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constitute

constitute

constitute Sentence Examples

  • The disks and granules constitute a very powerful microphone.

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  • The disks and granules constitute a very powerful microphone.

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  • Will this constitute a waiver of such right?

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  • This will constitute an infringement of the holders' rights.

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  • Are there enough in attendance to constitute a quorum?

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  • Does this constitute an endorsement?

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  • The marsupials constitute two-thirds of all the Australian species of mammals.

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  • Eastward from this the ranges of low bare hills called the Murgie of Gravina and Altamura gradually sink into the still more moderate level of those which constitute the peninsular tract between Brindisi and Taranto as far as the Cape of Sta Maria di Leuca, the south-east extremity of Italy.

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  • the chains of Shar, Grammos and Pindus constitute a kind of natural boundary, which does not, however, coincide with ethnical limits nor with the Turkish administrative divisions.

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  • My whole idea is that if vicious people are united and constitute a power, then honest folk must do the same.

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  • While wheat and wine constitute the staples of French agriculture, its distinguishing characteristic is the variety of its products.

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  • I do not hesitate to say, that those who call themselves Abolitionists should at once effectually withdraw their support, both in person and property, from the government of Massachusetts, and not wait till they constitute a majority of one, before they suffer the right to prevail through them.

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  • You may be thinking that choosing the right place to eat Italian food doesn't constitute wisdom in a King Solomon kind of way.

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  • In battle he was always under fire, so that Kutuzov reproved him for it and feared to send him to the front, and like Dokhturov he was one of those unnoticed cogwheels that, without clatter or noise, constitute the most essential part of the machine.

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  • Although the timbers of commercial value are confined practically to the eastern and a portion of the western coastal belt and a few inland tracts of Australia, they constitute an important national asset.

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  • What remains to be done is, not to explain how such a world manages to be what it is, nor how we came to form these notions, but merely this - to expel from the circle and totality of our conceptions those abstract notions which are inconsistent and jarring, or to remodel and define them so that they may constitute a consistent and harmonious view.

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  • What remains to be done is, not to explain how such a world manages to be what it is, nor how we came to form these notions, but merely this - to expel from the circle and totality of our conceptions those abstract notions which are inconsistent and jarring, or to remodel and define them so that they may constitute a consistent and harmonious view.

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  • The coal beds are of enormous extent, and constitute an important element in the wealth of the state.

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  • It is very interesting, but it does not constitute any marked advance in the history of parliament, as it merely expresses the customary method of summoning a council.

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  • m.) formed part of the duchy, but it was transferred in 1847 to Modena in exchange for the communes of Bagnone, Filattiera, &c., which went to constitute the Lunigiana Parmense.

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  • Very briefly stated, his method consists in sending out a group of wave trains at certain irregular but assigned intervals of time to constitute the simplest signal equivalent to a dot in the Morse code, and a sequence of such trains, say three following one another, to constitute the dash on the Morse code.

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  • They may make certain concessions or privileges once given without any corresponding obligation; they constitute for a given country a special ecclesiastical law; and it is thus that writers have sometimes spoken of concordats as privileges.

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  • The full number of persons liable to be called upon for military service and engaged in such service is calculated (1908) as 4,800,000, of whom 1,350,000 of the active army and the younger classes of army reserve would constitute the field armies set on foot at the outbreak of war.

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  • The earnest and well-expressed prayer or hymn of praise cannot fail to draw the divine power to the worshipper and make it yield to his supplication; whilst offerings, so far from being mere acts of devotion calculated to give pleasure to the god, constitute the very food and drink which render him vigorous and capable of battling with the enemies of his mortal friend.

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  • But the Apennines of Central Italy, instead of presenting, like the Alps and the northern Apennines, a definite central ridge, with transverse valleys leading down from it on both sides, in reality constitute a mountain mass of very considerable breadth, composed of a number of minor ranges and groups of mountains, which preserve a generally parallel direction, and are separated by upland valleys, some of them of considerable extent as well as considerable elevation above the sea.

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  • The cells of the tip at any given moment may be sensitive, but in a few days the power of receiving the stimulus has passed to other and younger cells which then constitute the tip. The power of appreciating the environment is therefore to be associated with the protoplasm only at a particular stage of its development and is transitory in its character.

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  • His plan was to replace coined gold dollars by " gold bullion dollar certificates " which should command such weight of gold bullion as might legally be declared to constitute a dollar at that particular time.

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  • lemures, " ghosts"), the name applied by Linnaeus to certain peculiar Malagasy representatives of the order PRIMATES which do not come under the designation of either monkeys or apes, and, with allied animals from the same island and tropical Asia and Africa, constitute the sub-order Prosimiae, or Lemuroidea, the characteristics of which are given in the article just mentioned.

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  • TAPACULO, the name 1 given in Chile to a bird of singular appearance - the Pteroptochus albicollis of ornithology, and applied in an extended sense to its allied forms, which constitute a small family, Pteroptochidae, belonging to the Clainatores division of Passeres, peculiar to South America.

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  • On the occasion of the Metrical Congress, which met in Paris in 1872, he, however, successfully protested against the recognition of the Vatican delegate, Father Secchi, as a representative of a state, and obtained from Count de Rmusat, French foreign minister, a formal declaration that the presence of Father Secchi on that occasion could not constitute a diplomatic precedent.

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  • The " moule interieur " of Buffon is the aggregate of elementary parts which constitute the individual, and is thus the equivalent of Bonnet's germ, as defined in the passage cited above.

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  • The Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion constitute Hume's formal profession of religious faith.

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  • Grasses and herbage in great variety constitute the most valuable element of Australian flora from the commercial point of view.

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  • International service regulations have been drawn up which possess equal authority with the convention and constitute what may be regarded as the law relating to international telegraphy.

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  • Towards the north-east, the point where the Julian Alps approach close to the seashore (just at the sources of the little stream known in ancient times as the Timavus) would seem to constitute the best natural limit.

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  • The condition of the numerous agricultural laborers (who constitute one-third of the population) is, except in some regions, hard, and in places absolutely miserable.

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  • These figures include not only the categories of income and expenditure proper, but also those known as movement of capital, railway constructions and part ite di giro, which do not constitute real income and expenditure.i Considering only income and expenditure proper, the approximate totals are:

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  • In this primeval, or rather timeless because ever-proceeding, sacrifice, time itself, in the shape of its unit the year, is made to take its part, inasmuch as the three seasons - spring, summer and autumn - of which it consists, constitute the ghee (clarified butter), the offering-fuel and the oblation respectively.

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  • If we understand by theism not simple belief in a divine unity, but such faith in one divine person as will constitute the basis for a popular religion, then - unless we allow a doubtful exception in Zoroastrianism.

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  • The result of this decision was that any chemist who failed to pass the qualifying examination could constitute himself with a few others, even if ignorant of pharmacy, into a limited liability company, which would then have been outside the powers of the act, and not subject to its provisions.

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  • The sieve-tubes, with their accompanying parenchyma or stereom, constitute the tissue called phloem.

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  • The inter-relations of the members of a large colony of proto~ plasts such as constitute a tree, demand much adjustment.

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  • the descendants, and constitute the so-called adaptations in which the external factors acting on the plants are reflected.

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  • Probably in point of number of species the preponderant family is Orchideae, though, as Hemsley remarks, they do not give character to the scenery, or constitute the bulk of the vegetation.

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  • Fifteen grains constitute an exceedingly dangerous dose for an adult male of average weight.

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  • The psychologist must study mankind from the historical or comparative standpoint, analysing the elements which constitute the fabric of society, with its customs, its conventions and the main tendencies of its evolution.

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  • The repairing of highways, the upkeep of public buildings,the support of public education, the remuneration of numerous officials connected with the collection of state taxes, the keeping of the cadastre, &c., constitute the principal objects of communal expenditure.

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  • No city calls itself either Guelpi or Ghibelline till it has expelled one-half of its inhabitants; for each party is resolved to constitute the state according to its own conception, and the affirmation of the, one programme is the negation of the other.

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  • Piedmont was shown to possess the qualities necessary to constitute the nucleus of a great nation.

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  • The psychologist must study mankind from the historical or comparative standpoint, analysing the elements which constitute the fabric of society, with its customs, its conventions and the main tendencies of its evolution.

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  • The central administration (administration centrale) comprises three classes of functions which together constitute Ia police.

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  • There is little wonder, then, that in a colony of protoplasts such as constitute a large plant a considerable degree of differentiation is evident, bearing upon the question of water supply.

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  • Through the almost impenetrable darkness and confusion we only discern this much, that Italy was powerless to constitute herself a nation.

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  • They recognized the fact that their blood was Latin as distinguished from Teutonic, and that they must look to ancient Rome for those memories which constitute a pecples nationality.

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  • We have already remarked that the difficulties of empiricism constitute the strength of intuitionalism.

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  • The tracheids or vessels, indifferently called tracheal elements, together with the immediately associated cells (usually amylom in Pteridophytes) constitute the xylem of the plant.

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  • Some naturalists would add the finches (Fringillidae), rightly if we assume that the Ploceidae or weavers constitute a separate family.

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  • There is a small pig (Sus andamanensis), important to the food of the people, and a wild cat (Paradoxurus tytleri); but the bats(sixteen species) and rats(thirteen species) constitute nearly three-fourths of the known mammals.

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  • By Scots act of 1707, c. 9, their powers were transferred to the judges of the court of session, who now constitute a " teind court " (Brodie-Innes, op. cit.

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  • In Russian Poland they constitute 132% of the total population.

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  • 520,713.188,158.223,326 374,097 2,377 essentially a pastoral one, and the products of the flocks and herds constitute the chief element in the wealth of Australia.

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  • We may therefore assume that, in acts of public worship at any rate, prayer and its magico-religious congeners are at all stages resorted to as a "means of grace," even though such grace do not constitute the expressed object of petition.

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  • Other exceptions are the " Institutions of the Empress Marie," which absorb, inter alia, the duties on playing-cards and the taxes on places of public entertainment; the imperial civil list, so far as this does not exceed the sum fixed in 1906 (16,359,595 roubles!); the expenses of the two imperial chanceries, 10,000,000 roubles per annum, which constitute in effect a secret service fund.

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  • In Kovno, Vilna, Mogilev, Grodno, Volhynia, Podolia, Minsk, Vitebsk, Kiev, Bessarabia and Kherson, they constitute, on the average, 12 to 172% of the population, while in the cities and towns of these governments they reach 30 to 59% of the population.

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  • In the Baltic provinces they constitute the ennobled landlord class, and are the tradesmen and artisans in the towns.

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  • In Bessarabia they constitute from one-fourth to three-fourths of the population of certain districts, and nearly 50% of the entire population of the government.

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  • gauge and vice versa, this does not constitute a break of gauge for traffic purposes.

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  • But the extra charges levied for the use of parlour, sleeping and other special cars, of which some of the best trains are exclusively composed, in practice constitute a differentiation of class, besides making the real cost of travelling higher than the figures just given.

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  • Owing to their great height these three ranges receive heavier rainfall than the surrounding country and are feeders to the northern valleys, which constitute the chief agricultural region of the state.

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  • To constitute the offence, the blasphemy must be uttered in public, be offensive in character, and have wounded the religious susceptibilities of some other person.

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  • 3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.

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  • These ranges reach their culmination in this state, and with a series of more or less interrupted cross ranges constitute the greatest masses of mountains in the E.

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  • His Journals (3 vols., New York, 1852), apart from their importance as a history of his life work, constitute a valuable commentary on the social and industrial history of the United States during the first forty years of their existence.

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  • The extremely dry and hot tracts which constitute an almost unbroken desert from Arabia, through south Persia and Baluchistan, to Sind, are characterized by considerable uniformity in the types of life, which closely approach to those of the neighbouring hot and dry regions of Africa.

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  • Together they constitute what were once called the Caucasian races.

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  • Such principles are not derived from sensation, but are "suggested" on occasion of sensation, in such a way as to constitute the necessary conditions of our having perceptive experience at all.

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  • The cerebral ganglia constitute an archicerebrum for the most part, there being no evidence that, as in the Arthropoda, a movement forward of post-oral ganglia has taken place.

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  • The following families constitute the group, viz.

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  • Matthew edited anew the works of Abbot John de Cella and Roger of Wendover, which in their altered form constitute the first part of his most important work, the Chronica majora.

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  • In both cases the socalled fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk (the so-called calyx tube) greatly dilated, and enclosing within its cellular flesh the five cartilaginous carpels which constitute the "core" and are really the true fruit.

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  • Calves constitute about one-twelfth of the total number of cattle.

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  • By means of his trade union, co-operative society or club he may gain some experience in the management of men and business, and in so far as the want of a sufficient income does not constitute an insuperable difficulty, he may share in the public life of the country.

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  • Forms adapted to terrestrial life and to aerial respiration occur in various divisions of Gastropods, and do not constitute a single homogeneous group. Thus the Helicinidae, which are terrestrial, are now placed among the Aspidobranchia.

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  • The last three families constitute the sub-tribe Porostomata, characterized by the reduction of the buccal mass, which is modified into a suctorial apparatus.

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  • Society is as necessary to form persons as persons are to constitute society.

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  • The first volume of a Histoire naturelle des perroquets, a companion work by the same author, appeared in the same year, and is truly a monograph, since the parrots constitute a family of birds so naturally severed from all others that there has rarely been anything else confounded with them.

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  • The good effects of " Faunal " works such as those named in the foregoing rapid survey none can doubt, but important as they are, they do not of themselves constitute ornithology as a science; and an inquiry, no less wide and far more recondite, still remains.

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  • The rivalries of the mainland cities were continued at closer quarters inside the narrow circuit of the lagoons, and there was, moreover, the initial schism between the indigenous fisher population and the town-bred refugees, and these facts constitute the first of the problems which now affronted the growing community: the internal problem of fusion and development.

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  • Castle Island has been fortified since the earliest days; Fort Independence, on this island, and Forts Winthrop and Warren on neighbouring islands, constitute permanent harbour defences.

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  • - To constitute the relationship of landlord and tenant in the mode under consideration, it is necessary not only that there should be parties capable of entering into the contract, but that there should be a letting, as distinct from a mere agreement to let, and that the right conveyed should be a right to the exclusive possession of the subject of the letting and not a simple licence to use it.

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  • It may be added that, if a lessee covenants to pay rates and taxes, no demand by the collector apparently is necessary to constitute a breach of the covenant; where a rate is duly made and published it is the duty of the parties assessed to seek out the collector and pay it.

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  • Mill's definition of miracles: " to constitute a miracle, a phenomenon must take place without having been preceded by any antecedent phenomenal conditions sufficient again to reproduce it.

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  • The Christians constitute the educated portion of the Syrian people; but the spirit of rivalry has produced stimulative effects on the Mahommedans, who had greatly fallen away from that zeal for knowledge which characterized the earlier centuries of their faith.

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  • Let -I- B, - B, be two smaller trunnions which project out from the sides of the two strips connecting together a pair of rings CC. The rings and the connecting strips constitute the circuit which is to be rendered movable.

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  • Fishing and agriculture constitute the chief resources of the islanders, whose ancient silk industry is still maintained.

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  • The Malay language abounds in idiomatic expressions, which constitute the chief difficulty in its acquisition.

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  • The commonest land-snails are those species which constitute the family Helicidae, order Pulmonata, sub-order Stylommatophora.

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  • The land-snails which have no gill-plume in the mantle-chamber and breathe air, but have the sexes separated, and possess an operculum, belong to the orders Aspidobranchia and Pectinibranchia, and constitute the families Helicinidae, Proserpinidae, Hydrocenidae, Cyclophoridae, Cyclostomatidae and Aciculidae.

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  • Restored to the North-West Provinces in 1853, they were finally joined with the Nagpur province to constitute the new Central Provinces in 1861.

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  • The principles outlined above constitute the foundations of our science; and although it may happen that experiments may be made with which they appear to be not in complete agreement, yet in general they constitute a body of working hypotheses of inestimable value.

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  • Systems which are generally unsaturated compounds, often of considerable stability, and behave as nuclei; these compounds constitute a well-individualized class exhibiting closer affinities to benzenoid substances than to the open-chain series.

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  • Thus the French survey commission of 1828 fixed the proportion of black to white at one and a half times the angle of slope; while in Austria, where steep mountains constitute an important feature, solid black has been reserved for a slope of 80°, the proportion of black to white varying from 80:o (for 50) to 8: 72 (for 5°).

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  • The law for a long time took no notice of these customary tenures, and did not systematically constitute them until the 4th century.

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  • i; they yield the first triad of the Sephiric decade, and constitute the divine head of the archetypal man.

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  • Beauty, the sixth Sephirah, constitutes the chest in the archetypal man, and unites Love (4) and Justice (5), which constitute the divine arms, thus yielding the second triad of the Sephiric decade.

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  • From this second conjunction emanated again the masculine potency Firmness (7) and the feminine potency Splendour (8), which constitute the divine legs of the archetypal man; and these sent forth Foundation (9), which is the genital organ and medium of union between them, thus yielding the third triad in the Sephiric decade.

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  • Hence the Crown, the first Sephirah, which unites Wisdom and Intelligence to constitute the first triad, is by itself denominated the Intellectual World.

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  • In this all-important doctrine of the Sephiroth, the Kabbalah insists upon the fact that these potencies are not creations of the En Soph, which would be a diminution of strength; that they form among themselves and with the En Soph a strict unity, and simply represent different aspects of the same being, just as the different rays which proceed from the light, and which appear different things to the eye, are only different manifestations of one and the same light; that for this reason they all alike partake of the perfections of the En Soph; and that as emanations from the Infinite, the Sephiroth are infinite and perfect like the En Soph, and yet constitute the first finite things.

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  • The human form is shaped after the four letters which constitute the Jewish Tetragrammaton (q.v.; see also Jehovah).

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  • " At the time of marriage the Holy One, blessed be he, who knows all souls and spirits, unites them again as they were before; and they again constitute one body and one soul, forming as it were the right and the left of the individual..

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  • Thus also Yahweh, Elohenu, Yahweh, constitute one - three forms which are one " (Zohar, ii.

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  • At this value they were converted into 800,000,000 francs of land-warrants, or mandats territoriaux, which were to constitute a mortgage on all the lands of the republic. These mandats were no more successful than the assignats, and even on the day of their issue were at a discount of 82%.

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  • corner of the state, constitute a special semitropical region.

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  • The special nature of the "axioms" which constitute geometry is considered in the article Geometry (Axioms).

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  • Here also, with the unimportant exception of the islands of Samos and Cyprus and the somewhat privileged district of Lebanon, all the Turkish possessions constitute vilayets directly controlled by the Porte.

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  • After pointing out the immense difficulties which he had had to encounter owing to the absence of any regular accounts, and above all of any of " those statistics which constitute the soul, indeed the very life of a public administration," and that it was therefore impossible for him to pretend that he had been able to free himself altogether from the effects of the past, the minister continues, " every time we have endeavoured to have recourse to the previous elements of appreciation, we found ourselves faced by the chaos which characterized former years.

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  • These constitute the winter residence of the family, reception rooms, &c. The roofs of the houses are all flat, surrounded by parapets of sufficient height to protect them from the observation of the dwellers opposite, and separate them from their neighbours.

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  • In the summer the population sleeps and dines upon the roofs, which thus constitute to all intents a third storey.

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  • The Jews constitute the wealthiest and most intelligent portion of the population.

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  • Others have classed it with the almond as a distinct genus, Amygdalus; while others again have considered it sufficiently distinct to constitute a separate genus, Persica.

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  • Minneapolis is the chief flour-making centre of the world, and the cities at the " Head of the Lakes " (Duluth, Minnesota, and Superior, Wisconsin, considered industrially as one place) constitute the second largest centre.

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  • The branchial bars which constitute the borders of the clefts are of two kinds: - (i) Septal bars between two contiguous clefts, corresponding to the primary bars in Amphioxus; (2) Tongue bars.

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  • It is probable that the electrical effects constitute the strongest arguments in favour of the theory.

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  • Soc., 1877) has described fifty species from the basin of the Amur; he considers that these constitute only two-thirds of the species inhabiting that basin.

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  • Tea makes up nearly one-half of the imports, the other commodities being silks, cottons, hides and wool; while cottons and other manufactured wares constitute considerably over 50% of the exports.

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  • Although the Arctic Ocean had been reached as early as the first half of the 17th century, the exploration of its coasts by a series of expeditions under Ovtsyn, Minin, Pronchishev, Lasinius and Laptev - whose labours constitute a brilliant page in the annals of geographical discovery - was begun only in the 18th century (1735-1739).

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  • It contains luxuriant forests of palmtrees, which constitute the chief wealth of the people.

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  • This finite number of forms is said to constitute the complete system.

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  • But his researches in physical optics constitute his chief title-deed to immortality.

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  • Towards 194 Septimius Severus completed the reform of Caligula by detaching from the province of Africa the greater part of Numidia to constitute a special province governed by a procurator, subordinate to the imperial legate and resident at Cirta (Tissot ii.

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  • Practically the metals iron, nickel and cobalt, and some of their alloys and compounds constitute a class by themselves and are called ferromagnetic substances.

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  • These axial lines constitute the system of lines of induction which are so often referred to in the specification of a field.

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  • Leaving that question for consideration in connexion with the systematic statement of the characters of the various groups of Arachnida which follows on p. 475, it is well now to consider the following question, viz., seeing that Limulus and Scorpio are such highly developed and specialized forms, and that they seem to constitute as it were the first and second steps in the series of recognized Arachnida - what do we know, or what are we led to suppose with regard to the more primitive Arachnida from which the Eurypterines and Limulus and Scorpio have sprung ?

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  • 40) the anterior and posterior carapaces constitute almost the entire body, the two carapaces being connected by a mid-region of only two free somites.

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  • 2 From the fundamental principle of virtual velocities, which thus acquired a new significance, Lagrange deduced, with the aid of the calculus of variations, the whole system of mechanical truths, by processes so elegant, lucid and harmonious as to constitute, in Sir William Hamilton's words, "a kind of scientific poem."

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  • dogs, wolves, jackals, &c., which constitute the genus Canis in its more restricted sense, foxes are best distinguished by the circumstance that in the skull the (postorbital) projection immediately behind the socket for the eye has its upper surface concave, with a raised ridge in front, in place of regularly convex.

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  • The Aldabra Islands constitute an atoll consisting of an oval ring of land, some 40 m.

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  • They constitute, in fact, an incomplete rim around the basin of sedimentary beds which occupies the Amazonian depression.

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  • Dipterous insects are also very numerous in species, especially in those of sanguinary habits, such as the mosquito, ilium, maroim, carapana, borochudo, &c. In some places these insects constitute a veritable plague, and the infested regions are practically uninhabitable.

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  • The Anglicans are divided into two parties - those belonging to " the Church of the Province of South Africa," the body in communion with the Church of England, and those who act independently and constitute " the Church of England in Natal."

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  • This thing, remaining essentially the same, receives in the same way other forms which constitute Plato and the other individuals of the species man; and, with the exception of those forms which mould that matter into the individual Socrates, there is nothing in Socrates that is not the same at the same time under the forms of Plato.

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  • The remainder of this extensive territory ranges at altitudes of 3000 to 4500 ft., even in the bottoms of the river valleys and in the lower plains; while the ridges which constitute the water-partings rise about 2000 ft.

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  • Geography And Statistics The kingdom of Hungary (Magyarbiradolorn) is one of the two states which constitute the monarchy of Austria-Hungary, and occupies 51.8% of the total area of the monarchy.

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  • He saw that the amount of money in circulation did not constitute the wealth of the community, and that the prohibition of the export of the precious metals was rendered inoperative by the necessities of trade.

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  • These numbers constitute an arithmetical progression of the rth order.

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  • After affirming that the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes constitute a single nation and appealing to the right of self-determination, it declared in favour of complete national unity under the Karagjorgjevic dynasty, " a constitutional democratic and parliamentary monarchy, equality of the three national names and flags, of the Cyrilline and Latin alphabets, and of the Orthodox Catholic and Mussulman religions, equal rights for all citizens, universal suffrage in parliamentary and municipal life, and the freedom of the Adriatic to all nations."

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  • Mendel's observations constitute an ingenious attempt to throw light on the matter, and in the opinion of some biologists have led to the discovery of an important principle.

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  • The secondary pulses diverted by the ruling fall upon an object-glass as usual, and on arrival at the focus constitute a procession equally spaced in time, the interval between consecutive members depending upon the obliquity.

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  • It has obtained notoriety from the conglomerates along certain bands containing gold, when they constitute the famous " banket."

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  • It merely warns us that all the apostles constitute the Church universal and not Peter alone; and in the rite of election, i.e.

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  • ==Agriculture and other Industries== The cultivation of rice, which is grown mainly in the small deltas along the coast and in some districts gives two crops annually, and fishing, together with fish-salting and the preparation of nuoc-mam, a sauce made from decaying fish, constitute the chief industries of Annam.

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  • Ten to twenty minims of ether, subcutaneously injected, constitute perhaps the most rapid and powerful cardiac stimulant known, and are often employed for this purpose in cases of syncope under anaesthesia.

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  • Until, however, further evidence is forthcoming in support of this syncytial theory of structure, it would be unwise to regard it as established sufficiently to constitute a serviceable working hypothesis; hence, for the time being, we must accept the assertion that the cell represents the ultimate tissue-unit.

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  • Should these remain unbroken they constitute a natural barrier to the penetration of most pathogenic and other forms of germ-life into the parts beneath.

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  • (10) They avow that love towards Him and the performances of the works which He loves, constitute His worship. (11) They recognize the necessity of public worship, but do not believe that communion with the Father depends upon meeting in any fixed place at any fixed time.

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  • According to this celebrated theory, the body contains four humours - blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, a right proportion and mixture of which constitute health; improper proportions or irregular distribution, disease.

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  • The granite quarries in the vicinity constitute the leading industry, the stone for the Liverpool docks and other public works having been obtained from them.

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  • Already in 1884 Sir William Harcourt had attempted to constitute the metropolis a municipal borough under the government of a single council.

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  • The outer coat was then removed from that portion which was to constitute the ground, leaving the white for the figures, foliage or other ornamentation; these were then sculptured by means of the gem-engraver's tools.

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  • These tiny animals, commonly known as mousedeer, are in no wise nearly related to the true deer, but constitute by themselves a special section of artiodactyle ungulates known as Tragulina, for the characteristics of which see ARTIODACTYLA.

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  • and the Psalms of Solomon, constitute an unmeasured attack on every office - prophetic, priestly and kingly - administered by the Maccabees.

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  • Taken together they constitute a Christian adaptation of an originally Jewish work, written A.D.

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  • The Peruvian chinchilla (C, brevicaudata) is larger, with relatively shorter ears and tail; while still larger species constitute the genus Lagidium, ranging from the Andes to Patagonia, and distinguished by having four in place of five front-toes, more pointed ears, and a somewhat differently formed skull.

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  • The first article declared that " The high contracting parties engage to take such measures as shall constitute an absolute and complete guarantee that no open or disguised bounty shall be granted on the manufacture or exportation of sugar."

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  • - MoNozoA This order comprises a few heterogeneous forms which probably constitute at least three families.

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  • The yearly output of nickel and chrome is considerable, and these minerals, with cobalt, constitute the characteristic wealth of the island.

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  • On the north and north-west the Aures mountains of Algeria are prolonged into Tunisia, and constitute the mountainous region of the north, which lies between the Majerda river and the sea, and also includes the vicinity of the city of Tunis and the peninsula of the Dakhelat el Mawin, which terminates in Ras Addar (Cape Bon).

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  • Hot and mineral springs may be almost said to constitute one of the specialities of Tunisia.

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  • The wild flowers of the north of Tunisia are so extremely beautiful during the months of February, March and April as to constitute a distinct attraction in themselves.2 1 See L.

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  • An attempt was made to constitute a government with Senor Calderon as president of the republic and General Caceres as first vice-president.

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  • He discovers that statements dependent upon environment constitute pure experience.

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  • In addition to this, they constitute a drain upon the blood which may result in anaemia.

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  • They constitute a small proportion of the recent Polyzoa.

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  • Their object is to constitute at length a real Providence in all departments, - moral, intellectual and material.

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  • A few weeks after this invitation, a very different person stepped forward to constitute himself a real Providence.

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  • Zeno are signed by the sculptor but these merely constitute lists of names about whom nothing is known.

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  • But if we pass from this criticism of form to the actual contents of the two books, we are bound to confess that they constitute a wonderfully cogent and persuasive theistic argument.

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  • or upwards, and The constitute the most imposing assemblage of mountains Japanese in the country.

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  • There are also polite and ordinary forms of expression, often so different as to constitute distinct languages; and there are a number of honorifics which frequently discharge the duty of pronouns.

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  • 905) Tsurayuki and three coadjutors compiled the Kokinsh (Collection of Odes Ancient and Modern), the first of twenty-one similar anthologies between the 11th and the 15th centuries, which constitute the Niju-ichi Dai-sh (A nthologies of the One-and-Twenty Reigns).

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  • Sosens monkeys and badgers constitute the one possible exception, but the horses, oxen, deer, tigers, dogs, bears, foxes and even cats of the best Japanese artists were ill drawn and badly modelled.

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  • They constitute a phase of art in which Japan has few rivals.

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  • Figure-subjects constitute the chief feature of the designs.

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  • Spencer, however, considers that he can not only anticipate such a state of complete adjustment, but even lay down the rules obtaining in it, which will constitute the code of "Absolute Ethics" and the standard for discerning the "least wrong" actions of relative ethics.

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  • As Duke Albert sided with Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. Returning (1553) to Wittenberg, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, his lectures forming the basis of his own Loci Theologici (published posthumously, 1591), which constitute probably the best exposition of Lutheran theology as formulated and modified by Melanchthon.

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  • The documents in question consist chiefly of letters, and constitute one of the most important of archaeological finds.

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  • It was beneath this fortress that the numerous statues of Gudea were found, which constitute the gem of the Babylonian collections at the Louvre.

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  • A few buildings on the other shore of the chief bay constitute the "northern side."

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  • A certain number of them hold courts of chancery, general sessions, oyer and terminer, and an orphans' court; the six together constitute the supreme court, but the judge from whose decision appeal is made may not hear the appealed case unless the appeal is made at his own instance.

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  • Though for many centuries they have thus been treated as separate compositions, we have abundant evidence that they were anciently regarded as forming but one book, and a careful examination proves that together with the book of Chronicles they constitute one single work.

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  • Amongst these are the dome, an isolated elevation rising steeply but not coming within too fathoms of the surface; the bank, an elevation coming nearer the surface than too fathoms, but not so near as 6 fathoms; and finally the shoal or reef, which comes within 6 fathoms of the surface, and so may constitute a danger to shipping.

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  • The Greenland icebergs are carried by the Labrador current across the great banks of Newfoundland, where they are often very numerous in the months from February to August, when they constitute a danger to shipping as far south as 40° N.

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    0
  • He is living, active intelligence, the principle of motion and creation, realizing himself in the infinitely various forms of activity that constitute individual things.

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  • The unusual provision that two-thirds of each house shall constitute a quorum would probably prove inconvenient, if the political parties were approximately equal in strength.

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    0
  • When, in 1867, the Congressional plan of reconstruction was substituted, Texas was joined to Louisiana to constitute the fifth military district, and the first commander, General P. H.

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  • The common squirrel, whose habits are too well known to need special description, ranges over the whole of Europe and Northern Asia, from Ireland to Japan, and from Lapland to North Italy; but specimens from different parts of this wide range differ so much in colour as to constitute distinct races.

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  • Nearly all the rivers in New Guinea yield " colours " of gold, but only in the Louisiade Archipelago has enough been discovered to constitute the district a goldfield.

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  • On his return he removed to Berlin, where he lived as a royal pensioner till his death, which occurred on the 18th of February 18 His investigations in elliptic functions, the theory of which he established upon quite a new basis, and more particularly his development of the theta-function, as given in his great treatise Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum (Konigsberg, 1829), and in later papers in Crelle's Journal, constitute his grandest analytical discoveries.

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  • 3 In 1899 eight hours were made to constitute a day's work for all labourers employed by or for any city or town adopting the act at an annual election.

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  • covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute and frame - [laws] - unto which we promise all due submission and obedience."

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  • Under the latter a mayor, recorder, six common councillors, a coroner, six freemen and a common clerk were to constitute the corporation.

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  • It has also an orthodox bishop. The Roman Catholics, who constitute the majority of citizens, possess a lofty and beautiful cruciform cathedral, built entirely of stone and metal.

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  • But, in its case, such a usage would constitute a violent break with the past.

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  • Varied as are the forms which this idea has assumed under varying conditions of time and place, it remains distinctive enough to constitute one of the three main types of ecclesiastical polity, the others being Episcopacy and Presbyterianism.

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  • The state treasurer was chosen by the legislature, and for the appointment of other state officers as well as county officers and mayors of cities the Assembly chose four senators to constitute a council of appointment, a body 2 Increased from ten days in 1894.

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    0
  • Eight hours constitute a legal day's work for all employees except those engaged in farm labour or domestic service.

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    0
  • The county supervisors, with or without the aid of three commissioners whom they are authorized to appoint for the purpose, constitute a county board of equalization.

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    0
  • The continental portion, although less mixed than that of the peninsula, consists of Great and Little Russians, who constitute 83 per cent.

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    0
  • The forests are rich in palm-tree products, rubber and mahogany, which constitute the chief articles of export.

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    0
  • The same board together with the superintendent of the penitentiary constitute a prison board.

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    0
  • Germans by birth or descent still constitute a majority of the population.

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  • "Your majesty is not perhaps aware that the most unpopular person in the parish is the relieving officer, and if the queen were to constitute herself a relieving officer for all the parishes in the kingdom she would find her money go a very little way, and she would provoke more grumbling than thanks."

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  • In the central and southern parts of the belt oak and hickory constitute valuable hard woods, and certain varieties of the former furnish quantities of tan bark.

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    0
  • The proceeds of the sale of public lands donated to the state for educational purposes, and all escheats to the state, constitute a trust fund, the interest from which, with the proceeds of all fines for the violation of state laws, is annually apportioned among the school districts according to the school population; the total apportionment from the State Tuition Fund in 1908 was $357,238.

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    0
  • Upon the folded slates and schists which constitute these inliers the Devonian rests with marked unconformity; but north of the ridge of Condroz Ordovician and Silurian beds make their appearance.

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    0
  • Forts Wadsworth and Tompkins commanding the passage of the Narrows constitute one of the strongest defences of New York Harbor.

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  • With regard to the fine boulevards of the Upper Town, it may be mentioned that about 1765 they were planted with the double row of lime trees which still constitute their chief ornament by Prince Charles of Lorraine while governing the Netherlands for his sister-in-law, the empress Maria Theresa.

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  • Hence these ten parallel ranges of the middle Kuen-lun system may be grouped in three divisions - (1) the more strictly border ranges of the Upper and Lower Astin-tagh and the Akatotagh; (2) the three ranges of Chimen-tagh, Ara-tagh and Kaltaalaghan, which may be considered as forming a transitional system between the foregoing and the third division; (3) the Arka-tagh, which constitute the elevated rampart of the Tibetan plateau proper.

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  • Mice, rats, water-rats and moles, as well as frogs, constitute its principal food.

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    0
  • Aethers were invented for the planets to swim in, to constitute electric atmospheres and magnetic effluvia, to convey sensations from one part of our bodies to another, and so on, till all space had been filled three or four times over with aethers.

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  • It must be very different from ordinary matter as we know it, for waves travelling in matter constitute sound, which is propagated hundreds of thousands of times slower than light.

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  • This single principle of energy has transformed physical science by making possible the construction of a network of ramifying connexions between its various departments; it thus stimulates the belief that these constitute a single whole, and encourages the search for the complete scheme of interconnexion of which the principle of energy and the links which it suggests form only a single feature.

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  • These results constitute a far-reaching development of the modern or electrodynamic theory of the aether, of which the issue can hardly yet be foreseen.

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  • These struggles constitute the entire political history of Geneva up to about 1535, when a new epoch of unrest opens with the adoption of Protestantism.

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    0
  • Difference in religious belief, confession or language, constitute no obstacle to any citizen in regard to entry into the public services or offices, to the attainment to any promotion or dignity, or to the exercise of any trade or calling.

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  • The last characteristic, however, is not enough to constitute scepticism, in the ancient sense.

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  • Henceforth the kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania were to constitute one inseparable and indivisible body politic, under one1569.

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  • Hiw works constitute a library in themselves; they are chiefly historical and political novels, some or which treat of early times in Poland, and some of its condition under the Saxon kings.

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  • The fat (which when separated we know as butter) and the lactose constitute the carbonaceous portion of the milk regarded as food.

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    0
  • That they are in some cases produced by physical or sensory stimuli does not constitute them irrational, and it is purely arbitrary to confine the word pleasure to those cases in which such stimuli are the proximate causes.

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    0
  • Oysters constitute more than 80% of the total value, the product in 1901 amounting to 5,685,561 bushels, and being valued at $3,031,518.

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  • The seven chief judges so elected, together with one elected from the city of Baltimore, constitute the court of appeals, the governor with the advice and consent of the senate designating one of the eight as chief judge of that court.

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    0
  • The three judges elected in each circuit constitute the circuit court of each of the several counties in such circuit.

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  • Three other judges are elected for four-year terms, in each county and in the city of Baltimore to constitute an orphans' court.

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    0
  • Ptolemy catalogued 8 stars, Tycho 7 and Hevelius Of these, the seven brightest (a of the 1st magnitude, 0, y, of the 2nd magnitude, and b of the 3rd magnitude) constitute one of the most characteristic figures in the northern sky; they have received various names - Septentriones, the wagon, plough, dipper and Charles's wain (a corruption of " churl's wain," or peasant's cart).

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  • Of other races: (1) The Berbers constitute 75% of the entire population.

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  • The potentiometer and the divided resistance constitute a sort of electrical scaleyard by means of which any electromotive force or difference of potential can be compared with the electromotive force of a standard cell.

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  • These notes for the most part constitute a sort of index of the peculiarities of the text, and possess but little general interest.

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  • We now pass on to consider the growth of literary and historic criticism, which constitute the Higher Criticism as already explained.

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  • But the book of Acts, our only continuous authority for the period, contains two synchronisms with secular history which can be dated with some pretence to exactness and constitute fixed points by help of which a more or less complete chronology can be constructed for at least the latter half of the apostolic age.

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  • 17 seq., neighbourly love and abstinence from vengeance constitute, according to R.

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  • All the European hamsters show more or less black on the under-parts, but the small species from Central Asia, which constitute distinct subgenera, are uniformly grey.

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  • The Federal Army of the Potomac, advancing from the sea and the river Pamunkey over the Chickahominy on Richmond, had come to a standstill after the battle of Seven Pines (or Fair Oaks), and General Robert Lee, who succeeded Joseph Johnston in command of the Confederates, initiated the series of counter attacks upon it which constitute the "Seven Days."

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  • The president and three vice-presidents constitute the executive.

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  • A gunboat and a torpedo boat constitute the navy, which, however, requires.

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  • The nomad Turkomans and the nomad Kirghiz are also of Turkish origin; while the Sarts, who constitute the bulk of the population in the towns, are a mixture of Turks with Iranians.

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  • From what we have said above about Proteus and similar forms, it is evident that the "perennibranchiates" do not constitute a natural group.

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  • Cattle-breeding and dairy-farming are very developed and constitute the chief resources of the province.

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    0
  • In advancing industrial communities, the portion of annual produce set apart as capital, bears an increasing proportion to that which is immediately destined to constitute a revenue, either as rent or as profit.

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  • The absolute agreement in the results independently obtained by these various investigators, the interpretation of individual development as the guide to phyletic development, the demonstration of continuous genetic series, each mutation falling into its proper place and all showing a definite direction, constitute contributions to biological philosophy of the first importance, which have been little known or appreciated by zoologists because of their publication in monographs of very special character.

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  • Food competition among mammals, especially intensified on islands, and the introduction of Carnivora constitute another class of causes.

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    0
  • The highest class, who constitute the real core of the Society, whence all its chief officers are taken, are the professed of the four vows.

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  • A Senate and a House of Representatives, which together constitute the General Court, meet at Concord on the first Wednesday in January of every odd-numbered year, and at such other times as the governor may appoint for a special session, principally for the making of laws and for the election of the secretary of state, the state treasurer, and the commissary-general.

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  • These officers always include three selectmen, a clerk, a treasurer and one or more auditors, and they may include any or all of the following: assessors, who together with the selectmen constitute a board for the assessment of taxes, one or more collectors of taxes, overseers of the poor, constables, surveyors of highways, fence-viewers, sealers of weights and measures, measurers of wood and bark, surveyors of lumber, cullers of staves, a chief fireward or engineer and one or more assistants, a clerk of the market and a pound keeper.

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  • This method was employed by Sir Isaac Newton, whose experiments constitute the earliest systematic investigation of the phenomenon.

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  • But Schelling did not merely borrow, he had genuine philosophic spirit and no small measure of philosophic insight, and under all the differences of exposition which seem to constitute so many differing systems, there is one and the same philosophic effort and spirit.

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  • It is with respect to this number of segments that respectively constitute the pygidium and the midregion of the body that Trilobites differ most markedly from each other; and it is a singular fact that the extremes in structural organization in this particular to be met with in the Trilobita are found side by side in strata of Cambrian age.

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  • But his capture of Trincomalee in July 1782 in spite of Sir Edward Hughes, and the heavy loss he inflicted on the British fleet in several of the actions he fought, constitute the most honourable part of the French naval operations in the war.

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  • In 1904 the formation of a municipally supported gallery of modern art (mainly due to the initiative and generosity of Mr Hugh Lane) was signalized by an exhibition including the pictures intended to constitute the nucleus of the gallery.

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  • The acetates constitute a valuable group of medicinal agents, the potassium salt being most frequently employed.

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  • And therewith having finished the offering (7rpovqSopa) we invoke the Holy Spirit to constitute this offering, both the bread body of Christ and the cup the blood of Christ, that those who partake of these antitypes (avrtruira, i.e.

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  • (3) Nor can it be said that the words of the 28th Article (see above) constitute in themselves an express prohibition of reservation, strong as their evidence may be as to the practice and feeling of the time.

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  • In the engineering industries milling machines constitute a very important class of machine tools, the characteristic of which is that rotary cutters are employed for shaping the metal.

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    0
  • The salt and gypsum constitute a positive argument for aridity.

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  • Of these, the Kansan ice-sheet was the most extensive, and the later ones constitute a diminishing series.

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  • With the achievement of independence~ by the United States the same interest became of still greater importance to the new nation, so as to constitute a leading element in its early diplomacy.

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  • Such amendments have latterly come to include many matters not strictly constitutional,and so to constitute a species of direct legislation by the people similar in principle to what is called in Switzerland the Referendum.

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    0
  • The judges of each circuit, acting with or without the justice of the Supreme Court for the circuit, constitute a circuit court of appeals, established to relieve the Supreme Court.

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  • as a whole), which, taken together, embody the views, programme and policy of the party, and constitute what is called its platform for the ensuing election.

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    0
  • In Quebec the Roman Catholic schools, which constitute the majority, are chiefly controlled by the local clergy of that church.

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    0
  • In Unionidae and several other forms the pericardial glands are extended into diverti cula of the pericardium which penetrate the mantle and constitute the organ of Heber.

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  • it constitute the stomodae B, Optical section of a somewhat urn.

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  • These confirmations, as they are called, should be carefully recorded in all critical texts, inasmuch as they constitute the most striking justification of the critical method.

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  • The caddis-flies (q.v.) constitute this order, the name of which (suggested by H.

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  • Its enormous railway facilities and its geographical situation as the junction of the great trunk lines running north and south, tapping also the Staffordshire potteries on the one side and the great mineral districts of Wales on the other, constitute Crewe station one of the most important links of railway and postal communication in the kingdom.

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  • The term "East Indies" is still sometimes applied to the Malay Archipelago alone, and the phrase "Dutch East Indies" is commonly used to denote the Dutch possessions which constitute the greater part of that archipelago.

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  • The governor, auditor and attorney-general are required to prepare and present to each legislature a general revenue bill, and the secretary of state, with the last two officers, constitute a board of pardons who make recommendations to the governor, who, however, is not bound to follow their advice in the exercise of his pardoning power.

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  • They embarked in open boats, and for that reason, as well as because they were going to constitute themselves their country's extreme outpost, the enterprise attracted public enthusiasm.

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    0
  • The American pouched rats, or pocket-gophers, constitute the third section, Geomyoidea, with the single family Geomyidae.

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  • The typical rats and mice, together with their nearest relatives, constitute the sub-family Murinae, which is represented by more than three hundred species, distributed over the whole of the Old World except Madagascar.

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  • The last representatives of the Muridae are confined to Australasia and the Philippines, and constitute the sub-family Hydromyinae, characterized by the very general presence of only two pairs of molars in each jaw.

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  • The remaining rodents, which include two families - the picas (Ochotonidae) and the hares and rabbits (Leporidae) - constitute a second sub-order, the Duplicidentata, differing from all the foregoing groups in possessing two pairs of incisors in the upper jaw (of which the second is small, and placed directly behind the large first pair), the enamel of which extends round to their postericr surfaces.

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  • hard, firm and compact shells with some straggling flossy filaments on the exterior, and the interior layers are so closely and densely agglutinated as to constitute a parchment-like mass which resists all attempts at unwinding.

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  • constitute Anglo-Norman historiography.

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  • Forts which had been erected at salient points on either side of the lakes and rivers dividing the United States from Canada, which but for this agreement would, in the natural course of events, have been enlarged, increasingly garrisoned, and provided with modern implements of destruction, at large expense, have remained substantially as when the agreement was made, or now constitute but interesting or picturesque ruins; and the great cost of constructing and maintaining, through a long series of years, naval armaments of ever-increasing power has been avoided."

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  • His theory of the world and of humanity is universal and idealistic. The world itself and mankind, its highest component, constitute an organism (Gliedbau), and the universe is therefore a divine organism (Wesengliedbau).

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  • On the whole it seems probable that the system of moving electrons, which according to a modern theory constitute the atom, is not directly concerned in thermal radiation which would rather be due to a few more loosely connected electrons hanging on to the atom.

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  • the cartularies of the church and the town of Die (1868), of the abbey of St Andre le-Bas at Vienne (1869),(1869), of the abbey of Notre Dame at Bonnevaux in the diocese of Vienne (1889), of the abbey of St Chaffre at Le Monestier (1884), the Cheviot Hills inventories and several collections of archives of the dauphins of Viennais, and a Bibliotheque liturgique in six volumes (1893-1897), the third and fourth volumes of which constitute the Repertorium hymnologicum, containing more than 20,000 articles.

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  • Albanian Moslems constitute the greater part of the population.

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  • a house, one ball moving another; and that, accordingly, perception and experience, requiring both sense and understanding, are partly a posteriori and partly a priori, and constitute a knowledge of objects which, being sensations combined by synthetic unity under a priori forms, are more than mere sensations, but less than things in themselves.

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  • Thus, according to him, in the first place reason forms a cosmological " ideal " of a multitude of simple units related; secondly, it forms a psychological " ideal " of a multitude of wills, or substance-generating activities, which communicate with one another by ideas so that will causes ideas in will, while together they constitute a collective will, and it goes on to form the moral ideal of humanity (das sittliche Menschheitsideal); and, thirdly, it forms an ontological " ideal " of God as ground of this moral " ideal," and therewith of all being as means to this end, and an " ideal " of God as world-will, of which the world is development, and in which individual wills participate each in its sphere.

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  • Taken for granted the Kantian hypothesis of a sense of sensations requiring synthesis by understanding, and the Kantian conclusion that Nature as known consists of phenomena united by categories as objects of experience, Green argued, in accordance with Kant's first position, that knowledge, in order to unite the manifold of sensations by relations into related phenomena, requires unifying intelligence, or what Kant called synthetic unity of apperception, which cannot itself be sensation, because it arranges sensations; and he argued, in accordance with Kant's second position, that therefore Nature itself as known requires unifying intelligence to constitute the relations of its phenomena, and to make it a connected world of experience.

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  • Green, on the other hand, in deducing his own conclusion that the world is, or is a system of, one eternal intelligence, incautiously put it forward as " what may be called broadly the Kantian view " (Prolegomena, § 36), and added that he follows Kant " in maintaining that a single active conscious principle, by whatever name it be called, is necessary to constitute such a world, as the condition under which alone phenomena, i.e.

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  • It is interesting to watch the bird, in a state of freedom, foraging for worms, which constitute its principal food: it moves about with a slow action of the body; and the long, flexible bill is driven into the soft ground, generally home to the very root, and is either immediately withdrawn with a worm held at the extreme tip of the mandibles, or it is gently moved to and fro, by an action of the head and neck, the body of the bird being perfectly steady.

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  • These highlands, with the mountains of Jaen and Almeria on the east, constitute Andalucia Alta or Upper Andalusia.

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  • The sermons of Latimer possess a combination of qualities which constitute them unique examples of that species of literature.

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  • By liberal endowments and minute but judicious regulations he brought about a rapid development of Silesian industries; in particular he revived the mining and weaving operations which at present constitute the country's chief source of wealth.

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  • Large herds of geese and pigeons are reared, while hunting and fishing constitute also important resources.

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  • The Chinese name for central Tibet is Wei-Ts'ang, which is a transcription of the Tibetan designation of the two, provinces V and Tsang (spelt dbus-gtsang) that constitute central Tibet.

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  • Fishing, the recovery of salt from the sea-water, and shipbuilding constitute the other principal occupations of the population.

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  • In the Catholic Church bishops take rank at the head of the sacerdotal hierarchy, and have certain spiritual powers peculiar to their office, but opinion has long been divided as to whether they constitute a separate order or form merely a higher degree of the order of priests (ordo sacerdotium).

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  • Thus to this day the Rules of Basil and the Constitutions of Theodore the Studite, along with the canons of the Councils, constitute the chief part of Greek and Russian monastic law.

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  • hemisphere, of which they constitute the sub-family Dicotylinae (or Tagassuinae).

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  • Of these the most remarkable is the advice, praised by Herodotus, which he gave to his fellowcountrymen " before Ionia was ruined " - " that the Ionians should constitute one general council in Teos, as the most central of the twelve cities, and that the remaining cities should nevertheless be governed as independent states " (Herod.

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  • Nicholson thus described the operation of his machine: "When the plates A and B are opposite each other, the two fixed plates A and C may be considered as one mass, and the revolving plate B, together with the ball D, will constitute another mass.

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  • The two curved metal plates constitute the field plates and must have original charges imparted to them of opposite sign.

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  • By the provisions of the same constitution he establishes the ministerial departments, and shares the legislative power with the first and second chambers of parliament, which constitute the states-general and sit at the Hague.

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  • These properties of fur constitute its essential value for felting purposes, and mark its difference from wool and silk; the first, after some slight preparation by the aid of hot water, readily unites its fibres into a strong and compact mass; the others can best be managed by spinning and weaving.

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  • The works of Thorvaldsen which it contains constitute its chief attraction.

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  • In the Ardennes the rocks which constitute the ancient mountain chain belong chiefly to the Devonian System, but Cambrian beds rise through the Devonian strata, forming the masses of Rocroi, Stavelot, &c., which appear to have been islands in the Devonian sea.

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  • In Russia they constitute, with Jews, Lithuanians, Ruthenians and White Russians, the town population, as also the landed nobility and the country gentry, in several governments west of the Dvina and the Dnieper.

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  • Brest-Litovsk, at the western issue from the marshes of the Pripet, the towns of Dubno, Lutsk and Bobruisk constitute the second line of defence.

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  • The leaves of the foxglove, gathered from wild plants when about two-thirds of their flowers are expanded, deprived usually of the petiole and the thicker part of the midrib, and dried, constitute the drug digitalis or digitalis folia of the Pharmacopoeia.

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  • A cotton chemise, and a white manta wrapped in Moorish fashion over head and body, constitute the dress of the women; a cotton shirt and trousers that of the men.

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  • The circle of land formed by the skirts of the mountains, and the valley of Basseterre constitute nearly the whole of the cultivated portion.

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  • His collections of original materials were vast; beginning with his residence in England, he brought together at enormous pains and expense the authenticated copies of archives, family papers, and personal journals written by historic personages, which now constitute an invaluable treasure in the New York public library.

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  • These constitute a hypodermal layer, beneath which the chlorophyll cells of the parenchyma are densely packed together, and are elongated in a direction vertical to the surface of the leaf, forming the palisade tissue.

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  • The exact limits of the ancient Aralo-Caspian sea are not yet settled, except in the north-west, where the Ergeni Hills of Astrakhan constitute an unmistakable barrier.

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  • His arming of the forts at Alexandria was held to constitute a menace to the British fleet.

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  • On the other hand the reverence attached to it in the later periods of the city is evidenced by its being left standing in the midst of a triangular space adjoining the great theatre, which is surrounded by a portico, so as to constitute a kind of forum (the so-called Foro Triangolare).

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  • But from both the racial and religious standpoint, the Arab and Persian Shi`as, who constitute the vast bulk of the population, regard the Turks as foreigners and tyrants.

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  • Here and there one sees a solitary sifsaf tree, or a small plantation of poplars or white mulberries, which trees, with the date-palm, constitute the only timber of the country.

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  • The Ideas of Plato are no longer self-subsistent entities; they are the elements which constitute the content of spiritual activity.

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  • These are the two cases which constitute exceptional procedure.

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  • The total number of German-speaking people, within the boundaries wherein they constitute the compact mass of the population, may be estimated, if the Dutch and Walloons be included, at 65 millions.

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  • Where there are large estates these sometimes constitute communes of themselves.

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  • She received, however, the northern part of Saxony, Swedish Pomerania, Posen and those territories formerly part of the kingdom of Westphaliawhich constitute her Rhine provinces.

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  • He had, it is true, been unable to prevent the retention of the grand-duchy of Warsaw by Alexander of Russia; but with the aid of Great Britain and France (secret treaty of January 3, 1815) he had frustrated the efforts of Prussia to absorb the whole of Saxony, Bavaria was forced to disgorge the territories gained for her by Napoleon at Austria's expense, Illyria and Dalmatia were regained, and Lombardy was added to Venetia to constitute a kingdom under the Habsburg crown; while in the whole Italian peninsula French was replaced by Austrian influence.

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  • In 432 a conference of Peloponnesian allies was summoned and the Corinthian envoys urged the Spartans to declare war on the ground that the power of Athens was becoming so great as to constitute a danger to the other states.

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  • The population, estimated at 323,097 in 1899, is composed largely of mixed races; in some localities the inhabitants of mixed race are estimated to constitute four-fifths of the population.

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  • These constitute the main asset of the government.

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  • For purposes of local government the chief towns constitute governorships (moafzas), the rest of the country being divided into mudirias or provinces.

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  • There is close interconnexion between the two aspects of the double activity that in physiological theory constitute the chemical life of protoplasm, between dissimilation and assimilation.

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  • The drug appears to have no influence upon the contractile cells that constitute muscle-fibre, any more than it has directly upon the secretory cells that constitute any gland.

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  • 1-13 the choice of the lamb and the manner in which it is to be eaten constitute the essential feature, the smearing with the blood being quite secondary; in vv.

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  • The trend of the evolution of the plant kingdom has been in the direction of the establishment of a vegetation of fixed habit and adapted to the vicissitudes of a life on land, and the Angiosperms are the highest expression of this evolution and constitute the dominant vegetation of the earth's surface at the present epoch.

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  • Not till then did the courts of first instance have a uniform and controlling indication that the relation between words alleged to be criminal and the armed forces of the nation must be direct enough to constitute " a clear and present danger."

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  • It arises from the fact that algae, as generally understood, do not constitute a homogeneous group, suggesting a descent from a common stock.

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  • They constitute the Euphaeophyceae, and will be dealt with in the first place.

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  • Together with Peridiniaceae they constitute the bulk of marine plankton, and thus play an important part in the support of marine animal life.

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  • When the new cells grow no further, but constitute a palisading round the central cell covering its whole length, the condition is reached which characterizes the species of Polysiphonia, the " siphons " of which may be regarded as one-celled branches.

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  • Again, while Conjugatae may be shut out from Chlorophyceae as an independent group co-ordinate with them in rank, the Characeae constitute so aberrant a group that it has even been proposed to raise them as Charophyta to the dignity of a main division co-ordinate with Thallophyta.

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  • The colourless granules of Florideae, which are supposed to constitute the carbohydrate reserve material, have been called floridean-starch.

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  • Although the British representatives of this group should undoubtedly retain their vernacular designations of water-rat and short-tailed field-mouse, the term "vole" is one of great convenience in zoology as a general one for all the members of the group. Systematically voles are classed in the mammalian order Rodentia, in which they constitute the typical section of the subfamily Microtinae in the Muridae, or mouse-group. As a group, voles are characterized by being more heavily built than rats and mice, and by their less brisk movements.

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  • A number of smaller bays, and broken rocky headlands, with a few small islets, constitute the coast-line thence to the S.E.

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  • The mountains of the county constitute one of the best water-producing areas in Wales.

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  • The terms and provisions contained in this Agreement constitute the entire agreement between the parties concerning the subject matter hereof.

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    0
  • Reindeer, or caribou, constitute the genus Rangifer, and are large clumsily built deer, inhabiting the sub-Arctic and Arctic regions of both hemispheres.

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  • The Lowlands of Mid-Scotland, or the Central Plain, constitute a broad depression with south-westerly to north-easterly trend lying between the Highland line that runs from the head of the Firth of Clyde to Stonehaven and the pastoral uplands that stretch from Girvan to Dunbar.

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  • They constitute the lowest group of the most interesting series of strata in the Highlands, and yield a large number of fossils.

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  • in width, covered with coco-nut and areca palms, which to a great extent constitute the wealth of the country.

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  • The Galapagos Islands were declared a dependency of the province of Guayas in 1885, but are practically independent and constitute a second territory under the administration of a jefe territorial appointed by the national executive.

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  • These truths are discoverable by reason, and are such as can constitute the basis of a universal religion.

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  • These forests yield immense supplies of magnificent timber, which together with the coal-field and fisheries constitute the chief resources of the island.

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  • In the Lower Miocene occurs Protomeryx or Gomphotherium, in which there is a considerable increase in the matter of bodily size, the two metacarpal and metatarsal bones (or those which unite in the latter forms to constitute the cannon-bones) being double the length of the corresponding elements in Protylopus.

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  • The natives, the Haida people, constitute with little doubt the finest race, and that most advanced in the arts, of the entire west coast of North America.

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  • The political state is always an individual, and the relations of these states with each other and the " world-spirit " of which they are the manifestations constitute the material of history.

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  • Three main periods - the Oriental, the Classical and the Germanic - in which respectively the single despot, the dominant order, and the man as man possess freedom - constitute the history of the world.

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  • The former needs only grinding to constitute the final product, ammoniasoda ash; the latter is again employed in the process of treating the ammoniacal salt solution with carbon dioxide.

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  • It prefers a deep, rich, warm, dry and mellow soil, and hence the rich bottoms and fertile prairies of the Mississippi basin constitute the region of its greatest production.

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  • These charges constitute the home expenditure on revenue account, but there are also other remittances from India on capital account which bring up the total disbursements in England to an annual average of about 214 millions.

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  • The rich and varied flora of the Philippines is essentially Malayan, intermixed with Chinese and Australian elements, but with sufficient individuality to constitute a sub-region, there being at least 769 species peculiar to the archipelago.

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  • Naturally exceptional regions must be recognized; for example, a connected system such as the Pleiades, whose stars have the same proper motion, must constitute an exception.

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  • 4, together constitute a catalogue of 3734 variable stars; ephemerides of over 800 variables are given in the Vierteljahrsschrift of the Astronomische Gesellschaft.

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  • The distinction as against bordarii and cottagers is based on the size of the holding: the villeins are holders of regular shares in the village - that is, of the virgates, bovates or half-hides which constitute the principal subdivisions in the fields and contribute to form the ploughteams - whereas the bordarii hold smaller plots of some 5 acres, more or less, and cottarii are connected with mere cottages and crofts.

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  • In 1833 an act of parliament was passed to constitute a new presidency, with its capital at Agra.

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  • In fact, analogical, inductive and deductive inferences, though different processes of combining premises to cause different conclusions, are so similar and related, so united in principle and interdependent, so consolidated into a system of inference, that they cannot be completely investigated apart, but together constitute a single subject of science.

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  • Among the Aristotelian treatises we have the following, which together constitute this new science of reasoning: i.

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  • Syllogism is not the synthesis which together with analysis goes to constitute the new instrument of science.

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  • They take thought and " the given " as self-contained units which, if not in fact separable, are at any rate susceptible of an abstraction the one from the other so decisive as to constitute an ideal separation.

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  • They in no sense constitute a school and manifest radical differences among themselves.

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  • All the lugs on one side are connected together, and so also are all the lugs on the other side, and the two sets of tin foils separated by sheets of mica constitute the two metallic surfaces of the Leyden jar condenser.

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  • Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of the towns, which were probably made because of their bearing on the fiscal rights of the crown therein.

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  • Marriage is not only declared a civil contract, but the laws expressly recognize that the mere consent of the parties is adequate to constitute a binding marriage.

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  • The general supervision and control of all these institutions is vested in the Board of Charities and Reform, consisting of the governor, the secretary of state, the treasurer, the auditor, and the superintendent of public instruction; the same officers also constitute the Board of Pardons.

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  • The county commissioners constitute the county board of equalization.

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  • It is no longer merely the scene for the drama of the soul and God, nor is man independent of it, but man and nature constitute an organism, humanity being a part of the vaster whole.

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  • Delegates of the various federated governments form the Bundesrath; the Reichstag, or popular assembly, is directly chosen by the people by universal suffrage; and the two assemblies constitute the federal parliament.

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  • (1) Bubonic cases usually constitute three-fourths of the whole, and the symptoms may therefore be called typical.

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  • The Russian goods constitute four-fifths of the whole trade; those brought from Asia - tea (imported via Kiakhta and via Canton and Suez), raw cotton and silk, leather wares, madder and various manufactured wares - do not exceed 10 or 11%.

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  • Grand Bayonne lies on the left bank of the Nive; the two squares which lie close together at the mouth of that river constitute the most animated quarter of the town.

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    0
  • In Norfolk the reeds of marshland are employed, and they constitute a durable thatch lasting from thirty to forty years or more.

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  • Each district elects a supervisor for a term of four years, and the district supervisors constitute a county board of supervisors, which represents the county as a corporation, manages the county property and county business, levies the county taxes, audits the accounts of the county, and recommends for appointment by the circuit court a county surveyor and a county superintendent of the poor.

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  • The members of the special boards under the chairmanship of the commissioner constitute a general board for all the hospitals, and the superintendent of each hospital is appointed by the general board.

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    0
  • The division superintendent and the school trustees of the several districts constitute a county school board.

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  • The immediate introduction, however, was a long one - so long and so distinct from the later development as to constitute in itself a distinct phase.

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  • The relation between the three forces acting on any particle, viz, the extraneous force and the tensions in the two adjacent portions of the string can be exhibited by means of a triangle of forces; and if the successive triangles be drawn to the same scale they can be fitted together so as to constitute a single force-diagram, as shown in fig.

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  • For if we have an assemblage of particles whose mutual distances are small compared with the dimensions of the earth, the forces of gravity on them constitute a system of sensibly parallel forces, sensibly proportional to the respective masses.

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  • The segments DE, nA then represent ~he upward pressures of the two supports on the beam, which pressures together with the given loads constitute a system of forces in equilibrium.

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  • Kinetics of a System of Discrete Particles.The momenta of the several particles constitute a system of localized vectors which, for purposes of resolving and taking moments, may be reduced like a system of forces in statics (~ 8).

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  • If a force be applied to a turning piece in a line pot passing through its axis, the axis will press against its bearings with an equal and parallel force, and the equal and opposite reaction of the bearings will constitute, together with the first-mentioned force, a couple whose arm is the perpendicular distance from the axis to the line of action of the first force.

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  • These constitute a distinct formation, generally with a " causative " meaning; the solitary Attic specimen is riyayov.

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  • In northern India, the professed followers of Sankara are mainly limited to certain classes of mendicants and ascetics, although the tenets of this great Vedanta teacher may be said virtually to constitute the creed of intelligent Brahmans generally.

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  • His doctrine, which may be said to constitute a kind of reaction against the severe sacerdotalism of Sankara, has spread over all classes of the southern community, most of the priests of Saiva temples there being adherents of it; whilst in northern India its votaries are only occasionally met with, and then mostly as mendicants, leading about a neatly caparisoned bull as representing Siva's sacred bull Nandi.

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  • The generally recognized principal Avatars do not, however, by any means constitute the only occasions of a direct intercession of the deity in worldly affairs, but - in the same way as to this day the eclipses of the sun and moon are ascribed by the ordinary Hindu to these luminaries being temporarily swallowed by the dragon Rahu (or Graha, " the seizer") - so any uncommon occurrence would be apt to be set down as a special manifestation of divine power; and any man credited with exceptional merit or achievement, or even remarkable for some strange incident connected with his life or death, might ultimately come to be looked upon as a veritable incarnation of the deity, capable of influencing the destinies of man, and might become an object of local adoration or superstitious awe and propitiatory rites to multitudes of people.

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  • According to Sars, the 1 In Huxley's terminology the first two or three joints of the stem constitute a "protopodite," from which spring the "endopodite" and "exopodite."

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  • There are a number of mosques in the town, and the Mahommedans are the dominant power, but the Yoruba, who constitute the bulk of the people, are pagans.

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  • If we except the wines of Roussillon, produced in the old province of that name, in the extreme south of France, the above constitute.

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  • The three constitute the trio upon whom the attention of students at this period naturally rests.

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  • The vibrations of this medium constitute the agency called light.

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  • Thus, he says " When I speak of forms I mean nothing more than those laws and determinations of absolute actuality which govern and constitute any simple nature, as heat, light, weight, in every kind of matter and subject that is susceptible of them.

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  • The material for lining, and the frequent replacement thereof, constitute the principal expense of the method.

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  • Copper carbonates are of wide occurrence in the mineral kingdom, and constitute the valuable ores malachite and azurite.

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  • He persuaded his ministers to constitute a special inquiry into the proposed abolition of land taxes, and in the address with which he opened the Riksdag of 1875 laid particular stress upon the necessity of giving attention to the settlement of these two burning questions, and in 1880 again came forward with a new proposal for increasing the number of years of service with the militia.

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  • The name tarsier refers to the great elongation of two of the bones of the tarsus, or ankle, and spectrum to the huge goggle-like eyes and attenuated form which constitute two of the most distinctive features of this weird little creature.

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  • The pedal ganglia and auditory organs have disappeared with the foot, at all events have never been detected; the cerebral ganglia are very minute, while the parieto-splanchnic are well developed, and constitute the principal part of the nervous system.

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    0
  • To constitute the legal offence of rescue, the person rescued must be in the custody of a constable or private individual, but in the latter case the rescuer must know that the prisoner is in lawful custody.

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  • The duty of the gendarmerie, who constitute the horse and foot police, is generally to maintain internal order and peace.

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    0
  • The Witwatersrand series of the Transvaal includes auriferous conglomerates which have been worked since 1886 and constitute the richest gold-mines in the world.

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  • Cattle and mealies constitute the most valuable possessions of the natives.

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  • It is not only the loftiest part of the sierra, but also the highest land in the whole Ionian group. The name "Black" was given from the darkness of the pine woods which still constitute the most striking feature in Cephalonian scenery, although their extent has been greatly curtailed by fire.

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  • The quantity of nitrogen in its composition is small, and hence it should not be relied on to constitute the staple article of diet.

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  • ruficollis) constitute a group of smallersized species; while the smaller wallabies, such as the filander (M.

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  • thetidis, constitute yet another section.

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  • consepicillatus, constitute a genus with the same distribution as the last, and likewise with a hairy muzzle, but with a rather short, evenly furred tail, devoid of a spur.

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  • A few Siluridae have been found in Tibet, but the carps constitute the larger part of the species.

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  • To Plato and Aristotle the nature and operation of thought and reason constitute a sufficient criterion.

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  • One isolated " apprehension," however firm its grasp, does not constitute knowledge or science.

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  • Not only were the persons who were to constitute each Parlement named in advance, but those who were not placed on this list, even though vassals or prelates, were excluded from judging cases.

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  • In August 1825 they decided this question, declaring it to be the national will that Upper Peru should in future constitute a distinct and inde- a nation.

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  • Conversely, if two fluids mix, it would seem that T'12 must exceed the mean of T 1 and T2; otherwise work would have to be expended to effect a close alternate stratification of the two bodies, such as we may suppose to constitute a first step in the process of mixture (Dupre, Theorie mecanique de la chaleur, p. 372; Kelvin, Popular Lectures, p. 53).

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  • Indeed the possibility of the continued existence of films, such as constitute foam, depends upon the properties now under consideration.

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  • Of the discoveries of new organisms the most important is that of the Spirochaete pallida in syphilis by Schaudinn and Hoffmann in 1905; and although proof that it is the cause of the disease is not absolute, the facts that have been established constitute very strong presumptive evidence in favour of this being the case.

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  • The' side-chains constitute the means by which other molecules are added to the living molecule, e.g.

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  • In other words the substances, which when forming part of the cells fix the toxin to the cells, constitute antitoxin molecules when free in the serum.

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  • Evidence has been brought forward within recent years that the leucocytes may constitute an important source of the antagonistic substances which appear in the serum.

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  • It is such far-reaching results as these, and not the mere acquisition of a single colony, however valuable, that constitute Pitt's claim to be considered.

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  • After a new survey of the situation in 1909-10 by Marshal von der Goltz it was decided to treat Macedonia as a self-contained theatre of war garrisoned at all times by a large army with Shtip (tip) as its area of war concentration, and to constitute in Thrace a covering army which would be reinforced by the troops from Asia as they successively arrived, up to the strength adequate for offensive operations against Bulgaria.

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  • Corps to constitute themselves behind Lule Burgas.

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  • The governor's veto may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the legislature; the governor, secretary of state, and the attorney-general constitute a Board of Pardons and a Board of State Prison Commissioners.

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  • In many cases, as, for example, in the Medusae or jelly-fish, the mesogloea may be so thick as to constitute the chief part of the body in bulk and weight.

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  • The British agent then applied for an adjournment of eight months, ostensibly in order that the two governments might conclude a supplemental convention, it having been meanwhile privately arranged between the arbitrators that an extra-judicial declaration should be obtained from the arbitrators on the subject of the direct claims. On the 19th of June Count Sclopis intimated on behalf of all his colleagues that, without intending to express any opinion upon the interpretation of the treaty, they had arrived at the conclusion that "the indirect claims did not constitute upon the principles of international law applicable to such cases a good foundation for an award or computation of damages between nations."

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  • The supervisor, two of the justices of the peace and the clerk constitute the township board, whose duty it is to settle claims against the township, audit accounts, and publish annually an itemized statement of receipts and disbursements.

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  • The supervisor is also the township assessor, and the several township supervisors constitute the county board of supervisors who equalize property valuations as between townships, authorize townships to borrow money with which to build or repair bridges, are entrusted with the care and management of the property and business of the county, and may borrow or raise by tax what is necessary to meet the more common expenses of the county.

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  • Each township operating under the District Act has two school inspectors - one being elected at each town meeting for a term of two years - who with the township clerk constitute the township board of school inspectors, and to this board is given authority to divide the township into school districts and to exercise a general supervision over the several schools within their jurisdiction; a township may be organized as a single district, called a "township unit district."

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  • The qualified electors of each district having an ungraded school elect a moderator, a director and a treasurer - one at each annual school meeting - for a term of three years, who constitute the district school board, and this board is entrusted with ample power for directing the affairs of the school.

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  • The members of this Church were to constitute a millet or community, enjoying equal rights with the Greeks and Armenians; and its head, the Bulgarian exarch, was to reside at Constantinople.

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  • The former is thus a preparation for the latter, and the two together constitute a defence of Christianity against all the world, heathen as well as Jews.

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  • In Poland they constitute I per cent.

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  • The dukes gradually extended their power over all Tuscany, but after the death of the famous Matilda the city began to constitute itself an independent community, and in 1160 it obtained from Welf VI., duke of Bavaria and marquis of Tuscany, the lordship of all the country for 5 m.

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  • The three geographical regions above described constitute three distinct climatic divisions.

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  • The reason is, that in order to depose them with some show of legality, it was necessary, as a preliminary, to convict them of heresy, and it began to be seen that their tenacity of power, and the ruses by which they evaded the necessity of abdicating, however harmful might be their consequences, did not in themselves constitute a clearly-defined heresy.

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  • The revenue from the crown lands was also made to constitute part of the civil list.

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  • The Local Government Board is further empowered by provisional order to constitute a joint-committee representing all the administrative counties through or by which a river passes, and confer on such committee all or any of the powers of a sanitary authority under the acts.

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  • The council by their order constitute a hospital district and form a committee for its administration.

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  • The power to constitute new urban districts is now conferred upon county councils, as already stated.

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  • Three and members must be present to constitute a quorum.

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  • They constitute ten separate voiskos, settled along the frontiers: Don, Kuban, Terek, Astrakhan, Ural, Orenburg, Siberian, Semiryechensk, Amur and Usuri.

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  • westward from the extremity of the Alaskan peninsula toward the peninsula of Kamchatka; they constitute part of the District of Alaska, U.S.A. The islands, of which an alternative collective name is the Catherine Archipelago, comprise four groups - the Fox, Andreanof, Rat and Near Islands.

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  • "be glad to receive any suggestions which the governments of the signatory powers might be disposed to make in reference to this important question, which might perhaps constitute, wholly or in part, the subject of a reference to the tribunal at the Hague."

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  • In this resolution the chamber took note of" the replies of the government, according to which the declarations contained in the letter of the 3rd of June do not constitute conditions but ` solemn recommendations,' while ` the convention of cession will have no other object than to effect the transference and define the measures for its accomplishment, and the Belgian legislature will regulate the regime of its colonial possessions in unrestricted liberty.'

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  • The Yasna, Vispered and Vendidad together constitute the Avesta in the stricter sense of the word, and the reading of them appertains to the priest alone.

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  • As the Gathas now constitute the kernel of the most sacred prayer-book, viz.

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  • They practically constitute sub-races, with a general blending of the characters of the two parents, and only differing from fully-established races in more or less tendency to revert to one or other of the original types.

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  • The governing classes are of course Russians, who constitute also the merchant and artizan classes.

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  • These tablelands and mountains constitute Abyssinia, Shoa, Kaffa and Galla land.

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  • For example, the employment of women or of children under fourteen in mines and the leasing of convict labour by contract are forbidden, and eight hours must constitute a day's work in state, county or municipal undertakings.

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  • The governor, justices of the supreme court and the attorney-general constitute a board of pardons.

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  • In each case in which there is a genuine difference of reading between the two texts, it is for the critic to decide; often, however, he will have to seek to go behind what both the texts present in order to constitute a truer text than either.

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  • In strictness, there is but one res completa or concrete fact, and it is the business of philosophy, as science of the whole, to expound the chief relations that constitute its complex nature.

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  • Without prejudice, then, to the claim of epistemology to constitute the central philosophic discipline, we may simply note its liability to be pressed too far.

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  • The most important of his books are two large botanical treatises, On the History of Plants, in nine books (originally ten), and On the Causes of Plants, in six books (originally eight), which constitute the most important contribution to botanical science during antiquity and the middle ages.

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  • The limbs are very strong, and the feet short and broad, resembling externally those of an elephant or tortois Glyptodonts constitute a family, the Glyptodontidae, whose position is next to the armadillos (Dasypodidae); the group being represented by a number of generic types.

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  • Truss rods, portals, or lattice or plate girders constitute the more definite types of wind-bracing ordinarily employed; the bracing must reach to some solid connexion at the ground.

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  • The Gymnosperms, with the Angiosperms, constitute the existing groups of seed-bearing plants or Phanerogams: the importance of the seed as a distinguishing feature in the plant kingdom may be emphasized by the use of the designation Spermophyta for these two groups, in contrast to the Pteridophyta and Bryophyta in which true seeds are unknown.

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  • Among existing Cycadophyta we find surviving types which, in their present isolation, their close resemblance to fossil forms, and in certain morphological features, constitute links with the past that not only connect the present with former periods in the earth's history, but serve as sign-posts pointing the way back along one of the many lines which evolution has followed.

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  • The cycads constitute a homogeneous group of a few living members confined to tropical and sub-tropical regions.

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  • Each ovule is enclosed at the base by an envelope or collar homologous with the lamina of a leaf; the fleshy and hard coats of the nucellus constitute a single integument.

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  • The spermatozoids constitute the most striking link with both cycads and ferns.

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  • The plants usually included in the Coniferae constitute a less homogeneous class than the Cycadaceae.

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  • In Taxus, Torreya (California and the Far East) and Cephalotaxus the absence of resin-canals and the presence of spiral thickeningbands on the tracheids constitute well-marked characteristics.

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  • The flower may be described as a bud bearing a pair of leaves which become fused and constitute a perianth, the apex of the shoot forming an ovule.

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  • Where they are heavy, as, for instance, with the French registration duties on the transfer of property, there appears to be little doubt that they constitute a deduction from the price which a seller receives, and thus they are direct enough.

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  • The results of this introspective mysticism were collected by him in a series of fifty-four (originally forty-eight) treatises, arranged in six "Enneads," which constitute the most authoritative exposition of Neoplatonism.

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  • These constitute the well-known Similitudes.

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  • Force, naturally expansive and operating on the homogeneous atoms which constitute elemental matter, is subject to the law of equilibrium, or equivalence of action and reaction.

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  • - The earliest record of the lands which constitute the kingdom of Rumania begins with the period immediately preceding their conquest by the Romans.

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  • The large class of heterogeneous nouns which are masculine in the singular and feminine in the plural constitute what is sometimes called the neuter declension.

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  • Superficially, each is a simple rolling plateau, much broken by erosion (though considerable undissected areas drained by underground channels remain), especially in the east, and dotted with hills; some of these are residual outliers of the eroded Mississippian limestones to the west, and others are the summits of an archaean topography above which sedimentary formations that now constitute the valley-floor about them were deposited and then eroded.

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  • Plants constitute the chief fossils of the Ecca series; among others they include Glossopteris, Gangamopteris, Phyllotheca.

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  • In course cf time they formed a valuable counterpoise to the Dutch colonists, and they now constitute the most progressive element in the colony.

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  • These four great deposits of mineral wealth are still richly productive, and constitute the greatest industrial asset which the colony possesses.

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  • A pulley carried on a rotating shaft and connected to another pulley on a second shaft by an endless band consisting of a flat belt, rope, chain or similar connector serves for the transmission of power from the one shaft to the other and is known as a driving pulley; while combinations of pulleys or "sheaves," mounted in fixed or movable frames or "blocks," constitute mechanisms used to facilitate the raising of heavy weights.

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  • Whether in the case of national or provincial councils, or of diocesan synods, the chief object of the decrees is to reinforce, define or apply the law; the measures which constitute a derogation have only a small place in them.

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  • It is plain that the agreements under the concordats have a certain action upon a number of points in the canonical laws; and all these points go to constitute the local concordatory law.

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  • Thus Northern Mercia, East Anglia, the greater part of Essex and Northumbria were handed over to the Danes and henceforth constitute the district known as the Danelagh.

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  • The Deccan is the home of the Mahrattas, who constitute 30% of the population.

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  • This action on the vessels is so marked as to constitute the drug a haemostatic, not only locally but also remotely.

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  • (819,920 acres) 3 by the state at the rate of sixty cents an acre on the understanding that all profits, in excess of the purchase money, should constitute a separate endowment fund to which the restrictions in the Morrill Act should not apply; and in 1866-1867 he " located " 512,000 acres in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Kansas.

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  • For in such mixtures, the component colours appear not, but, by their mutual allaying each other constitute a midling colour."

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  • Land once afforested became subject to a peculiar system of laws, which, as well as the formalities required to constitute a valid afforestment, have been carefully ascertained by the Anglo-Norman lawyers.

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  • Two-thirds of each house constitute a quorum to do business.

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  • The innermost strata in a fold constitute the "core," arch-core A, fig.

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  • But three other methods of confession for private use are mentioned in the exhortations in the communion service, which constitute the principal directory for private devotions among the authoritative documents of the English Church.

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  • TICKS, the common name for Arachnida belonging to the order Acari, of which they constitute the two families, Ixodidae and Argasidae.

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  • Germans, British, Scandinavians and Russians constitute the bulk of the foreign-born.

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  • Those having a population of more than 15,000 constitute the first class, those having a population of more than 2000 but not more than 15,000 constitute the second class, and those having a population not exceeding 2000 constitute the third class.

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  • The rivalries and intrigues of these three magnates constitute the main part of the domestic politics of Edwards reign.

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  • Yet the latter still remained strong enough to constitute a danger to the crown whenever it should fall to a king less wary and resolute than Henry himself.

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