The first national coinage was begun in 1822, and the decimal system was adopted in 1863.
At last that final expedient of weak governments, the debasing of the coinage, led to a crisis.
J52), king of the Ostrogoths, was chosen king after the death of his uncle Ildibad in 541, his real name being, as is seen from the coinage issued by him, Baduila.
In the election of 1896 all the parties in the state declared in favour of the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1.
For the coinage see NUMISMATICS.
Besides the ordinary shell money, there is a sort of stone coinage, consisting of huge calcite or limestone discs or wheels from 6 in.
Both parties in the state in 1888 declared in favour of free coinage, and in 1892 instructed their delegates to the national conventions to oppose any candidate who did not favour this policy.
The amounts of Turkish gold, silver and debased coinage in circulation are approximately £T16,500,000, in gold, £T8,70o,000 (940,000,000 piastres at 108) in silver mejidies and fractions, and 200,000,000 piastres in beshlik and metallik.
In a campaign largely restricted to the question of free-silver coinage he was defeated for re-election in 1894, and subsequently was also defeated as the Democratic candidate for the United States Senate.
In the latter he advocated the unlimited coinage of silver, irrespective of international agreement, at a ratio of 16 to 1, a policy with which his name was afterwards most prominently associated.
It was among the towns that had the right of coinage, and it manufactured carts, baskets, &c. Cicero speaks of it as a place of some importance.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
In the Democratic national convention at Chicago in 1896, during a long and heated debate with regard to the party platform, Bryan, in advocating the "plank" declaring for the free coinage of silver, of which he was the author, delivered a celebrated speech containing the passage, "You shall not press down upon the brow of labour this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
Metallic money is limited to nickel and bronze coins, but in 1906 the government was authorized to purchase bar silver for the coinage of pieces of the denomination of two milreis, one milreis and 500 reis (2-milreis).
The public revenues are derived from customs taxes and charges on imports and exports, transit taxes, cattle taxes, profits on coinage, receipts from state monopolies, receipts from various public services such as the post office, telegraph, Caracas waterworks, &c., and sundr y taxes, fines and other sources.
In 1908 (July 31) the total debt of Venezuela (according to official returns) consisted of the following items: The currency of Venezuela is on a gold basis, the coinage of silver and nickel is restricted, and the state issues no paper notes.
The coinage formerly was the caroub and piastre (the latter worth about 6d.), but in 1891 the French reformed the coinage, substituting the franc as a unit, and having the money minted at Paris.
The symbol G was a new coinage in the 3rd century B.C. The pronunciation of C throughout the period of classical Latin was that of an unvoiced guttural stop (k).
reorganize the countries coinage system.
He permitted laymen to hold certain public offices, under surveillance of the prelates, organized a guard from among the Roman nobility, decreed a plan for redeeming the base coinage, permitted the communes a certain degree of municipal liberty, and promised the liquidation of the public debt.
The values of the coinage are pieces of 5 and 10 centimes in bronze, of 50 centimes, 1 franc and 2 francs in silver, of 10 francs and 20 francs in gold.
Thus it was the Aeginetans who, within thirty or forty years of the invention of coinage by the Lydians (c. 700 B.C.), introduced to the western world a system of such incalculable value to trade.
The expansion of Levantine trade which ensued in the Hellenistic age brought especial profit to Rhodes, whose standard of coinage and maritime law became widely accepted in the Mediterranean.
Webb, The Reign and Coinage of Carausius (1908).
He reformed the coinage, developed trade and commerce and introduced numerous agricultural reforms, especially on his own estates, which he was never weary of enlarging, so that on his death he was the wealthiest landowner in Denmark.
The coinage began before the Roman conquest was completed; the monetary system resembles that of the Roman republic, with values analogous to denarii and quinarii.
This latter Act he approved only as a means of escaping the free coinage of silver, and he supported its repeal in 1893.
His son Edmund, earl of Cornwall, built a great hall at Lostwithiel and decreed that the coinage of tin should be at Lostwithiel only.
The coinage had not only been seriously debased during the closing years of the Tokugawa regime, but large quantities of paper currency had been issued and circulated, both by many of the feudal lords, and by the central government itself, as a temporary expedient for filling an impoverished exchequer.
Currency.The lira (plural lire) of 100 centesimi (centimes) is equal in value to the French franc. The total coinage (exclusive of Eritrean currency) from the 1st of January 1862 to the end of 1907 was 1,104,667,116 lire (exclusive of recoinage), divided as follows: gold, 427,516,970 lire; silver, 570,097,025 lire; nickel, 23,417,000 lire; bronze, 83,636,121 lire.
He employed him in setting right the coinage.
In 1885 the Nevada Silver Association was formed for the purpose of advocating the free and unlimited coinage of silver.
In George IV.'s reign were issued the so-called "lion shillings," bearing the royal crest, a crowned lion on a crown, a design reverted to in the coinage of Edward VII.
Before silver coinage was introduced (269 B.C.) the value of the as was about 6d., in the time of Cicero less than a halfpenny.
During the commonwealth and empire aes grave was used to denote the old as in contradistinction to the existing depreciated coin; while aes rude was applied to the original oblong coinage of primitive times.
It is interesting, as bringing out the personal element in the traditional royal seat, that an inscribed sealing belonging to the earliest period of the later palace of Cnossus bears on it the impression of two official signets with portrait heads of a man and of a boy, recalling the " associations " on the coinage of imperial Rome.
He was severe, but just and impartial, and strove to effect necessary reforms by reducing the numbers of the Janissaries, improving the coinage, and checking the state expenditure.
The principal works on the Arsacid coinage are (after the earlier publications of Longperier, Prokesch-Ostan, &c.): Percy Gardner, The Parthian Coinage (London, 1877), and especially W.
Alexander's gold coinage, indeed (possibly not struck till after the invasion of Asia), follows in weight that of Philip's staters; but he seems at once to have adopted for his silver coins (of a smaller denomination than the tetradrachm) the Euboic-Attic standard, instead of the Phoenician, which had been Philip's.
With the conquest of Asia, Alexander conceived the plan of issuing a uniform coinage for the empire.
This imperial coinage was designed to break down the monetary predominance of Athens (Beloch, Gr.
Corinth, however, was allowed to go on striking staters under Antigonus Gonatas; Ephesus, Cos and the greater cities of Phoenicia retained their right of coinage under Seleucid or Ptolemaic supremacy.
The basis of the system adopted was the double standard with a fixed relation of I to 15.09, and free coinage.
The silver coinage consisted of the mejidie (weight 24.055 grammes, 0.830 fine), equivalent to 20 piastres, and its subdivisions 10, 5, 2, I, and 2 piastre pieces.
The heavy depreciation in silver causing large losses to the government, free coinage was suspended in 1880, and the nominal value of the mejidie was reduced by decree to 19 piastres (105.26 piastres thus = £T1), while in the same year the debased currencies were reduced, altilik, the 6-piastre piece to 5 piastres, the 3-piastre piece to 22 piastres, the 12-piastre piece to 14 piastre; beshlik, the 5-piastre piece to 22 piastres, the 22-piastre piece to 1;-piastre; metallik, the 1-piastre piece to 2 piastre, the 2-piastre piece to 4 piastre, the *-piastre piece to a piastre - these values representing approximately the intrinsic value of the silver, at mejidie standard, contained in the debased coins.
These debased currencies are usually at a premium over gold owing to the extreme scarcity of fractional coinage.
She was recognized as an authority on several subjects, especially on Russian coinage.
The single gold standard has been in force in Peru since 1897 and 1898, silver and copper being used for subsidiary coinage.
The silver coinage consists of the sol (100 cents), half sol (50 cents), and pieces of 20 (peseta), so and 5 cents; and the copper coinage of 1 and 2 cents.
Blaine, who had previously opposed greenback inflation now resisted depreciated silver coinage.
He introduced a new system of weights and measures, which he ordered should be used throughout his kingdom, and took steps to reform the coinage.
(2) (From Tamil kasu, Sinhalese kasi, a small coin, adopted by Portuguese as caixa, a box, and similarly assimilated in English to "cash" above), a name given by English residents in the East to native coins of small value, and particularly to the copper coinage of China, the native name for which is tsien.
4d.) is the standard coin, with a subsidiary decimal coinage.
He had taught his child to whistle, dined with his servants, talked of "worldly things such as baking, brewing, enclosing, ploughing and mining," preferred walking to riding, and denounced the debasement of the coinage.
Cleveland had written a letter for publication before he became president, saying that a financial crisis of great severity must result if this coinage were continued, and expressing the hope that Congress would speedily put an end to it.
In 1782 he prepared an elaborate report on the coinage, suggesting the use of the decimal system and of the terms dollar and cent.
He was interested too in numismatics, and his letters on Arabic coinage (in Eichhorn's Repertorium, vols.
The best metals for coinage are gold, silver, platinum, copper, tin, nickel, aluminium, zinc, iron, and their alloys; certain alloys of gold, silver, copper and nickel have the best combination of the required qualities.
In 1718 Sir Isaac Newton was made master of the Mint, and in that capacity as contractor for the coinage he amassed a considerable fortune.
5 Rogers Ruding, Annals of the Coinage, 3rd ed.
in 1788, and a colonial bronze coinage was executed at this establishment as recently as the year 1875.
1 Coinage in Dublin began in AngloSaxon times and came to an end in the reign of William III.2 The other Irish mints were of little importance.
Up to 1909 only sovereigns and half-sovereigns were struck at these establishments, but in Iwo arrangements were made for a Commonwealth silver coinage.
Finally in 1816 the free coinage of silver was brought to an end.
The result is that the gold presented for coinage is almost always sent from the Bank of England, which suffers no loss of interest during the coinage of the bullion, because bank-notes have already been issued against it.
Coinage bronze consists of copper 95 parts, tin 4 parts and zinc I part, and a ton yields X44 8 in pence or £ 373, 6s.
In European mints generally little difficulty is experienced in procuring refined gold and silver for coinage.
In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the master of the Mint, finding the allowance under his contract to be insufficient, availed himself of the remedy on the silver coinage, which amounted to 6±d.
A full account of the work of the Mint, with valuable tables giving the amount of the coinage of gold and silver and bronze in the United Kingdom and the colonies in detail, and a résumé of the coinages of foreign countries, will be found in the Annual Reports of the Deputy Master and Comptroller of the Mint, which have been published since 1870.
168); the chief coin type, a gryphon, is identical with that of Teos; the coinage is noted for the beauty and variety of its reverse types.
Encouraged by an improved coinage, trade made great advances, and other benefits also accrued from the discovery of silver on the Schneeberg.
There is reason to suspect that the expression "the second Adam" is the coinage either of St Paul or of some one closely connected with him (as Prof. G.
In 1902, owing to the serious depreciation of the value of silver, the Siamese mint was closed to free coinage, and an arrangement was made providing for the gradual enhancement of the value of the tical until a suitable value should be attained at which it might be fired.: This measure was successful, the value of the tical having thereby been increased from 'Id.
In accordance with the custom formerly prevalent in all the kingdoms of Further India, the coinage of Siam furnishes the standard of weight.
His reign is a period of some importance in the legislative history of Scotland, as measures were passed with regard to the tenure of land, the reformation of the coinage, and the protection of the poor, while the organization for the administration of justice was greatly improved.
A Portuguese squadron under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira arrived off Sumatra in 1509, explored the north coast for some distance, and noted that the inhabitants of the interior were cannibals, while those of the littoral were civilized and possessed a gold coinage.
On the 24th of October 1896 an act was passed for the adoption of a gold coinage, and the execution of this act was decreed on the 17th of April 1900.
Cocoa-beans were the current coinage.
17 9 6, 8vo, published anonymously; A Chronological Account of Commerce and Coinage in Great Britain from the Restoration till 1810, Lond.
Another defect in the evidence of coins is that, when one variety of the unit of weight was once fixed on for the coinage, there was (barring the depreciation) no departure from it, because of the need of a fixed value, and hence coins do not show the range and character of the real variations of units as do buildings, or vases, or the actual commercial weights.
It should be borne in mind that in early times the larger values, such as minae, would be transmitted by commerce, while after the introduction of coinage the lesser values of shekels and drachmae would be the units; and this needs notice, because usually a borrowed unit was multiplied or divided according to the ideas of the borrowers, and strange modifications thus arose.
7: Connexions with Coinage.
-- From the 7th century B.C. onward, the relations of units of weight have been complicated by the need of the interrelations of gold, silver and copper coinage; and various standards have been derived theoretically from others through the weight of one metal equal in value to a unit of another.
That this mode of originating standards was greatly promoted, if not started, by the use of coinage we may see by the rarity of the Persian silver weight (derived from the Assyrian standard), soon after the introduction of coinage, as shown in the weights of Defenneh (29).
The Ptolemaic copper coinage is on two bases -- the uten, binarily divided, and the Ptolemaic five shekels (1050), also binarily divided.
A heavier value is shown by the precious metals -- the gold plates from Khorsabad (18) giving 129, and the gold daric coinage (21, 35) of Persia 129.2.
On the Aegean coast it often occurs in early coinage (17) -- at Lampsacus 131-129, Phocaea 256-254, Cyzicus 252-247, Methymna 124.6, &c. In later times it was a main unit of North Syria, and also on the Euxine, leaden weights of Antioch,(3), Callatia and Tomis being known (38).
But the leaden weights of the west (44) from Corfu, &c., average 7580, or 126.3; this standard was kept up at Cyzicus in trade long after it was lost in coinage.
At Corinth the unit was evidently the Assyrian and not the Attic, being 129.6 at the earliest (17) (though modified to double Attic, or 133, later) and being divided by 3, and not into 2 drachms. And this agrees with the mina being repeatedly found at Corcyra, and with the same standard passing to the Italian coinage (17) similar in weight, and in division into 1/3 -- the heaviest coinages (17) down to 400 B.C. (Terina, Velia, Sybaris, Posidonia, Metapontum, Tarentum, &c.) being none over 126, while later on many were adjusted to the Attic, and rose to 134.
It is usually the case that a unit lasts later in trade than in coinage; and the prominence of this standard in Italy may show how it is that this mina (18 unciae = 7400) was known as the "Italic" in the days of Galen and Dioscorides (2).
It is known in the coinage of Hatria (18) as 6320.
The Persian silver coinage shows about 86.0; the danak was 1/3 of this or 28.7, Xenophon and others state it at about 84.
It is perhaps found in Etrurian coinage as 175-172 (17).
The relation is 258: 229 :: 9:8; but the exact form in which the descent took place is not settled: 1/60 or 129 of gold is worth 57 of silver or a drachm, 1/4 of 230 (or by trade weights 127 and 226); otherwise, deriving it from the silver weight of 86 already formed, the drachm is 1/3 of the stater, 172, or double of the Persian danak of 28.7, and the sacred unit of Didyma in Ionia was this half-drachm, 27; or thirdly, what is indicated by the Lydian coinage (17), 86 of gold was equal to 1150 of silver, 5 shekels or 1/10th mina.
In coinage it is one of the commonest units in early times; from Phoenicia, round the coast to Macedonia, it is predominant (17); at a maximum of 230 (Ialysus), it is in Macedonia 224, but seldom exceeds 220 elsewhere, the earliest Lydian of the 7th century being 219, and the general average of coins 218.
From the Phoenician coinage it was adopted for the Maccabean.
Turning to coinage, we find this often, but usually overlooked as a degraded form of the Persian 86 grains siglos.
But the earliest coinage in Cilicia, before the general Persian coinage (17) about 380 B.C., is Tarsus, 164 grains; Soli, 169, 163, 158; Nagidus, 158, 161-153 later; Issus, 166; Mallus, 163-154 -- all of which can only by straining be classed as Persian; but they agree to this standard, which, as we have seen, was used in Syria in earlier times by the Khita, &c. The Milesian or "native" system of Asia Minor (18) is fixed by Hultsch at 163 and 81.6 grains -- the coins of Miletus (17) showing 160, 80 and 39.
But we are now able to prove that it was an independent system -- (1) by its not ranging usually over 200 grains in Egypt before it passed to Greece; (2) by its earliest example, perhaps before the 224 unit existed, not being over 208; and (3) by there being no intermediate linking on of this to the Phoenician unit in the large number of Egyptian weights, nor in the Ptolemaic coinage, in which both standards are used.
So we have thus a weight of 207-191 in Egypt on marked weights, joining therefore completely with the Aeginetan unit in Egypt of 199 to 186, and coinage of 199, and strongly connected with Syria, where a double mina of Sidon (18) is 10,460 or 50 x 209.2.
Probably before any Greek coinage we find this among the haematite weights of Troy (44), ranging from 208 to 193.2 (or 104-96.6), i.e.
just covering the range from the earliest Egyptian down to the early Aeginetan coinage.
Turning now to the early coinage, we see the fuller weight kept up (17) at Samos (202), Miletus (201), Calymna (100, 50), Methymna and Scepsis (99, 49),
Note: That this unit was used for gold in Egypt, one thousand years before becoming a silver coin weight in Asia Minor, need not be dwelt on, when we see in the coinage of Lydia (17) gold pieces and silver on the same standard, which was expressly formed for silver alone, i.e.
Ionia (197); while the coinage of Aegina, (17, 12), which by its wide diffusion made this unit best known, though a few of its earliest staters go up even to 207, yet is characteristically on the lower of the two groups which we recognize in Egypt, and thus started what has been considered the standard value of 194, or usually 190, decreasing afterwards to 184.
In later times, in Asia, however, the fuller weight, or higher Egyptian group, which we have just noticed in the coinage, was kept up (17) into the series of cistophori (196-191), as in the Ptolemaic series of 199.
In the Hellenic coinage it varies (18) from a maximum of 200 at Pharae to 192, usual full weight; this unit occupied (17) all central Greece, Peloponnesus and most of the islands.
In the Libra, as in most other standards, the value which happened to be first at hand for the coinage was not the mean of the whole of the weights in the country; the Phoenician coin weight is below the trade average, the Assyrian is above, the Aeginetan is below, but the Roman coinage is above the average of trade weights, or the mean standard.
The coinage standard, however, was always higher (18; the oldest gold shows 5056, the Campanian Roman 5054, the consular gold 5037, the aurei 5037, the Constantine solidi 5053 and the Justinian gold 4996.
Hultsch reckons on a ratio of 24:25 between them, and this is very near the true values; the full Attic being 67.3, the Assyrian should be 129.2, and this is just the full gold coinage weight.
At Athens a low variety of the unit was adopted for the coinage, true to the object of Solon in depreciating debts; and the first coinage is of only 65.2, or scarcely within the range of the trade weights (28); this seems to have been felt, as, contrary to all other states, Athens slowly increased its coin weight up to 66.6, or but little under the trade average.
It gradually supplanted the Aeginetan standard in Greece and Italy as the power of Athens rose; and it was adopted by Philip and Alexander (17) for their great gold coinage of 133 and 66.5.
At the end of 1908 the total public indebtedness of the republic was: The fiscal or tax valuation of property throughout the republic in 1904 was computed to be - the fiscal value being two-thirds of the real value: Total $1,053,849,446 Previous to 1905 all monetary transactions in Mexico were based in practice on a fluctuating silver standard and free coinage.
At the same time the free coinage of silver was suspended, the government reserving to itself the sole privilege of coining money.
The coinage of Mexico, now concentrated at the mint in the capital (all others having been closed) is based (since November 28, 1867) on the decimal system - the peso being divided into 100 centavos - and consists of gold, silver, nickel and bronze coins, whose weight and fineness are determined by the monetary law of 1904.
Provisions are also made for continuing the coinage of " trade dollars " for export, which have a wide circulation in the Orient but are not current at home.
Under these regulations the entire coinage was put into circulation.
He suppressed the name of es-Salih in prayers and on the coinage, and was formally declared sultan by the caliph 1175.
Dondorff, De Rebus Chalcidensium (GÃ¶ttingen, 1869); for coinage, B.
Silver Coinage, 16 95, p. 93), permitted the production of a regular edge with serrations, which in consequence were termed milling.
The leading products, as reported by the Geological Survey for 1907, were as follows: coal, $614,798,898 (85,604,312 tons of anthracite coal, 394.759,112 of bituminous); petroleum, $120,106,749; natural gas, ~54,222,399; iron ore, $131,996,147 (pig iron, $529,958,000); copper, refined, $173,799,300; gold, coinage value, $90,435,700; buii~..ing-stone, $71,105,805; silver, commercial value, ~272OO,700: lean.
Since 1871 the decimal system of coinage, corresponding to that of the United States, has been the only one employed.
In his annual message of the 1st of December 1879 President Hayes urged the suspension of the silver coinage and also the withdrawal of the United States legal tender notes, but Congress failed to act upon the recommendation.
In October 1785 he recoined the gold coinage, and he developed the caisse d'escompte.
But, at least in the south, market centres had sprung up, town life was beginning, houses of a better type were perhaps coming into use, and the southern tribes employed a gold coinage and also a currency of iron bars or ingots, attested by Caesar and by surviving examples, which weigh roughly, some two-thirds of a pound, some 21 lb, but mostly I g lb.
The British coinage now begins to bear Roman legends, and after Caesar's two raids (55, 54 B.C.) the southern tribes were regarded at Rome, though they do not seem to have regarded themselves, as vassals.
655) But it is clear from the laws of iEthelberht that a regular silver coinage was in use at least half a century before this time, and it is not unlikely that many unidentified coins may go back to the 6th century.
By the time of Ine, however, pending, pen(n)ing (" penny "), had already come into use for the latter, while, owing to the temporary disappearance of a gold coinage, scilling had come to denote a mere unit of account.
Among other ornaments we may mention hairpins, rings and ear-rings, and especially buckles which are often of elaborate workmanship. Bracelets and necklets are not very common, a fact which is rather surprising, as in early times, before the issuing of a coinage, these articles (beagas) took the place of money to a large extent.
The principality forms ecclesiastically part of the diocese of Coire, while as regards customs duties it is joined with the Vorarlberg, and as regards postal and coinage arrangements with Austria, which (according to the agreement of 1852, renewed in 1876, by which the principality entered the Austrian customs union) must pay it at least 40,000 crowns annually.
It is curious that Tibet, though using coined money, seems never, strictly speaking, to have had a coinage of its own.
Till nearly the end of the 18th century the coinage had for a long time been derived from Nepal.
A coinage was then issued (it would appear once only) in Tibet for domestic use, modelled on an old Kathmandu pattern and struck by Nepalese artists.
From the time of Darius the Persian monarchs issued a gold coinage, and reserved to themselves the right of doing so; but they allowed their satraps and vassal states to coin silver and copper money at discretion.
Hence Aradus, Byblus, Sidon and Tyre issued a coinage of their own, of which many specimens exist: the coins are stamped as a rule with emblem or name of the city, sometimes with the name of the ruler.'
But its subject-towns availed themselves of the political changes of the period to throw off their allegiance; Marathus from 278 begins to issue a coinage bearing the heads of the Ptolemies, and later on Karne asserted its independence in the same way; but in the end the Aradians recovered their supremacy.
By debasing the coinage he hastened the decay of Byzantine commerce.
He had already persecuted and plundered the Jews and the Lombard bankers, and repeated recourse to the debasing of the coinage had led to a series of small risings.
Nickel money is for 5, Io and 20 centimes, and the copper coinage has been withdrawn from circulation.
In the same year the gold and silver coinage of Paraguay were legally standardized as identical with those of Argentina (5 gold dollars or pesos = £ 1); but paper money is about the only circulating medium, and gold commands a high premium (1600% in December 1908).
The system of coinage is also curious: 105 English rupees are melted down, and the alloy extracted, leaving 100 rupees' worth of silver; 295 more English rupees are then melted, and the molten metal mixed with the 100 rupees silver; and out of this 808 Kandahari rupees are coined.
The sphere of the state authority embraced most of the powers of government, except, for instance, those relating to foreign affairs, army and navy, inter-state commerce, coinage a.nd the tariff; the powers of the central government were specified in the fundamental law.
By the currency law of the 9th of July 1873, the present coinage system was established and remains, with certain minor modifications, now in.
While the coinage of silver, nickel and copper is reserved to the state, the coinage of gold pieces can be undertaken by the state for the account of private individuals on payment of a fixed charge.
The coinage takes place in the six mints belonging to the various states thus Berlin (Prussia), Munich (Bavaria), Dresden (in the Muldenerhtte near Freibcrg, Saxony), Stuttgart (WUrttemberg), Karlsruhe (Baden) and Hamburg (for the state of Hamburg).
The gold required for the introduction of the new coinage was provided from the indemnity paid by France.
The right of coinage was, however, left to the individual states, and as a special concession it was determined that the rulers of the states should be permitted to have their head placed on the reverse of the gold coins.
No attempt was made, however, to regulate the relations of these coins to the " Austrian " silver coinage; the two issues were not brought into connexion, and every payment was made in silver, unless it was definitely agreed that it should be paid in gold.
In 1879, owing to the continued depreciation of silver, the free coinage of silver was suspended.
In 1892 laws introducing a completely new coinage were carried in both parliaments, in accordance with agreements made by the ministers.
The coinage of the gold fourand eight-gulden was suspended.
The coinage may, of course, give a somewhat one-sided representation of the Parthian kingdom, being specially designed for the commercial class, in which the population of the Greek cities was, we may guess, predominant.
There is a subsidiary coinage (introduced in 1908) consisting of a nickel penny and a nickel tenth of a penny (the last-named was first coined in aluminium, but this metal proved unsuitable and was withdrawn).
The history of the currency reform in Egypt is interesting as affording a practical example of a system much discussed in connection with the currency question in India, namely, a gold standard without a gold coinage.
Aryandes, satrap of Egypt, is said by Herodotus to have been punished by Darius for coining money of equal fineness with that of the king in Persia: thus coinage had then begun in Egypt.
The town, however, had its own coinage as late as 1229.
Although his resources had been so completely drained that he had been forced to melt the silver in his palaces and to debase the coinage, his energy soon brought back the national prosperity.
The coinage was gradually restored to its proper value, and trade received a favourable impulse by the foundation of the Bank of Berlin.
For the coinage, see Numis Matics, section "Asia Minor."
After Demetrius and Eucratides, the kings abandoned the Attic standard of coinage and introduced a native standard; at the same time the native language came into use by the side of the Greek.
In July 1354 an arrangement as to David's ransom was made: his price was 90,000 merks sterling (for the coinage of Scotland was already beginning to be debased).
The democratic Urbina now became practically dictator, and as the attempt of Flores to reinstate Noboa proved a total failure, he was quickly succeeded in 1856 by General Francisco Robles, who, among other progressive measures, secured the adoption of the French system of coinage, weights and measures.
He was also asked by the national assembly to draw up a new scheme of taxation in connexion with which he produced a report De la richesse territoriale de la France, and he was further associated with committees on hygiene, coinage, the casting of cannon, &c., and was secretary and treasurer of the commission appointed in 1790 to secure uniformity of weights and measures.
It derived wealth from great salines and from a trade in oil and wool, to which the wide range of its admirable coinage bears witness from the 5th century B.C. onwards.
Ergastiri), a mining town in Attica, Greece, famous for the silver mines which were one of the chief sources of revenue of the Athenian state, and were employed for coinage.
Norton, "The Last Wampum Coinage," in American Magazine for March 1888.
He favoured trade by encouraging Flemish emigrants to settle in the country, by improving the roads, regulating the coinage and establishing the first posts.
In the period of Dorian supremacy, in spite of the new cults which were introduced by these people, the Heraeum maintained its supreme importance: it was here that the tablets recording the succession of priestesses were kept which served as a chronological standard for the Argive people, and even far beyond their borders; and it was here that Pheidon deposited the 6/3EAcvKot when he introduced coinage into Greece.
The coinage of a succeeding king, Hermaeus, indicates a barbaric irruption.
The republic has given up its own military contingent, its coinage and its postal dues to the German Empire; but it has preserved its municipal self-government and its own territory, the inhabitants of which enjoy equal political privileges with the citizens.
In 1893 the Indian mints were closed to the free coinage of silver, and in 1899 the British sovereign was made legal tender at the rate of 1 s.
Accordingly in June 1893 an act was passed closing the Indian mints to the free coinage of silver.
According to some authorities he lived into the time of Hadrian; he himself mentions the coinage of the emperor Trajan.
222-235), when the city was at the height of its splendour, the issue of coinage comes to an end, and there is no more building of sumptuous tombs, owing apparently to some sudden catastrophe, such as an invasion by the neo-Persian power under the Sassanid dynasty.
The federal government has no influence or control except for offences against the federal laws, regulating coinage, postal service, the revenue and so forth.
Nickel is used for the manufacture of domestic utensils, for crucibles, coinage, plating, and for the preparation of various alloys, such as German silver, nickel steels such as invar (nickel, 35.7%; steel, 64.3%), which has a negligible coefficient of thermal expansion, and constantan (nickel, 45%; copper, 55%), which has a negligible thermal coefficient of its electrical resistance.
Up to the year 693 the Moslems had no special coinage of their own, and chiefly used Byzantine and Persian money, either imported or struck by themselves.
Abdalmalik instituted a purely Islamitic coinage.
refused to receive these coins in payment of the tribute and therefore declared the treaty at an end, we must put the beginning of the coinage at least two years earlier.
The currency of Korea being thus fixed, the first step was to reorganize the nickel coinage.
From the 1st of August 1905 the old nickels paid into the treasury were remitted and the issue carefully regulated; so also with the cash, which was retained as a subsidiary coinage, while a supplementary coinage was issued of silver 10-sen pieces and bronze I-sen and half-sen pieces.
An ounce of dust in 1848 frequently went for $4 instead of $17; for a number of years traders in dust were sure of a margin of several dollars, as for example in private coinage, mints for which were common by 1851.
The convention adopted a tariff plank drafted by McKinley, and, of far greater immediate importance, a plank, which declared that the Republican party was "opposed to the free coinage of silver, except by international agreement with the leading commercial nations of the world, which we pledge ourselves to promote, and until such agreement can be obtained the existing gold standard must be preserved."
The National Democratic Convention declared for the immediate opening of the mints to the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio with gold of 16 to 1; and it nominated for the presidency William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska, who also received the nomination of the People's party and of the National Silver party.
His apparently inconsistent record on the coinage question becomes consistent if considered in the same way, as the expression of the gradually changing views of his constituency.
It is proposed to adopt the coinage of the Straits Settlements, and measures have been taken with a view to the accomplishment of this.
This body has power to legislate for the whole empire in reference to all matters connected with the army, navy, postal service, customs, coinage, &c., all political laws affecting citizens, and all general questions of commerce, navigation, passports, &c. The emperor represents the federation in all international relations, with the chancellor as first minister of the empire, and has power, with consent of the Bundesrath, to declare war in name of the empire.
In 1899 a nickel coinage was introduced.
Decimal coinage >>
(If the value of silver be taken at coinage value this total becomes vastly greater.) The yield of gold was $353,9 1 3, 6 95 - $ 22 9, 2 3 6, 997 from 1895 to 1904; of silver, $3 86, 455,463 - $115,698,366 from 1889 to 1893; of lead, $,20,742,674 - its importance beginning in 1879; of copper, $ 1 7, 8 79,44 6- $8,441,783 from 1898 to 1904; and of zinc, $Io,212,045 - all this from 1902 to 1904.
Following the repeal of the Sherman Law and other acts and tendencies unfavourable to silver coinage in 1893 and thereafter, the silver question became the dominant issue in politics, resulting in the success of the Populist-Democratic fusion party in three successive elections, and permanently and greatly altering prior party organizations.
The British sovereign is the current gold coin, the unit of the bronze and silver coinage being the piastre (13 penny).
The counting unit in the Swedish coinage is the krona, equal to i i shilling.
The monetary unit, the gold peso, does not form a part of the actual coinage.
Coinage, Weights and Measures.The monetary unit is the kran, a silver coin, formerly weighing 28 nakhods (88 grains), then reduced to 26 nakhods (77 grains), and now weighing only 24 nakhods (71 grains) or somewhat less.
Before the new coinage came into use (1877) the proportion of pure silver was from 92 to 9~%; subsequently the proportion was for some time 90%; now it is about 894%.
In consequence of this depreciation of the coinage and the fall in the price of silver, partly also in consequence of exchange transactions by banks, the value of the kran has since 1895 rarely been more than 4.8od., or half what it was in 1874, and fell to less than 4d.
This was owing to the depreciation of the copper coir~age from 1896 onwards, consequent upon there being an excess of coinage due to the excessive quantities formerly put in circulation from the mint.
Accordingly the government in 1900 replaced the copper by a nickel coinage (face value of nickel coin in circulation end of 1907, 4,000,000 bans).
In the extreme west, a money currency in its most highly developed formthat of coinage minted by the state, or an autonomous communityhad developed since the 7th century among the Lydians and Greeks.
Only in the auriferous and civilized frontier districts of India (the Punjab) did a system of coinage find early acceptance.
The precious metals brought in by the tribute were collected in the great, treasure-houses at Susa, Persepolis, Pasargadae and Ecbatana, where gigantic masses of silver and, more Money and especially, of gold, were stored in bullion or partially Coinage.
A reform in the coinage was effected by Darius, who struck the Daric (Pers.
In Asia Minor and Phoenicia we can clearly trace the progress of Hellenism, especially by the coinage.
164), it was replaced on the coinage by Aramaic. Another Babylonian dynast must have See Saint-Martin, Recherches sur la Mshne et la Characne (1838); Reinaud, Membires sur le royaume de la Mshne (1861); E.
Of the kings who apparently belonged to a Parthian dynasty, several bearing the name Cammascires are known to us from coins dated 8i and 71 B.C. One of these is designated by Lucian (Macrobu, I 6) king of the Parthians; while the coinage of another, Orodes, displays Aramaic script (Allotte de la Fuye, Rev. num., 4me srie, t.
their coinage with its Greek inscriptions and nomenclature; their Attic standard of currency; and, doubtless, a great part of their administration also.
From reign to reign the portraits grow poorer and more stereotyped, and the inscriptions more neglected, till it becomes obvious that the engraver himself no longer understood Greek but copied mechanically the signs before his eyes, as is the case with the contemporary Indo-Scythian coinage, and also in Mesene.
Henceforward Greek culture practically vanishes and gives place to Aramaic; it is significant that in future the kings of Mesene stamped their coinage with Aramaic legends.
the fire of the royal palace), and the name of the place of coinage, usually abbreviated.
An excessive copper coinage during the past three or four years had caused much distress among the poorer classes since the beginning of the year, and the small trade was almost paralysed.
cease and the excess of the copper coinage be withdrawn from circulation.
The Imperial Bank of Persia, which had already advanced a large sum of money, and thereby greatly facilitated the shahs early departure from Tabriz and enabled the grand vizier at Teheran to carry on the government, started buying up the copper coinage at all its branches and agencies.
It was only in 1899 that the distress caused by the excessive copper coinage ceased, and then only at very great loss to government.
Fairbairn holds that it was the fame of Petau which gave currency to the new coinage "dogmatic theology"; and though the same or kindred phrases had been used repeatedly by writers of less influence since Reinhard and Essenius, F.
Ephesus was very prosperous during the Hellenistic period, and is conspicuous both then and later for the abundance of its coinage, which gives us a more complete list of magistrates' names than we have for any other Ionian city.
The Roman coinage is remarkable for the great variety and importance of its types.
Head, "Coinage of Ephesus" (Numism.
It had the right of coinage by act of parliament, but there is no evidence to show that it exercised the privilege.
At the cortes of Coimbra (1261), he further strengthened his position by conciliating the representatives of the cities, who denounced the issue of a debased coinage, and by recognizing that taxation could not be imposed without consent of the cortes.
Systematic debasement of the coinage was practised both in India, where the monetary system was extremely complex, 2 and in Portugal; and owing to the bullionist policy adopted by Portuguese financiers little permanent benefit accrued to the mother country from its immense trade.
The league prescribed uniform laws, standards and coinage; it summoned contingents, imposed taxes and fined or coerced refractory members.
Warren, Greek Federal Coinage (London, 1863); E.
The first year of his reign (Seleucid year 170 143-142 B.C.) was made the beginning of a new era, and the issue of a Jewish coinage betokened the independence of his sovereignty.
The coinage of the country is of silver, nickel and copper.
In 1458 the right of minting money according to the pattern and value of the Buda coinage was granted to the municipality by King Matthias I.
Before 1897 the administration of the state was controlled by the Republican party; but in 1896 Democrats, Populists and those Republicans who believed in free coinage of silver united, and until 1902 elected a majority of all candidates for state offices.
Liskeard was made a coinage town for tin in 1304.
SILVER (symbol Ag, from the Latin argentum, atomic weight 107.88 (0= 16)), a metallic chemical element, known from the earliest times and of great importance as a "noble" metal for articles of value - coinage, ornamentation and jewelry.
Consequently copper-silver alloys receive extensive application for coinage and jewelry.
Gold coin and bullion form one of the principal items in the export list, but only a small portion of the export is of local production, the balance being Queensland and New Zealand gold sent to Sydney for coinage.
The monetary system is based on the gold standard, and the coinage is the same as that of the Latin union.
In 1894 a new coinage was introduced, with the Menelek dollar or talari, worth about two shillings, as the standard.
This new coinage gradually superseded the older currency.
The bank, which was granted a monopoly of banking business in the empire for fifty years, has a capital of Lsoo,000, has the power to issue notes, to mint the Abyssinian coinage, and to engage in commercial operations.
He was a member of the committee on finance throughout his service in the Senate, and his first speech in that body was a defence of the free coinage of silver and a plea for the preservation of the full legal tender value of greenback currency, though in 1893 he voted to repeal the silver purchase clause of the Sherman Act.
He tried hard to procure a unification of coinage and weights and measures, but failed owing to the opposition of the estates, who were afraid of the new taxation necessary to meet the loss involved in raising the standard of the coinage, and who held to their local measures and currency partly from conservatism, partly as a relic of local liberty.
Questions of coinage occupy a large part of the correspondence of the primate, Archbishop Boulter, whose anxiety to deal rightly with the matter is evidently very real and conscientious.
There is no reason to think that the English ministry wished otherwise; but secret influences were at work, and a patent for supplying Ireland with a coinage of copper halfpence was accorded to William Wood on such terms that the profit accruing from the difference between the intrinsic and the nominal value of the coins, about 40%, was mainly divided between him and George I.'s favourite duchess of Kendal, by whose influence Wood had obtained the privilege.
The medium of exchange is the Indian rupee (=16d.), with the subsidiary coinage of Mauritius.
The issue began in 1881 through the Banco Nacional de Colombia, its value then being equal to that of the silver coinage.
The new law likewise reaffirmed the adoption of a gold dollar of 1.672 grammes 900 fine as the unit of the new coinage, which is: Gold: Double condor = 20 dollars.
The silver coinage (900 fine) is limited to t o %, and the nickel and bronze coins to 2% of the gold coinage.
If I might put it to you, I would say the principles of tariffs, the principle of railway connexion, the principle of appeal in law, the principle of coinage, and in fact all those principles which exist at the present moment in the United States, irrespective of the local assemblies which exist in each separate state in that country."
He found time to write two larger works, the History of the Roman Coinage and the Romisches Staatsrecht, a profound analysis of Roman constitutional law, and Romisches Strafrecht, on Roman criminal jurisdiction.
Haverfield, 1909); there is a French edition of his work on Roman Coinage.
While he held this office, Newton drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins, and composed an official report on the coinage.
Jullian, Paris, 1893); for coinage, B.
- The British systems of coinage, weights, lengths, &c., afford many examples of the use of fractions.
It seems probable that at the end of the republic the coinage for the west of Sicily was struck here (Mommsen, Rom.
The seaports soon recovered from their losses in the Black Death, and English shipping was beginning to appear in the distant seas of Portugal and the Baltic. Nothing illustrates the growth of English wealth better than the fact that the kingdom had, till the time of Edward IlL, contrived to conduct all its commerce with a currency of small silver, but that within thirty years of his introduction of a gold coinage in 1343, the English noble was being struck in enormous quantities.
In these carefully written papers he treats a great variety of topics relating to astronomy, chronology, decimal coinage, life assurance, bibliography and the history of science.
Considerable labour was spent by De Morgan upon the subject of decimal coinage.
But at the same time he devoted his energies to the improvement of the administration of the empire; he reformed the standard of coinage, fixed the price of provisions and other necessaries of daily life, remitted the tax upon inheritances and manumissions, abolished various monopolies, repressed corruption and encouraged trade.
See also Decimal Coinage and Weights And Measures.
A separate coinage was established, and the authority of the English parliament was repudiated.
There was no native coinage, the French 5-franc piece or dollar being the standard, and all sums under that amount were obtained by cutting up those coins into all shapes and sizes, which were weighed with small weights and scales into halves, quarters, eighths, twelfths and twenty-fourths of a dollar, and even reckoned down to the seven hundred and twentieth fraction of the same amount.
The bronze used for the British and French copper coinage consists of 95% copper, 4% tin and 1% zinc. Many copper-tin alloys employed for machinery-bearings contain a small proportion of zinc, which gives increased hardness.
The extent of French influence is indicated by the fact that the five-franc piece, locally known as a dollar, is largely circulated throughout the protectorate, and is accepted as legal tender, although the currency in the colony proper is the English coinage.
Colonia Augusta Aroe Patrensis became one of the most populous of all the towns of Greece; its colonial coinage extends from Augustus to Gordian III.
Not the equal of Caesar or Augustus in genius or in the lastingness of his work, he yet recalls them in his capitularies, his periodic courts, his official hierarchy, his royal emissaries, his ministers, his sole right of coinage, his great public works, his campaigns against barbarism and heathenry, his zeal for learning and literature, and his divinity as emperor.
The uniform justice exercised by the parlement spread gradually over the whole kingdom by means of cas royaux (royal suits), and at the same time the royal coinage became obligatory.
He therefore soon reverted to the old and worse measures, including the debasement of coinage, and put an extreme tensioU on all the springs of the financial system.
In order to cover this recourse was had as usual, not to remedies, but to palliatives worse than the evil: heavy usurious loans, debasement of the coinage, creation of stocks that were perpetually being converted, and ridiculous charges which the bourgeois, sickened with officialdom, would endure no longer.
The Company of the Indies became the grantee for the farming of.tobacco, the coinage of metals, and farming in general; and in order to procure funds it multiplied the output of shares, which were adroitly launched and became more and more sought for on the exchange in the rue Quincampoix.
But the only silver coin which is legal tender up to any amount is tim 5-peseta piece, and the coinage of this is restricted.
The oldest known coins are the electrum coins of the earlier Mermnads (Madden, Coins of the Jews, pp. 19-21), stamped on one side with a lion's head or the figure of a king with bow and quiver; these were replaced by Croesus with a coinage of pure gold and silver.
To the latter monarch were probably due the earliest gold coins of Ephesus (Head, Coinage of Ephesus, p. 16).
In the scarcity of money Charles had recourse to the debasement of the coinage, which suffered no less than twenty-two variations in the two years before the treaty of Bretigny.
This disastrous financial expedient was made good later, the coinage being established on a firm basis during the last sixteen years of Charles's reign in accordance with the principles of Nicolas Oresme.
An attempt to restore the standard of the coinage is said to have caused a revolt of the workmen and officials connected with the mint, which was only put down with the loss of 7000 soldiers.
They possessed the elements of a higher civilization (gold coinage, the Greek alphabet), and, according to Caesar, were the bravest people of Gaul.
In 1825 he was chosen Camden professor of ancient history; and during his five years' professorship he published an edition of the Ethics of Aristotle, and a course of his lectures on The Coinage of the Greeks and Romans.
By his heavy imposts and the debasement of the coinage he forfeited his popularity with the rest of the community, and gave rise to riots.
The word anthropomorphism is a modern coinage (possibly from 18th century French).
coinage of silver.
coinage of the term is some 50 years after it was first used.
Henry VIII had also debased the coinage in 1526 to compete with the great number of inferior foreign pieces in circulation.
Local rulers all over Europe began minting gold coinage.
From the day dies started being manufactured to produce milled coinage in England, mistakes were made.
There the most intriguing item for me was the set of proofs of the never to be issued coinage of Edward VIII.
The Chapel had long been used as a secure store by the Exchequer and it contained many ancient relics, including old coinage dies.
Q. Can I use coinage from the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man?
Your first call should be to the bank to change your money into pre-decimal coinage specially minted for the museum.
Scotch salmon at Billingsgate was then fetching 2s 6d [15p in decimal coinage] a pound wholesale.
The reasons for resorting to a token coinage was again due to a dearth in the circulating levels of regal copper coinage.
Spare a thought and some silver coinage for them next time you see a collecting box or a flag day.
Under George 111 the guinea was the basis of gold coinage.
coinage duties were commuted.
coinage system had put undue emphasis on metals.
Maybe you are stuck with a growing amount of copper coinage, that perhaps, you do not really know what to do with.
In 1816 the silver coinage was replaced with new issues at a lower level of silver purity.
From the death of Julius Caesar, gold coinage came to be an important part of the Roman coinage system.
They describe an English speaking ab initio student of German who exhibited an unusually strong tendency to use word coinage and lexical innovation.
debased the coinage in 1526 to compete with the great number of inferior foreign pieces in circulation.
decimal coinage, Arnold Machin was commissioned to prepare a new coin portrait of the Queen.
Alexander's campaigns drew Persia into the Hellenistic world of silver-based coinage and a system was founded on the silver drachm and tetradrachm.
From 1279 there was a new coinage which included the first groat or fourpence.
Silver, however, remained the mainstay of the coinage.
milled coinage in England, mistakes were made.
minting gold coinage.
obverse changed in line with the remainder of the decimal coinage.
polisappropriating her symbol on their own coins other poleis might have been striving to strengthen their coinage and gain similar prosperity.
In 1663 Ienzance was constituted a coinage town for tin.
Compared to these coins, the coinage of all other nations, including the U.S. seemed shabby.
Copper money, although virtually valueless, flooded the country and nearly all gold and silver coinage disappeared.
With wonderful energy he began developing the internal resources of the country: he established a separate Hungarian coinage - as always, using every means to increase the national self-consciousness; and it was characteristic that on the new Hungarian notes which he issued his own name was the most prominent inscription; hence the name of Kossuth Notes, which was long celebrated.
In 1838, and again in 1843, he was one of the commissioners for standards of weights and measures; and he also furnished valuable information to the commissioners on decimal coinage.
To this period (about the time of the Roman War against Pyrrhus, is to be assigned the series of their coins, and they appear to have retained the right of coinage even after their final subjugation by the Romans (see B.
The most interesting record, however, that has been preserved of later Hellenic civilization in the island is the coinage of the Cretan cities (J.
pessimus, worst), a word of modern coinage,' denoting an attitude of hopelessness towards life, a vague general opinion that pain and evil predominate in human affairs.
To obtain money he debased the coinage, and then endeavoured to prevent a rise in prices by an arbitrary tariff.
The copper coinage (113,000,000 piastres) and the paper currency (kaime) (1,600,000,000 piastres) referred to in the above sketch were withdrawn in 1880 by repudiation.
of Macedon on his conquest of the Bisaltae adopted the native coinage, merely placing on it his own name (see, further, Numismatics: Greek, §§ Thrace and Macedonia).
About 480, however, Anaxilas thoroughly established his authority at Messene, and the types of coinage introduced by him persevere down to about 396 B.C., 2 when Anaxilas himself zealously supported his son-in-law Terillus in inviting the Carthaginians' invasion of 480 B.C. In 426 the Athenians gained the alliance of Zancle, but soon lost it again, and failed to obtain it in 415.
Incensed by the debasing of the coinage, which robbed them of part of their pay, they invaded the Divan clamouring for the heads of the sultan's favourite, the beylerbey of Rumelia, and of the defterdar (finance minister), which were thrown to them (April 3, 1589).
These moneyers appear to have been abolished about 1180, 7 when officers were appointed to supervise the coinage on behalf of the king, and the name "moneyer " was applied to contractors who manufactured the coin under superintendence and were not responsible to the king for its weight and fineness.
A full account of the work of the Mint, with valuable tables giving the amount of the coinage of gold and silver and bronze in the United Kingdom and the colonies in detail, and a rÃ©sumÃ© of the coinages of foreign countries, will be found in the Annual Reports of the Deputy Master and Comptroller of the Mint, which have been published since 1870.
By the end of the war it had lost 90,000 men and a hundred million thalers; its coinage was debased and its trade ruined; and the whole country was in a state of frantic disorder.
The relative value of gold and silver (17, 21) in Asia is agreed generally to have been 13+1/3 to 1 in the early ages of coinage; at Athens in 434 B.C. it was 14 to 1; in Macedon, 350 B.C., 12+1/2 to 1; in Sicily, 400 B.C., 15 to 1, and 300 B.C., 12 to 1; in Italy in 1st century, it was 12 to 1, in the later empire 13.9 to 1, and under Justinian.
Dondorff, De Rebus Chalcidensium (GÃƒ¶ttingen, 1869); for coinage, B.
some five centuries before his time, but nobody before Stevinus established their daily use; and so well aware was he of the importance of his innovation that he declared the universal introduction of decimal coinage, measures and weights to be only a question of time.
Agdistis, and was associated with the god Attis, as elsewhere with Sabazius, &c. Her priests were also princes, who bore rule not only in the city (the coinage of which, beginning about zoo B.C., was for long issued by them) but also in the country round, deriving a large revenue from the temple estates; but in the time of Strabo (A.D.
Trade.-On the basis of the customs and commercial agreement between Austria and Hungary, concluded in 1867 and renewable every ten years, the following affairs, in addition to the common affairs of the monarchy, are in both states treated according to the same principles :-Commercial affairs, including customs legislation; legislation on the duties closely connected with industrial production -on beer, brandy, sugar and mineral oils; determination of legal tender and coinage, as also of the principles regulating the AustroHungarian Bank; ordinances in respect of such railways as affect the interests of both states.
In 1896 he seemed for many reasons the most "available" candidate of his party for the presidency: he had no personal enemies in the party; he had carried the crucial state of Ohio by a large majority in 1893; his attitude on the coinage question had never been so pronounced as to make him unpopular either with the radical silver wing or with the conservative "gold-standard" members of the party.
Wright, The Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite (1882); Bayer, Historia Osrhoena et Edessena (St Petersburg, 1784), collects the references in classical authors; for the coinage see references in von Gutschmid (see below).
There was a shortage of silver to reorganize the countries coinage system.
Boissier, La Religion romaine; Renier, Inscriptions d'Algiers, 2510.) The Greek term Apotheosis, probably a coinage of the Hellenistic epoch, becomes more nearly technical for the deification of dead emperors.
He redressed many grievances, regulated the administration of justice, encouraged commerce, reformed the coinage, but as time went on he was compelled to demand larger subsidies and to take severer measures against heretical opinions.
The site of the Samnite city, which in the 4th century B.C. had a coinage of its own, is not known; the Roman town lay in the valley of the Vulturnus, and its walls (4th century) enclose a circuit of 12 m., in which are preserved remains of large baths (Thermae Herculis) and a theatre.
It is highly doubtful whether Carteret could have reconciled his duty to the crown with his private friendships, if government had persisted in endeavouring to force the detested coinage on the Irish people.
With the exception of Ptolemaic Egypt, the Macedonian kingdoms followed in their coinage that of Alexander.
Even in Roman times it kept its own coinage with the punning device of the bent arm holding a palm branch, and the head of Aphrodite on the reverse, and continued the use of the Greek language.
At the same time commerce was encouraged by the abolition of unauthorized tolls and by an improvement of the coinage; while the sale of arms to hostile peoples, and the trade in Christian slaves were forbidden.
He was the first pope to date his acts according to the years of the Frankish monarchy, and a mosaic of the time in the Lateran palace represents St Peter bestowing the banners upon Charles as a token of temporal supremacy, while the coinage issued by the pope bears witness to the same idea.
At the beginning of his reign he ordered a recast of the coinage, with serious results to commerce; civil officials were deprived of offices, which had been conferred free, but were now put up to auction; duties were imposed on exported merchandise and on goods brought into Paris; the practice of exacting heavy fines was encouraged by making the salaries of the magistrates dependent on them; and on the pretext of a crusade to free Armenia from the Turks, Charles obtained from the pope a tithe levied on the clergy, the proceeds of which he kept for his own use; he also confiscated the property of the Lombard bankers who had been invited to France by his father at a time of financial crisis.
The coinage in1906-1907was about £150,000 gold and £65,000 silver, and the total circulation in that year was estimated at £1,400,000 in gold coin and £600,000 in silver coin.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.