The art collections of Stuttgart are numerous and valuable.
and fine collections of coins and armour.
His fine collections of manuscripts and coins was purchased by the British Museum.
Naturalists who deal specially with museum collections have been compelled, it is true, for other reasons to attach an increasing importance to what is called the type specimen, but they find that this insistence on the individual, although invaluable from the point of view of recording species, is unsatisfactory from the point of view of scientific zoology; and propositions for the amelioration of this condition of affairs range from a refusal of Linnaean nomenclature in such cases, to the institution of a division between master species for such species as have been properly revised by the comparative morphologist, and provisional species for such species as have been provisionally registered by those working at collections.
General history: For the early authorities consult Collections de chroniques Belges inedites, publ.
Court formed the design of writing a history of Protestantism, and made large collections for the purpose, which have been preserved in the Public Library of Geneva; but this he did not live to carry out.
Donations, bequests and the product of collections in churches.
Modern collections of religious poetry sometimes bear the title of Psalms and Hymns, but these are always more or less directly connected with the actual Psalms of David.
Flies seem capable of adapting themselves to extremes of cold equally as well as to those of heat, and species belonging to the order are almost invariably included in the collections brought back by members of Arctic expeditions.
"I recalled all the assassins and put a hold on all soul collections for a week or so," Gabe answered.
It is to the collections formed by these baru-priests as a guidance for themselves and as a basis of instruction for those in training for the priesthood that we owe our knowledge of the parts of the liver to which particular attention was directed, of the signs noted, and of the principles guiding the interpretation of the signs.
The great and splendidly illustrated collections of voyages and travels of Theodorus de Bry and Hulsius served a similar useful purpose on the continent of Europe.
Such instruments are occasionally found in old collections of philosophical apparatus and they have been used in order to explain to students the formation of multiple images.
This list is far from complete; the principal collections of the anteNicene fathers include not a few minor and anonymous writers, and the fragments of many others whose works as a whole have perished.
A record of patristic collections and editions down to 1839 may be found in Dowling's Notitia Scriptorum SS.
Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but since the completion of his great undertaking two important collections have been begun on critical lines - the Vienna edition of the Latin Church writers,' and the Berlin edition of the Greek writers of the ante-Nicene period .8 For English readers there are three series of translations from the fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford Library of the Fathers, the Ante Nicene Christian Library and the Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.
These writings, mainly collections of articles and lectures intended for the general public, display enlightened views and wide information.
" The subsidiary rays of medals and inscriptions, of geography and chronology, were thrown on their proper objects; and I applied the collections of Tillemont, whose inimitable accuracy almost assumes the character of genius, to fix and arrange within my reach the loose and scattered atoms of historical information."
There are several good palaces of the early Renaissance, a fine theatre (1857) and a museum containing important palaeo-ethnological collections, ancient and medieval sculptures, and the natural history collection of Spallanzani.
In the Industrial Museum there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed 1841 - the monks, are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in Tirol).
All puddles and collections of water should be filled in or drained; as a temporary expedient they may be treated with petroleum, which prevents the development of the larvae.
The other four trunks displayed like goods—a moth-eaten gorilla suit, two bloody collections of dresses, and an outfit Dean supposed Frankenstein wore when he went out for a little nightlife.
The royal library contains about 400,000 printed volumes, including one of the largest collections of Bibles in the world, and also about 20,000 MSS., many of great rarity.
The royal university of Parma, founded in 1601 by Ranuccio I., and reconstituted by Philip of Bourbon in 1768, has faculties in law, medicine and natural science, and possesses an observatory, and natural science collections, among which is the Eritrean Zoological Museum.
After some time spent in travel and a successful lecturing tour in Norway and Sweden, he settled in Copenhagen, and produced a series of novels and collections of short stories, which placed him in the front rank of Scandinavian novelists.
Students will find the chief materials in the following collections: Archiv fiir Litteratur and Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters (ed.
It is, then, to one or other of those three collections of sacred texts and the respective class of priests, that the existing Brahmanas attach themselves.
It contains lyrical and ballad poetry, specimens of early exegesis and commentary, lives of the saints, collections of edifying anecdotes and of the now well-known Jatakas or Birth Stories.
The museum contains one of the best existing collections of Maori art.
Other collections of cells are in many cases set apart for giving rigidity and strength to the mass of the plant.
Shortly afterwards the collections of Prejewalsky confirmed it for the flora.
The Portland Society of Natural History, founded in 1843 and incorporated in 1850, has a building (1880) containing a library and natural history collections.
8vo., 1809), and contributed thirty-one papers to scientific collections.
They were called Rabboth (great Midrashim) to distinguish them from preceding smaller collections.
Other noteworthy buildings are the konak or governor's residence, the Roman Catholic and Orthodox cathedrals, the hospital, the townhall and the museum, with fine antiquarian and natural history collections.
The Michaelskirche, 12th-century Romanesque (restored), on the Michaelsberg, was formerly the church of a Benedictine monastery secularized in 1803, which now contains the Biirgerspital, or alms-house, and the museum and municipal art collections.
Various collections are preserved in the Old Testament; they are attributed to the time of Moses the lawgiver, who stands at the beginning of Israelite national and religious history.
Collections of laws are found in Deuteronomy and in exilic and post-exilic writings; groups of a relatively earlier type are preserved in Exod.
By reason of collections already made and additional gifts, the museum at once took high rank.
John Rushworth (Historical Collections) is more precise.
There are two collections of writings on the subject: Marie Therese de France, compiled (1852) by the marquis de Pastoret, and comprising beside the memoir written by Marie Therese herself, articles by M.
The varied collections of Sir John Soane, accumulated at his house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, are open to view as the Soane Museum.
The Valentine Museum is in a house on Eleventh and Clay Streets, in which Aaron Burr was entertained while he was on trial, and which with $50,000 and his collections was devised to a board of trustees in 1892.
In John Houghton's Collections on Husbandry and Trade, a periodical work begun in 1681, there is one of the earliest notices of turnips being eaten by sheep:" Some in Essex have their fallow after turnips, which feed their sheep in winter, by which means the turnips are scooped, and so made capable to hold dews and rain water, which, by corrupting,; _ mbibes the nitre of the air, and when the shell breaks it runs about and fertilizes.
There have now been recognized in the collections at Cairo, Florence, London, Paris and Bologna several Egyptian imitations of the Aegean style which can be set off against the many debts which the centres of Aegean culture owed to Egypt.
The notices given in the historical synaxaria are summaries of those in the great menologies, or collections of lives of saints, for the twelve months of the year.
collections formed by a certain nobleman who had travelled in Eastern Europe, Western Asia and Egypt - possible Breidenbach, an account of whose travels in the Levant was printed at Mentz in 1486 - it is really a medical treatise, and its zoological portion is mainly an abbreviation of the writings of Albertus Magnus, with a few interpolations from Isidorus of Seville (who flourished in the beginning of the 7th century, and was the author of many works highly esteemed in the middle ages) and a work known as Physiologus.
Further examination of the enormous collections gathered by the author, and preserved in the Museum of Yale University at New Haven, Connecticut, showed him that this last bird, and another to which he gave the name of Apatornis, had possessed welldeveloped teeth implanted in sockets in both jaws, and induced him to establish (v.
He fulfilled the duties of secretary to the Royal Society during five years after the death of Henry Oldenburg in 1677, publishing in 1681-1682 the papers read before that body under the title of Philosophical Collections.
It is found also in beds of iron ore, and the haematite mines of the Cleator Moor district in west Cumberland have yielded many extremely fine crystals, specimens of which may be seen in all mineral collections.
Another library was left to the public by the munificence of Count QuiriniStampalia, who bequeathed his collections and his house at Santa Maria Formosa to be held in trust for students.
There is considerable material of value, especially for local history, in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications (Columbus, 1887), and in Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (1st ed., Cincinnati, 1847; Centennial edition [enlarged], 2 vols., Columbus, 1889-1891).
It has one of the finest collections of casts in existence, a number of original pieces of Greek statuary, the second-best collection in the world of Aretine ware, the finest collection of Japanese pottery, and probably the largest and finest of Japanese paintings in existence.
The present library (antedated by several circulating, social and professional collections) may justly be said to have had its origin in the efforts of the Parisian, Alexandre Vattemare (1796-1864), from 1830 on, to foster international exchanges.
Among the special collections are the George Ticknor library of Spanish and Portuguese books (6 393 vols.), very full sets of United States and British public documents, the Bowditch mathematical library (7090 vols.), the Galatea collection on the history of women (2193 vols.), the Barton library, including one of the finest existing collections of Shakespeariana (3309 vols., beside many in the general library), the A.
Chronicles and Narratives of the Crusades - (1) Collections.
The only published collections of documents relating to the state are Buckingham Smith's Collection de varios documentos para la historic de la Florida y tierras adyacentes (London, 1857), and Benjamin F.
French's Historical Collections of Louisiana (New York, 1846-1875).
There is no good authority for the renderings "collectors of maxims," "collections of maxims."
The earlier translations, such as the Turba Philosophorum and other works printed in collections like the Artis auriferae quam chemiam vocant (1572), Theatrum chemicum (1602), and J.
At the age of twenty-one he entered the Ecole Normale in Paris, and from 1853 to 1858 he held the appointment of keeper of the scientific collections.
Of the private collections those of Schliemann and Karapanos are the most interesting: the latter contains works of art and other objects from Dodona.
The Carnegie Institute in the decade increased the extent of its service to the community; its central library, with 464,313 volumes, had 8 branches, 16 stations, 128 school stations, 10 club stations and 8 playground stations, with a circulation of 1,363,365 books; both the scientific museum and the art department added greatly to their collections; in the school of technology the enrolment grew from 2,102 students in 1909 to 4,982 students in 1920, including those in the departments of science and engineering, arts, industries and the Margaret Morrison school for women.
The best collections of Robin Hood poems are those of Ritson (8vo, 1795) and Gutch (2nd ed., 1847), and of Professor Child in the 5th volume of his invaluable English and Scotch Popular Ballads (Boston, 1888).
From the surplus of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was constructed in 1914 the Jefferson Memorial costing 8485,000 and devoted to the collections of the Missouri Historical Society.
Prominent among its buildings are the federal building, the auditorium, the public library and the Masonic library, which contains one of the best collections of Masonic literature in the world.
It has been in large part rebuilt since a fire in 1836, and possesses a castle, with various collections, a museum of antiquities, an old town hall and churches.
Equally interesting with these Ptolemaic supplements are collections like that of Anton Lafreri, which contains reprints of 142 maps of all parts of the world originally published between 1556 and 1572 (Geografica tavole moderne, Rome, n.d.), or that of J.
The contents of the following collections are more varied in their nature, viz.
In addition to these collections, numerous single maps have been published in geographical periodicals or separately.
Nothing is known with certainty as to the origin of the vast majority of breeds of dogs, and it is an unfortunate fact that the progressive changes which have been made within comparatively recent times by fanciers have not been accurately recorded by the preservation, in museums or collections, of the actual specimens considered typical at different dates.
of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections) its describer refers the Klondike skull to a new genus, with the title Symbos tyrrelli, the specific name being given in honour of its discoverer.
The native tombrobbers, well-sinkers, dredgers and the like, however, come upon valuable objects from time to time, which find their way into private collections.
His more elaborate History of the Revolution, for which he had made great researches and collections, was not published till after his death.
There are large herbaria at the British Museum and at the Royal Gardens, Kew, and smaller collections at the botanical institutions at the principal British universities.
Thus the herbarium at the British Museum, which is especially rich in the earlier collections made in the 18th and early 19th centuries, contains the types of many species founded by the earlier workers in botany.
It is also rich in the types of Australian plants in the collections of Sir Joseph Banks and Robert Brown, and contains in addition many valuable modern collections.
The collections of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, his son Adrien, and of Auguste de St Hilaire, are included in the large herbarium of the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, and in the same city is the extensive private collection of Dr Ernest Cosson.
At Geneva are three large collections - Augustin Pyrame de Candolle's, containing the typical specimens of the Prodromus, a large series of monographs of the families of flowering plants, Benjamin Delessert's fine series at the Botanic Garden, and the Boissier Herbarium, which is rich in Mediterranean and Oriental plants.
The Berlin herbarium is especially rich in more recent collections, and other national herbaria sufficiently extensive to subserve the requirements of the systematic botanist exist at St Petersburg, Vienna, Leiden, Stockholm, Upsala, Copenhagen and Florence.
ii.; and The Deane Papers, in 5 vols., in the New York Historical Society's Collections (1887-1890).
The expenses were met by collections made in the Calvinistic Methodist Societies, and as the funds increased masters were multiplied, until in 1786 Charles had seven masters to whom he paid £io per annum; in 1787, twelve; in 1789, fifteen; in 1794, twenty.
French's Historical Collections of Louisiana (5 series, N.Y., 1846-1853) and Historical Collections of Louisiana and Florida, New Series (N.Y., 1869, 1875).
Rome, 1863; 2 Agram, 1875), - these are collections of Latin documents from the Vatican library; V.
But long before this he had become apprenticed to the learning of nature in preference to that of man: when only twelve years of age he had made collections for Agassiz, who had then just arrived in America, and already the meadows and the hedges and the stream-sides had become cabinets of rare knowledge to him.
Passing now to the examination of the budget, it should be observed that the method of estimating the revenues - a matter of great difficulty owing to the previous want of method - is described by Laurent as follows: " For every nature of receipts the total effective collections for the five last known years were set out, the averages were taken of these and the increase or decrease of the yearly average of those same years was worked out and added to or deducted from the figure previously obtained.
Official Publications and Collections of Treaties: Sir E.
There is also a public library, with 20,000 volumes, and various scientific collections, and a public garden, with a statue of the chemist Berthollet (1748-1822), who was born not far off.
The chief features of the museum are collections of the fossils, birds and flora of Wales and of obsolete Welsh domestic appliances, casts of the pre-Norman monuments of Wales, and reproductions of metal and ivory work illustrating various periods of art and civilization.
The natural history collections (including the very large ichnological collection of President Hitchcock, and Audubon's collection of birds) are of exceptional richness.
The Collections of the Minnesota State Historical Society contain much valuable material on the history of the state, notably E.
of the business centre of the city is the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, a fine stone building on a commanding site, and containing a large collection of Hawaiian and Polynesian relics and curios, especially Hawaiian feather-work, and notable collections of fish and of Hawaiian land shells and birds.
Douglas is included in numerous collections of British drama.
In mineralogical collections rounded nodules of brown glass, varying from the size of a pea to that of an orange, may often be seen labelled marekanite.
There are also an interesting national museum, with Roman antiquities and numismatic collections, a national library with a wealth of old Servian MSS.
-FL .A T Tumia _ Lastic., From Photographs in the Collections of the Imperial Institute.
Specimens of the best known and of many of the lesser known rubbers are included in the Colonial and Indian Collections and Sample Rooms of the Imperial Institute, and many of the authentic specimens have been chemically and technically examined in the Scientific and Technical Department of the Institute and commercially valued.
They were acquainted with iron, and learned from their subjects the art of bronze-casting, which they used for decorative purposes only, and to which they gave a still higher artistic stamp. Their pottery is much more perfect and more artistic than that of the Bronze period, and their ornaments are accounted among the finest of the collections at the St Petersburg museum of the Hermitage.
A translation of these collections of Jellinek into German was undertaken by A.
Under the title of Musees et collections archeologiques de l'Algerie et de la Tunisie, the Ministry of Public Instruction publishes from time to time illustrated descriptions of all these archaeological treasures.
- For the various collections of these ecclesiastical regulations - the Syriac Didascalia, Ecclesiastical Canons of the Holy Apostles, &c. - see separate article.
There are two collections of letters bearing the name of Ignatius, who was martyred between 105 and 117.
The first, second and third sections of this publication comprise respectively the papers communicated by him to the Academies of Sciences of Turin, Berlin and Paris; the fourth includes his miscellaneous contributions to other scientific collections, together with his additions to Euler's Algebra, and his Lecons elementaires at the Ecole Normale in 1795.
The Museo Civico is one of the most important museums in Italy, containing especially fine collections of antiquities from Bologna and its neighbourhood.
The Museu Nacional at Rio de Janeiro, which has occupied the imperial palace of Sao Christovao since the overthrow of the monarchy, contains large collections of much scientific value, but defective organization and apathetic direction have rendered them of comparatively slight service.
These collections, especially rich in Raeburn's works, include also Alexander Nasmyth's portrait of Robert Burns, Gainsborough's ",The Hon.
The Royal Scottish Museum, structurally united to the university, contains collections illustrative of industry, art, science and natural history; and Minto House college and Heriot-Watt college are practically adjuncts of the university.
In 1771 he published his Zend-Avesta (3 vols.), containing collections from the sacred writings of the fire-worshippers, a life of Zoroaster, and fragments of works ascribed to him.
side is the modern Palazzo RanghiasciBrancaleone, which until 1882 contained fine collections, now dispersed.
Thanks to all these architectural treasures, the narrow Sienese streets with their many windings and steep ascents are full of picturesque charm, and, together with the collections of excellent paintings, foster the local pride of the inhabitants and preserve their taste and feeling for art.
The library contains over 130,000 volumes, and the city has good collections of pictures, antiquities and natural history.
Later collections are Documents of the Angevin Period, ed.
4 Among its earlier productions were the Nemzeti konyvtdr (National Library), published 1843-1847, and continued in 1852 under the title Ujabb Nemzeti konyvtdr, a repository of works by celebrated authors; the KUlfoldi Regenytdr (Treasury of Foreign Romances), consisting of translations; and some valuable collections of proverbs, folk-songs, traditions and fables.
Of a more distinctly national tendency are the lyrics of John Kriza b and John Erdelyi, but the reputation of the latter was more especially due to his collections of folk-lore made on behalf of the Kisfaludy society.
The Serbian and Bulgarian anthems were sung on the streets, collections were made in every village for the Balkan Red Cross funds, and when Austria-Hungary mobilized, protests were heard on every side against the bare possibility of war with Serbia, which to the Yugosla y s would be a veritable civil war.
Hautecoeur, L'Italie sous Orlando (1919); two collections of documents, viz.
In Lemberg is the National Institute founded by Count Ossolinski, which contains a library of books and manuscripts relating chiefly to the history and literature of Poland, valuable antiquarian and scientific collections, and a printing establishment; also the Dzieduszycki museum with collections of natural history and ethnography relating chiefly to Galicia.
It contains the Zoological Gardens, one of the most noteworthy institutions of its kind, attracting numerous visitors to its splendid collections of living animals.
Though now remembered chiefly for invaluable contributions to the theory of music, it is evident that he must have been famous both as a practical musician and as a composer; for, notwithstanding the limited number of his printed works, consisting of a volume entitled Modulationes Sex Vocum (Venice, 1566), and a few motets and madrigals scattered through the collections of Scotto and other contemporary publishers, he both produced and superintended the public performance of some important pieces in the service of the republic. First among these was the music written to celebrate the battle of Lepanto (on the 7th of October 1571).
The question now arises: Was the collection a single act or is the Psalter made up of several older collections ?
But if we remove them we get a continuous body of Levitical Elohim psalms, or rather two collections, the first Korahitic and the second Asaphic, to which there have been added by way of appendix by a non-Elohistic editor a supplementary group of Korahite psalms and one psalm (certainly late) ascribed to David.
Elsewhere the titles run in series and correspond to the limits of older collections.
The earlier collections of psalms may well have been used first in synagogues,.
It is certainly not impossible that the two groups of " Davidic " psalms once formed separate collections independently compiled, and that the subscription to Ps.
know of no Davidic psalms outside of these two collections, for Ps.
In a word, the ascription of these two collections to_David has none of the characters of a genuine historical tradition.
At the same time it is clear that the two collections do not stand on quite the same footing.
and V., that we find any number of psalms appropriate to such a ritual as that of the Temple, and it is difficult to resist the conviction that the earlier collections were made for use, not in the Temple at Jerusalem but in some synagogue or synagogues.
The synagogue collections, since they contained psalms which at this time were probably considered to be the work of David, were placed first, and the Temple collection added to them.
façade, Louvre; groups for pediments of façade now placed over entrance to Egyptian and Assyrian collections, Louvre.
The museum contains a valuable library and various collections, including antiquities and objects of art and natural history.
The elaborate collections made by Daremberg of medical notices in the poets and historians illustrate the relations of the profession to society, but do little to prepare us for the Hippocratic period.
Collections of consilia were published, among others, by Gentilis Fulgineus before 1348, by Bartolomeo Montagnana (d.
de Senarmont (1808-1862), was appointed conservator of the mineralogical collections at the Ecole des Mines.
Several of the great livery companies or gilds of the City possess fine halls, containing portraits and other collections of high interest and value.
(2) The Metropolitan Hospital Sunday Fund, founded in 1873, draws the greater part of its revenue from collections in churches on stated occasions.
In the British Museum London possesses one of the most celebrated collections in the world, originated in 1753 by the purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's collection and library by the government.
The great building in Bloomsbury (1828-1852) with its massive Ionic portico, houses the collections of antiquities, coins, books, manuscripts and drawings, and contains the reading-rooms for the use of readers.
Here are collections of pictures and drawings, including the Raphael cartoons, objects of art of every description, mechanical and scientific collections, and Japanese, Chinese and Persian collections, and an Indian section.
Other museums are Sir John Soane's collection in Lincoln's Inn Fields and the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, while the scientific societies have libraries and in some cases collections of a specialized character, such as the museums of the Royal College of Surgeons, the Royal Architectural Society, and the Society of Art and the Parkes Museum of the Sanitar y Institute.
Among permanent art collections the first place is taken by the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square.
There are also notable collections of pictures in several of the mansions of the nobility, government buildings, halls of the City Companies and elsewhere.
Arnold, London Chronicle (1811); A Chrcnicle of London from 1089 to 1483 written in the Fifteenth Century (1827); William Gregory's Chronicle of London,1189-1469 (1876); Historical Collections of a Citizen of London, edited by James Gairdner (Camden Society, 1876); Chronicles of London [1200-1516], edited by C. L.
The chief collections of Jacobite poems are: Charles Mackay's Jacobite Songs and Ballads of Scotland, 1688-1746, with Appendix of Modern Jacobite Songs (1861); G.
There is also a museum, with natural history, archaeological, and art collections, and among other buildings may be mentioned St Bartholomew's church (1089), the town hall (1562-1564), a lunatic asylum, teachers' seminary and an agricultural academy.
Rawlinson's Natural History and Antiquities of Surrey (1719); his antiquarian notes on Wiltshire were printed in Wiltshire; the Topographical Collections of John Aubrey, corrected and enlarged by J.
See also John Britton, Memoir of John Aubrey (1845); David Masson, in the British Quarterly Review, July 1856; Emile Montegut, Heures de lecture d'un critique (1891); and a catalogue of Aubrey's collections in The Life and Times of Anthony Wood..
At the present time scarcely anything is known about the origin of the few specimens of 18th-century English cut-glass which have been preserved in public collections.
The chief collections are those issued at Grately in Hampshire, at Exeter, at Thunresfeld, and the Judicia civitatis Lundonie.
They would fall into three divisions: (I) laws and collections of laws promulgated by public authority; (2) statements of custom; (3) private compilations of legal rules and enactments.
The third division would consist of the collections of the so-called Pseudo-leges Canuti, the laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I., and the great compilation of the Quadripartitus, then of a number of short notices and extracts like the fragments on the "wedding of a wife," on oaths, on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural customs (Rectitudines singularum personarum), the treatises on the reeve (gerefa) and on the judge (dema), formulae of oaths, notions as to wergeld, &c. A fourth group might be made of the charters, n as they are based on Old English private and public law and supply us with most important materials in regard to it.
ments of custom included in the second division according to the first classification, a great many of the rules entered in collections promulgated by kings; most of the paragraphs of iEthelberht's, Hlothhere's, and Eadric's and Ine's laws, are popular legal customs that have received the stamp of royal authority by their insertion in official codes.
Questions of public law and administration are discussed in 217 clauses, while 197 concern the Church in one way or another, apart from purely ecclesiastical collections.
Besides the purely literary works there were others of the most varied nature, including collections of letters, partly official, partly private.
Florence possesses four important libraries besides a number of smaller collections.
Few cities are as rich as Florence in collections of works of artistic and historic interest, although the great majority of them belong to a comparatively limited period - from the 13th to the 16th century.
Of the monasteries, that of St Mark should be mentioned, as containing many works of Fra Angelico, besides relics of Savonarola, while of the private collections the only one of importance is that of Prince Corsini.
There is a splendid museum of medieval and Renaissance antiquities in the Bargello, the ancient palace of the Podesta, itself one of the finest buildings in the city; among its many treasures are works of Donatello, Ghiberti, Verrochio and other sculptors, and large collections of ivory, enamel and bronze ware.
The Opera del Duomo contains models and pieces of sculpture connected with the cathedral; the Etruscan and Egyptian museum, the gallery of tapestries, the Michelangelo museum, the museum of natural history and other collections are all important in different ways.
Specimens of Meistersinger poetry will be found in various collections, such as J.
Pappus, in his Collections, treats of its history, and gives two methods by which it can be generated.
Croce, occupied with such studies as those mentioned, also found time to edit numerous texts and miscellaneous collections and composed many bibliographies, in addition to editing the Critica, in many respects the profoundest and widest in scope of all the European literary and philosophical reviews.
The penitentials (q.v.), or early collections of disciplinary canons, gave much attention to sacrilege.
In the earliest of them, sacrilege in the narrower sense is not a separate class of crime, but the wider usage goes with variations through the different collections.
The buildings of the society include a church, a school and houses for the brethren, the sisters and the widowed of both sexes, while it possesses an ethnographical museum and other collections of interest.
Many of the reciters were slain in battle, and it was not till the 8th to the 10th centuries and even later that the earliest collections of these poems were made.
- As supplemental to the account of poetry may be mentioned here some of the chief collections of ancient verse, sometimes made for the sake of the poems themselves, sometimes to give a locus classicus for usages of grammar or lexicography, sometimes to illustrate ancient manners and customs. The earliest of these is the Mo'allakat.
The materials were supplied in the first place by oral tradition, in the second by the dictata of older scholars, and finally by various kinds of documents, such as treaties, letters, collections of poetry and genealogical lists.
In addition to private rooms and state apartments, the Hofburg contains a library of about 800,000 volumes, 7000 incunabula and 24,000 MSS., including the celebrated "Papyrus Rainer"; the imperial treasury, containing the family treasures of the house of Habsburg-Lorraine, and other important collections.
The nature of the breeding-place varies greatly according to the species, and while many of the mosquitoes that infest houses will breed even in the smallest accidental accumulation of water such as may have collected in a discarded bottle or tin, the larvae of other species less closely associated with man are found in natural pools or ditches, at the margins of slow-moving streams, in collections of water in hollow trees and bamboo-stumps, or even in the water-receptacles of certain plants.
His al-f us-Sahib is one of the six canonical collections of traditions.
Not far from these ancient monuments is the new Raetian Museum, which contains a great collection of objects relating to Raetia (including the geological collections of the Benedictine monk of Disentis, Placidus a Spescha (1752-1833), who explored the high snowy regions around the sources of the Rhine).
He also published two sermons and a handbook to his lectures on mechanics, &c., and projected a history of Northumberland and Durham, collections for which were found among his papers.
After the evacuation of Lima by the Chileans Palma devoted his life to the recovery of his scattered books and the acquisition of new collections, and he had the satisfaction before his death of re-opening the library, which had obtained about 30,000 volumes, or three-fourths of the number on its shelves before the Chilean invasion.
of Bavaria, who ascended the throne in 1825, and his successors; while its collections of art entitle it to rank with Dresden and Berlin.
The valuable collections of art are enshrined in handsome buildings, mostly in the Maximilian suburb on the north side of the town.
The immense scientific collection in the Bavarian national museum, illustrative of the march of progress from the Roman period down to the present day, compares in completeness with the similar collections at South Kensington and the Musee de Cluny.
The ethnographical museum, the cabinet of coins, and the collections of fossils, minerals, and physical and optical instruments, are also worthy of mention.
Adjoining the Maria Mitchell homestead is a memorial astronomical observatory and library, containing the collections of Miss Mitchell and of her brother, Professor Henry Mitchell (1830-1902), a distinguished hydrographer.
v., Minnesota Historical Society's Collections; G.
The Palazzi Dragonetti and Persichetti contain private collections of pictures.
Mowry, The Dorr War; or the Constitutional Struggle in Rhode Island (Providence, 1901); Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation, 1636-1792 (io vols., Providence, 1856-65); Rhode Island Historical Society, Collections (to vols., to be continued, Providence, 1827-1902); Proceedings and Publications, 23 numbers (Providence, 1872-1902, to be continued).
In 1880 he published the earliest of six important collections of lyrics, this being entitled Ballads and other Poems, and containing the sombre and magnificent "Rizpah."
There may also be mentioned the Industrial Art Exhibition of the Polytechnic Association and two conservatories of music. Among the scientific institutions the first place belongs to the Senckenberg'sches naturhistorische Museum, containing valuable collections of birds and shells.
The books illustrated by the men of this school were mainly collections of useful information, guide-books, romances and historical and religious compilations; but much of the best of their work is to be found in the collections of pictorial designs, very often taken from Chinese sources, which were produced for the use of workers in lacquer, pottery and similar crafts.
Some of the most exquisite and most ingenious of these earlier productions, such as the magnificent iron eagle in the south Kensington Museum, the wonderful articulated models of crayfish, dragons, serpents, birds, that are found in many European collections, came from the studios of the MiyOchins; but these were the play of giants, and were not made as articles of commerce.
Specimens of the latter are still preserved in European collections, where they are classed as genuine examples of Japanese ceramic art, though beyond question their style of decoration was greatly influenced by Dutch interference.
No phrase is commoner in the mouths of Western collectors than Old Satsuma; no ware is rarer in Western collections.
Many products of this vitiated industry have found their way into the collections of foreigners.
Okamuia Yasutaro, commonly called Shozan, produces specimens which only a very acute connoisseur can distinguish from the work of Nomura Ninsei; Tanzan Rokuros half-tint enamels and soft creamy glazes would have stood high in any epoch; Taizan YOhei produces Awata faience not inferior to that of former days; Kagiya SObei worthily supports the reputation of the KinkOzan ware; Kawamoto Eijiro has made to the order of a well-known KiOto firm many specimens now figuring in foreign collections as old masterpieces; and ItO TOzan succeeds in decorating faience with seven colors sons couverte (black, green, blue, russetred, tea-brown, purple and peach), a feat never before accomplished.
In 1761 he went to England, where for a year he devoted himself to a thorough study of the collections and to a geological investigation of part of the coast; and at the age of twenty-three he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Society.
The empress bought Pallas's natural history collections for 20,000 roubles, 5000 more than he asked for them, and allowed him to keep them for life.
The Smaland Museum has antiquarian and numismatic collections, a library and a bust of Linnaeus.
Funds are raised from the voluntary offerings of the corps, from open-air and other collections, from friends interested in evangelical and charitable work, and from the profits on publications and general trading.
This fact was not observed (that is, the collections of examples were not made) till recently, when experiments in private non-spiritualist circles drew attention to crystal-gazing, a practice always popular among peasants, and known historically to have survived through classical and medieval times, and, as in the famous case of Dr Dee, after the Reformation.
P. Gratiolet; this post he left in 1868 for the chair of comparative anatomy at the Paris museum of natural history, the anatomical collections of which were greatly enriched by his exertions.
were published, and the fire in the Vatican library in 1768 consumed the manuscript collections which had been prepared for the continuation of the work.
The philological analysis of Wolf and his successors had raised doubts as to the very existence of Homer, and at one time the main current of scholarly opinion had set strongly in the direction of the belief that the Iliad and the Odyssey were in reality but latter-day collections of divers recitals that had been handed down by word of mouth from one generation to another of bards through ages of illiteracy.
It was beneath this fortress that the numerous statues of Gudea were found, which constitute the gem of the Babylonian collections at the Louvre.
325, printed in Anderson's Collections, vol.
of Chiusi - at Cetona, Sarteano, Chianciano and MontepulcianoEtruscan cemeteries have been discovered; the objects from them formed, in the latter half of the 19th century, interesting local collections described by Dennis, which have since mostly passed to larger museums or been dispersed.
The Rosgarten museum contains various interesting collections.
The " Challenger " collections supplemented by those of other expeditions and of many telegraph and surveying-ships were studied in detail by Sir John Murray and Professor A.
The most important material for her life is to be found in her letters and in the correspondence of Mercy-Argenteau, but a large number of forgeries have found their way into certain of the collections, such as those of Paul Vogt d'Hunolstein (Correspondance inedite de Marie Antoinette, (3rd ed., Paris, 1864), and F.
These MS. collections were first carefully gone over for the edition of the Works by A.
The palace contains collections of pictures and porcelain, and attached to it is a magnificent tower, all that remains of the castle built in 1560.
The new provincial museum built in 1897-1902 contains the Cumberland Gallery and the Guelph Museum; and the Kestner Museum also contains interesting and valuable collections of works of art.
Of his letters and despatches the following are the chief collections: G.
The collection bearing the name of Romulus became the source from which, during the second half of the middle ages, almost all the collections of Latin fables in prose and verse were wholly or partially drawn.
Amongst the collections partly derived from Romulus the most famous is probably that in French verse by Marie de France.
In Los Angeles also are the collections of the Southwest Society (1904; for southern California, Arizona and New Mexico) of the Archaeological Institute of America.
On the outskirts of the city, near Eastlake Park, is the Indian Crafts Exhibition, which contains rare collections of aboriginal handiwork, and where Indians may be seen making baskets, pottery and blankets.
later collections composed mainly of papal decretals.
- Massachusetts was in 1903, in proportion to the population, more richly provided with public collections of books than any other state: in that year she had nearly a seventh of all books in public, society and school libraries in the country, and a much larger supply of books per capita (2 56) than any other state.
The Boston public library, exceeded in size in the United States by the library of Congress at Washington - and probably first, because of the large number of duplicates in the library of Congress - and the largest free municipal library in the world; the library of Harvard, extremely well chosen and valuable for research; the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1791); the Boston Athenaeum (1807); the State Library (1826); the New England Historic Genealogical Society (1845); the Congregational Library; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780); and the Boston Society of Natural History (1830), all in Boston, leave it easily unrivalled, unless by Washington, as the best research centre of the country.
The collections of the American Antiquarian Society (1812) at Worcester are also notable.
Sewall, Diary, 1674-1729 (3 vols., Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, series 5, vols.
For the period 1662-1666, when Massachusetts was investigated by royal commissioners, see Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, series 2, vol.
Washburn in Collections, Massachusetts Historical Society, series 4, iv., 333-346 C. Deane in same, pp. 375-442, and in Proceedings, American Antiquarian Society, new series, iv., 191-222.
the most important are the Massachusetts Historical Society, established 1791, publishing Collections and Proceedings (Boston) and the American Antiquarian Society, established 1812, publishing Proceedings (Worcester).
It is chiefly distinguished for its mathematical and philosophical studies, and possesses a famous observatory, established in 1811 by Frederick William Bessel, a library of about 240,000 volumes, a zoological museum, a botanical garden, laboratories and valuable mathematical and other scientific collections.
The academy of San Carlos and school of fine arts (founded in 1778) likewise contains good collections of paintings and statuary.
In Europe there are excellent collections in London, Cambridge, Paris, Berlin, St Petersburg and Prague.
The vast collections in richly endowed European and There is danger of confounding the products of native industries.
Here and there in the Arctic province remains of old village sites have been examined, and collections brought away by whalers and exploring expeditions.
The interior, apart from the scientific and art collections made by Goethe, is mainly remarkable for the extreme simplicity of its furnishing.
Weimar possesses also archaeological, ethnographical and natural science collections and the Liszt Museum (in the gardener's house in the park, for many years the musician's home).
Prior to Charlemagne .it is probable that several other collections of homilies had obtained considerable popularity, but in the time of that emperor these had suffered so many mutilations and corruptions that an authoritative revision was felt to be imperatively necessary.
The hymns are largely used in Protestant collections.
At, the head of the scientific institutions of Haarlem may be placed the Dutch Society of Sciences (Hollandsche Maatschappij van Wetenschappen), founded in 1752, which possesses valuable collections in botany, natural history and geology.
The town has a fine Renaissance château, well restored in modern times, with good collections of furniture and pictures.
Marcasite readily oxidizes on exposure to moist air, with the production of sulphuric acid and a white fibrous efflorescence of ferrous sulphate, and in course of time specimens in collections often became completely disintegrated.
168, containing account of the collections made in Kerguelen by the British transit of Venus expedition in 1874-1875; Lieutard, "Mission aux Iles Kerguelen," &c., Annales hydrographiques (Paris, 1893).
This is implied in the oldest ordination rules and forms of prayer, such as those underlying the " Canons of Hippolytus " and related collections.
William Smith's History of the Late Province of New York, from itsDiscovery to 1762 (1st part, 1757, reprinted in the 1st series of the New York Historical Society Collections, 2 vols., 1829-1830) is still the chief authority for the period from the English Revolution of 1688 to the eve of the War of Independence.
The British Museum and the Musee Cluny in Paris have fine collections of them, mainly dredged from the Thames and the Seine.
Nor have there been many great finds of coins; indeed most of the pieces in European collections probably come from the same hoard.
The museum contains various valuable collections of curiosities, interesting mosaics, coins, casts, a library of 230,000 volumes, and valuable manuscripts.
The gallery of paintings, housed in a handsome building erected in 1880 on the Schdne Aussicht, contains one of the finest small collections in Europe, especially rich in the works of Rembrandt, Frans Hals and Van Dyck.
There are also the Bose Museum, containing collections of pictures and antiquities of Hessian origin, museums of natural history and ethnography, an industrial exhibition hall, and an industrial art school.
The conservatory of music at Leipzig enjoys a world-wide reputation; not less the art collections at Dresden.
Collections which may be consulted are: Codex diplomaticus Saxoniae regiae (Leipzig, 1862-1879); the Archiv fir die sachsische Geschichte, edited by K.
In 1807 he became professor of chemistry and mineralogy at the university of Landshut, and in 1823 conservator of the mineralogical collections at Munich, where he was appointed professor of mineralogy three years later, on the removal thither of the university of Landshut.
The Layton Art Gallery contains one of the best collections of paintings west of the Alleghanies.
The church of Cobham contains one of the richest collections of ancient brasses in England.
History: " Historical Sketch of North and South Dakota," in South Dakota State Historical Society Collections (1902), i.
The Albergo d'Arti, built by Duke Francis III., accommodates the civic collections, comprising the Museo Lapidario (Roman inscriptions, &c.); the valuable archives, the Biblioteca Estense, with 90,000 volumes and 3000 MSS.; the Museo Civico, with large and good palaeo-ethnological and archaeological collections; a fine collection of textile fabrics, and the picture gallery, a good representative collection presented to the city by Francis V.
The Musee Rath contains pictures and sculptures; the Musee Fol, antiquities of various dates; the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, inter alia, a fine collection of prints; the Musee Industriel, industrial objects and models; the Musee Archeologique, prehistoric and archaeological remains; the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, scientific collections; and the Musee Epigraphique, a considerable number of inscriptions.
Some way out of the town is the Musee Ariana (extensive art collections), left, witha fine park, in 1890 to the city by a rich citizen, Gustave Revilliod.
Maastricht contains the provincial archives, a library and geological collections.
Scholars desiring to explore for themselves the sources of Polish history from the nth century to the 18th have immense fields of research lying open before them in the Acta historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia (1878, &c.), the Scriptores rerum polonicarum (1872, &c.), and the Historical Dissertations (Pol., 1874, &c.), all three collections published, under the most careful editorship, by the University of Cracow.
Collections have appeared, however, by Waclaw Zaleski, who writes under the pseudonyms of Waclaw z Oleska, Wojcicki, Roger, Zegota Pauli, and especially Oskar Kolberg.
In the year 1851 Romuald Ziefikiewicz published Songs of the People of Pinsk, and collections have even appeared of those of the Kashoubes, a remnant of the Poles living near Danzig.
ii., gives some of the documents in English, and the Final Act is found in many collections.
Boyle bequeathed his natural history collections to the Royal Society, which also possesses a portrait of him by the German painter, Friedrich Kerseboom (1632-1690).
maintained collections at Conflans, Tournelles and in Paris, and Louis XI.
formed a menagerie at Plessis les Tours in Touraine, which after his death was re-established at the Louvre in Paris and enlarged by collections obtained in North Africa.
and Montezuma II., emperor of Mexico in the beginning of the 16th century, maintained large collections of animals in the gardens of his capital.
According to a reference list compiled by Captain Stanley Flower, there were 102 actually existing public gardens or parks containing collections of wild animals in 1910, while there are also a considerable number of private collections.
There are many smaller collections in the United States and several in Canada, but none of these present features of special interest.
At Para, Brazil, is a good collection attached to the Museum Goeldi, and there are unimportant collections at Rio de Janeiro and Bahia.
There are many small collections in different parts of Asia, but the only garden of great interest is at Alipore, Calcutta, supported chiefly by gate-money and a contribution from government, and managed by an honorary committee.
These collections are not specially rich in the very interesting and peculiar native fauna, but devote themselves preponderatingly to imported animals.
Partly because of its long and successful existence, and partly because of the extensive possessions of Great Britain throughout the world, the Zoological Society of London has been able to exhibit for the first time in captivity a greater number of species of wild animals than probably the total of those shown by all other collections.
At Lyons and at Marseilles in France there are beautifully situated Gardens with small collections, in each case owned and controlled by the municipalities.
In most cases they are associated with concert-halls and open-air restaurants, which account for much of their material prosperity, but the natural taste of the people for wild animals, and the increasing scientific and commercial enterprise of the nation have combined to make the collections rich and interesting.
The chief feature of this is a magnificent panorama, from the central point of which large collections of wild animals are visible without any intervening bars.
The zoological collections of other European countries are of little importance.
Some of the smaller gardens in Europe, and perhaps a majority of those in other parts of the world, pay much attention to this side, but the more important collections are as much as possible limited to natural species and wild animals.
In theory every wild species has its place in a zoological collection, but the actual choice is limited by so many practical considerations that the better-known collections are remarkably alike.
Birds and mammals take the first place; the leading collections devote a good deal of attention to reptiles and batrachians; fishes and aquatic invertebrata are most often to be found only when there are special aquaria, whilst non-aquatic invertebrates are seldom to be seen and at most consist of a few moths and butterflies, spiders, scorpions and centipedes, molluscs and crustaceans.
The most promising sources of new animals for collections are young creatures which have been partly tamed by hunters, traders or natives, and which have been acquired by travellers.
All collections of living beings are subject to epidemics, and in an ideal menagerie special precautions should be taken.
Flower, Notes on Zoological Collections visited in Europe in 1907 (Public Works Dept., Cairo); Reference List of the Zoological Gardens of the World (t9 to); C. V.
The missionary collections of the denomination were given to the London Missionary Society from 1798 to 1840, when a Connexional Society was formed; and no better instances of missionary enterprise are known than those of the Khasia and Jaintia Hills, and the Plains of Sylhet in N.
A few of her voluminous writings, which include poems, plays, novels, short stories, essays, collections of aphorisms, &c., may be singled out for special mention.
The Teleki palace contains the Teleki collections, which include a library of 70,000 volumes and several valuable manuscripts (e.g.
A comprehensive scheme for translating the principal Greek prose authors into Latin was carried out at Rome by the founder of the manuscript collections of the Vatican, Nicholas V.
The museum Francisco-Carolinum, founded in 1833 and reconstructed in 1895, contains several important collections relating to the history of Upper Austria.
In the absence of all external evidence respecting the formation of the canon, we are driven to internal evidence in our endeavour to fix the dates at which these three collections were thus canonized.
- cl.); and in many parts it is manifestly based upon independent smaller collections; for it contains groups of psalms headed " David," the " sons of Korah," " Asaph," " Songs of Ascents."
1 (with the title " The Proverbs of Solomon "), and other, shorter collections, beginning at xxii.
- is to be substituted the new critical question - From these post-exilic collections how are the pre-exilic elements to be extracted ?
- For the results of the various voyages of explorers see their narratives, especially those of Captain Cook, and among the earlier Collections of voyages see especially Captain James Burney, Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean - from the earliest navigators to 1764 - (London, 1803-1817).
Of collections of Midrash the chief are (a) the Yalqut Shimeoni, which arranges the material according to the text of the Old Testament (extending over the whole of it), preserves much from sources that have since disappeared, and is valuable for the criticism of the text of the Midrashim (recent ed.
Of modern collections special mention must be made of A.
von Siebold's Japanese collections.
Noteworthy also are the collection of the Society of Dutch Literature (1766); the collections of casts and of engravings; the seamen's training school; the Remonstrant seminary, transferred hither from Amsterdam in 1873; the two hospitals (one of which is private); the house of correction; and the court-house.
The number of published weights did not exceed 600 of all standards in 1880; but the collections from Naucratis (28), Defenneh (29) and Memphis (44) have supplied over six times this quantity, and of an earlier age than most other examples, while existing collections have been more thoroughly examined.
(Note: these figures refer to the authorities at the end of this section.) It is above all desirable to make allowances for the changes which weights have undergone; and, as this has only been done for the above Egyptian collections and that of the British Museum, conclusions as to the accurate values of different standards will here be drawn from these rather than continental sources.
As other collections are but a fraction of the whole of these, and are much less completely examined, little if any good would be done by including them in the combined results, though for special types or inscriptions they will be mentioned.
In most collections of tables of logarithms, and especially those intended for use in connexion with navigation, there occurs a small table of logistic logarithms in which a = 3600"(= I° or I h), the table giving log 3600 log x, and x being expressed in minutes and seconds.
Another plant of the same family (Leguminosae) Hedysarum coronarium, a very handsome hardy biennial often seen in old-fashioned collections of garden plants, is commonly called the French honeysuckle.
Blake, Catalogue of the Historical and Archaeological Collections of the National Museum of Mexico (Mexico, 1884); Eug.
This explains the fact that in collections of medieval homilies that have come down to us, no two renderings of the Biblical text used are ever alike, not even Wycliffe himself making use of the text of the commonly accepted versions that went under his name.
The Ferry Museum, founded by Clinton P. Ferry, has interesting historical and ethnological collections.
This is the first notice of Sunday Eucharistic collections of alms for the poor.
These Manichaean dissertations also became known in the Graeco-Roman Empire, and existed in collections.'
The formal gardens of Holland House are finely laid out, and the rooms of the house are both beautiful in themselves and enriched with collections of pictures, china and tapestries.
Snorri's sources were partly succinct histories of the realm, as the chronological sketch of Ari; partly more voluminous early collections of traditions, as the Noregs Konungatal (Fagrskinna) and the Jarlasaga; partly legendary biographies of the two Olafs; and, in addition to these, studies and collections which he himself made during his journeys in Norway.
See Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (Columbus, 1891).
Moreover Strabo probably amassed his material in the library of Alexandria, so that Greek authorities would naturally furnish the great bulk of his collections.
It purports to be the second part of a combination of two anthologies, the Mufaddaliyat of al-Mufaeldal and the Asma`ayat of al-Asma`i, but contains many more poems than are in either of these collections as found elsewhere.
Collections of fruit grown in British Columbia have received premier honours at the competitive exhibitions of the Royal Horticultural Society in London, where their high quality and fine colour have been greatly appreciated.
Collections of weed seeds are issued to merchants and others to enable them readily to identify noxious weed seeds.
Such are Anthologies or collections of extracts.
Of printed collections the chief are the editio princeps by Beatus Rhenanus (Basel, 1521), Migne, Patr.
The book-lice are familiar wingless insects, often found in houses running about among old papers and neglected biological collections.
The museum, in the old East India Company's house, has fine collections in natural history, entomology, botany, anatomy, archaeology and ethnography, a picture and sculpture gallery, and exhibits of coins and industrial art.
For the history of Lusatia see the collections, Scriptores rerum Lusaticarum antiqui et recentiores, edited by C. G.
The most valuable public collections in Europe are at St Petersburg, London (British Museum) and Paris (Bibliotheque Nationale), where two or three very rare MSS.
On the isthmus are distinct traces of the canal cut by Xerxes before his invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. The peninsula is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, and derives a peculiar interest from its unique group of monastic communities with their medieval customs and institutions, their treasures of Byzantine art and rich collections of documents.
It was intended to be the vestibule to a palace, but now contains a number of collections of great value.
Dresden owes a large part of its fame to its extensive artistic, literary and scientific collections.
Among other collections is that of the Korner museum with numerous reminiscences of the Goethe-Schiller epoch, and of the wars of liberation (1813-15), and containing valuable manuscripts and relics.
As to fables, one of the most popular collections in the middle ages was that written by Marie de France, which she claimed to have translated from King Alfred.
The religious tales deal mostly with the Mary Legends, and have been handed down to us in three collections: (i.) The Adgar's collection.
the cartularies of the church and the town of Die (1868), of the abbey of St Andre le-Bas at Vienne (1869),(1869), of the abbey of Notre Dame at Bonnevaux in the diocese of Vienne (1889), of the abbey of St Chaffre at Le Monestier (1884), the Cheviot Hills inventories and several collections of archives of the dauphins of Viennais, and a Bibliotheque liturgique in six volumes (1893-1897), the third and fourth volumes of which constitute the Repertorium hymnologicum, containing more than 20,000 articles.
The suffix-ensi-can be shown to have borne a political significance, 1 This statement with those which follow is based upon the collections of the place-names of ancient Italy, arranged according to their locality, by R.
It is situated on the Elbe, and its chief attraction lies in the interesting and valuable collections in its château, which has belonged to the princely family of Lobkowitz since the beginning of the 17th century.
There were also collections on the same scale belonging to individuals; a patrician of Nuremberg named Muffel was able to gain possession of 308 relics (Chroniken der deutschen State, xi.
It possesses a castle, with natural history and antiquarian collections, and a parish church (restored 1891), with the mausoleum (1892) of the reigning princes.
Near both is the splendid Palais de Rumine (on the Place de la Riponne), opened in 1906 and now housing the university as well, as the cantonal library, the cantonal picture gallery (or Musee Arlaud, founded 1841) and the cantonal collections of archaeology, natural history, &c. The university was raised to that rank in 1890, but, as an academy, dates from 1537.
had been able to encroach on France at one point only, when the Albigensian crusade had enabled him to exercise over the southern fiefs conquered by Simon de Montfort a political and secular supremacy in the form of collections of moneys.
But a still more striking period of art is represented by the Vatican, with its antique collections, the Sistine and the Stanze.
Salusbury's Mathematical Collections and Translations (1661-1665); Mechanics and Local Motion, by T.
In the library of the Massachusetts Historical Society at Boston, there are sixty-two manuscript volumes of the Pickering papers, an index to which was published in the Collections of the society, 6th series, vol.
Our knowledge of the flora of northern and central Tibet has been considerably increased by the collections of Prjevalsky, Wellby, Bower, Thorold, Littledale and the Lhasa Mission, and that of eastern Tibet by Rockhill.
The former and other collections have been described in W.
There are a number of poems written in an elevated style, also dramatic works chiefly of the character of mystery plays, and collections of fairy tales and fables.
Several collections of folk songs have also been published by A.
See AFRICA, ROMAN, and the description of the museum by P. Gauckler in the Musees et collections archeologiques de l'Algerie.
Professor Kirsopp Lake has (1903) written four valuable articles (Journal of Theological Studies, iv., v.) on "The Greek monasteries of South Italy"; he deals in detail with their scriptoria and the dispersal of their libraries, a matter of much interest, in that some of the chief collections of Greek MSS.
A few may be found scattered in other collections of Epistolae.
- The most important authority for the history of Charles's reign is represented by the Annales Bertiniani, which were the work of Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, up to 861, then up to 882 of the celebrated Hincmar, archbishop of Reims. This prince's charters are to be found published in the collections of the Acadimie des Inscriptions, by M.
The collections which we possess under the name of Aesop's Fables are late renderings of Babrius's version or Hpo-yv &o sari, rhetorical exercises of varying age and merit.
Stories from Oriental sources were added, and from these collections Maximus Planudes made and edited the collection which has come down to us under the name of Aesop, and from which the popular fables of modern Europe have been derived.
A critical edition of all the previously known fables, prepared by Carl von Halm from the collections of Furia, Coray and Schneider, was published in the Teubner series of Greek and Latin texts.
Most of the objects discovered in the necropolis are preserved in the Roman collections, especially in the Kircherian Museum (which possesses the Ficoroni casket) and the Barberini library.
In cases where it is not convenient to use fire heat, 5° to to° of cold can be resisted by covering the plants over with paper, and by using this before frost has struck the plants valuable collections may be saved.
The reiterated reports of the actual existence of a wandering being, who retained in his memory the details of the crucifixion, show how the idea had fixed itself in popular imagination and found its way into the 19th-century collections of German legends.
Other noteworthy buildings are the provincial museum of antiquities, containing interesting Germanic antiquities, as well as medieval and modern collections of porcelain, pictures, &c.; the courts of justice (transformed in the middle of the 18th century); the old Ommelanderhuis, formerly devoted to the administration of the surrounding district, built in 1509 and restored in 1899; the weigh-house (1874); the civil and military prison; the arsenal; the military hospital; and the concert hall.
Of the numerous institutions for the encouragement of the sciences and the fine arts, the following are strictly national - the Royal Academy of Sciences (1855), the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1854), the National Academy of the Plastic Arts, the Royal School of Music, the National Archives, besides various other national collections and museums. Provincial scientific societies exist at Middelburg, Utrecht, 's Hertogenbosch and Leeuwarden, and there are private and municipal associations, institutions and collections in a large number of the smaller towns.
The lower town contains an important picture-gallery, consisting of three collections of works of north Italian masters, one of which was bequeathed in 1891 by the art critic Giovanni Morelli.
There were also Commentarii of the priestly colleges: (a) Pontificum, collections of their decrees and responses for future reference, to be distinguished from their Annales, which were historical records, and from their Acta, minutes of their meetings; (b) Augurum, similar collections of augural decrees and responses; (c) Decemvirorum; (d) Fratrum Arvalium.
A figure of Atlas supporting the heavens is often found as a frontispiece in early collections of maps, and is said to have been first thus used by Mercator.
The town-hall and library building is a fine structure; the library contains about 20,000 volumes, and the museum and collections of the Winchester Historical and Genealogical Society.
There are now many large collections of hardy trees and shrubs in private parks and gardens throughout the British Islands, the interest taken in them by their proprietors having largely increased in recent years.
His collections of original materials were vast; beginning with his residence in England, he brought together at enormous pains and expense the authenticated copies of archives, family papers, and personal journals written by historic personages, which now constitute an invaluable treasure in the New York public library.
As a poet he wrote but little, but there are passages in The Saint's Tragedy and many isolated lyrics, which are worthy of a place in all standard collections of English literature.
He is chiefly known as a writer of hymns and poems, including "Rock of Ages," and the collections entitled Poems on Sacred Subjects (Dublin, 1759) and Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Worship (London, 1776).
Ample provision is made for scientific collections of all kinds in almost all places of any importance, either at the public expense or through private munificence.
The picture galleries of Dresden, Munich and Cassel still rival that at Berlin, though the latter is rapidly becoming one of the richest in the world in works of the great masters, largely at the cost of the private collections of England.
For contemporary history and also for the century or so which preceded the lifetimes of their authors these writings are fairly trustworthy, but beyond this they are little more than collections of legends.
The publication of collections of chronicles began in 1529, and the uncritical fashion in which these were reproduced made forgeries easy and frequent.
Among the collections of authorities made during the 16th and I7th centuries those of J.
The two chief collections which were issued by the philosopher are the Accessiones historicae (1698-1700) and the Scriptores reruni Brunsvicensium; the latter of these, containing documents centring round the history of the Weif family, was published in three volumes at Hanover (1707-1711).
Other collections followed those of Leibnitz, among which may be mentioned the Corpus historicum mcdii aevi of j.
But these collections are merely heaps of historical material, good and bad; the documents therein were not examined and they are now quite superseded.
The progress of the Monumeitta stimulated the production of other works of a like nature, and among the smaller collections of authorities which appeared during the r9th century two are worthy of mention.
Much has also been done in Prussia, in Brandenburg, in Bavaria, in Hanover, in Wurttemberg and in Baden, and collections of authorities have been made by competent scholars, of which the Geschichtsquellen der Provinz Sachsen und angrenzender Gebiete (Halle, 1870, f 01.), which extends to forty volumes, the smaller Scrip/ores rerum Prussicarum (Leipzig, 1861-1874), and the seventy-seven volumes of the Publikationen aus den koniglichen preussischen Slaatsarchiven, veranlasst und unterstutzt durch die konigliche Archivverwaltung (Leipzig, 1878, fol.), may be cited as examples.
Apart from political histories there are useful collections of laws and other official documents of importance, and also a large number of valuable works on the laws and constitutions of the Germans and on German institutions generally.
Among the collections are M.
Collections dealing with more recent history are J.
Tulloch's best-known works are collections of biographical sketches of the leaders of great movements in church history, such as the Reformation and Puritanism.
Rufinus in his preface to this work - in which for the first time we meet the title Recognition(s) - observes that there are two editions to which the name applies, two collections of books differing in some points but in many respects containing the same narrative.
He also came to know the Oxford collections of Brian Twyne to which he was greatly indebted.
His literary style is poor, and his taste and judgment are frequently warped by prejudice, but his two great works and unpublished collections form a priceless source of information on Oxford and her worthies.
12mo); Hearne's Remarks and Collections (Oxford Historical Society, 1885-1907), vols.
The Essex Institute (1848) is housed in a brick building (1851) with freestone trimmings and in old Plummer Hall (1857); its museum contains some old furniture and a collection of portraits; it has an excellent library and publishes quarterly (1859 sqq.) Historical' Collections.
Its museum, like the ethnological and natural history collection of the Essex Institute, was bought by the Peabody Academy of Science, whose museum now includes Essex county collections (natural history, mineralogy, botany, prehistoric relics, &c.), type collections of minerals and fossils; implements, dress, &c. of primitive peoples, especially rich in objects from Malaysia, Japan and the South Seas; and portraits and relics of famous Salem merchants, with models and pictures of Salem merchant vessels.
of Pertz and his collaborators, there are several collections devoted specially to the sources of Austrian history.
Of collections of treaties the most notable is that of L.
Many further authorities, whether works, memoirs or collections of documents, are referred to in the lists appended to the articles in this book on the various Austrian sovereigns and statesmen.
From this tour Ray and Willughby returned laden with collections, on which they meant to base complete systematic descriptions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Willughby undertook the former part, but, dying in 1672, left only an ornithology and ichthyology, in themselves vast, for Ray to edit; while the latter used the botanical collections for the groundwork of his Methodus plantarum nova (1682), and his great Historia generalis plantarum (3 vols., 1686, 1688, _1704).
His earliest collections of stories and sketches, Aus Halb- Asien, Land and Leute des ostlichen Europas (1876) and Die Juden von Barnow (1877) depict graphically the life and manners of the races of southeastern Europe.
The saturae of Ennius were collections of writings on various subjects, written in various metres and contained in four (or six) books.
Of the collections of Egyptian antiquities in public museums, those of the British Museum, Leiden, Berlin, the Louvre, Turin were already very important in the first half of the i9th century, also in a less degree those of Florence, Bologna and the Vatican.
In America the museums and universities of Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco and New York have collections of greater or less interest.
Besides these the museums of Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester and Oxford are noteworthy in Great Britain for their Egyptian antiquities, as are those of St Petersburg, Vienna, Marseilles, Munich, Copenhagen, Palcrmo and Athens; there are also collections in most of the British colonies.
Private collections are numerous.
Chabas, but other papyri of as great or greater importance are to be found in the Leiden, Turin and other collections.
Scholars in England, America and Denmark, as well as in Germany, have taken part in this great enterprise, and though the completion of it may be far off, the collections of classified material already made are very valuable for consultation.i At present Egyptologists depend on Heinrich Brugschs admirable but somewhat antiquated Wrterbuch and on Levis useful but entirely uncritical Vocabolario.
In it we have(a) the recently discovered inscriptions of the 1st Dynasty, too brief and concise to throw much light on the language of that time; and the great collections of spells and ritual texts found inscribed in the Pyramids of the Vth and VIth Dynasties, which must even then have been of high antiquity, though they contain later additions made in the same style.
But Auersperg's fame rests almost exclusively on his political poetry; two collections entitled Spaziergdnge eines Wiener Poeten (1831) and Schutt (1835) created a sensation in Germany by their originality and bold liberalism.
The oldest laws which are still preserved date from the beginning of the 13th century, and many different collections are in existence.'
The two collections resemble one another so closely, both in form and extent, that they can only be regarded as two versions of the same code.
A great stimulus to the study of Frederick's history has since been given by the publication of collections of documents preserved in various archives.
No complete collection of them existed, for although two collections (Codex gregorianus and Codex hermogenianus) had been made by two jurists in the 4th century, and a large supplementary collection published by the emperor Theodosius II.
in 438 (Codex theodosianus), these collections did not include all the constitutions; there were others which it was necessary to obtain separately, but many whereof it must have been impossible for a private person to procure.
The three collections of the Novels which we possess are apparently private collections, nor do we even know how many such constitutions were promulgated.
He gave to posterity not one code but two digests or collections of extracts, which are new only to this extent that they are arranged in a new order, having been previously altogether unconnected with one another, and that here and there their words have been modified in order to bring one extract into harmony with some other.
But let it be observed, first, that to reduce the huge and confused mass of pre-existing law into the compass of these two collections was an immense practical benefit to the empire; secondly, that, whereas the work which he undertook was accomplished in seven years, the infinitely more difficult task of codification might probably have been left unfinished at Tribonian's death, or even at Justinian's own, and been abandoned by his successor; thirdly, that in the extracts preserved in the Digest we have the opinions of the greatest legal luminaries given in their own admirably lucid, philosophical and concise language, while in the extracts of which the Codex is composed we find valuable historical evidence bearing on the administration and social condition of the later Pagan and earlier Christian empire; fourthly, that Justinian's age, that is to say, the intellect of the men whose services he commanded, was quite unequal to so vast an undertaking as the fusing upon scientific principles into one new organic whole of the entire law of the empire.
With the aid of the manuscript collections in the museum he now turned his attention chiefly to political history, and, with Johann H.
The former of these is in the Uffizi at Florence; of the latter, four versions exist, that in the National Gallery (formerly in the Ashburton-Northampton collections) having the best claim to originality.
Two totally dissimilar portraits of young women, both existing in duplicate examples (one pair at Augsburg and Frankfort, the other pair in the collections of M.
Of his drawings, which for students are the most vitally interesting part of his works, the richest collections are in the Albertina at Vienna, the Berlin Museum and the British Museum.
The Louvre also possesses some good examples, and many others are dispersed in various public collections, as in the Musee Bonnat at Bayonne, at Munich, Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfort, Dresden, Basel, Milan, Florence and Oxford, as well as in private hands all over Europe.
C. Hazlitt, Collections and Notes (London, 1882 and 1887).
The canons formed part of the Codex canonum used at Chalcedon in 451 and passed over into the later collections of East and West.
He assisted Sir Wyville Thomson in the examination and classification of the collections of the "Challenger" exploring expedition, and wrote the Review of the Echini (2 vols., 1872-1874) in the reports.
Our knowledge of this non-Chaucerian material, as of the Chaucerian, is chiefly derived from the MS. collections of Asloan, Bannatyne (q.v.) and Maitland (q.v.), supplemented by the references to " fugitive " and " popular " literature in Dunbar, Douglas, Lyndsay and, in especial, the prose Complaynt of Scotlande.
In the collections there are few examples of the simple fabliau, the best being the Thrie Priestis of Peblis and The Dumb Wyf, or of the social variety of the same as shown in Rauf Coil3ear and John the Reeve.
On the other hand, the work of modern systematists shows an extraordinarily exact relation between their species and geographical locality, and the fact of divergent evolution can be almost demonstrated in museum collections when localities have been recorded exactly.
These collections contain introductions and explanatory passages by the author.
Other collections edited by Bohmer are: Die Reichsgesetze 900-1400 (Frankfort, 1832); Wittelsbachische Regesten von der Erwerbung des Herzogtums Bayern bis zu 1340 (Stuttgart, 1 854); and Codex diplomaticus Moeno-Francofurtanus.
The metal, however, is singularly scarce in collections of Egyptian antiquities.
The town possesses a museum with good archaeological and natural history collections, a literary institute and a horticultural society.
When the Buddha died these sayings were collected together by his disciples into what they call the Four Nikayas, or "collections."
The next is the Majjhima Nikaya, the "Collection of the suttantas of Medium Length" - medium, that is, as being shorter than the suttantas in the Digha, and longer than the ordinary suttas preserved in the two following collections.
Between them these first two collections contain 186 dialogues, in which the Buddha, or in a few cases one of his leading disciples, is represented as engaged in conversation on some one of the religious, or philosophic, or ethical points in that system which we now call Buddhism.
The next, and last, of these four collections contains again the whole, or nearly the whole, of the Buddhist doctrine; but arranged this time in order of subjects.
Many hundreds of the short suttas and verses in these two collections are found, word for word, in the dialogues.
His work of greatest value, his Annals, still remains in MS. in Lord Bute's and Lord de la Warr's collections (Hist.
Jonas (7 vols.) in 1892-1896; the chief collections of his correspondence are: Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller and Goethe (1828-1829, edited by F.
It is well provided with scientific laboratories, botanic garden, and various collections, and possesses a library with nearly a quarter of a million volumes.
Next to it comes the national museum, founded in 1807 through the donations of Count Stephan Szechenyi, which contains extensive collections of antiquities, natural history and ethnology, and a rich library which, in its manuscript department of over 20,000 MSS., contains the oldest specimens of the Hungarian language.
Amiens has a rich library and admirable collections of paintings, sculptures and antiquities in the museum of Picardy.
Under the pseudonym "Edelwald Justus" he published several collections of popular tales - Bunte Blatter (1795); Kleine Schriften zur Unterhaltung (1798); Nebenstunden (1799).
iv.), "Record Book and Papers of John Todd" (Chicago Historical Society, Collections, iv.), C. E.
The publications of the Chicago Historical Society, of the "Fergus Historical" series, of the State Historical Library, of the Wisconsin Historical Society, also the Michigan Pioneer Collections, contain valuable documents and essays.
His duties were light, and he employed his leisure in the study of philology, mathematics, philosophy, history, political economy, natural science and natural history, for which he made large collections.
Besides his printed works he made vast collections of historical material which remains in MS. and fills the greater part of the Godefroy collection of over five hundred portfolios in the Library of the Institute in Paris.
He was especially anxious to obtain works of art, mainly sculpture, for the famous Munich collections which he started, and in this he had the advantage of the assistance of the painter Martin Wagner.
To him Munich owes her finest art collections and most remarkable buildings.
These may have been severally made from current collections, a number of which were probably in existence.
Collections of selected letters based on the Weimar edition have been published by E.
The chief collections of Goethe's conversations are: J.
2 If they deserve any blame it is for the pride, natural to their rank and their generation, which prevented them from charging an entrance fee, an expedient which would not only have made it possible for them to give access to the house and collections, but would have enabled them to save the fabric from falling into the lamentable state of disrepair in which it was found after their death.
to visit the collections of Egyptian antiquities in the museums of Turin, Leghorn, Rome and Naples; and on his return he was appointed director of the Egyptian museum at the Louvre.
The laws are (a) partly contemporary collections (chiefly of a ritual and ceremonial character) and (b) partly collections of older and different origin, though now in post-exilic frames.
The old hospital on the island-quarter contains a museum with interesting collections of paintings, Gallo-Roman antiquities, sculpture, &c. Close by stands the library, which possesses many valuable MSS.
After four years spent in visiting the Egyptian collections of Italy, Holland and England, he returned to Germany, where Humboldt and Bunsen united their influence to make his projected visit to Egypt a scientific expedition with royal support.