The new Catholicism was promulgated by authority and accepted with deference.
All these authorities had now legally established Roman Catholicism as the national faith, and Cranmer had no logical ground on which to resist.
The relationship of Ultramontanism to Catholicism is a much-disputed problem.
Although converted to Roman Catholicism in 1625, Holstenius showed his liberal-mindedness by strenuously opposing the strict censorship exercised by the Congregation of the Index.
He vigorously restored Roman Catholicism in his diocese, made no difficulty about submitting to the papal jurisdiction which he had forsworn, and in 1555 began the persecution to which he owes his fame.
He is no friend of Catholicism or of dogma.
It may be admitted that, in many cases, the distinction between Ultramontanism and Catholicism cannot be clearly traced; and it is impossible to draw a sharp line of severance between the two, which could be absolutely valid under all circumstances and in relation to all questions.
He had public and private audiences with the pope on the 9th of April and the 11th of May 1848, but recorded next to nothing in his diary concerning them, though numerous other entries show an eager interest in everything connected with the Roman Church, and private papers also indicate that he recognized at this time grave defects in the Church of England and a mysterious attractiveness in Roman Catholicism, going so far as to question whether he might not one day be a Roman Catholic himself.
the papacy in the universal Church; while political Catholicism had its beginnings in antiquity and found very definite expression, for instance, in the bull Unam sanctam of Boniface VIII.
was to establish Roman Catholicism, and to make himself despotic in England, with the help of the French king.
Though liberty of worship prevails, Roman Catholicism is almost the sole form.
The origin of modern Ultramontanism is preceded and conditioned by the collapse of Catholicism in the period of the French Revolution.
- For our present purpose the distinctive features of Roman Catholicism may be said to be summed up in the decrees of the council of Trent and the creed of Pope Pius IV.
But these two sections of Protestantism, in their common exile and in presence of the preponderating Roman Catholicism of the country, seemed at first inclined to draw closer together than had been thought possible in Great Britain.
She had become secretly inclined to Roman Catholicism, and attended mass with the king's connivance.
The conflict assumed the character of a struggle between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism, in which Philip appeared as the champion of the Church.
In most countries where religious opinion is sharply divided the procession of Corpus Christi is therefore now forbidden, even when Catholicism is the dominant religion.
This newly-formed sympathy with the English reformer did not, in the first instance at least, involve Hus in any conscious opposition to the established doctrines of Catholicism, or in any direct conflict with the authorities of the church; and for several years he continued to act in full accord with his archbishop (Sbynjek, or Sbynko, of Hasenburg).
His political ideal was a federation of all the Italian states under the presidency of the pope, on a basis of Catholicism, but without a constitution.
Fairbairn (Catholicism, Roman and Anglican, ch.
Weinel); the church supernaturally guided (R.C. apologetic; in a modified degree High Church apologetic); essential - not necessarily exclusive - truth of Paulinism, essential error in first principles of Catholicism (Protestant apologetic).
To understand the problem of the Raskolniki it is necessary to bear two things in mind: the fundamental principle of Eastern Orthodoxy as distinct from Western Catholicism, and the practical identification in Russia of the National Church with the National State.
Closer akin to certain Western forms of dissidence from traditional Catholicism, though of native growth, are the Molokani or Molokans, so called popularly because they continue to drink milk (moloko) during fasts.
Nor is the sincerity of the Catholicism he professed in these boyish days in any way discredited by the fact of his subsequent lack of religion.
The Reformers themselves, indeed, like other dissidents and reformers before them, did not necessarily repudiate the name of Catholic; they believed, in fact, in catholicism, i.e.
This last was slightly tinged with modern socialism; it was described as "the social Magna Carta of Catholicism," and it won for Leo the name of "the workingman's pope."
Having become a convert to Roman Catholicism about 1 599, he obtained the favour of Pope Clement VIII., and, even 1 Kritik (Trans.
On the death of Ninoslav in 1250, vigorous efforts were made to exterminate the Bogomil heresy; and to this end, Bela IV., who appeared as the champion of Roman Catholicism, Hungarian' secured the election of his nominee Prijesda to the banate.
Unfortunately, however, the brilliant epoch of the alliance of Liberalism and Catholicism, represented on its literary side by Chateaubriand and by Lamartine, to whose poetic school Herculano had belonged, was past, and fanatical attacks and the progress of events drove this former champion of the Church into conflict with the ecclesiastical authorities.
p. 344), he distinctly says that Catholicism, reconstituted as a system on new intellectual foundations, would finally preside over the spiritual reorganization of modern society.
In both respects the reflex action of the Novatianist and Donatist controversies upon Catholicism was disastrous to the earlier idea of church-fellowship. Formal and technical tests of membership, such as the reception of sacraments from a duly authorized clergy, came to replace Christ's own test of character.
An enemy defined Comtism as Catholicism minus Christianity, to which an able champion retorted by calling it Catholicism plus Science.
In the Religious Peace of Augsburg the principle" cujus regio ejus religio "was accepted; by it a ruler's choice between Catholicism and Lutheranism bound his subjects, but any subject unwilling to accept the decision might emigrate without hindrance.
He began by adopting Catholicism and boldly seeking the assistance of Rome.
After a royalist insurrection in 1655, a proclamation was issued announcing that persons suspected of Roman Catholicism would be required to take an oath abjuring the papal authority and transubstantiation.
Loisy's developmental defence of Catholicism; Professor Harnack's review of L'Evangile et l'Eglise in the Theol.
Catholicism increasingly took for granted that a man imperilled his soul by thinking for himself; Protestantism replied that he could certainly lose it, if he left his thinking to another.
In his youth, the excesses of absolutism had made Herculano a Liberal, and the attacks on his history turned this man, full of sentiment and deep religious conviction, into an anti-clerical who began to distinguish between political Catholicism and Christianity.
(628-644) on a mission to Heraclius, Sahdona was converted, apparently to catholicism,' and thereby caused much scandal in the East.
Hence he publicly celebrated Mass, prohibited preaching against Catholicism, and showed exceptional favour to renegades from the Establishment.
He availed himself of the reviving interest in legitimism and Catholicism which was represented by Bonald and Joseph de Maistre, of the nature worship of Rousseau and Bernardin de Saint Pierre, of the sentimentalism of Madame de Stael, of the medievalism and the romance of Chateaubriand and Scott, of the maladie du siecle of Chateaubriand and Byron.
The singularity of Comte's construction, and the test by which it must be tried, is the transfer of the worship and discipline of Catholicism to a system in which " the conception of God is superseded " by the abstract idea of Humanity, conceived as a kind of Personality.
This newly-formed sympathy with the English reformer did not, in the first instance at least, involve Huss in any conscious opposition to the established doctrines of Catholicism, or in any direct conflict with the authorities of the church; and for 1 From which the name Huss, or more properly Hus, an abbreviation adopted by himself about 1396, is derived.
That world of the learned offers us non-dogmatic definitions, drawn up from the outside; definitions which do not share the root assumptions either of Catholicism or of post-Reformation Protestant orthodoxy.
those who have gone over from Nestorianism to Catholicism, seems to be the most important; there are also Syrian Catholics and Jacobites.
At the present time they are applied to a tendency representing a definite form of Catholicism within that Church; and this tendency, in spite of the individual forms it has assumed in different countries, everywhere displays the same essential features and pursues the same ends.
He classes as Ultramontane: (1) Whoever places the idea of the Church above that of religion; (2) whoever confounds the pope with the Church; (3) whoever believes that the kingdom of Heaven is of this world, and maintains, with medieval Catholicism, that the power of the keys, conferred on Peter, includes.
Just as in Protestant countries there has often been an amalgamation of evangelical belief with national feeling, to the great gain of both, Catholics demand that Catholicism shall enter into the sphere of their national interests, and that the activities of the Catholic Church should rest on a national basis.
But, even within the pale of the Roman Church, this identification provokes emphatic dissent, and is repudiated by all who are shocked by the effects of a onesided accentuation of political Catholicism on the inner life of the church, and are reluctant to see the priest playing the part of a political agitator.
And as it always happens in contests of cunning that a stupid person gets the better of cleverer ones, Helene--having realized that the main object of all these words and all this trouble was, after converting her to Catholicism, to obtain money from her for Jesuit institutions (as to which she received indications)-before parting with her money insisted that the various operations necessary to free her from her husband should be performed.
Such tenets were destructive not only of Catholicism but of Christianity of any kind and of civil society itself; and for this reason so unecclesiastical a person as the emperor Frederick II.
" Catholic " and " Catholicism " thus again changed and narrowed their meaning; they became, by universal usage, identified definitely with " Romanist " and the creed and obedience of Rome.
The additional qualification of " Roman " she tolerates, since it proclaims her doctrine of the see of Rome as the keystone of Catholicism; but to herself she is "the Catholic Church," and her members are "Catholics."
It is true that in Roman Catholicism, in medieval as in modern times, the working of miracles has been ascribed to its saints; but the character of most of these miracles is such as to lack the a priori probability which has been claimed for the Scripture miracles.
Valentinian was restored in 388 by Theodosius, through whose influence he was converted to Orthodox Catholicism.
anti-clericals and freemasons, divorce being regarded not as a social institution but as a weapon against Catholicism.
Meanwhile he had, in 1862, founded the Atheneium as the organ of Liberal Catholicism.
In bringing about this " fall," however, Parsons the Jesuit appears to have had a considerable share; at least Lord Sheffield has recorded that on the only occasion on which Gibbon talked with him on the subject he imputed the change in his religious views principally to that vigorous writer, who, in his opinion, had urged all the best arguments in favour of Roman Catholicism.
He was a vehement opponent of Liberal Catholicism.
Ragusa furnished him with money and a fleet, in return for a guarantee of protection; commercial treaties with Venice further strengthened his position; and the Vatican, which had instigated the Croats to invade the dominions of their heretical neighbour (1337-40), was conciliated by his conversion to Roman Catholicism.
The attitude of the first group needs no comment: it makes every priest the arbiter of what is or is not "Catholic," and is destructive of that principle of definite authority which is the very foundation of Catholicism.
According to contemporary records the number of prelates and priests in the three parts of Hungary at the beginning of the 17th century was but 103, all told, and of the great families not above half a dozen still clung to Catholicism.
In 1672 he made a public avowal of his conversion to Roman Catholicism.
"L'infame" is not God; it is not Christ; it is not Christianity; it is not even Catholicism.
4, and reappearing in the two types of Christian recognized by Clement and Origen and in later Catholicism.
Among other central thoughts in Comte's explanation of history are these: - The displacement of theological by positive conceptions has been accompanied by a gradual rise of an industrial regime out of the military regime; - the great permanent contribution of Catholicism was the separation which it set up between the temporal and the spiritual powers,; - the progress of the race consists in the increasing preponderance of the distinctively human elements over the animal elements; - the absolute tendency of ordinary social theories will be replaced by an unfailing adherence to the relative point of view, and from this it follows that the social state, regarded as a whole, has been as perfect in each period as the co-existing condition of humanity and its environment would allow.
His learning was greater than his originality, and he was one of the least heterodox of the Italian divines who rejected Roman Catholicism.
The authors generally favoured Lutheranism as opposed to Roman Catholicism.
Whatever may have been the value of Manning's services to the Roman Catholic Church in England in bringing it, as he did, up to a high level of what in earlier years was commonly denounced as Ultramontanism, it is certain that by his social action, as well as by the earnestness and holiness of his life, he greatly advanced, in the minds of his countrymen generally, their estimate of the character and value of Catholicism.
POLYCARP (c. 69 - c. 155), bishop of Smyrna and one of the Apostolic Fathers, derives much of his importance from the fact that he links together the apostolic age and that of nascent Catholicism.
from the very nature of Ultramontanism, and from the important position to which it has attained, that the official organs of the Church and all the people interested in the continuance of the actual state of affairs deny that it exists at all as an independent tendency, and seek to identify it with any proper interpretation of Roman Catholicism.
Lastly, Ultramontanism is the foe of the nationalization of Catholicism.
So too, in his English in Ireland (1872-1874), which was written to show the futility of attempts to conciliate the Irish, he aggravates all that can be said against the Irish, touches too lightly on English atrocities,and writes unjustly of the influence of Roman Catholicism.
Polemic interest led a number of Lutheran scholars of the 16th century to publish the Magdeburg Centuries (1 559 ff.), in which they undertook to show the primitive character of the Protestant faith in contrast with the alleged corruptions of Roman Catholicism.
The Reformation which thus began brought the disintegrating process of the middle ages to an end, and at the same time divided Western Catholicism in two.
Yet we may say that this was its salvation; for the struggle against Luther drove the papacy back to its ecclesiastical duties, and the council of Trent established medieval dogma as the doctrine of modern Catholicism in contradistinction to Protestantism.
Roman Catholicism was recognized as the religion of the state, but other religions were tolerated.
This category contains articles about Christian denominations that cannot be ordered under Roman Catholicism, Protestantism or Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Although several of these leaders were Voltairians, they held up Louis XVI., who had been executed in January 1793, as a martyr to Catholicism, and the Vendeans, who had hitherto styled themselves the Christian Army, now adopted the name of the Catholic and Royal Army.
For a time she was safe enough; she would not renounce her Protestantism until Catholicism had been made the law of the land, but she followed Gardiner's advice to her father when he said it was better that he should make the law his will than try to make his will the law.
well enough understood in those days; it was known that they were heretics at heart, and that when their turn came they would once more overthrow Catholicism and expect a similar submission from the Catholics.
Italians, especially Bernardino Ochino, had given her religious instruction, and the Italians who rejected Catholicism usually adopted far more advanced forms of heresy than Lutheranism, Zwinglianism, or even Calvinism.
The cumbrous mythology and cosmogony of Mithraism at last weakened its hold upon men's minds, and it disappeared during the 4th century before a victorious Catholicism, yet not until another faith, equally Iranian in its mythology mad cosmological beliefs, had taken its place.
We have here essentially the same condition of things as in the Catholic Church, where a twofold morality was also in force, that of the religious orders and that of secular Christians - only that the position of the electi in Manichaeism was a more distinguished one than that of the monks in Catholicism.
It was only the electi, too, who possessed full knowledge of religious truths, a point of distinction from Catholicism.
The religion which had proceeded from the historical Jesus he repudiated together with its founder, and Catholicism as well as Judaism he looked upon as a religion of the devil.
From Catholicism, which he very probably had no detailed knowledge of, he borrowed nothing, rejecting it as devilish error.
In 1874 he became a convert to Roman Catholicism, and this involved his resignation of the office of grand master of the English Freemasons.
He sought to govern Saxony in an absolute fashion, and, in spite of his declaration that his conversion to Roman Catholicism was personal only, assisted the spread of the teachings of Rome.
He is said to have become a convert to Islam; this report was probably a mistake for the undisputed fact that he embraced Roman Catholicism.
he stoutly opposed hymn-singing, Calvinism, Roman Catholicism, and the Evangelical movement as represented by Charles Simeon and the Bible Society.
After the conversion of the king to Roman Catholicism, d'Aubigne remained true to the Huguenot cause, and a fearless advocate of the Huguenot interests.
But these ideas were revived, on the other hand, by the Catholicism of the counter-Reformation, which again taught and teaches that God grants many benefits to mankind through the sacred bodies of the martyrs (Conc. Trid.
Meanwhile he had been a second time converted to Catholicism, but his influence at court waned, and he retired from public life in 1605.
The death of Valens, followed by the succession and the early conversion to Catholicism of Theodosius, dealt a fatal blow to the Arian party within the empire.
He was rector of the church of St John the Evangelist in New York city from 1881 to 18 99, when he resigned in consequence of being converted to Roman Catholicism.
No less than fourteen villages near Nicopolis embraced Catholicism, and a colony of Pavlikeni in the village of Cioplea near Bucharest followed the example of their brethren across the Danube.
The idea was contrary to the whole evolution of medieval Catholicism, and the German bishops were the first to repudiate it.
That a sovereign like St Louis should be able to associate himself officially with the feudalism of his realm to repress abuses of church jurisdiction; that a contemporary of Philip the Fair, the lawyer Pierre Dubois, should dare to suggest the secularization of ecclesiastical property and the conversion of the clergy into a class of functionaries paid out of the royal treasury; and that Philip the Fair, the adversary of Boniface VIII., should be able to rely in his conflict with the leader of the Church on the popular consent obtained at a meeting of the Three Estates of France - all point to a singular demoralization of the sentiments and principles on which were based the whole power of the pontiff of Rome and the entire organization of medieval Catholicism.
Till the last it was obliged to contend with the most formidable difficulties: yet it succeeded in effecting many notable reforms and in illuminating and crystallizing the distinctive doctrines of Catholicism.
These, without intermitting the work of reformation, endeavoured by every means to further the outward expansion of Catholicism.
This universal outburst of energy for the restoration of Catholicism, which only came to a standstill in the middle of the 17th century, found one of its Gregory most zealous promotors in Ugo BoncompagniXIII., Pope Gregory XIII.
On behalf of the diffusion of Catholicism throughout the world he spared no efforts; and wherever he was able he supported the great restoration.
" Liberal of the Catholicism," which was its offspring, had died with Educated Montalembert, after being placed under a ban by c assle Rome.
Perhaps even more dangerous was the employment of the whole ecclesiastical organization, and of Catholicism generally, for political purposes.
The fact that the Vatican presents a great force hostile to and obstructive of certain characteristic tendencies of modern life and thought has; necessarily raised up a powerful opposition even in countries traditionally Catholic. France no longer deserves the title of eldest daughter of the Church; the Catholicism of Italy is largely superficial; even Spain has shown signs of restiveness.
Goths, Vandals, Suebi, Burgundians and Langobardi embraced it; here too as a distinctive national type of Christianity it perished before the growth of medieval Catholicism, and the name of Arian ceased to represent a definite form of Christian doctrine within the church, or a definite party outside it.
Holding moderate religious views, he deprecated alike the extremes represented by Puritanism and Roman Catholicism.
But to Roman Catholicism he was strongly opposed.
Tatar, Mahommedan and Hindu invasions all preceded the Portuguese who brought Roman Catholicism, and the Dutch who brought Protestantism.
On the 25th of August Protestantism was proclaimed and Catholicism suppressed in Scotland by a convention of states assembled without the assent of the absent queen.
She would have flung Scotland with England into the hell fire of Spanish Catholicism rather than forgo the faintest chance of personal revenge.
William also did much at a critical period to secure Bavaria for Catholicism.
The last of the great Latin Fathers and the first representative of medieval Catholicism he brings the dogmatic theology of Tertullian, Ambrose and Augustine into relation with the Scholastic speculation of later ages.
By the signing of the league of Arras (5th of January) the Walloon " Malcontents " declared their adherence to the cause of Catholicism and their loyalty to the Spanish king, and broke away definitely from the northern provinces, who bound 1 See for earlier history Netherlands, Flanders, Brabant, Liege, &C.
Directed entirely against Roman Catholicism, they did much to strengthen and consolidate the Protestant party in France.
Roman Catholicism is the established religion, but the constitution guarantees full liberty to all other creeds.
Kellett, 1901; also the lectures on Greek and Roman Catholicism in Das Wesen des Christentums, translated by Bailey Saunders, 1902; the first-named work is the most suggestive general apercu of the whole subject - though written from a.
He failed to understand the great spiritual movement which was convulsing the Church; and instead of bending his mind to the problem of the Reformation, he from the first subordinated the cause of Catholicism and of the world to his interests as an Italian prince and a Medici.
North of Mnster, Roman Catholicism is still prevalent in the territory of the former bishopric of Osnabrfick.
Roman Catholicism was predominant a hundred years ago in all the frontier provinces acquired by Prussia in the days of Frederick the Great, but since then the German immigrants have widely propagated the Protestant faith in these districts.
Having restored Roman Catholicism in the archbishopric of Cologne and seen Henry of Brunswick settled in his duchy early in 1547, Charles led his men against his principal enemies, Philip of Hesse and John Frederick, who had quickly succeeded in driving ~iIaurice from his electorate.
It is true that the peace of Westphalia formally recognized only ~ of the three creeds, Catholicism, Lutheranism and the Thirty Calvinism, but so much suffering had been caused Years by the interference of the state with individual con- War.
As the leaders in these meetings were men like Virchow and Bluntschli, who had been lifelong opponents of Catholicism in every form, the result was disastrous to the Liberal party among the Catholics, for a Liberal Catholic would appear as the ally of the bitterest enemies of the Church; whatever possibility of success the Old Catholic movement might have had was destroyed by the fact that it was supported by those who avowedly wished to destroy the influence of Catholicism.
The Clementine literature throws light upon a very obscure phase of Christian development, that of JudaeoChristianity, and proves that it embraced more intermediate types, between Ebionism proper and Catholicism, than has generally been realized.
The whole of Austria and nearly the whole of Styria were mainly Lutheran; in Bohemia, Silesia and Moravia, various forms of Christian belief struggled for mastery; and Catholicism was almost confined to the mountains of Tirol.
The Thirty Years' War now ceased to be a religious struggle The between Catholicism and Protestantism; it resolved Swedish itself into a return to the old political strife between and French France and the Habsburgs.
This hostility of the Church to the German nationalist movement led in 1898 to an agitation against the Roman Catholic Church, and among the Germans of Styria and other territories large numbers left the Church, going over either to Protestantism or to Old Catholicism.
The victories of Henry and the prospect of his conversion to Catholicism raised Sixtus's hopes, and in corresponding degree determined Philip to tighten his grip upon his wavering ally.
But Catholicism could not wholly or immediately be dislodged by the teaching of Luther.
Catholicism lingered longest in the cathedral chapters.
Catholicism she would restore if she could, but that was not her first object.
He visited England in 18 351836, and delivered lectures on the principles and main doctrines of Roman Catholicism in the Sardinian Chapel, Lincoln's Inn Fields, and in the church at Moorfields, now pulled down.
The progress of Catholicism was undeniable, but yet Wiseman found himself steadily opposed by a minority among his own clergy, who disliked his Ultramontane ideas, his Romanizing and innovating zeal," especially in regard to the introduction of sacred images into the churches and the use of devotions to the Blessed Virgin and the Blessed Sacrament, hitherto unknown among English Catholics.
Roman Catholicism is the official religion, and ecclesiastical law is the same as in other Spanish provinces.
No record remains of the success of the Athenian s missionary whom Antiochus sent to preach the new Catholicism; but the soldiers at any rate did their work thoroughly.
In his schemes for social reform he was at first a student of Robert Owen, until his later views led him to accept Roman Catholicism.
Baader, who combined his theosophy with the doctrines of Roman Catholicism, has had many followers.
Meanwhile Lamennais had published his Essai sur l'Indiference, - a passionate plea for Christianity and in particular for Roman Catholicism as necessary for the social progress of mankind.
Lacordaire strove to show that Catholicism was not bound up with the idea of dynasty, and definitely allied it with a well-defined liberty, equality and fraternity.
In 1687 a project of settling the crown on the princess, to the exclusion of Mary, on the condition of Anne's embracing Roman Catholicism, was rendered futile by her pronounced attachment to the Church of England, and beyond sending her books and papers James appears to have made no attempt to coerce his daughter into a change of faith,' and to have treated her with kindness, while the birth of his son on the 10th of June 1688 made the religion of his daughters a matter of less political importance.
Roman Catholicism is the prevailing creed, but all religions are tolerated, and none receives any endowment or other special privilege from the state.
With the intention of proceeding to Abyssinia, whose Negus (emperor) Segued had been converted to Roman Catholicism by Pedro Paez, he left India in 1624.
Half Europe was full of waverers between Protestantism and Catholicism tolerably certain to decide for the Church that offered them the cheapest terms of salvation; and even in wholly Catholic countries many, especially of the upper class, might easily be scared away from the confessional by severity.
German Catholicism was still in a very raw, unsophisticated state.
They felt that Catholicism was strong enough to stand alone, without artificial support.
Lacordaire and Montalembert, however, continued their democratic campaign, by no means without success; for the revolution of 1848, which drove Louis Philippe from the throne, was far less hostile to Catholicism than that of 1830.
The time had gone by when sovereigns could decide what particular shade of Catholicism their subjects should assume.
Catholicism was considered as an organic growth, developing from certain seminal principles in accordance with certain definite laws.
It admittedly started by taking the truth of Catholicism for granted; and its only object was to make intelligible to reason the dogmas that faith already accepted.
New In the following year he imposed on Catholicism at large a special " devotion " to the Heart of Mary Immaculate.
But Modernism soon broadened into a thoroughgoing revolt against the modes of thought and methods characteristic of the latterday Vatican; its motto is that Catholicism is the strength of popery, but popery the weakness of Catholicism.
Goschler, 1870); Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie fir Protestantische Theologie and Kirche (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1896-1909), Protestant, but containing articles of universally recognized scientific authority on many aspects of the Roman Catholic Church; the Catholic Encyclopaedia (London and New York, 1907 ff.), invaluable as an authoritative account of Roman Catholicism in all its phases, by eminent Catholics of all nations.
The outward sign of this was the substitution of the Roman ritual for the English pre-Reformation use hitherto followed in the services, while English Roman Catholicism became increasingly ultramontane in temper, a tendency much strengthened under Cardinal Manning.
The history of Roman Catholicism in the New World begins with the Norse discoveries of Greenland and Vinland the Good.
The English colony of Maryland, planned by the Catholic George Calvert (1st Lord Baltimore), and founded (1634) by his son the Catholic Cecilius Calvert (2nd Lord Baltimore), and Pennsylvania, founded (1681) by the tolerant Quaker William Penn, first permitted the legal existence of Catholicism in English-speaking communities of the New World.
Being under the protection of the constitution, and enjoying the advantages of the common law, Catholicism could not meet with any official opposition; such few outbursts of fanaticism as there have been were but temporary or local, and did not represent the true feelings of the country.
Internally, Catholicism in the United States has been free from any noteworthy schisms or heresies that might impede its development - its doctrinal history offers nothing of importance.
The discipline differs little from that of the other churches of Catholicism.
In connexion with this may be read Humphrey's Urbs et Orbis (London, 1899), an account of the general government of Roman Catholicism.
The council of Trent, opened in 1545 and closed in 1563, decreed a formal purgation of the church, affirmed the fundamental doctrines of Catholicism, strengthened the papal supremacy, and inaugurated that movement of resistance which is known as the Counter-Reformation.
headed the reaction of Catholicism against reform.
In 1725 the gift called the " royal bounty " was first granted - a subsidy amounting at first to £1000 per annum, increased in George IV.'s reign to £2000, and continued to the present day; its original object was to assist the reclamation of the Highlands from Roman Catholicism by means of catechists and teachers.
His Catholicism, however, was of a less rigid type than Gardiner's and Bonner's; he felt something of the force of the national antipathy to foreign influence, whether ecclesiastical or secular, and was always impressed by the necessity of national unity, so far as was possible, in matters of faith.
a secret alliance against Holland, in support of the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England.
According to Monsignor Barnes's theory, James de la Cloche, who had been brought up to be a Jesuit and knew his royal father's secret profession of Roman Catholicism, was being employed by Charles II.
He had a keen sympathy with the difficulties experienced by the ordinary lay mind in trying to reconcile the conservative element in Catholicism with the principle of development and growth, and in The Faith of Millions, Hard Sayings and Nova et vetera he attempted to clear them away.
On the 18th of February 1527 two bishops, the first martyrs of Catholicism in Sweden, were gibbeted at Stockholm after a trial which was a parody of justice.
But though the Jesuit Antonio Possevino was sent to Stockholm to complete John's " conversion," John would only consent to embrace Catholicism under certain conditions which were never kept, and the only result of all these subterraneous negotiations was to incense the Protestants still more against the new liturgy, the use of which by every congregation in the realm without exception was, nevertheless, decreed by the Riksdag of 1582.
Every means was now used to convert her back to Catholicism, but at the last she only yielded on the condition that she need not believe that the soul of Mme de Villette was lost.
Even the revocation of the edict of Nantes and the dragonnades have been laid to her charge, but recent investigations have tended to show that in spite of ardent Catholicism, she at least opposed, if not very vigorously, the cruelties of the dragonnades, although she was pleased with the conversions they procured.
When we consider the different attitude towards dogma of Roman Catholicism, we feel constrained to question whether the expression "dogmatic theology" can be equally suitable for both communions.
Of ecclesiastical organizations the most important, next to Catholicism, was the Marcionite community.
Presbyterianism constituted a dangerous encroachment on the royal prerogative; the national church and the cavalier party were indeed the natural supporters of the authority of the crown, but on the other hand they refused to countenance the dependence upon France; Roman Catholicism at that moment was the obvious medium of governing without parliaments, of French pensions and of reigning without trouble, and was naturally the faith of Charles's choice.
His parents were Protestants, and he himself, at first, followed the Protestant persuasion; but he subsequently went over to Catholicism and, along with Cardinal Pazmany, his most serious rival at court, became a pillar of Catholicism, both religiously and politically, and a worthy opponent of the two great Protestant champions of the period, Gabriel Bethlen and George I.Rakoczy.
He recognized the Pretender, "James III.," and promised him subsidies conditional upon the re-establishment of Roman Catholicism in England.
Roman Catholicism was the state religion until 1910, but other creeds were tolerated, and the Church lost its temporal authority in 1834, when the monasteries were suppressed and their property confiscated for the first time.
Converted to Roman Catholicism under compulsion, these "New Christians" often continued to observe Jewish rites in their homes, as the Inquisition records attest.
His SOD, JOHANN JAKOB HOTTINGER (1652-1735), who became professor of theology at Zurich in 1698, was the author of a work against Roman Catholicism, Helvetische Kirchengeschichte (4 vols., 1698-1729); and his grandson, JOHANN HEINRICH HOTTINGER (1681-1750), who in 1721 was appointed professor of theology at Heidelberg, wrote a work on dogmatics, Typus doctrinae christianae (1714).
At least it made their traditional religion possible for those many French Catholics who clung passionately to the benefits the Revolution had brought them; and had it prevailed, it might have spared France and the world that fatal gulf between Liberalism and Catholicism which Pius IX.'s Syllabus of 1864 sought to make impassable.
It stands in a relationship to primitive Buddhism similar to that in which Roman Catholicism, so long as the temporal power of the pope was still in existence, stood to primitive Christianity.
Rudolph never forgave the treachery of his brother, and was secretly negotiating (at the time when he again appeared as champion of Catholicism) with Christian of Anhalt, the leader of the German Protestants.
Gradually all those who refused to recognize the creed of the Roman church were expelled from Bohemia, and by the use of terrible cruelty Catholicism was entirely re-established in the country.
In 1561 Gotthard Ketteler publicly abdicated his mastership of the order of the Teutonic Knights, and Riga, together with southern Livonia, became a Polish possession; after some unsuccessful attempts to reintroduce Roman Catholicism, Stephen Bathory, king of Poland, recognized the religious freedom of the Protestant population.
For generations the popular conception of Roman Catholicism was derived from its bitter pages.
The Church of England, both in constitution and doctrine, represents in general the mean between Roman Catholicism on the one hand and the more advanced forms of Protestantism on the other (see Episcopacy).
Roman Catholicism in England has shown a tendency to advance, especially among the upper and upper-middle classes.
They have been taught, originally in the interests of Transylvanian Roman Catholicism, to regard themselves as true descendants of the Romans.
At the Reformation Lesley became a champion of Catholicism.
Chmielnicki was now regarded not merely as a Cossack rebel, but as the arch-enemy of Catholicism in eastern Europe, and the pope granted a plenary absolution to all who took up arms against him.
Ritschl, too, treats Pietism as a retrograde movement of Christian life towards Catholicism.
London, 1849), an able defence of Catholicism on the ground that it represents the spirit of obedience or order, as opposed to Protestantism, the spirit of revolt or anarchy.
The latter, which form the local section, are further divided into several classes: firstly, the synods held under the Roman empire, the chief being that of Elvira 4 (c. 300); next the texts belonging to the kingdom of the Suevi, after the conversion of these barbarians by St Martin of Braga: these are, the two councils of Braga (563 and 572), and a sort of free translation or adaptation of the canons of the Greek councils, made by Martin of Braga; this is the document frequently quoted in later days under the name of Capitula Martini papae; thirdly, the decisions of the councils of the Visigothic Church, after its conversion to Catholicism.
to Catholicism in July 1593 - an act of political wisdom, since it brought about the collapse of all opposition.
Albert's large and liberal ideas, his friendship with Ulrich von Hutten, and his political ambitions, appear to have raised hopes that he would be won over to the reformed faith; but after the Peasants' War of 1525 he ranged himself definitely among the supporters of Catholicism, and was among the princes who met to concert measures for its defence at Dessau in July 1525.
The American Protective Association (A.P.A.), a secret order opposed to Roman Catholicism, was formed here in 1887.
Mary was determined from the first to restore papalism as well as Catholicism, but she had to go slowly.
His family, who feared his conversion to Roman Catholicism, opposed his wish, but he promised not to go beyond France.
These, while far from indicating that the church had attained unanimity on the points at issue, show progress in the direction of the later practice of catholicism.
In the practice of modern Roman Catholicism the following are recognized as fasting days, that is to say, days on which one meal only, and that not of flesh, may be taken in the course of twenty-four hours: - The forty days of Lent (Sundays excepted), all the Ember days, the Wednesdays and Fridays in Advent, and the vigils of certain feasts, namely, those of Whitsuntide, of St Peter and St Paul, of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of All Saints and of Christmas day.
Catholicism is not dogma only, but dogma plus law plus sacrament.
The Greek and the Roman Catholic Churches stand united against Protestantism in the general theory of law and of sacraments; but a Protestant can hardly doubt that, if Catholicism is to be accepted, a Catholic organization, and doctrine are better furnished by the Western Church than by the arrested development of its rival.
The last, in regulated forms, are a permanent feature of Catholicism; and the rivalries of these " regular " clergy with their " secular" or parochial brethren continue to make history to-day.
The clock is wound up at the great crises of history, but proceeds to run down, and does so even more rapidly in Protestantism than in Catholicism.
As a writer, too, Gregory modifies Augustinian beliefs into forms which make them more available for Church teaching - a process very characteristic of Western Catholicism and carried still further in later centuries (notably by Peter Lombard).
Theories of legal merit, amount of debt, supererogatory goodness, and ascetic claim - representing the aspect of Catholicism as law - are more and more worked out.
Though a ritualist and a rigorous enforcer of outward conformity, he was uncompromisingly hostile to Roman Catholicism, and most of his writings illustrate this antagonism.
The immediate effect of this change was a partial reaction in favour of Roman Catholicism, but the city remained essentially German until the French Revolution, when it was deprived of its privileges as a free town and sank to the level of a French provincial capital.
When he was but nineteen he accepted a challenge put forth by Henry Fitzsimons, a learned Jesuit, then a prisoner in Dublin, inviting discussion of Bellarmine's arguments in defence of Roman Catholicism, and acquitted himself with much distinction.
Roman Catholicism was tolerated, or rather connived at; but its professors were subject to frequent alarms, and to great severities during the ascendancy of Titus Oates.
Roman Catholicism held its own.
For his regard to the duke of York's interests he was suspected of leaning towards Roman Catholicism.
Baader is, without doubt, among the greatest speculative theologians of modern Catholicism, and his influence has extended itself even beyond the precincts of his own church.
But in course of time, as the struggle became embittered, Catholicism itself grew revolutionary; and this twofold fanaticism, Catholic and Protestant, even more than the ambition of the leaders, made the war a ferocious one from the very first.
The second civil war began like the first with a frustrated attempt to kidnap the king, at Second the castle of Montceaux, near Meaux, in September ~ 1567; and with a siege of Paris, the general centre of Catholicism, in the course of which the constable de Montmorency was killed at Saint-Denis.
Goaded by the vigorous revival of militant Catholicism which marked the opening of the 17th century, de Luynes tried to put a finishing touch to the triumph of Catholicism in France, which he had assisted, by abandoning in the treaty of Ulm the defence of the small German states against the ambition of the ruling house of Austria, and by sacrificing the Protestant Grisons to Spain.
When at last the citizens of the great Huguenot stronghold, caught between two dangers~ chose what seemed to them the least and threw in their lot with the English, they definitely proclaimed their attitude as anti-national; .and when, on the 29th of October 1628, after a heroic resistance, the city surrendered to the French king, this was hailed not as a victory for Catholicism only, but for France.
Neither the prayers nor the threats of Richelieu, who wished indeed to destroy Spain but not Catholicism, nor the death of Gustavus Adolphus at Llltzen (1632), could repair the evils caused by this immoderate ambition.
The latter wished not only to take possession of the Netherlands, which were to be given up to him with half of the United Provinces and their colonial empire; he wanted to play the Charlemagne, to re-establish Catholicism in that country as Philip II.
Fleury found no other remedy for this agitationin which appeal was made even to miraclesthan lits de justice and leUres de cachet; Jansenism remained a potent source of trouble within the heart of Catholicism.
By a twofold coup detat, parliamentary and military, he culled the fruits of the Directorys systematic aggression and unpopularity, and realized the universal desires of the rich bourgeoisie, tired of warfare; of the wretched populace; of landholders, afraid of a return to the old order of things; of royalists, who looked upon Bonaparte as a future Monk; of priests and their people, who hoped for an indulgent treatment of Catholicism; and finally of the immense majority of the French, who love to be ruled and for long had had no efficient government.
Finally, amidst profound silence from the press and the Assemblies, a protest was raised against imperial despotism by the literary world, against the excommunicated sovereign by Catholicism, and against the author of the continental blockade by the discontented bourgeoisie, ruined by the crisis of 1811.
The outcome of this positivism is the substitution for revealed religion of a religion of humanity - according to Huxley "Catholicism minus Christianity" - in which God is replaced by Humanity.
Paris became the centre of a sceptical society, which the decrees of bishops and councils, and the enthusiasm of the orthodox doctors and knights-errant of Catholicism, were powerless to extinguish.
Alessandro Achillini, the persistent philosophical adversary of Pomponazzi, both at Padua and subsequently at Bologna, attempted, along with other moderate but not brilliant Averroists, to accommodate their philosophical theory with the requirements of Catholicism.
Religion.Roman Catholicism is the established religion, and the Church and clergy are maintained by the state at an annual cost of about f1 600,000.
The reign of Reccared (586601) is famous in Spanish history for the establishment of Catholicism as the religion ofthe state.
The formation of the council was not complete until the establishment of Catholicism as the state religion.
The growing disposition of the bourgeois and artisan classes, not in the large towns only, to imitate the intellectuals in desiring to live in closer touch with the rest of Europe as regards social, economic, scientific and political progress, embittered the struggle between the forces of Liberalism and those of Catholicism, powerfully entrenched in the affections of the women and the illiterate masses of the peasantry.
The superficial, brilliant, pseudo-scientific Catholicism of the capital did not satisfy Renan, who had accepted the austere faith of his Breton masters.
The fifth and sixth volumes of the Origins of Christianity (the Christian Church and Marcus Aurelius) show him reconciled with democracy, confident in the gradual ascent of man, aware that the greatest catastrophes do not really interrupt the sure if imperceptible progress of the world - reconciled also in some measure, if not with the truths, at least with the moral beauties of Catholicism, and with the remembrance of his pious youth.
Among his works are: - Studies in the Philosophy of Religion and History (1876); Studies in the Life of Christ (1881); Religion in History and in Modern Life (1884; rev. 1893); Christ in Modern Theology (1893); Christ in the Centuries (1893); Catholicism Roman and Anglican (1899); Philosophy of the Christian Religion (1902); Studies in Religion and Theology (1909).
The next important step was the timely conversion of the count palatine's heir, Wolfgang William of Neuburg, to Roman Catholicism, and his marriage -with a daughter of the powerful Roman Catholic prince, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria.
affirming Catholicism, St Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside, London EC2V 6AU.
celibacy for priests, foreshadowing Roman Catholicism.
Dawkins uses the example of Roman Catholicism; a gang of mutually compatible memes that is stable enough to deserve a name.
This has been the legacy of evangelical ecumenism which wants to re- embrace orthodoxy and Catholicism and everybody else.
The same flood of liberal humanism which has broken the back of the Church of England, flooded also across Western Catholicism.
He clings with regret to the golden chalices and fragrant incense of Catholicism.
It is only painstaking research in recent years that has restored to us this forgotten focus of rural English Catholicism.
Proposals set down on goatskin parchment were sent to the French Pope at Avignon at a time when Catholicism was divided.
Catholicism generally spreads from parent to child but celibate priests play a role too.
The Saxons, seeking respectability, converted to Catholicism, with the help of the mission of St Augustine to England from 597 onwards.
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You merely think by associating it with ' Roman Catholicism or whatever ' you will make it sound sinister.
toleration of Catholicism were soon disappointed.
venerated icon of Italian Catholicism.
In all this his critics scented an inclination towards Catholicism; and Leo did actually glorify the counter-Reformation, e.g.
When, however, in connexion with the quarrel about the archbishopric of Cologne (1837), political Catholicism raised its head menacingly, Leo turned against it with extreme violence in his open letter (1838) to Goerres, its foremost champion.
Among other subjects, he wrote on the School of Hierotheus, on Romish falsifications of the Greek Fathers, on Leo XIII., on Liberal Ultramontanism, on the Papal Teaching in regard to Morals, on Vincentius of Lerins and he carried on a controversy with Professor Willibald Beyschlag, of the German Evangelical Church, on the respective merits of Protestantism and Old Catholicism regarded as a basis for teaching the Christian faith.
The suppression of Roman Catholicism was zealously pursued by Cromwell; the priests were hunted down and imprisoned or exiled to Spain or Barbados, the mass was everywhere forbidden, and the only liberty allowed was that of conscience, the Romanist not being obliged to attend Protestant services.
In truth Sabatier's St Francis is an anachronism - a man at heart, a modern pietistic French Protestant of the most liberal type, with a veneer of 13th century Catholicism.
The decrees of this council defined Roman Catholicism against the Reformation; and, while failing to regenerate morality, they enforced a hypocritical observance of public decency.
To a less extent, similar problems and alternatives arise in regard to the church: - Catholicism a compromise between Jewish Christianity and Pauline or Gentile Christianity (F.
C. Baur, &c.); Catholicism the Hellenizing of Christianity (A.
Closer akin to certain Western forms of dissidence from traditional Catholicism, though of native growth, are the Molokani, so called popularly because they continue to drink milk (moloko) during fasts.
But, though the invention of the terms " Roman Catholic " and " Roman Catholicism " early implied the retention by the English Church of her Catholic claim, her members were never, after the Reformation, called Catholics; even the Caroline divines of the 17th century, for all their " popish practices," styled themselves Protestants, though they would have professed their adherence to " the Catholic faith " and their belief in " the Holy Catholic Church."
Yet Clement entertained high hopes for Catholicism; he laboured for a union with the Greek Church, and was ready to facilitate the return of the Protestants of Saxony.
Thus he greatly underrated the strength of the Establishment, and preposterously exaggerated that of Dissent and Catholicism.
He was probably influenced by two considerations: first, by his profound aversion from Roman Catholicism, to which he felt he would be giving some episcopal recognition by compliance; but, second and more especially, by the feeling that James was compromising the spiritual freedom of the church.
Its extreme papalism and its strenuous defence of Pius V.'s bull excommunicating and deposing Elizabeth marked out Sanders for the enmity of the English government, and he retaliated with lifelong efforts to procure the deposition of Elizabeth and restoration of Roman Catholicism.
This work Chillingworth engaged to answer, and Knott, hearing of his intention and hoping to bias the public mind, hastily brought out a pamphlet tending to show that Chillingworth was a Socinian who aimed at perverting not only Catholicism but Christianity.
This weakness was due not to attacks from without - for orthodox Protestantism had long since lost its aggressive force - but to disruptive tendencies within the Church; the Enlightenment of the 18th century had sapped the foundations of the faith among the world of intellect and fashion; the development of Gallicanism and Febronianism threatened to leave the Holy See but a shadowy pre-eminence over a series of national churches, and even to obliterate the frontier line between Catholicism and Protestantism.
The triumph of so fanatical a reformer as Christian brought about the fall of Catholicism, but the Catholics were still so strong in the council of state that Christian was forced to have recourse to a coup d'etat, which he successfully accomplished by means of his German mercenaries (12th of August 1536), an absolutely inexcusable act of violence loudly blamed by Luther himself, and accompanied by the wholesale spoliation of the church.
On the one hand, indeed, orthodoxy and heresy are symbolized to his mind by the wheat and the tares respectively; he clings to the naive opinion of Catholicism, that contemporary orthodoxy has prevailed within the Church from the first; he recognizes the true faith only in the mystery of the Trinity; he judges heretics who have been already condemned as interlopers, as impudent innovators, actuated by bad and self-seeking motives; he apologizes for having so much as treated of Arianism at all in his history of the Church; he believes in the inspiration of the ecclesiastical councils as much as in that of the Scriptures themselves.
Interest in Shakespeare 's alleged Catholicism has revived in recent years.
Virginia converts to Catholicism and finds it a lightening, revivifying process; she also makes a good friend in Guy's uncle Peregrine.
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But whatever James 's personal inclinations, hopes for toleration of Catholicism were soon disappointed.
During the last few years his image has spread throughout Italy as the most important and venerated icon of Italian Catholicism.
Catholicism is one of the most portrayed religions throughout the media, whether it's movies, novels or on television.
The media portrayal of Catholicism is usually based upon the outdated, traditional practices of the Catholic laity throughout the last several decades.
When you decide to use the Internet to search for information about Catholicism, it's important to make sure that the resources you use are actually sanctioned by the Church.
The following sites are the best online references to learn more about Catholicism.
Catholic Online is by far the best online encyclopedia devoted to Catholicism that you'll find anywhere.
If you're interested in learning more about Catholicism, a good place to start is a local church library or a Christian book store near you.
Almost all religious book stores have an excellent collection of books and references where you can add significantly to your level of accurate information about Catholicism.
True Faith Jewelry offers a broad selection of faith-inspired jewelry, encompassing Christianity, Catholicism, Judaism, and more.
These new immigrants were required to convert to Catholicism in order to own land.
As landowners were required to covert to the Catholicism, the Catholic Church also recorded the nuptials.
Like many religions, Catholicism has many different incarnations.
Others value Catholicism, but view their religious obligations less strictly, making their own choices about issues such as contraception or homosexuality.
Mary I, a devout Catholic, sought to restore England's Catholicism after Henry VIII's excommunication and break with the church.
It was originally used by the Druids as a symbol of the moon goddess, but as many people converted to Christianity and Catholicism, what this cross represented changed to it's current Christian meaning.
Guardian angels are a concept that started in Christianity, specifically Roman Catholicism.
Some claim the insignia is rooted in Catholicism, while others take it as a representation of their Irish heritage.
Religion is a perennial theme in Interview with the Vampire and Louis' Catholicism is sorely tried by his conversion.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.