expelled from Colombia, still held possession of the neighbouring provinces of Ecuador and Peru; and Bolivar determined to complete the liberation of the whole country.

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  • Its most extraordinary feature consisted in the provision for lodging the executive authority in the hands of a president for life, without responsibility and with power to nominate his successor, a proposal which alarmed the friends of liberty, and excited lively apprehensions amongst the republicans of Buenos Aires and Chile; whilst in Peru, Bolivar was accused of a design to unite into one state Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and to render himself perpetual dictator of the confederacy.

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    1
  • In the meanwhile the affairs of Colombia had taken aturn which demanded the presence of Bolivar in his own country.

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    1
  • After this bloodless revolution the third division embarked at Callao on the 17th of March 1827, and landed in the southern department of Colombia in the following month.

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    1
  • Intelligence of these events reached Bolivar while in the north of Colombia, and he lost no time in preparing to march against the refractory troops, who formerly had placed such implicit confidence in him.

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    1
  • But although Colombia was, to all external appearance, restored to tranquillity, the nation was divided into two parties.

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  • In virtue of a decree, dated Bogota, the 27th of August 1828, Bolivar assumed the supreme power in Colombia, and continued to exercise it until his death, which took place at San Pedro, near Santa Marta, on the 1 7th of December 1830.

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  • Bolivar spent nine-tenths of a splendid patrimony in the service of his country; and although he had for a considerable period unlimited control over the revenues of three countries - Colombia, Peru and Bolivia - he died without a shilling of public money in his possession.

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  • In South America coal is known in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, northern Chile, Brazil (chiefly in the south), and Argentina (Parana, the extreme south of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego), but in no country are the workings extensive.

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    1
  • New Granada (which included the present republics of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador) was created a viceroyalty in 1718 (soon abolished, but re-created in 1740).

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  • For the details of the struggle the reader must refer to the articles Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela.

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    1
  • 26 a between Great Britain and Brazil; Colombia and Mexico were acknowledged in December of the same year; and the recognition of the other states followed, as each was able to give guarantees of stable government.

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  • Peru; Araucanian, Pampas; Aymaran, Peru; Barbacoan, Colombia; Betoyan, Bogota; Canichanan, Bolivia; Carahan, S.

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  • Brazil; Caribian, around Caribbean Sea; Catamarenyan, Chaco; Changuinan, Panama; Charruan, Parana R.; Chibchan, Colombia .; Churbyan, Orinoco R.; Coconucan, Colombia; Cunan, Panama; Guaycuruan, Paraguay R.; Jivaroan, Ecuador; Kechuan, Peru; Laman, N.E.

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  • Ecuador; Matacoan, Vermejo R.; Mocoan, Colombia; Mosetenan, E.

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  • del Fuego; Paniquitan, Colombia; Panoan, Ucayali R., Peru; Payaguan, Chaco; Puquinan, Titicaca L.; Samucan, Bolivia; Tacanan, N.

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  • In Mexico, Colombia and Peru the cutting of friable stone with tough volcanic hammers and chisels, as well as rude metallurgy, obtained, but the evidences of smelting are not convincing.

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  • The efflorescence of aboriginal pottery is to be found in the Pueblo region of south-westernUnited States, in Mexico, Central America,Caribbean Islands, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and restricted areas of eastern Brazil.

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  • Beyond Colombia are Ecuador and Peru, where, in the widening of the continent, architecture, stone-working, pottery, metallurgy, textiles are again exalted.

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  • CARTAGENA, Or CARTHAGENA, a city, seaport, and the capital of the department of Bolivar, Colombia, South America, on the Caribbean coast, in Io 2 5' 48" N., 75° 34' W.

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  • Sodium carbonates are also widely dispersed in nature, forming constituents of many mineral waters, and occurring as principal saline components in natron or trona lakes, as efflorescences in Lower Egypt, Persia and China, and as urao in Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela.

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    1
  • In Colombia there occurs a double salt, Na 2 CO 3 CaCO 3.5H 2 O, known as gay-lussite.

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    1
  • The boundary between Costa Rica and Panama (then a province of Colombia) was fixed by the arbitration of the French president, who gave his award on the 15th of September 1900.

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  • Perhaps a closer approximation would be to rate the creole element (whites of European descent) at 10%, as in Colombia, and the mixed races at 70%, the remainder consisting of Africans, Indians and resident foreigners.

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