Carbonarism had been.
From this was developed a complete system of Carbonarism, the peculiar principles of which were introduced from Italy by two of Bazard's friends.
(I.), Filangieri retained his rank and command, but found the army utterly disorganized and impregnated with Carbonarism.
In October 1820 Pellico was arrested on the charge of carbonarism and conveyed to the Santa Margherita prison.
„,He was not devoid of good qualities, and took an interest in the material welfare of the country, but he was narrow-minded, ignorant and bigoted; he made the administration more efficient, and reorganized the army which became purged of Carbonarism, and such Carbonarist plots as there were in the 'thirties were not severely punished.
On the contrary, Carbonarism flourished and spread to other parts of Italy, and countless lodges sprang up, their adherents comprising persons in all ranks of society, including, it is said, some of royal blood, who had patriotic sentiments and desired to see Italy free from foreigners.
The French revolution of 1830 had its echo in Italy, and Carbonarism raised its head in Parma, Modena and Romagna the following year.
The Austrians retired from Romagna and the Marches in July 1831, but Carbonarism and anarchy having broken out again, they returned, while the French occupied Ancona.
In France, Carbonarism began to take root about 1820, and was more thoroughly organized than in Italy.
Mazzini, who had learned te distrust Carbonarism owing to its lack of a guiding principle and its absurd paraphernalia of ritual and mystery, had conceived the idea of a more serious political association for the emancipation of his country not only from foreign and domestic despotisn~ but from national faults of character; and this idea he hac materialized in the organization of a society called the Giovani Italia (Young Italy) among the Italian refugees at Marseilles After the events of 1831 he declared that the liberation of Ital) could only be achieved through unity, and his great merit lie~
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