But first, I feel the urge to partake of Canadian hospitality.
In opposition to the Canadian Pacific railway a southern line was built from Winnipeg to the American boundary.
Boston: Canadian S.
When we crossed over to the Canadian side, I cried, "God save the Queen!"
From the age of 13 he belonged to the Canadian volunteer militia, with which he saw service in 1870 at the time of the Fenian raids.
of Ottawa, on the Mississippi river, and at the junction of the main line and Brockville branch of the Canadian Pacific railway.
Meanwhile the Canadian Pacific, a true transcontinental line, was built from Montreal, on Atlantic tide-water, to the Pacific at Vancouver, 2906 m.
Sometimes I saw him at his work in the woods, felling trees, and he would greet me with a laugh of inexpressible satisfaction, and a salutation in Canadian French, though he spoke English as well.
After I hung up the phone, I plodded to the kitchen where I found a half bottle of Canadian Club.
The Manitoba Act constituting the province was passed by the Canadian parliament in 1870.
In Canada the Canadian Pacific was the only transcontinental line, extending from St John, on the bay of Fundy, and from Quebec, on the river St Lawrence, to Vancouver, on the strait of Georgia, the distance from St John to Vancouver being approximately 3379 m.
The Canadian churches had a good record, consummated in 1884 when they contributed 8000 members and ioo ministers to the United Methodist Church of the Dominion.
Next I telephoned After to update them on Mr. Delabama's Canadian adventures.
According to the specification for 85 lb rails adopted by the Canadian Pacific railway about the same time, 36-77% of the metal was to be in the head, 22'21% in the web and 41 02% in the base.
Jews were settled in Canada from the time of Wolfe, and a congregation was founded at Montreal in 1768, and since 1832 Jews have been entitled to sit in the Canadian parliament.
The mining of corundum was begun at Corundum Hill in Macon county in 1871, and from 1880 to 1902 the output was considerable, but with the discovery of the Canadian corundum Scale, 1:2,500,000 English Miles 20 30 4 0 So County Seats e County Boundaries Railitlays Canals Swamps deposits the importance of those of North Carolina greatly declined.
A too hasty occupation by Canadian officials and settlers led to the rebellion of the Metis under Louis Riel, a native leader.
In 1701, New York, seeking another claim, obtained from the Iroquois a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744 About 1730 English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia began to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under Celeron de Bienville took formal possession of the upper Ohio Valley by planting leaden plates at the mouths of the principal streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II.
from the mouth of the Great Miami river to the Canadian boundary, if there were to be three states, or to its intersection with an E.
Boston also feels the competition of Montreal and Portland; the Canadian roads being untrammelled in the matter of freight differentials.
principal strata bored through, the Canadian method of drilling differs from the Pennsylvanian or American system in the following particulars: 1.
Immediately on the‘ formation of the Canadian Pacific railway company branch lines were begun at Winnipeg and there are eight radial lines running from this centre to all parts of the country.
The Canadian Northern railway has a remarkable network of railways connecting Winnipeg with every corner of Manitoba.
19 a storm centre of Canadian politics.
The system usually adopted is a modification of the Canadian system already described, the boring rods being, however, of iron instead of wood, but the cable system has also to some extent been used.
In Galicia the Canadian system is nearly exclusively adopted.
In conclusion it may be stated that the two systems of drilling for petroleum with which by far the largest amount of work has been, and is being done, are the American or rope Comparison system, and the Canadian or rod system.
I know a woodchopper, of middle age, who takes a French paper, not for news as he says, for he is above that, but to "keep himself in practice," he being a Canadian by birth; and when I ask him what he considers the best thing he can do in this world, he says, beside this, to keep up and add to his English.
This fell into the hands of the Northern Pacific railway, but was purchased by the promoters of the Canadian Northern railway.
They were destroyed by whites and Indians in 1879-1882 on the approach of the Canadian Pacific railway.
The basis of the population is Canadian, and the immigration has been chiefly from (I) the British Isles, (2) United States, (3) continent of Europe (chiefly Austria, Hungary and Russia).
In the valley of the Bow river, alongside the Canadian Pacific railway, valuable beds of anthracite coal are worked, and the coal is carried by railway as far east as Winnipeg.
The Canadian Pacific railway has its main line running from east to west chiefly between 50 and 51° N.
A branch line of the Canadian Pacific railway runs from Medicine Hat between 49° and 50° N., passing through the Crow's Nest Pass of the Rocky Mountains and carrying on trade with British Columbia.
From Calgary to Edmonton northward runs a line under the control of the Canadian Pacific railway.
In 1906 the new line of the Canadian Northern railway was opened, connecting Winnipeg, 1000 m.
The Grand Trunk Pacific railway, backed by the Canadian government, forms a new transcontinental line; the prairie section from Winnipeg to Edmonton was in 1908 under contract.
Administration, &c. - The local government of Alberta is carried on by a provincial organization resembling that of the other Canadian provinces.
The organization adopted in Utah among the Mormons is found also in Alberta, but the Canadian Mormons profess to have received a later revelation condemning polygamy.
A similar counsel of moderation was given to the Canadian press in connexion with the Manitoba school question in December 1897.
The facies of the fossils is, according to Mr Etheridge, North American and Canadian, though many of the species are British.
by the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Ontario, being separated from the latter by the Lake of the Woods, Rainy River and Rainy Lake, and certain of their tributaries and outlets, and on the E.
The rapid settling of the state drove its native fauna, which comprised buffalo, deer, moose, bear, lynx and wolves, in great numbers into the northern sections, westward into Dakota, or across the Canadian border.
It is the natural terminal of three great northern transcontinental railway lines - the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound (the extension of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul system); and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the connecting lines of the Canadian Pacific form lines of communication with the middle Northwest and the Pacific provinces of Canada.
provided with transport facilities, which renders its cities the principal distributing centres both for the entire Northwest for coal shipped via the Great Lakes, and also for the eastern and middle Western states for the great staples, wheat and lumber, derived either from Minnesota itself or by means of its great transcontinental railways from the neighbouring Northwestern states and Canadian provinces.
In 1679 Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut (Duluth), as agent for a company of Canadian merchants which sought to establish trading posts on the Lakes, explored the country from the head of Lake Superior to Mille Lacs and planted the arms of Louis XIV.
Cirkel, "Mica: its Occurrence, Exploitation and Uses" (Canadian Dept.
At the close of his embassy he told the Canadians that probably three-fourths of the business of the British embassy at Washington was Canadian, and of the 11 or 12 treaties he had signed nine had been treaties relating to the affairs of Canada.
Subsequently the tramways of the city have been mostly concentrated in the hands of a single Canadian company.
Pop. (1890) 44,654, (1900) 62,559, of whom 28,577 were foreign-born (7058 being Irish, 6999 French Canadians, 5131 English, 2465 German, 1683 English Canadian), and (1910 census) 85,892.
from its mouth, and on the Canadian Pacific railway.
The love-sick mood and romantic temperament of the young Irishman found congenial soil in the wild surroundings of unexplored Canadian forests, and the enthusiasm thus engendered for the "natural" life of savagery may have been already fortified by study of Rousseau's writings, for which at a later period Lord Edward expressed his admiration.
The low ground between it and the shore, and between the Niagara escarpment and the water on the Canadian shore, is a celebrated fruit growing district, covered with vineyards, peach, apple and pear orchards and fruit farms. The Niagara river is the main feeder of the lake; the other largest rivers emptying into the lake are the Genesee, Oswego and Black from the south side, and the Trent, which discharges into the upper end of the bay of Quinte, a picturesque inlet 70 m.
deep. Freight consists principally of coal shipped from Charlotte, Great and Little Sodus bays and Oswego to Canadian ports in the lakes, and to ports on the St Lawrence river; of grain shipped through the Welland canal to the St Lawrence; and of lumber from Canadian ports.
The principal Canadian ports are Kingston, at the head of the St Lawrence river; Toronto, where the harbour is formed by an island with improved entrance channels constructed both east and west of it; and Hamilton, at the head of the lake, situated on a landlocked lagoon, connected with the main lake by Burlington channel, an artificial cut.
LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU (1786-1871), Canadian rebel and politician, son of Joseph Papineau, royal notary and member of the house of Assembly of Lower Canada, was born at Montreal on the 7th of October 1786.
In 1815 he became speaker of the house, being already recognized as the leader of the French Canadian party.
The aim of the French Canadian opposition at this time was to obtain financial and also constitutional reforms. Matters came to a head when the legislative assembly of Lower Canada refused supplies and Papineau arranged for concerted action with William Lyon Mackenzie, the leader of the reform party in Upper Canada.
It would thus seem that he was intriguing to bring about intervention by the United States with a view to annexation; and as the independence of the French Canadian race, which he professed to desire, could not have been achieved under the constitution of the American republic, it is inconsistent to regard his services to his fellow-countrymen as those of a true patriot.
At the beginning of the War of Independence he raised a regiment and as colonel did good service in the Battle of Bunker Hill, in the Canadian expedition, and in Washington's New Jersey campaign in the winter of 1776-77.
Canada Canadian periodicals have reached a higher standard than in .any other British self-governing colony.
The first Canadian review, the Quebec Magazine (1791-1793), was published quarterly in French and English.
Meziere, the Canadian Magazine (Montreal, 1823-1825), the (Canadian Review (Montreal, 1824-1826), La Bibliotheque canadienne (Montreal, 1825-1830), continued as L'Observateur (1830-1831), and the Magasin du Bas-Canada (Montreal, 1832).
Chandonnet; the Canadian Journal (Toronto), commenced in 1852 under Henry Youle Hind and continued by Daniel Wilson; L'Abeille (Quebec, 1848-1881), and the Canadian Monthly (Toronto, 1872-1882).
Contemporary magazines are the Canadian Magazine (1893), the Westminster, both produced at Toronto, La Nouvelle-France (Quebec), the Canada Monthly (London, Ontario), and the University Magazine, edited by Professor Macphail, of the McGill University.
Morgan, Bibliotheca canadensis (1867), " Canadian Magazines," by G.
Pop. (1890), 20,798; (1900), 25,180, of whom 3 8 43 were foreign-born (1004 German, 941 English Canadian); (1910 census) 31,433.
He was educated in his native province, and called to the Canadian bar in 1864.
After some years spent in journalism at Chicago, he was in 1874 elected as the Liberal candidate to represent Levis in the Canadian parliament.
He was president of the Royal Society of Canada, and of the Canadian Society of Arts, and received numerous honorary degrees.
His works include: Mes Loisirs (1863); La Voix d'un exile (1867), a satire against the Canadian government; boreales, and Les Oiseaux de neige (1880), crowned by the French academy; La Legende d'un peuple (1887); two historical dramas, Papineau (1880) and Felix Poutre (1880); La Noel au Canada (1900), and several prose works and translations.
An exponent of local French sentiment, he won the title of the "Canadian Laureate."
ABRAHAM GESNER (1797-1864), Canadian geologist, was born in Nova Scotia in 1797.
Of modern institutions may be mentioned the high school, public library, hospital, and the chapel, school and hospital of the Canadian Presbyterian mission.
Corps, to which the Canadian Corps was now added.
25, the eve of the offensive, was held as follows, from right to left: Canadian Corps (Currie) (2nd Canadian, 3rd Canadian and 51st Div.
in line, 1st Canadian Div.
the Canadian Corps, were to be engaged, the main axis of the attack being the line of the Arras-Cambrai road; the two remaining corps were to stand fast, while making all endeavours to deceive the enemy and prevent him dispatching reinforcements to other threatened points.
The 3rd Canadian Div.
The 3rd Canadian Div., moving off at 4:55 A.M.
on the 27th, met with steadily increasing hostile resistance, chiefly on the left in the Scarpe valley; the 2nd Canadian Div.
That night the divisions in line were relieved, the ist Canadian Div.
Corps (Godley) was now brought in on the Canadian left; the 11th Div.
This was to be carried out by the ist Canadian Div.
on the right, the 4th Canadian Div.
Corps astride the Scarpe was to secure the Canadian left.
Corps (Ferguson), on the left of the British Third Army, was to advance on the Canadian right, after the capture of the first objective, and by passing through the breach made by the Canadians to turn from the N.
As a result the advance on the front of the 4th Canadian and 4th British Div.
On the right, however, the 1st Canadian Div.
of Arras at the beginning of Sept., the right wing of the First Army, consisting of the Canadian and XXII.
The 4th Canadian Div.
During the pause between these two phases the 3rd Canadian Div.
on the left of the 1st, so that the second phase would be carried out by the 3rd, 4th and 1st Canadian and firth British Div.
All the field artillery of the Canadian and XVII.
The first objective and part of the second were carried on time and without great difficulty, but the left of the ist Canadian Div., swinging to the left against Marquion, was checked for a time, until reinforcements, including units of the 11th Div., came up to complete the capture of the village and its defences.
Further progress was difficult, particularly on the right, where the 4th Canadian Div., which had outstripped the advance of the left of the Third Army, was held up by flanking fire and counter-attacks from the S., and was unable to do more than establish itself on the fourth objective by the evening, with its right thrown back along the Bapaume-Cambrai road.
On this line it was relieved during the night by the 3rd Canadian Div.
At this hour the 1st Canadian and 11th Div.
It was decided that the attack should be continued on the 28th, the 3rd and 4th Canadian Div.
on the left advancing at 6 A.M., while the 1st Canadian Div., which was farther advanced than they, followed suit only at 8 A.M.
At dawn next day the 3 rd and 4th Canadian Div.
advanced once more with the object of securing the coveted bridges over the Scheldt canal, to be followed later by the 1st Canadian and 11th Div., which were to clear the peninsula between that canal and the Sensee.
again and again to check the Canadian advance by blows against their left front and left from the direction of the confluence of the Sensee and the Scheldt canal.
when it had finally captured them a powerful thrust against its exposed left from the direction of Paillencourt forced back the Canadian line to the west of Cuvillers and Bantigny.
r the Canadian line ran from the western suburbs of Cambrai by Tilloy to the Douai-Cambrai railway W.
After its exertions and achievements during the previous five days of incessant fighting the Canadian Corps was in urgent need of rest and refitment.
of Fontaine Notre Dame, where it connected with the right of the Canadian Corps - a maximum penetration of some 32 m.
SIR ALEXANDER TILLOCH GALT (1817-1893), Canadian statesman, was the youngest son of John Galt the author.
To him are due the introduction of the decimal system of currency and the adoption of a system of protection to Canadian manufactures.
In 1877 he was the Canadian nominee on the Anglo-American fisheries commission at Halifax, and rendered brilliant service.
In 1880 he was appointed Canadian high commissioner to Great Britain, but retired in 1883 in favour of Sir Charles Tupper.
He was Canadian delegate at the Paris Monetary Conference of 1881, and to the International Exhibition of Fisheries in 1883.
No Canadian statesman has had sounder or more abundant ideas, but a certain intellectual fickleness made him always a somewhat untrustworthy colleague in political life.
boundary of New Mexico the Great Plains province is known as the Edwards Plateau; between the Edwards Plateau and the valley of the Canadian river, as the Llano Estacado, or Staked Plains; and N.
of the Canadian Valley, as the North Plains.
portion of the Panhandle is drained by the Canadian river eastward into the Arkansas.
The Rio Grande and its principal tributary, the Pecos, drain narrow basins in the S.W.; these two rivers and the Canadian river rise in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and New Mexico, but all the other rivers by which the state is drained rise within its borders.
The varied fauna and flora of Texas may be classified in the following life-zones: the Canadian zone, on the highest parts of the Davis Mountains; the Transition zone, including high parts of the Davis, Chisos and Guadalupe mountains; the Upper Austral zone, Upper Sonoran division, in the Panhandle, E.
Thither also came Julien Dubuque, a French Canadian, to trade with the new occupants.
2 William Franklin served on the Canadian frontier with Pennsylvania troops, becoming captain in 1750; was in the post-office in 1 7541 75 6; went to England with his father in 1758; was admitted to legal practice in 1758; in 1763, recommended by Lord Fairfax, became governor of New Jersey; he left the Whig for the Tory party; and in the War of Independence was a faithful loyalist, much to the pain and regret of his father, who, however, was reconciled to him in part in 1784.
The Boston trade to the Canadian north-west coast was begun in 1788.
After the Irish the leading foreign elements are Canadian English (18.7%), Canadian French (r 5.8%) and English (9.7%), these four constituting threefourths of the foreign population.
A large part of the transatlantic immigrants pass speedily to permanent homes in the west, but by far the greater part of the Canadian influx remains.
The scenes of the recurrent wars were mostly distant from Massachusetts proper, either in Maine or on Canadian or Acadian territory, although some savage inroads of the Indians were now and then made on the exposed frontier towns, as, for instance, upon Deerfield in 1704 and upon Haverhill in 1708.
Martin, Castorologia, a History and Traditions of the Canadian Beaver (London, 1892).
On the one hand were the English plantations, populated, cultivated, profitable, stretching along the east coast of North America; on the other were the Canadian settlements, poverty-stricken, empty, over-officialled, a cause of constant expense to the home government, and, at a vast distance, those of Louisiana, struggling and bankrupt.
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; the Field Museum, Chicago; the California Academy and the California University, San Francisco; and the Canadian Institute, Toronto, publish monographs and lists.
SIR LOUIS HENRY DAVIES (1845-), Canadian politician and jurist, was born in Prince Edward Island in 1845,.
From 1869 to 1879 he took part in local politics, and was premier from 1876-1879; in 1882 he entered the Canadian parliament as a Liberal, and from 1896 to 1901 was minister of marine and fisheries.
A mint at Ottawa was opened in 1908 for the manufacture of all Canadian coins as well as English sovereigns.
46 (1888); Florida, South Carolina and Canadian Phosphates, by C. C. Hoyer Miller (London, 1892); and The Nonmetallic Minerals, by G.
Indeed, it is commonly considered to be an extension of the Canadian mountains.
The American Fall is entirely within the state; but the Canadian boundary-line passes down the centre of the Horseshoe or Canadian Fall.
In London, New Zealand cheese fetches as high a price as Canadian; the value of the cheese exported was £662,000 in 1907.
The experiment of applying responsible government on party lines to the two Canadian provinces at last seemed to have come to a deadlock.
He also undertook the immediate construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, which had been postponed by the former government.
Few political leaders have ever had such a number of antagonistic elements to reconcile as presented themselves in the first Canadian parliament after confederation.
The Union Pacific and the Canadian Pacific reach Seattle over the tracks of other roads.
by the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta and Assiniboia; E.
From where the main range turns east from the Idaho boundary line the crest of the Bitterroot Mountains continues on that line with a downward slope to within one degree of latitude from the Canadian border.
in Idaho), Bitterroot (1,180,900 acres), Blackfeet (1,956,340 acres), 1 The St Mary and both forks of the Milk river flow northward into the Dominion of Canada, and as there has been much private irrigation both north and south of the international boundary, the present Federal project and other undertakings in the same region necessitate an international agreement as to the division of the waters, especially of the St Mary, and commissioners representing the Canadian government and the United States conferred in regard to it in May 1908.
It is more accurate to say that as to certain matters the legislature of the Canadian Dominion is sovereign, and as to certain others that it is not (Lefroy, 244; Quick and Garran, Australian Commonwealth, 328; Dicey, 106); and as to some matters they are in fact, if not in form, universitates superiorem non recognoscentes (Quick and Garran, 319); or that they are states in process of making.
Meanwhile his interests were not wholly confined to law: for some time (1840-1843) he wrote for The Times and the British Critic; he made a plunge into patristic learning, from which he soon recoiled; he was much interested in the controversies which distracted the Church on the subject of Tract 90; in the treatment of the Episcopal Church in Canada by the Canadian government and the Colonial Office; in the establishment by the crown, in conjunction with the king of Prussia, of the Jerusalem bishopric; and in the contest for the professorship of poetry at Oxford on Keble's retirement.
by the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, S.
Dawson and Leo Lesquereux, and others who reported on the Canadian and American fossil plants.
In 1915 he went to France with the Canadian expeditionary force as " Eye-Witness," and in 1916 became the representative of the Canadian Government at the front, also doing valuable propaganda work.
In 1917 he was appointed officer in charge of the Canadian war records, and in 1918 entered the Government as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in succession to Lord Cawley and director of the Ministry of Information in succession to Sir Edward Carson, but resigned in Oct.
"HENRI BOURASSA (1868-), French Canadian politician, was born in Montreal Sept.
He was elected to the Dominion House of Commons in 1896, but resigned in protest against Canadian participation in the S.
They include three genera, of which the first is represented by the Canadian porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus), a stout, heavily-built animal, with long hairs almost or quite hiding its spines, four frontand five hind-toes, and a short, stumpy tail.
A branch line connects it with the Canadian Pacific. It has steamer communication with the St Lawrence and Lake Ontario ports, and is a summer resort.
GEORGE EULAS FOSTER (1847-), Canadian politician and financier, was born in New Brunswick on the 3rd of September 1847, of U.E.
A careful and even brilliant financier, and a keen debater, he became known as a strong believer in protection for Canadian industries and in preferential trade within the British empire.
American, and later Canadian, capital and enterprise have also been very largely concerned in the development of the country; and its progress was not permanently interfered with by the great earthquakes of April 1907 and July 1909 at Acapulco, and the floods in August 1909 at Monterey.
by the Canadian province of Quebec; E.
part many others belonging to the Canadian faunal area.
The Canadian government did their best to facilitate the immigration, and allotted land to the Doukhobors in the provinces of Assiniboia near Yorktown and of Saskatchewan near Thunder Hill and Prince Albert.
They were very cordially received by the population of the Canadian port towns.
InApril1901,in the Canadian House of Commons, the minister of justice made a statement about them in which he said that "not a single offence had been committed by the Doukhobors; they were law-abiding, and if good conduct was a recommendation, they were good immigrants..
A man of great force of character and much ability, of keen ambitions and unusual shrewdness, though not remarkable for breadth of mind, he attained to great influence in the executive government and was soon the leading spirit in that dominant group known in Upper Canadian history as the Family Compact.
On the death of Bishop Stewart of Quebec the Canadian see was divided, and Strachan was made bishop of Toronto in August 1839.
After several strong appeals and counter-appeals to the British government, the Canadian parliament was allowed to deal as it pleased with the question, with the result that the Reserves were completely secularized in 1854, provision being made for the life-interest of the beneficiaries at the time.
The central plains are divided by a hardly perceptible height of land into a Canadian and a United States portion; from the latter the great Mississippi system discharges southward to the Gulf of Mexico.
The valley floors always join at accordant levels, as is the habit among normally subdued mountains; they thus contrast with glaciated mountains such as the Alps and the Canadian Rockies, where the laterals habitually open as hanging valleys in the side slope of the main valleys.
Canals on the Canadian side of these unnavigable stretches admit vessels of a considerable size to lakes Ontario and Erie.
This peculiar feature is explained as the result of displacement of the river from a better graded preglacial valley by the Pleistocene ice-sheet, which here overspread the plains from the moderately elevated Canadian highlands far on the north-east, instead of from the much higher mountains near by on the west.
The Llano is separated from the plains on the north by the mature consequent valley of the Canadian river, and from the mountains on the west by the broad and probably mature valley of the Pecos river.
The central denuded area, east of the Llano, resembles the east-central section of the plains in exposing older rocks; between these two similar areas, in the space limited by the Canadian and Red rivers.
Canadian) -~ Beekmantown limestone.
The strong changes of temperature with the seasons are indicated also by the distribution of summer maxima and winter minima; summer temperatures above 112 are known in the south-western deserts, and temperatures of 100 are sometimes carried far northward on the Great Plains by the hot winds nearly to the Canadian boundary; while in winter, temperatures of 40 occur along the mid-northern boundary and freezing winds sometimes sweep down to the border of the Gulf of Mexico.
Fauna.Differences of temperature have produced in North America seven transcontinental life-zones or areas characterized by relative uniformity of both fauna and flora; they are the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian, which are divisions of the Boreal Region; the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, which are divisions of the Austral Region, and the Tropical.
The Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian enter the United States from the north and the Tropical from the south; but the greater part of the United States is occupied by the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, and each of these is divided into eastern and western subzones by differences in the amount of moisture.
The Canadian zone crosses from Canada into northern and northwestern Maine, northern and central New Hampshire, northern Michigan, and north-eastern Minnesota and North Dakota, covers the Green Mountains, most of the Adirondacks and Catskills, the higher slopes of the mountains in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, the lower slopes of the northern Rocky and Cascade Mountains, the upper slopes of the southern Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains, and a strip along the Pacific coast as far south as Cape Mendocino, interrupted, however, by the Columbia Valley.
waterway, and that with the St Lawrence through Canadian canals that afford a 14-ft.
In these figures no account is taken of the trade of the Canadian ports on the lakes.
GEORGE STEPHEN MOUNTSTEPHEN, Baron (1829-), Canadian financier, was born on the 5th of June 1829 at Dufftown, Banffshire, Scotland, the son of William Stephen and Elspeth Smith.
This led to his interest in the development of western Canada, and from 1881 onwards he was associated with his cousin in the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, for his services in connexion with which he was in 1886 made a baronet, in 1891 raised to the peerage; and in 1905 made G.C.V.O.
Suess the " Canadian Shield."
The St Lawrence is far the most important Canadian river from the historic and economic points of view, since it provided the main artery of exploration in early days, and with its canals past rapids and between lakes still serves as a great highway of trade between the interior of the continent and the seaports of Montreal and Quebec. It is probable that politically Canada would have followed the course of the States to the south but for the planting of a French colony with widely extended trading posts along the easily ascended channel of the St Lawrence and the Great Lakes, so that this river was the ultimate bond of union between Canada and the empire.
The parallel of 49° approximately separates the Saskatchewan waters from the streams going south to the Missouri, though a few sn1all tributaries of the latter river begin on Canadian territory.
In most cases they reach the coast through deep valleys or profound canyons, and the transcontinental railways find their way beside them, the Canadian Pacific following at first tributaries of the Columbia near its great bend, and afterwards Thompson river and the Fraser; while the Grand Trunk Pacific makes use of the valley of the Skeena and its tributaries.
As most of the Canadian rivers have waterfalls on their course, they must become of more and more importance as sources of power.
The Selkirks and Gold Ranges west of the Rockies, with their great areas of eruptive rocks, both ancient and modern, include most of the important mines of gold, silver, copper and lead which give British Columbia its leadership among the Canadian provinces as a producer of metals.
Nearly all the sea-birds of Great Britain are found in Canadian waters or are represented by closely allied species.
2 The areas assigned to Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and British Columbia are exclusive of the territorial seas, that to Quebec' is exclusive of the Gulf of St Lawrence (though including the islands lying within it), and that to Ontario is exclusive of the Canadian portion of the Great Lakes.
The chief seaports from east to west are Halifax, N.S., Sydney, N.S., St John, N.B., Quebec and Montreal on the Atlantic; and Vancouver, Esquimalt and Victoria, B.C.; on the Pacific. Halifax is the ocean terminus of the Intercolonial railway; St John, Halifax and Vancouver of the Canadian Pacific railway.
Numerous steamship lines ply between Canada and Great Britain; direct communication exists with France, and the steamers of the Canadian Pacific railway run regularly to Japan and to Australia.
There are, nominally, about 200 railways, but about one-half of these, comprising five-sixths of the mileage, have been amalgamated into four great systems: the Grand Trunk, the Canadian Pacific, the Canadian Northern and the Intercolonial; most of the others have been more or less consolidated.
With the completion of the Grand Trunk Pacific (planned for 191 1) and the Canadian Northern, the country would possess three trans-continental railways, and be free from the reproach, so long hurled at it, of possessing length without breadth.
on the sills, and are open to Canadian and American vessels on equal terms; the equipment is in every respect of the most modern character.
It has long been a Canadian ideal to shorten the distance from Lake Superior to the sea.
In 1903 all tolls were taken off the Canadian canals, greatly to the benefit of trade.
The Canadian Pacific railway controls large land areas in the two new provinces; and large tracts in these provinces are owned by land companies.
- The Canadian Geological Survey has published (Ottawa, since 1845) a series of reports covering a great number of subjects.
Castell Hopkins, Canada: an Encyclopaedia (6 vols., 1898-1900); The Canadian Annual Review (yearly since 1902), replacing H.
Morgan's Canadian Annual Register (1878-1886); Sir J.
Dawson, Handbook of Canadian Geology (1889); George Johnson, Alphabet of First Things in Canada (3rd ed., 1898); A.
C. Breckenridge, The Canadian Banking System (1895); A.
Shortt, History of Canadian Banking (1902-1906); Sir S.
Harrington and others; also articles in Canadian Economics and in the Handbook of Canada, published on the occasion of visits of the British Association.
This gives Canadian wheat excellent milling properties, and enables the millers to turn out flour uniform in quality and of high grade as to keeping properties.
Canadian flour has a high reputation in European markets.
It is known as flour from which bakers can make the best quality of bread, and also the largest quantity per barrel, the quantity of albuminoids being greater in Canadian flour than in the best brands of European.
the relative capacity of flour to make large loaves of good quality, Canadian flour is largely in demand for blending with the flour of the softer English wheats.
For this reason some of the strong Canadian wheats have commanded in the home market 5s.
Over large areas the Canadian soil and climate are admirably adapted for producing oats of heavy weight per bushel.
Canadian oatmeal is equal in quality to the best.
After the raising of the duty on barley under the McKinley and Dingley tariffs that trade was practically destroyed and Canadian farmers were obliged to find other uses for this crop. Owing to the development of the trade with the mother-country in dairying and meat products, barley as a home feeding material has become more indispensable than ever.
Canadian eggs are usually packed in cases containing thirty dozens each.
The bracing weather of Canadian winters is followed by the warmth and humidity of genial summers, under which crops grow in almost tropical luxuriance, while the cool evenings and nights give the plants a robustness of quality which are not to be found in tropical regions, and also make life for the various domestic animals wholesome and comfortable.
Canadian hogs are fed, as a rule, on feeds suited for the production of what are known as " fleshy sides."
The cheese is chiefly of the variety known as " Canadian Cheddar."
Legislation was passed to protect Canadian dairy produce from dishonest manipulation, and soon Canadian cheese obtained a deservedly high reputation in the British markets.
Amongst the British imports of cheese the Canadian product ranks first in quality, whilst in quantity it represents about 72% of the total value of the cheese imports, and 84% of the total value of the imports of that kind of cheese which is classed as Cheddar.
The high flavour, the crisp, juicy flesh and the long-keeping qualities of the Canadian apples are their chief merits.
Canadian honey for colour, flavour and substance is unsurpassed.
The government promotes the extension of markets for farm products; it maintains officers in the United Kingdom who make reports from time to time on the condition in which Canadian goods are delivered from the steamships, and also on what they can learn from importing and distributing merchants regarding the preferences of the market for different qualities of farm goods and different sorts of packages.
south of Edmonton, in the centre of a good agricultural district on the Canadian Pacific railway.
soon assumed national proportions in the Canadian Seed Growers' Association, which, with the seed branch of the department of agriculture mentioned above, has done much to raise to a uniform standard of excellence the grain grown over large areas of the Canadian wheat-fields.
At the beginning of the 17th century we find the first great name in Canadian history.
A donation by him of $10,000, distributed to boys and girls on Canadian farms for prizes in a competition for the selection of seed grain, as recommended by Professor J.
They had also penetrated to what is now the Canadian West, and it was a French Canadian, La Verendrye, who, by the route leading past the point where now stands the city of Winnipeg, pressed on into the far West until in 1743, first recorded of white men, he came in sight of the Rocky Mountains.
Some thought that, under a Protestant sovereign, the Canadian Catholics would be rapidly converted to Protestantism.
He recommended the union of the two Canadian provinces at once, the ultimate union of all British North America and the granting to this large state of full self-government.
The issue was finally settled in 1849 when the earl of Elgin was governor and the Canadian legislature, sitting at Montreal, passed by a large majority the Rebellion Losses Bill, compensating citizens, some of them French, in Lower Canada, for losses incurred at the hands of the loyal party during the rebellion a decade earlier.
He did so in the face of this fierce opposition, on the ground that, in Canadian domestic affairs, the Canadian parliament must be supreme.
In 1854 Lord Elgin negotiated a reciprocity treaty with the United States which gave Canadian natural products free entrance to the American market.
An act authorizing the change of control was passed by the imperial parliament in July 1868; the arrangement made with the Hudson's Bay Company was accepted by the Canadian parliament in June 1869; and the deed of surrender from the Hudson's Bay Company to Her Majesty is dated November 19th, 1869.
In anticipation of the formal transfer to the Dominion an act was passed by the Canadian parliament in the same month providing for the temporary government of Rupert's Land and the North-West Territories.
They resented the presence of the Canadian surveyors sent to lay out roads and townships, and the tactless way in which some of these did their work increased the suspicion that long-established rights to the soil would not be respected.
An armed force, composed partly of British regulars and partly of Canadian volunteers, was made ready and placed under the command of Colonel Garnet Wolseley, afterwards Lord Wolseley.
The construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, thus inaugurated, became for several years the chief subject of political contention between opposing parties.
Finally in 1878, in order to remove all doubts about unoccupied territory, an imperial order in council was passed in response to an address of the Canadian parliament, annexing to the Dominion all British possessions in North America, except Newfoundland.
Recent friction with that country made this route objected to by the imperial and many Canadian authorities.
A signal proof was soon furnished of the new standing in the empire which federation had given to the Canadian provinces.
American fishermen, however, showed so little inclination to give up what they had enjoyed so long, that it was found necessary to take vigorous steps to protect Canadian fishing rights, and frequent causes of friction consequently arose.
On the other hand, Canadian feeling had been equally exasperated by the Fenian raids, organized on American soil, which had cost Canada much expenditure of money and some loss of life.
By the terms of this treaty the " Alabama " claims and the San Juan boundary were referred to arbitration; the free navigation of the St Lawrence was granted to the United States in return for the free use of Lake Michigan and certain Alaskan rivers; and it was settled that a further commission should decide the excess of value of the Canadian fisheries thrown open to the United States over and above the reciprocal concessions made to Canada.
To some of these terms the representative of Canada made a strenuous opposition, and in finally signing the treaty stated that he did so chiefly for imperial interests, although in these he believed Canadian interests to be involved.
The clauses relating to the fisheries and the San Juan boundary were reserved for the approval of the Canadian parliament, which, in spite of much violent opposition, ratified them by a large majority.
The Fishery Commission, on the other hand, which sat in Halifax, awarded Canada $5,500,000 as the excess value of its fisheries for twelve years, and after much hesitation this sum was paid by the United States into the Canadian treasury.
In 1872 two companies had been formed and received charters to build the Canadian Pacific railway.
Huntingdon, formally charged certain members of the cabinet with having received large sums of money, for use in the election, from Sir Hugh Allan, on condition, as it was claimed, that the Canadian Pacific contract should be given to the new company, of which he became the head on the failure of the plan for amalgamation.
Meanwhile a policy destined to affect profoundly the future of the Dominion had, along with that of the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, become a subject of burning political discussion and party division.
The factories of the United States, unduly developed by an extreme system of protection, sought in Canada a slaughter market for their surplus products, to the detriment or destruction of Canadian industries.
Macdonald brought forward a proposal to adopt what was called a " national policy," or, in other words, a system of protection for Canadian industries.
The new system was laid before parliament in 1879 by the finance minister, Sir Leonard Tilley; and the tariff then agreed upon, although it received considerable modification from time to time, remained, under both Conservative and Liberal administrations, the basis of Canadian finance, and, as Canadians generally believed, the bulwark of their industry.
Smith (Lord Strathcona), whose fortune had been largely pledged to the undertaking, along with those of other prominent Canadian business men, especially Mr George Stephen (Lord Mountstephen), Mr Duncan McIntyre, and Mr R.
Even before the Canadian Pacific railway was fully completed, it proved of great service in a national emergency which suddenly arose in the north-west.
Major-general Middleton, of the imperial army, who was then in command of the Canadian militia, led the expedition.
Painful as were the circumstances connected with this rebellion, it is certain that the united action of the different provinces in suppressing it tended to consolidate Canadian sentiment, and the short military campaign had the effect of fixing public attention upon the immense fertile territory then being opened up.
The Conservative party took the position that commercial union, involving as it would a common protective tariff against all other countries, including the motherland, with a new company to complete the Canadian Pacific railway within ten years, on condition of receiving a Pacific grant of $25,000,000 and 25,000,000 acres of land, would inevitably lead to political unification with the United States.
Edward Blake from Canadian politics to accept a seat in the British parliament as a member of the Home Rule party.
While the federation of the provinces favoured the growth of a strong sentiment of Canadian individuality, the result of unification had been to strengthen decidedly the ties that bind the country to the empire.
The outbreak of the South African war in 1899 furnished an occasion for a practical display of Canadian loyalty to imperial interests.
Three contingents of troops were despatched to the seat of war and took an active part in the events which finally secured the triumph of the British arms. These forces were supplemented by a regiment of Canadian horse raised and equipped at the sole expense of Lord Strathcona, the high commissioner of the Dominion in London.
The Canadian Pacific system was extended until it included 1 2,000 m.
The Canadian Northern railway, already constructed from the Great Lakes westward to the neighbourhood of the Rockies, and with water and rail connexions reaching eastward to Quebec, began to transform itself into a complete transcontinental system, with an extension to the Hudson Bay.
It became necessary to enforce the terms of that convention, under which the fishermen of the United States could not pursue their avocations within the three miles' limit, tranship cargoes of fish in Canadian ports, or enter them except for shelter, water, wood or repairs.
On this commission Mr Joseph Chamberlain, Sir Sackville West and Sir Charles Tupper represented British and Canadian interests; Secretary T.
The sum of $463,454 was finally awarded as compensation to the Canadian sealers who had been unlawfully seized and punished.
The commission, which included three members of the Canadian cabinet and a representative of Newfoundland, and of which Lord Herschell was appointed chairman, met at Quebec on the 23rd of August 1898.
A statement made by the Canadian commissioners, who refused to sign the report, of an unexplained change of opinion on the part of Lord Alverstone, produced a widespread impression for a time that his decision in favour of American claims was diplomatic rather than judicial.
Later Canadian opinion, however, came to regard the decision of the commission as a reasonable compromise.
The mission of a Canadian cabinet minister, the Hon.
Lemieux, to Japan in 1907, to settle Canadian difficulties with that country, illustrated the change of diplomatic system in progress.
Since 1877 Canadian degrees have been recognized by the Medical Council of Great Britain.
One principal object of the framers of the Canadian constitution was to establish a strong central government.
Some of these questions have played a considerable part in Canadian politics, but are of too complicated a nature to be dealt with in the present brief sketch.
An excellent bibliography of Canadian history will be found in the volume Literature of American History, published by the American Library Association.
The annual Review of Historical Publications Relating to Canada, published by the University of Toronto, gives a critical survey of the works on Canadian topics appearing from year to year.
English Canadian Literature Is Marked By The Weaknesses As Well As The Merits Of Colonial Life.
Barring The Work Of Francis Parkman, Who Was Not A Canadian, .No History Of The First Rank Has Yet Been Written In Or Of Canada.
,Canadian Historians Have Not Merely Lacked So Far The Genius For Really Great Historical Work, But They Have Lacked The Point 1 Of View; They Have Stood Too Close To Their Subject To Get The,; True Perspective.
William Kingsford'S (1819-1898) Ambitious Work, In Ten Volumes, Comes Down Like Christie'S To The Union Of 1841, But Goes Back To The Very Beginnings Of Canadian History.
1860) And Sir John Bourinot 1 .(1837-1902) Have Written Brief And Popular Histories, Covering The Whole Field Of Canadian History More Or Less Adequately.
In Belles Lettres Very Little Has Been Accomplished, Unless We 'May Count Goldwin Smith (Q.V.) As A Canadian.
As A Scholar, A ` Thinker, And A Master Of Pure English He Has Exerted A Marked Influence Upon Canadian Literature And Canadian Life.
One Remarkable Drama Charles Heavysege'S (1816-1876) Saul (1857) Belongs To Canadian Literature.
Drummond (1854-1907) Stand In A Class By Themselves, Between English And French Canadian Literature, Presenting The Simple Life Of The Habitant With Unique Humour, And Picturesqueness.
The First Distinctively Canadian Novel Was John Richardson'S (1796-1852) Wacousta (1832), A Stirring Tale Of The War Of 1812.
Richardson Afterwards Wrote Half A Dozen Other Romances, Dealing Chiefly With Incidents In Canadian History.
Susanna Moodie (1803-1885) And Katharine Parr Traill (1802-1899), Sisters Of Agnes Strickland, Contributed Novels And Tales To One Of The Earliest And Best Of Canadian Magazines, The Literary Garland (1838-1847).
1862) Stands First Among Contemporary Canadian Novelists.
He Has Made Admirable Use In Many Of His Novels Of The Inexhaustible Stores Of Romantic And Dramatic Material That Lie Buried In Forgotten Pages Of Canadian History.
Of Later Canadian Novelists Mention May Be Made Of Sara Jeannette Duncan (Mrs Everard Cotes, B.
In Many Respects His Is The Most Striking Figure In Canadian Literature.
For General Treatment Of English Canadian Literature, Reference May Be Made To Sir John Bourinot'S Intellectual Development Of The Canadian People (1881); G.
Mercer Adam'S Outline History Of Canadian Literature (1887) " Native Thought And Literature," In J.
Macdonald (1883); " Canadian Literature," By J.
Macmurchy'S Handbook Of Canadian Literature (1906); And Articles By J.
Morgan'S Bibliotheca Canadensis (1867) And Canadian Men And Women Of The Time (1898); W.
Lighthall, Songs Of The Great Dominion; Theodore Rand'S Treasury Of Canadian Verse (1900); C. C. James'S Bibliography Of Canadian Verse (1898); L.
Burpee'S Bibliography Of Canadian Fiction (1904); S.
Dawson'S Prose Writers Of Canada (1901); " Canadian Poetry," By J.
Cooper, In The National, 29, P. 364; " Recent Canadian Fiction," By L.
French Canadian Literature At The Opening Of The Loth Century Might Be Described As Entirely The Work Of Two Generations, And It Was Separated From The Old Regime By Three More Generations Whose Racial Sentiment Only Found Expression In The Traditional Songs And Tales Which Their Forefathers Of The 17Th Century Had Brought Over From The Mere Patrie.
Folk Lore Has Always Been The Most Essentially French Of All Imaginative Influences In Canadian Life; And The Songs Are The Quintessence Of The Lore.
French Forms Are Freely Turned Into Pure Canadianisms, Like Cageux, Raftsman, Boucane, Brushwood Smoke, Portage, &C. New Characters, Which Appeal More Directly To The Local Audience, Sometimes Supplant Old Ones, Like The Quatre Vieux Sauvages Who Have Ousted The Time Honoured Quatre Z Officiers From The Canadian Version Of Malbrouk.
But These Very Digressions' Give The Book Its Intimate And Abiding Charm; For They Keep The Reader In Close Personal Touch With Every Side Of Canadian Life, With Songs And Tales And Homely Forms Of Speech, With The Best Features Of Seigniorial Times And The Strong Guidance Of An Ardent Church, With Voyageurs, Coureurs De Bois, Indians,., Soldiers, Sailors And All The Strenuous Adventurers Of A Wild, New, Giant World.
He Is Usually Rather Too Derivative, He Lacks The Saving Grace, ,Of Style, And Even His Best Canadian Poems Hardly Rise Above Fervent Occasional Verse.
Be Remembered As The First Canadian Philosopher.
A Canadian Drama Hardly Exists; Among Its Best Works Are The Pleasantly Epigrammatic Plays Of F.
Chief Justice Routhier, A Most Accomplished Occasional Writer, Is Very French Canadian When Arraigning Les Grands Drames Of The Classics (1889) Before His Ecclesiastical Court And Finding Them Guilty Of Paganism.
SIR WILFRID LAURIER (1841-), Canadian statesman, was born on the 10th of November 1841, at St Lin in the province of Quebec. The child of French Roman Catholic parents, he attended the elementary school of his native parish and for eight or nine months was a pupil of the Protestant elementary school at New Glasgow in order to learn English; his association with the Presbyterian family with whom he lived during this period had a permanent influence on his mind.
In 1878 his party went out of office and Sir John Macdonald entered upon a long term of power, with protection as the chief feature of his policy, to which was afterwards added the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway.
He was associated with Blake in his sustained opposition to high tariff, and to the Conservative plan for the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, and was a conspicuous figure in the long struggle between Sir John Macdonald and the leaders of the Liberal party to settle the territorial limits of the province of Ontario and the legislative rights of the provinces under the constitution.
He was the first French Canadian to lead a federal party in Canada since confederation.
During the years from 1896 to 1910, he came to hold a position within the British Empire which was in its way unique, and in this period he had seen Canadian prosperity advance progressively by leaps and bounds.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
Some of his speeches in Great Britain, coming as they did from a French-Canadian, and revealing delicate appreciation of British sentiment and thorough comprehension of the genius of British institutions, excited great interest and enthusiasm, while one or two impassioned speeches in the Canadian parliament during the Boer war profoundly influenced opinion in Canada and had a pronounced effect throughout the empire.
But he strove for sympathetic relations between Canadian and imperial authorities, and favoured general legislative and fiscal co-operation between the two countries.
Hagen, Canadian Entom.
ALFRED GILPIN JONES (1824-1906), Canadian politician, was born at Weymouth, Nova Scotia, in September 1824, the son of Guy C. Jones of Yarmouth, and grandson of a United Empire Loyalist.
ROBERT BALDWIN (1804-1858), Canadian statesman, was born at York (now Toronto) on the 12th of May 1804.
1844), went to Canada from Ireland in 1798; though a man of wealth and good family and a devoted member of the Church of England, he opposed the religious and political oligarchy which was then at the head of Canadian affairs, and brought up his son in the same principles.
C. Dent, Canadian Portrait Gallery (1880).
It is the terminus of branches of the Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk railways, and of the Canadian Pacific and other steamship lines plying to ports on Lakes Huron and Superior.
GEORGE BROWN (1818-1880), Canadian journalist and statesman, was born in Edinburgh on the 29th of November 1818, and was educated in his native city.
In 1851 he entered the Canadian parliament as member for Kent county.
His attacks upon the Roman Catholic church and on the supposed domination in parliament of the French Canadian section made him very unpopular in Lower Canada, but in Upper Canada his power was great.
In December 1873 he was called to the Canadian senate, and in 1874 was appointed by the imperial government joint plenipotentiary with Sir Edward Thornton to negotiate a reciprocity treaty between Canada and the United States.
C. Dent, Canadian Portrait Gallery (Toronto, 1800).
After a brief visit to France, where he was treated with high honour, he returned to the Mohawk country in May 1646 and ratified a treaty between that tribe and the Canadian government.
Gas, obtained by pipe lines from the Ohio-Pennsylvania and the Canadian (Welland) natural gas fields, is also used extensively for lighting and heating purposes.
Of the foreignborn population 36,720 were German, the other large elements in their order of importance being Polish, Canadian, Irish, the British (other than Irish).
With the Canadian shore Buffalo is connected by ferry, and by the International bridge (from Squaw Island), which cost $1,500,000 and was completed in 1873.
The establishment of Dominion government agencies, the formation of a local government, the machinery required for the government of the province, the influx of a small army of surveyors who mapped out and surveyed wide districts of the country, and the taking up of free lands in all directions by Canadian settlers, all tended to build up the hamlet of Winnipeg into a considerable town.
The greatest business street is Main Street, on which (north) the Great Canadian Pacific railway station and Royal Alexandra Hotel are situated, and (south) the Union station of the Canadian Northern and Grand Trunk Pacific railways are found.
The buildings are not exceeded for beauty of design or for completeness of finish by any Canadian city and by few American cities.
of Winnipeg, on the Canadian Pacific and Canadian Northern railways, at an altitude of 854 ft.
His preaching and lecturing drew great crowds both in the Dominion and in the United States, and he was five times president of the Canadian conference.
Another nutritious lichen is the " Tripe de Roche " of the arctic regions, consisting of several species of the Gyrophorei, which when boiled is often eaten by the Canadian hunters and Red Indians when pressed by hunger.
The scene of operations naturally divided into three sections: - (I) the ocean; (2) the Canadian frontier, from Lake Huron, by Lakes Erie and Ontario, the course of the St Lawrence and Lake Champlain; (3) the coast of the United States.
But on the Canadian frontier they made little difference.
A vehement statement of the Canadian side will be found in How Canada was held for the Empire, by James Hannay (London,Edinburgh,Toronto, 1905).
See also The Canadian War of 1812, by Charles P. Lucas (Oxford, 1906).
In the Canadian North-West the Church Missionary Society's Missions have reached many tribes up to the shores of the Polar sea, and made some thousands of converts.
SHAWNEE, a city of Pottawatomie county, Oklahoma, U.S.A., on the North Fork of the Canadian river, about 38 m.
He was a proficient in medicine, among other qualifications for this post, and he remained for years on intimate terms with the most extreme men in the Fenian organization under all its forms. His services enabled the British government to take measures which led to the fiasco of the Canadian invasion of 1870 and Riel's surrender in 1871, and he supplied full details concerning the various Irish-American associations, in which he himself was a prominent member.
SIR WILLIAM CORNELIUS VAN HORNE (1843-), Canadian financier, was born in Will county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the 3rd of February 1843, of Dutch descent.
His ability and force brought him to the front, and he rose till in 1881 he was appointed general manager of the Canadian Pacific railway.
From 1885 onward he was more and more associated with every branch of Canadian mercantile and financial life, and as a publicist gave shrewd expression to his views on political and economic questions.
Collective Supplies and Sales.-There are ten large American and Canadian companies with extensive systems for gathering the annual hauls of skins from the far-scattered trappers.
The Canadian are silky in nature and inclined to a creamy colour, while the Siberian are more woolly and rather whiter.
Sable, American and Canadian.
American and Canadian dressing is gradually improving, but hitherto their results have been inferior to the older European methods.
As has been explained, sable is a term applied for centuries past to the darker sorts of the Russian Siberian martens, and for years past the same term has been bestowed by the retail trade upon the American and Canadian martens.
GEORGE WILLIAM ROSS (1841-), Canadian politician, was born near Nairn, Middlesex county, Ontario, on the 18th of September 1841, the son of James Ross and Ellen M'Kinnon, natives of Ross-shire, Scotland.
In 1905 his government was defeated, and in 1907 he retired to the Canadian Senate.
Considerable interest attaches to the diamonds found in Wisconsin, Michigan and Ohio near the Great Lakes, for they are here found in the terminal moraines of the great glacial sheet which is supposed to have spread southwards from the region of Hudson Bay; several of the drift minerals of the diamantiferous region of Indiana have been identified as probably of Canadian origin; no diamonds have however yet been found in the intervening country of Ontario.
Population 250, consisting chiefly of the keepers of the numerous lighthouses erected by the Canadian government.
It is on the Grand Trunk, Canadian Pacific, Pere Marquette and Michigan Central railways, which connect at this point with the railways of the United States by means of large and powerful car-ferries.
Gradually, however, areas of good soil were opened up, in the Rainy river valley, near Lake Temiscaming and elsewhere, and mines of various kinds were discovered, as the Canadian Pacific railway and its branches extended through the region, and at length the finding of very rich silver mines attracted world-wide attention to northern Ontario.
These may exact fees or give free education at the ' A high school is raised to the rank of collegiate institute on complying with certain provisions, chief among which are the employment of at least four teachers with Degrees in Honours from a recognized Canadian university.
This tragical farce was soon at an end and its author a fugitive in the United States, whence he instigated bands of hooligans to make piratical attacks upon the Canadian frontier.
SIR JOHN WILLIAM DAWSON (1820-1899), Canadian geologist, was born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, on the 30th of October 1820.
6,1880); The Dawn of Life (1875); Fossil Men and their Modern Representatives (1880); Geological History of Plants (1888); The Canadian Ice Age (1894).
He was in charge of the Canadian government's Yukon expedition in 1887, and his name is permanently written in Dawson City, of gold-bearing fame.
When the crews of the whale-boats were conveying stores, the forwarding officers tried to keep brandy and such like medical comforts from the European crews, coffee and tea from Canadian voyageurs and sugar from Kroo boys.
In a straggling procession the boats worked their way up to Korti, piloted by Canadian voyageurs.
The Australian, Canadian and New Zealand censorships adopted a different system, so that the exploits of these troops were and are well known throughout the world.
Similar action was taken in 1858, when Bishop Selwyn became metropolitan of New Zealand; and again in 1860, when, on the petition of the Canadian bishops to the crown and the colonial legislature for permission to elect a metropolitan, letters patent were issued appointing Bishop Fulford of Montreal to that office.
It was first assumed by the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land, at the desire of the Canadian general synod in 1893; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of the Lambeth conference of 1897, it was given by their synods to the bishop of Sydney as metropolitan of New South Wales and to the bishop of Cape Town as metropolitan of South Africa.
(5) The Canadian Church, consisting of (a)the province of Canada, with to dioceses; (b) the province of Rupert's Land, with 8 dioceses.
His enthusiasm for the land and the people, his idealistic outlook, his bright but simple manner, his utter lack of conventionality and stiffness, his fondness for travelling and nature and sport captivated the Canadian heart.
GEORGE TAYLOR DENISON (1839-), Canadian soldier and publicist, was born in Toronto on the 31st of August 1839.
WILLIAM LYON MACKENZIE (1795-1861), Canadian politician, his father died before he was a month old, and the family were left in poverty.
While in England, he published Sketches of Canada and the United States, in which, with some exaggeration, many of the Canadian grievances were exposed.
In the town of Buffalo he collected a disorderly rabble, who seized and fortified Navy Island, in the river between the two countries, and for some weeks troubled the Canadian frontier.
In The Story of the Upper Canadian Rebellion by J.
American (Canadian) timber is stencilled in black and white.
The red pine (Pinus resinosa or P. rubra) is also known as "Canadian pine" and "American deal."
In that year he removed to Toronto, where he edited the Canadian Monthly, and subsequently founded the Week and the Bystander.
These views are most fully stated in his Canada and the Canadian Question (1891).
"NEWTON WESLEY ROWELL (1867-), Canadian politician, was born Nov.
He was a member of the Imperial War Cabinet and Imperial War Conference, 1918; Canadian Government representative at the International Labour Conference at Washington, 1919; and a Canadian delegate to the first assembly of the League of Nations at Geneva, 1920.
Much iron and copper ore is shipped from the Duluth-Superior harbour; and large quantities of coal, brought by lake boats, are distributed from here throughout the American and Canadian North-west.
JOSEPH HOWE (1804-1873), Canadian statesman, was born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on the 13th of December 1804, the son of John Howe (1752-1835), a United Empire Loyalist who was for many years king's printer and postmaster-general for the Maritime Provinces and the Bermudas.
Though his eloquence had done more than anything else to make practicable a union of the British North American provinces, he opposed confederation, largely owing to wounded vanity; but on finding it impossible to obtain from the imperial authorities the repeal of the British North America Act, he refused to join his associates in the extreme measures which were advocated, and on the promise from the Canadian government of better financial terms to his native province, entered (on the 30th of January 1869) the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald as president of the council.
The process adopted for the Canadian ores, which are poor in copper and nickel, consists in a preliminary roasting in heaps and smelting in a blast furnace in order to obtain a matte, which is then further smelted with a siliceous flux for a rich matte.
18 95, p. 945) has obtained metallic nickel from the Canadian mattes by first roasting them and then eliminating copper by the action of sulphuric acid, the product so obtained being then exposed to the reducing action of producer gas at about 350° C. The reduced metal is then passed into a "volatilizer" and exposed to the action of carbon monoxide at about 80° C., the nickel carbonyl so formed being received in a chamber heated to 180-200° C., where it decomposes, the nickel being deposited and the carbon monoxide returned to the volatilizer.
EL RENO, a city and the county-seat of Canadian county, Oklahoma, U.S.A., on the N.
fork of the Canadian river, about 26 m.
of London, on the river Thames and the Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific railways.
California embraces areas of every life-zone of North America: of the boreal, the Hudsonian and Canadian subzones; of the transition, the humid Pacific subzone; of the upper austral, the arid or upper Sonoran subzone; of the lower austral, the arid or lower Sonoran; of the tropical, the " dilute arid " subzone.
SIR BOWELL MACKENZIE (1823-), Canadian politician, son of John Bowell, carpenter and builder, was born at Rickinghall, England, on the 2 7th of December 1823.
He was elected grand master of the Orange Association of British America, and was long the exponent in the Canadian parliament of the claims of that order.
ROBERT LAIRD BORDEN (1854-), Canadian statesman, was born at Grand Pre, Nova Scotia, on the 26th of June 1854.
In 1896 he was elected to the Canadian parliament for the city of Halifax, but later lost his seat there and was elected for Carlton.
The extension of responsible constitutional government by Great Britain to her chief colonies, under a governor or viceregal representative of the crown, has been followed in British North America by the union of the Canadian, maritime and Pacific provinces under a federal government - with a senate, the members of which are nominated by the crown, and a house of commons elected by the different provinces according to their relative population.
In July 1913 Stefansson sailed from Nome with a large expedition, supported by the Canadian Government, for the exploration of the Beaufort Sea and the N.W.
of Naval Service, Ottawa, 1915, 1916, 1917 and 1918; also Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-18 (lo vols.
Ottawa, in course of publication); " The Activities of the Canadian Arctic Expedition from 1916-1918," V.
Pop. (1890) 77,696; (1900) 94,969, of whom 40,974 were foreignborn (14,674 being French Canadian, 12,147 Irish, 4485 English Canadian, 4446 English, 1203 Greek, 1099 Scotch); (1910 census), 106,294.
It forms the water-parting between the upper waters of the Canadian river and the Rio Grande, and contains many of the loftiest peaks in New Mexico, among them being Truchas (13,275 ft.), Costilla (12,634 ft.) and Baldy (12,623 ft.).
of the Canadian rivers lies the great arid tableland known as the Staked Plains (Llano Estacado), a vast stretch of barren wastes, with almost nothing to break the monotony of its landscape.
The Canadian river drains the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains and flows in a general south-easterly direction through Texas into Oklahoma, where it empties into the Arkansas.
He was still secretary when the Canadian rebellion broke out in 1837; his wavering and feeble policy was fiercely attacked in parliament; he became involved in disputes with the earl of Durham, and the movement for his supercession found supporters even among his colleagues in the cabinet.
The tree abounds from Canada to Georgia, but in the eastern states has been so long sought for by the lumberer that most of the old trees have long disappeared, and large white pine timber is now only found in quantity in the Canadian Dominion.
Lord Carnarvon (the 4th earl), when under-secretary for the colonies in 1858-1859, had regarded Grey's federation proposal with disfavour, but later, as secretary of state, he had introduced the bill for the federation of the Canadian provinces.
In the case of the Canadian prisoners (1839) it was used to obtain the release of persons sentenced in Canada for participating in the rebellion of 1837, who were being conveyed throughout England in custody on their way to imprisonment in another part of the empire, and it is matter of frequent experience for the courts to review the legality of commitments under the Extradition Acts and the Fugitive Offenders Act 1881, of fugitives from the justice of a foreign state or parts of the king's dominions outside the British Islands.
"CHARLES JOSEPH DOHERTY (1855-), Canadian statesman, was born at Montreal, Quebec, May it 1855.
In 1920 he was made an Imperial Privy Councillor and the same year was a member of the Canadian delegation to the first assembly of the League of Nations at Geneva.
The export trade of the island centres here, and the city has regular communication by steamer with the chief American and Canadian ports.
It has even been said that the only permanent acquisition that England owed directly to him was her Canadian dominion; and, strictly speaking, this is true, it being admitted that the campaign by which the Indian empire was virtually won was not planned by him, though brought to a successful issue during his ministry.
The loss of her Canadian possessions was only one of a series of disasters suffered by France, which radically affected the future of Europe and the world.
Of the 24,604 foreignborn inhabitants of the state, 3943 were from England, 2974 were from Germany, 2528 were Canadian English, 2822 were from Sweden ., and 1633 were from Ireland, various other countries being represented by smaller numbers.
BRANDON, a city and port of entry of Manitoba, Canada, on the Assiniboine river, and the Canadian Pacific and Canadian Northern railways, situated 132 m.
by the province of Ontario, Georgian Bay and North Channel being wholly within Canadian territory.
On the Canadian side are Serpent river, Spanish river, French river, draining Lake Nipissing, Muskoka river, Severn river, draining lake Simcoe, and Nottawasaga river, all emptying into Georgian bay and North Channel, and Saugeen and Maitland rivers, flowing into the main lake.
Practically all the United States traffic is confined to vessels passing through the main lake between Lakes Superior and Michigan and Lake Erie, but on the Canadian side are several railway termini which receive grain mostly from Lake Superior, and deliver mixed freight to ports on that lake.
There is a large fishing industry in Lake Huron, the Canadian catch being valued at over a quarter million dollars per annum.
See Georgian Bay and North Channel Pilot, Department of Marine and Fisheries (Ottawa, 1903); Sailing Directions for Lake Huron, Canadian Shore, Department of Marine and Fisheries (Ottawa, 1905); Bulletin No.
It is the outlet of a rich and extensive agricultural district, and throughout the season of navigation lines of steamers ply between Toronto and the other lake ports on both the Canadian and American sides, the route of some of them extending from Montreal to Port Arthur on Lake Superior.
the Grand Trunk, the Canadian Pacific and the Canadian Northern.
"SIR LOMER GOUIN (1861-), Canadian statesman, was born at Grondines, Quebec, in 1861 and was educated at Laval and McGill Universities.
He was called to the Canadian bar in 1884, and became Q.C. in 1900, being elected BatonnierGeneral of the Quebec bar in 1910.
He derived considerable importance from the fact that he was the Quebec representative on the boards of large Canadian financial institutions.
St Elias (18,024 ft.) and, in Canadian territory, Mt.
As early as 1883-1885 there was a considerable mining excitement due to these discoveries, and a much greater one in 1887 after the discovery of coarse gold on Forty Mile Creek in American territory; but these were as nothing to the picturesque and feverish rush that followed the location of the first Klondike claim in Canadian territory in August 1896.
The product of gold and silver (of the latter some 1.3% of the total) from 1895 to 1901 was more than $32,000,000 from Alaska proper (not including that from the Canadian Yukon fields) as against a production of $5,000,000 in 1880-1896.
The gold product of the Canadian Yukon territory from 1896-1903 was about $96,000,000, as estimated by the Canadian Geological Survey.
Alaskan mails leave the states daily, many post-offices are maintained, mail is regularly delivered beyond the Arctic circle, all the more important towns have telegraphic communication with the states,' there is one railway in the interior through Canadian territory from Skagway, and other railways are planned.
The award of the tribunal made in October 1 9 03 was arrived at by the favourable vote of the three commissioners of the United States and of Lord Alverstone, whose action was bitterly resented by the two Canadian commissioners; it sustained in the main the claims of the United States.
by the Canadian province of Quebec; N.
by the Canadian province of New Brunswick, from which it is separated in part by the natural barriers of the Saint John River, the Grand (or Schoodic) Lakes, the Saint Croix River, and Passamaquoddy Bay; S.S.E.
The principal railway systems are the Maine Central, which enters every county but one, the Boston & Maine, the Bangor & Aroostook, the Grand Trunk and the Canadian Pacific. Lines of steamboats ply regularly between the largest cities of the state and Boston, between Portland and New York, and between Portland and several Canadian ports.
either one or both parents were foreign-born - and 89,857 were of Canadian parentage, both on the father's and on the mother's side (41,355 English and 48,502 French).
Several lynxes are found in North America; the most northerly has been described as the Canadian lynx (L.
At all times conspicuous for his eloquence, honesty and recalcitrancy, he twice came with especial prominence before the public - in 1838, when, although at the time without a seat in parliament, he appeared at the bar of the Commons to protest, in the name of the Canadian Assembly, against the suspension of the Canadian constitution; and in 1855, when, having overthrown Lord Aberdeen's ministry by carrying a resolution for the appointment of a committee of inquiry into the mismanagement in the Crimean War, he presided over its proceedings.
The season has been extended for a few days, in both spring and autumn, by the use of ice-breaking tugs at Fort William and Port Arthur, this service being organized by the government particularly to facilitate the movement of grain from the Canadian North-west.
On the Canadian side Fort William, in the mouth of the Kaministikwia, and Port Arthur, four miles distant, an artificial harbour, are the only important shipping points, being the lake terminals of three great transcontinental railway systems, though the whole north shore is liberally supplied with natural harbours.
The principal freight shipped eastward consists of flour, wheat and other grains, through Duluth - Superior from the United States, and through Fort William - Port Arthur from the Canadian prairies; copper ore from the mines on the south shore; iron ore in immense quantities from both shores, ?
OKLAHOMA CITY, a city and the county-seat of Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, U.S.A., on the North Fork of the Canadian river, near the geographical centre of the state.
It is served by the Great Northern, the Northern Pacific, the Canadian Pacific, and the Bellingham Bay & British Columbia railways - being a terminus of the last named, which operates only 62 m.
JOHN SANDFIELD MACDONALD (1812-1872), Canadian statesman, was born at St Raphael, Glengarry county, Ontario, on the 12th of December 1812.