Or, we gravitate toward anecdotes like, "I take my vitamin C every day and haven't had a cold in year."
She only lasted eight months before the big C got her.
c antero-posterior direction, its ventral lobe usually concealing the mouth.
Vitamins and minerals – zinc and vitamin C were high on the list, and some herbs.
In modern times hepatoscopy still survives among primitive peoples in Borneo, Burma, Uganda, &c.
The door to C was bolted with a new padlock.
Nor had Burgess heard any noise or conversation from apartment C to indicate there was anyone there—much less more than one person.
According to the National Center for Charitable Statistics, more than 1.5 million 501(c) charitable organizations exist in the United States.
The Halberstadt pitch is nearly a semitone higher, which again agrees with the statement of Praetorius, and also Schlick's high C organ.
Stein tuned Mozart's piano to a fork a' 421.6, and the Broadwood pianos used at the London Philharmonic Society in its first concerts (1813) were tuned to a fork c 2 506.8, which gives a mean tone a' 423.7.
Archipelagdfk Straits of Magella' l'C. Desolat Pi ion I.
Laud b.tueesn 600 1500/oct C
8000/act ., ~i~u ~ a ~s R.da1aSe1n~ C
A4 B C Meridian ci of Greenwich D
(a) Normandy, Perche, Cotentin and maritime Flanders, where horses are bred in great numbers; (b) the strip of coast between the Gironde and the mouth of the Loire; (c) the Morvan including the Nivernais and the Charolais, from which the famous Charolais breed of oxen takes its name; (d) the central region of the central plateau including the districts of Cantal and Aubrac, the home of the famous beef-breeds of Salers and Aubrac.1 The famous pre-sal sheep are also reared in the Vende and Cotentin.
1 Includes manufactories of glue, tallow, soap, perfumery, fertilizers, soda, &c.
Coal, coke, &c 7,018 9,883 10,539
i Includes small fancy wares, toys, also wooden wares and furniture, brushes, &c.
Foreign c I Foreign C 1
the tax on property in mortmain, dues for the verification of weights and measures, the tax on royalties from mines, on horses, mules and carriages, on cycles, &c.
of Spahis (Algerian natives); (c) 40 regiments of artillery, comprising 445 field batteries,.
Cockerell, The Temples of Jupiter Panhellenius at Aegina, &'c. (London, 1860); Ch.
the silver salt as being derived from the tautomeric imidobenzoic acid, C 6 1-1 5 C: (NH) -OH (J.
Myrmecobius has a total of 52 or 54 teeth, which may be classed as i., c.
c, calcanium; a, astralagus; cb, cuhoid; n, navicular; c3, ectocuneiform; II.
3 c o or I p 3 m.
In the last stage (c) the exclusion of the ordinary Levites from all share in the priesthood of the sons of Aaron is looked upon as a matter of course, dating from the institution of priestly worship by Moses.
[b] and [c] above), which have incorporated older sources.'
The exact meaning of these features is not clear, but if it be remembered (a) that the Levites of post-exilic literature represent only the result of a long and intricate development, (b) that the name "Levite," in the later stages at least, was extended to include all priestly servants, and (c) that the priesthoods, in tending to become hereditary, included priests who were Levites by adoption and not by descent, it will be recognized that the examination of the evidence for the earlier stages cannot confine itself to those narratives where the specific term alone occurs.
It shows on the one hand the labialization of the original velar q(Volscian pis = Latin quis), and on the other hand it palatalizes the guttural c before a following i (Volscian facia=Latin faciat).
In the Phaedrus (245 c) the argument is, that the soul is self-moving, and, therefore, immortal; and this argument is repeated in the Laws (x.
The town has a tribunal of commerce and a communal college, flour-mills, manufactories of earthenware, biscuits, furniture, casks, and glass and brick works; the port has trade in grain, timber, hemp, flax, &c.
This is substantially the view set forth in the Timaeus of Plato (§ 7 1 c).
FULMINIC ACID, Hcno or H 2 C 2 N 2 0 2, an organic acid isomeric with cyanic and cyanuric acids; its salts, termed fulminates, are very explosive and are much employed as detonators.
Nef (1894), who proposed the formulae: C: N OH N: CH CH: N O C: N OH, O ?
N: C OH, CH: N O, C: N OH.
NICOTINE, C10H14N2, an alkaloid, found with small quantities of nicotimine, C 19 H 14 N 2, nicoteine, C10H12N2, and nicotelline, C 10 H 8 N 2, in tobacco.
On oxidation with chromic or nitric acids, or potassium permanganate, it yields nicotinic acid or (3-pyridine carboxylic acid, C 5 H 4 N CO 2 H; alkaline potassium ferricyanide gives nicotyrine, C10H10N2, and hydrogen peroxide oxynicotine, C10H14N20.
The following formulae are important: N - CH C =CH/ - CH CH2 CH CH C/ NH CH / N CH2 N / N / N% CH CH H3C CH2 N-fl-Pyridylpyrrol, a0-pyridylpyrrol, nicotine.
It is a secondary base, and boils at 275 °-278° C.
c, Female flowers of Q.
c d, Male flowers of Q.
Nearly akin to these are several other forms of little but botanical interest; not _ far removed is the black or dyer's oak, F rom Isotschy op. c i t.
The narrative of this journey, which contained the first accurate knowledge (from scientific observation) regarding the topography and geography of the region, was published by his widow under the title, Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan and on the site of Ancient Nineveh, F&'c. (London, 1836).
- The editio princeps, based mainly on a transcript of D, was printed at Venice, 1472: the first scientific text, based on B, C and D, was that of Camerarius, completed 1552, in whose steps followed Lambinus (with a commentary which is still useful), 1576; Taubmann, 1605-1621; Pareus (a meritorious edition), 1619 and 1623; Guyet, edited by Marolles, 1658; Gronovius (the "Vulgate"), 1664-1684; then, after the lapse of more than a century, came the editions of Bothe, 1809-1811; Naudet, 1830; and Weise, 1837-1848.
ethylene dibromide) with silver acetate or with potassium acetate and alcohol, the esters so produced being then hydrolysed with caustic alkalis, thus: C 2 H 4 Br 2 + C2H302 Ag-*C2H4(O C2H30)2->C2H4(OH)2+2K C2H302 by the direct union of water with the alkylen oxides; by oxidation of the olefines with cold potassium permanganate solution (G.
Glycols may be classified as primary, containing twoCH(OH groups; primary-secondary, containing the grouping - CH(OH) CH (OH; secondary, with the grouping - CH(OH) CH(OH) -; and tertiary, with the grouping > C (OH) (OH) C
Suppose the current to be thus reduced to C'.
The ratio of this to the whole work done by the battery is (C - C')/C, so that the efficiency is increased by diminishing C'.
If we could drive the engine so fast as to reduce C' to zero, the whole of the energy of the battery would be available, no heat being produced in the wires, but the horse-power of the engine would be indefinitely small.
A, View of the heart of a dog infested with Filaria immitis Leidy; the right ventricle and base of the pulmonary artery have been opened: a, aorta; b, pulmonary artery; c, vena cava; d, right ventricle; e, appendix of left auricle; f, appendix of right auricle.
I) of two distinct cups (c, C), which are moulded and fired separately, and afterwards cemented together.
Between a shoulder, a, in the iron bolt and a shoulder in the porcelain cup, c, is placed an indiarubber ring, which forms a yielding washer and enables the cup to be screwed firmly to the bolt, while preventing FIG.
8) the copper strand is passed through a vessel A containing melted Chatterton's compound, then through the cylinder C, in which a quantity of gutta percha, purified by repeated washing in hot water, by facture.
The tanks are nearly cylindrical in form and have a truncated cone fixed in the centre, as shown at C, fig.
At small country towns or villages, where the message traffic is light, the Wheatstone " A B C " instrument is used.
In this apparatus electric A B C currents are generated by turning a handle (placed in front of the instrument), which is geared, in the instru ment.
A noticeable feature in the modern A B C indicator, as well as in all modern forms of telegraph instruments, is the adoption of " induced " magnets in the moving portion of the apparatus.
At offices where the work is heavier than can be dealt with by the A B C apparatus, the " Single Needle " instrument has been very largely employed; it has the advantage of slight Single liability to derangement, and of requiring very little adjustment.
' 'M -- - A - - C
c, where the traffic is small it is usual to make one wire serve several stations.
The battery is kept to the line by the bar c, which short-circuits the keys.
When signals are to be sent from either station the operator turns the switch c out of contact with the stop b, and then operates precisely as in open circuit send '" i ing.
to C Down 4/ne o?E 1 FIG.
Suppose the arm c of the switch S to be in contact with 2; thin when the key is manipulated it sends alternately positive and negative currents into the line.
23, representing the " differential " method, B is the sending battery, B 1 a resistance equal to that of the battery, R a rheostat and C an adjustable condenser.
relay, Hughes, siphon recorder, &c.
28, and the levers are adjusted so that the left-hand one moves a, b, c and punches a row of holes across the paper (group i in the figure), the middle one moves b only and punches a centre hole (2 in the figure), while the right-hand one moves a, b, d, e and punches O p p Oa Oa' Ob Od 0?
After a very short interval of time, the length of which depends on the inductive retardation of the cable, the condensers corresponding to C 1 and C3 at the other end begin to be charged from the cable, and since the charge of C3 passes through the receiving instrument I or G the signal is recorded.
In ordinary hand-sending the Au c curb end of the cable is put to one or the other pole of the ti .
A, slip as received on recorder, using ordinary relays for translating on to second cable; B, slip as received on recorder, when interpolator is used at intermediate station, for sending on to second cable; C (four cells through a line, KR=3.6), signals with recorder under ordinary conditions; D, all conditions the same as in C, but magnifying relay inserted between the end of the line and the recorder.
At the receiving station Marconi connected a single voltaic cell B 1 and a sensitive telegraphic relay R in series with his tube of metallic filings C, and interposed certain little coils called choking coils.
Marconi 2 imparted practical utility to this idea by tuning the two circuits together, and the arrangement now employed is as follows: - A suitable condenser C, or battery of Leyden jars, has one coating connected to one spark ball and the other through a coil of one turn with the other spark ball of a discharger S.
It can be shown that if two circuits, both having capacity (C) and inductance (L), are coupled together inductively, then, when oscillations are set up in one circuit, oscillations of two periods are excited in the other differing in frequency from each other and from the natural frequency of the circuit.
The transformer T has its secondary or high-pressure terminals connected to spark balls S1, which are also connected by a circuit consisting of a large glass plate condenser C, and the primary circuit of an air-core transformer called an oscillation transformer.
This last circuit has a natural frequency of its own which is numerically measured by I/27r-!(CL), where C is the capacity of the condenser and L is the inductance of the circuit.
- A, antenna; P S, jigger or oscillation transformer; C, condenser; 0, Fleming oscillation valve; B, working battery; T, telephone; R, rheostat; E, earth-plate.
a b, constantan wire; c d, thermojunction; G G, galvanometer terminals; 0 0, antenna and earth terminals.
On the other hand, they were overcome by the Autariatae, an Illyrian tribe; the date of HO 2 C C =N NC 6 H 4 NH 2 NH.
B, Digestive gland from interior A, B, and C magnified about of pitcher, in pocket-like deI oo diameters.
A, Attractive surface of lid; B, conducting; C, glandular; and D, detentive surface; magnified.
Then come the glandular surface (C), which is formed of smooth polished epidermis with numerous glands that secrete the fluid contents of the pitcher, and finally the detentive surface (D), of which the cells are produced into long and strong bristles which point A FIG.
Professional classes, admini stration, &c 1,304,347 855,217 449,130
The lagoon fisheries are also of great importance, more especially those of Comacchio, the lagoon of Orbetello and the Mare Piccolo at Taranto &c The deep-sea fishing boats in 1902 numbered 1368, with a total tonnage of 16,149; 100 of these were coral-fishing boats and 111 sponge-fishing boats.
There is a tendency towards the fostering of feminine home industrieslace-making, linen-weaving, &c.
The subsequent history is divided into five periods: (C) From 476 to 1796; (D) From 796 to 1814; (E) From 1815 to 1870; (F) From 1870 to 5902; (G) From 1902 to 1910.
and clerics, (c) merchants and traders, holding their sessions biennially at Milan, Bologna and Brescia respectively.
The first question abi C W which arose was that of brigandage in thesoutli.
Colonel Stevani with four native battalions to relieve, cnt, C Kassala, then hard pressed by the Mahdists.
(P. C. Y.) Later Dukes of Leeds.
11, B,C, and 59, a, b, c).
The foot by which it is attached often sends out root-like processes - the hydrorhiza (c).
In this manner the food absorbed by one individual contributes to the welfare of the whole colony, and the coenosarc has the 6 C FIG.
A and B modified cats i is seen when the from Hincks; C modified from Forbes's Brit.
A, colony of but grow in all planes Lar;B and C, young and adult medusae.
F, the founder-polyp; I, 2, 3, 4, the succession of polyps budded from the founder-polyp; a', b', c', the succession of polyps budded from 1; a 2, 2 polyps budded from 2; a 3, polyp budded from 3.
- In the Hydromedusae the medusa-individual occurs, as already stated, in one of two conditions, either as an independent organism leading a true life c2 a2 in the open seas, or as a subordinate individuality in the hydroid c colony, from which it is never set free; it then becomes a mere reproductive appendage or gono- phore, losing suc FIG.
Polyp 7 has proof sense, 1 o c oduced as its first bud, 8; as its second bud, a7, motion and nutriwhich starts a uniserial pinnule; and as a third t i on, until its bud I', which starts a biserial branch (I I'-VI') medusoid nature that repeats the structure of the main stem and and organization gives off pinnules.
F, founder-polyp; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, succession of polyps budded from the founder; a, b, c, second series of polyps budded from the founder; a 3, b 3, series budded from 3.
Ea c h cordylus is a tentacle-like structure with an endodermal axis containing an axial cavity which may be continuous with the ring-canal, or may be partially occluded.
c, Cordylus, composed of flattened ectoderm ec covering a large-celled endodermal axis en.
C, Type of Garveia, &c. [&c. s.c, Sub-umbral cavity.
41, C), where, however, there is a further complication in the form of an adventitious envelope or ectotheca (ect.) split off from the gonophore as a protective covering, and not present in Cladocoryne.
B and C, Two views of a female gonophore after t, Tentacles.
side of the first out A, B, C, E, F, In vert, Tentacle.
43, A); in this the mouth is formed distally as a perforation (B); next the sides of the tube so formed bulge out laterally near the attachment to form the umbrella, while the distal undilated portion of the tube represents the manubrium (C); the umbrella now grows out into a number of lobes or lappets, and the tentacles and tentaculocysts grow out, the former in a notch between two lappets, the latter on the apex of each lappet (D, E); finally, the velum arises as a growth of the ectoderm alone, the whole bud shapes itself, so to speak, and the little medusa is separated off by rupture of the thin stalk connecting it with the parent (F).
44, C, s.c.).
A, B, C, D, F, Successub -umbra l sive stages in vercavity.
the future D, E); the cavity A between the two B C walls of the cup FIG.
45, C, ed.) may be formed over all, as in Garveia, &c.; or the entocodon may remain solid and without cavity until after the formation of the manubrium, or may never acquire a cavity at all, as described above for the gonophores.
46, Ia, b, c).
46, IIa, b, c).
46, IVa, b, c).
II, Method of Cunina; (a) the mouth arises, next the umbrella (b), and lastly the tentacles (c).
The spermatogenesis and maturation and fertilization of the germ-cells present nothing out of the common and need not be C.
(After C. Chun.) A, The epithelium becomes twothe bud forms an entocodon layered.
mass of cells, which (C) s.c, Sub-umbral cavity.
(c) Tentacles capitate, branched, wholly or in part; type of Cladocoryne.
Nemopsis, Pelagohydra, &c.
13), Eudendrium, &c.
11), Monobrachium, &c.
manubrium and In C the marsupium (m) is formed as finger-like another below the process from the summit of the blastostyle, en closing the acrocyst; b, medusa-buds on the radial canal in blastostyle.
Berenice, Staurodiscus, &c.
a, The youngest stage, is magnified 22 diameters; b, older, is magnified 8 diameters; c, .the adult medusa, is magnified 6 diameters.
(After Haeckel.) c, Circular canal.
The development of man is explained in connexion with that of the earth, and in relation to climatic variations, &c.
A royal writ of the 16th century cited by Covarruvias (c. xxxv.) prohibits execution of the sentence of a Spanish court Christian pending an appeal to the pope.
(c) Imprisonment, in the bishop's prison, might be in chains, or on bread and water, and temporary or perpetual.
(c) The Provincial Synod consists of a union of three or more presbyteries with the same members.
C, Base of the multicellular filamentous Green Alga Chaetomorpha aes-ea.
u.e., Upper epidermal cells, with (c) cuticle.
c eun~7 Such an arrangement of vascular tissue is called radial, ~
after fifteen to twenty years in the oak, forty years in the ash, &c.
periderm; c, cortex; ph, phlocni with alternating strands of fibres, sieve-tubes and parenchyma; ~r.r, principal ray; Sr., subordinate rays; ca, cambium.
Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.
Every time a carpenter saws fresh timber with a saw recently put through wood attacked with dry-rot, he risks infecting it with the Fungus; and similarly in pruning, in propagating by cuttings, &c.
Fungus-galls on leaves and stems are exemplified by the pocket-plums caused by the Exoasceae, the black blistering swellings of Ustilago Maydis, the yellow swellings on nettles due to Aecidium, &c.
The seriousness of the damage done is illustrated by the ravages of the larch disease, apple canker, &c.
I, C, D).
2, C, D).
2, C, D), and appearances are observed which suggest a second longitodinal division, but which are more ~ ~--~ ~
I, C, D) which splits into two layers between which the new cell-wail is laid down.
complete sexual differenti- C, Fusion of the germ nuclei in the ation the egg-cell is quies- egg-cell.
At the an ~ ~ tenor end are attached - two cilia or flagella In, , C the Vascular Cryptogams -- ~ the structure is much the;il ~.: -; same, but a more or less ~ ~ ~ spherical mass of cyto 4 i~- - ~ plasm remains attached .8 ~ :~ to the posterior spirals, -.
Even in those cases where the cilia band, which is the product of the centrosome-like body or blepharoplast, enters the ovum, as in Zamia (c in fig.
4, B, C, D), it appears to take no part in the fertilization phenomena, nor in the subsequent division of the nucleus.
C, Nuclear thread segment ing.
C, Oscillaria limosa: transverse microtome section.
Moreover, had the evolution of plants proceeded along the line of adaptation, the vegetable kingdom could not be subdivided, as it is, into the morphological groups Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia, but only into physiological groups, Xerophyta, Hygrophyta, Tropophyta, &c.
Chromium oxychloride reacts violently on phenol, producing hydroquinone ether, O(C 6 H 4 OH)2; chromic acid gives phenoquinone, and potassium permanganate gives paradiphenol, oxalic acid, and some salicylic acid (R.
When distilled over lead oxide, it forms diphenylene oxide, (C 6 H 4) 2 O: and when heated with oxalic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, it forms aurin, C19H1403.
Potassium phenolate, C 6 H 5 OK, crystallizes in fine needles, is very hygroscopic and oxidizes rapidly on exposure.
Anisol, phenyl methyl ether, C 6 H 5.
It is a colourless pleasant-smelling liquid which boils at 154.3° C. Phenetol, phenyl ethyl ether, C 6 H 5.
O C 2 H 51 a liquid boiling at 172° C., may be obtained by similar methods.
Phenyl acetate, C 6 H 5.
Phenyl benzoate, C 6 H 5.
O COC 6 H 5, prepared from phenol and benzoyl chloride, crystallizes in monoclinic prisms, which melt at 68-69° C. and boil at 314° C.
Meta-aminophenol, C 6 H 4.
A thiophenol, C 6 H 5 SH, is known, and is prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on phenol, or by distilling a mixture of sodium benzene sulphonate and potassium sulphydrate.
It is a colourless liquid, which possesses a very disagreeable smell, and boils at 168° C.
(P. C. Y.)
In this article (A) the general anatomy of birds is discussed, (B) fossil birds, (c) the geographical distribution.
d.l, Dorso-lumbar, s, sacral, c, caudal vertebrae.
Holarctic Region 5 Nearctic C Arctogaea Palaearctic () I V.
1600 (in c l.
(C) Arctogaea is Huxley's well-chosen term for all the rest of the world (including the Nearctic, Palaearctic, Indian and Ethiopian regions of P. L.
(c) Complex Constructive: If A, then B; if C, then D; but either A or C; therefore either B or D.
(d) Complex Destructive: If A is true, B is true; if C is true, D is true; but B and D are not both true; hence A and C are not both true.
rope-walks, a tool factory, cigar factories, paper mills, &c.
Use hot bottles and stimulants, especially trying to counteract the cardiac depression by atropine, caffeine, strophanthin, &c.
There is trade in walnuts, walnut-oil, silk, cattle, &c.
Trade is carried on in flax, cloth, cereals, oilseeds, &c.
In addition to this there is compulsory service in the National Guard (a) in the first class, consisting of men between seventeen and thirty years of age, liable for service with the standing army, and numbering some 15,000; (b) in the second class, for departmental service only, except in so far as it may be drawn upon to make up losses in the more active units in time of war, consisting of men from thirty to forty-five years of age, and (c) in the third class, for local garrison duty, consisting of men between forty-five and sixty years old.
The half gimbal B pivoting in the _ = socket of the base C ?
It may also be obtained by heating carbon, sulphur and many metals with concentrated sulphuric acid: C + 2H 2 SO 4 = 2SO 2 }- CO 2 + 2H 2 O; S + 2H 2 SO 4 = 3S0 2 + 2H 2 0; Cu + 2H 2 SO 4 = SO 2 -fCuSO 4 + 2H 2 0; and by decomposing a sulphite, a thiosulphate or a thionic acid with a dilute mineral acid.
It solidifies at about 0° C, to a mass of long needles, and is very volatile.
From it are made (a) confectio sulphuris; (b) unguentum sulphuris; (c) sulphur praecipitatum, milk of sulphur (U.S.P.) which has a sub-preparation trochiscus sulphuris each lozenge containing 5 grs.
See also the articles Titles Of Honour, Peerage, Feudalism, Gentleman, Duke, Count, &C.
Carlyle, if bitterer still), Lactantius Firmianus, &c., &c.'
(c) Theodicy - the tradition of Leibnitz is preserved (on libertarian lines) by Martineau (A Study of Religion, 1883).
(c) Evolution came down from the clouds when C. Darwin and A.
(c) New Testament history.
It is im 1 The materials are in Baur, Das manichaische Religionssystem (1831), p. 162, &c.
At the last meeting of the Lambeth Conference (1907) some overtures, on certain conditions, were made for (a) joint consecration of bishops, (b) joint ordination of ministers, (c) interchange of pulpits.
c = starch grain.
2 b, 9b and 26 b, c); the number of segments is usually eleven, but may vary from two to more than twenty.
(2nd maxillae Wvrq C ?i t?
A, Dorsal view; B, mouth organs; C, under side.
a, Beetle; b, head of beetle with feelers and palps; c, larva; d, pupa.
2d, 3 c) is always "free," the legs, wings and other appendages not being 1 Instar is a convenient term suggested by D.
a, Calandra granaria; b, larva; c, pupa; d, C. oryzae.
a, Labium; b, maxilla; c, labrum; d, mandible.
15, c) which is often predaceous in habit.
- A, Wireworm; B, pupa of Click Beetle; C, adult Click Beetle (A griotes lineatum), b c a FIG.
a, Male; b, female; c, larva (ventral view).
26, b, c).
26, b, c) can be brought close together so as to form a club-like termination; usually the hinder abdominal segments are not covered by the elytra.
The heavy grubs of Geotrupes, their c b FIG.
b, Antenna of male; c, antenna swollen tail-ends black with the contained food-material, are often dug up in numbers in well-manured fields.
He advocated (a) alliances with Argos, Thessaly and Macedon, (b) ascendancy in the Aegean (Naxos and Delos), (c) control of the Hellespontine route (Sigeum and the Chersonese), (d) control of the Strymon valley (Mt Pangaeus and the Strymon).
In Russia proper less than 2% emigrated from the C villages to the towns during the forty years ending 1897.
': opal e ° °o T A R ple ' ag a ',ap iJ,wl Karkinit A C K r B L Scale, English Miles D S E A 32 Stavropol P O L A PI A N L A s E Derbent ° I?
Siberia; (c) the Volga Finns, or rather the old Bulgarian branch, to which belong the Mordvinians, and the Cheremisses in Kazan, Kostroma and Vyatka, though they are classified by some authors with the following: (d) the Permyaks, or Cis-Uralian Finns, including the Votiaks on the E.
in Ryazan, Tambov, Samara, Simbirsk and Penza; (b) the Tatars of Astrakhan at the mouth of the Volga; and (c) those of the Crimea, a great many of whom emigrated to Turkey after the Crimean War (1854-56).
Temple C is the earliest of those on the acropolis.
D.*) Accident Statistics Statistics of railway accidents may be divided into three classes: casualties (a) to passengers, (b) to servants or employ& and (c) to other persons; and again into (t) train accidents, (2) accidents to persons doing work on or about trains and (3) other accidents.
While moving vehicles by capstans, turn tables, props, levers, &c...
A short line of this kind runs from Ballybunnion to Listowel in Ireland, and a more ambitious proje c t on the same principle, on the plans of Mr F.
At both types of crossing, check rails (c) must be provided to guide the wheel-flanges, and if these are not accurately placed the safety of the trains will be endangered.
c = Check rails.
seaport where branches from docks a, b, c and d converge, and where the main line also divides into three, going to B, C and D respectively.
A train from a will contain some wagons for B,, some for C and some for D, as will also the trains from a, b, c and d.
At A therefore it becomes necessary to disentangle and group together all the wagons that are intended for B, all that are intended for C, and all that are intended for D.
Between A and B, A and C, and A and D, there may be a string of stations, p, q, r, s, &c., all receiving goods from a, b, c and d, and it would manifestly be inconvenient and wasteful of time and trouble if the trains serving those intermediate stations were made up with, say, six wagons from a to p next the engine, five from b to p at the middle, and four from c to p near the end.
Hence at A the trucks from a, b, c and d must not only be sorted according as they have to travel along A B, A C, or A D, but also must be marshalled into trains in the order of the stations along those lines.
Conversely, trains arriving at A from B, C and D must be broken up. and remade in order to distribute their wagons to the different, dock branches.
= RV (2) where T 1, T2, T3, &c. are the torques on the axles whose respective angular velocities are wl,w2, W3, &c.
Let E represent the pounds of coal burnt per hour in the fire-box of a locomotive, and let c be the calorific value in B.Th.U.
If C is the number of pounds of coal burnt per square foot of grate per hour, the calorific value of which is c B.Th.U.
164.) Substituting this value of p in (27) I.H.P. _ (c av (29) 550 the form of which indicates that there is a certain piston speed for which the I.H.P. is a maximum.
In a particular case where the boiler pressure was maintained constant at 130 lb per square inch, and the cut-off was approximately 20% of the stroke, the values c =55 and b=o 031 were deduced, from which it will be found that the value of the piston speed corresponding to the maximum horsepower is 887 ft.
2 See the articles on Psychical Research; Magic; Conjuring; Automatism; Divination; Crystal Gazing; Hypnotism; Apparitions; Hallucinations; Hauntings, &C.
(c) Building in part on the foundation laid by Robertson Smith, Dr J.
It is possible to classify sacrifices according to (a) the occasion of the rite, (b) the end to be achieved, (c) the material object to be affected or (d) the form of the rite.
The necessary elements of a Hindu sacrifice are: (I) the sacrificer, who provides the victim, and is affected, directly or indirectly, by the sacrifice; he may or may not be identical with (2) the officiant, who performs the rite; we have further (3) the place, (4) the instruments of sacrifice and (5) the victim; where the sacrificer enjoys only the secondary results, the direct influence of the sacrifice is directed towards (6) the object; finally, we may distinguish (7) three moments of the rite - (a) the entry, (b) the slaughter, (c) the exit.
the only permitted method of kindling it, (b) the tracing on the ground of the vedi, or magical circle, to destroy impurities, (c) the digging of the hole which constituted the real altar, (d) the preparation of the post which represented the sacrificer and to which the victim was tied, and other minor details.
(c) Human representatives of the corn or vegetation spirits are killed; in these, as in other cases of the sacrifice of the man-god cited by Dr Frazer, the killing of the old god is at the same time the making of a new god.
Their object may be (a) to provide a guide to the other world; (b) to provide the dead with servants or a retinue suitable to his rank; (c) to send messengers to keep the dead informed of the things of this world; (d) to strengthen the dead by the blood or life of a living being, in the same way that food is offered to them or blood rituals enjoined on mourners.
The river furnishes water-power, and among the manufactures of the town are shoes, machinery, cottons, brass, &c.
3 (c) Prophetic religion was a religion of the spirit which came to the messenger (Isa.
the use of blind arches as an external decoration, and of brick cornices with the points of the bricks projecting like the teeth of a saw, the use of pulvini (cushions) above the capitals of columns and under the spring of an arch, &c. &c., the use of round arches springing direct from these cushions, spherical pendentives, &c.
C(okayne), Complete Peerage, sub "Gloucester."
A Roman mile-stone found near Carlisle (1895) bears the inscription IMP. C[aes] M.
It is thus highly probable that on the cult of the original Roman goddess was engrafted the Greek C one of Damia, perhaps after the conquest of Tarentum (272 B.C.).
17, 28, &c.
Profane cursing and swearing is made punishable by the Profane Oaths Act 1745, which directs the offender to be brought before a justice of the peace, and fined five shillings, two shillings or one shilling, according as he is a gentleman, below the rank of gentleman, or a common labourer, soldier, &c.
The following equations give the result of direct experiment :- C +20 = CO 2+943 oo cal.
Thus if we consider the energyequation C +02 = CO 2+943 00 cal., and replace the symbols by the values of the intrinsic energy, viz.
Amongst endothermic compounds may be noted hydriodic acid, HI, acetylene, C 2 H 2, nitrous oxide, N 2 O, nitric oxide, NO, azoimide, N 3 H, nitrogen trichloride, NC1 3.
For example, ethylene, C2H4 j is formed with absorption of 16200 cal., acetylene, C 2 H 2, with absorption of 59100 cal., and liquid benzene, C 6 H 6, with absorption of 9100 cal.
Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.
Many attempts have been made to present a satisfactory sketch of the early history and to do justice to (a) the patriarchal narratives, (b) the exodus from Egypt and the Israelite invasion, and (c) the rise of the monarchy.
This inquiry is further complicated by (c), where the history of Israel and Judah, as related in Judges and I Samuel, has caused endless perplexity.
(c) That the exile lasted seventy years (?
2 On the place of Palestine in Persian history see Persia: History, ancient, especially § 5 ii.; also Artaxerxes; Cambyses; Cyrus; Darius, &C.
Other revolts occurred in Egypt, and for these and also for the rebellion of the Persian satrap Megabyzos (c .
(c) In the 10th year (445 B.C.) Nehemiah returned with permission to rebuild the walls, the citadel and the governor's house (Neh.
4 There are three inquiries: (a) the critical value of i Esdras, (b) the character of the different representations of post-exilic internal and external history, and (c) the recovery of the historical facts.
c. xv.) it is derived from Eostre, or Ostdra, the Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring, to whom the month answering to our April, and called Eostur-monath, was dedicated.
The c nquest of the peninsula was undertaken in 1527 by Francisco de Montejo, who en-, countered a more vigorous opposition than Cortes had on the high plateau of Anahuac. In 1549 Montejo had succeeded in establishing Spanish rule over barely one-half of the peninsula, and it was never extended further.
N N: C C02H (11) N N: C C02H which it is connected by a chain bridge (1855) and two railway bridges.
3, b, c,).
a, Female; b, female after loss of wings; c, male; d, worker; e, larva; g, pupa (magnified four times); f, head of larva more highly magnified.
c, The one-celled ovary cut a, The anther, con transversely, having three taining pollen parietal placentas.
In addition to these modifications, which are common to nearly all orchids, there are others generally but not so universally met with; among them is the displacement of the flower arising from the twisting of the inferior ovary, in consequence of which the flower is so completely turned round that the "lip," which originates in that part of the flower, conventionally called the posterior or superior part, or that S c ?
This c and common cross fertilization is often effected by the gland g.
A remarkable &c, expedition by Baron Toll in 1892 through the regions watered by the Lena, resulted in the collection of material which Afghan- will greatly help to elucidate some of the problems which beset the geological history of the world, proving inter alia the primeval existence of a boreal zone of the Jurassic sea round the North Pole.
Apart from European conquests, the internal history of Asia in the last 2000 years is the result of the interaction of four main influences: (a) Chinese, (b) Indian, (c) Mahommedan, (d) Central Asian.
(c) Mahommedanism or Islam is perhaps the greatest transforming force which the world has seen.
At the present time the Arabic alphabet is used on the mainland, but Indian alphabets in Java, Sumatra, &c.
(C. EL.)/n==Authorities== - The modern bibliography of Asia, including the works of travellers and explorers since 1880, is voluminous.
B, C and D); Florence of Worcester; Fragments of Irish Annals (ed.
C, Small portion of the nephridium of Glycera siphonostoma, showing the canal cut through, and the solenocytes on the outer surface.
of body numerous and not A, B, C, anterior segments from the distinctive of species, being ventral surface; D, hinder end of body irregular and not fixed in of Urochaeta.
c, Seta of Urochaeta (Perier).
- Section of Acanthobdella (after Kovalevsky), c, Coelom.
Pontobdella, Glossiphonia, &c.
Hirudo, Nephelis, &c.
yXvid r, sweet), a trihydric alcohol, trihydroxypropane, C 3 H 5 (OH) 3.
Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."
Amongst these glycerides may be mentioned the following: Tristearin - C 3 H 5 (O C1 8 H350)3.
C 3 H 5 (O C i cH 31 0) 3.
Thus in cows' butter, tributyrin, C 3 H 5 (O C 4 H 7 0) 3, and the analogous glycerides of other readily volatile acids closely resembling butyric acid, are present in small quantity; the production of these acids on saponification and distillation with dilute sulphuric acid is utilized as a test of a purity of butter as sold.
Triacetin, C 3 H 5 (O C 2 H 3 0) 3, is apparently contained in cod-liver oil.
633 C), Cyrus is the son of a poor Mardian bandit Atradates (the Mardians are a nomadic Persian tribe, Herod.
also his Oeconomics, c. iv.); and certainly he was.
For the translations, see the various editions of Origen, Eusebius, &c.
An Anomalistic month is the time in which the moon passes from perigee to perigee, &c.
Upon the whole administrative machinery of government, upon criminal law and upon procedure, both criminal and civil, his influence has been most salutary; and the great legal revolution which in 1873 purported c :to accomplish the fusion of law and equity is not obscurely traceable to the same source.
Pear trees may 2, Section of leaf surface showing the also be attacked by a great spores or conidia, c, borne on long variety of insect pests.
In the case of plants the method of procedure was to grow some of the most important crops of rotation, each separately year after year, for many years in succession on the same land, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with a great variety of chemical manures; the same description of manure being, as a rule, applied year after year on the same plot.
Amongst the field experiments there is, perhaps, not one of more universal interest than that in which wheat was grown for fifty-seven years in succession, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with various artificial manures.
In 1892, at Warwick, the competitions related to ploughs - single furrow (a) for light land, (b) for strong land, (c) for press drill and broad-cast sowing; two-furrow; three-furrow; digging (a) for light land, (b) for heavy land; and one-way ploughs.
Most crops are C FIG.
- A, Wireworm; B, pupa of Click Beetle; C, adult Click Beetle (Agriotes lineatum).
- A, Ox Bot Maggot; B, puparium; C, Ox Warble Fly (Hypoderma bovis).
- The Hop Aphis (Phorodon After the Coccidae the next most important insects male; C, ovigerous wingless female; economically are r the plant lice or A phididae.
A, Male scale insect; B, female; C, larva; D, female scale; E, male scale.
A, branch bearing male cones, reduced; B, single male cone, enlarged; C, single stamen, enlarged.
C, Cone, seed and foliage.
C, Seed-bearing cone and a single scale with seed.
His general formula for getting at the number of units in any sensation is S = C log R, where s stands for the sensation, R for the stimulus numerically estimated, and c for a constant that must be separately determined by experiment in each particular order of sensibility.
C, A stage 3 2 hours later than B.
1, B, C).
2, C): the larva therefore resembles Nautilus in the relations of body and shell.
C, Complete semi-rotation (the limit).
C, Embryo with ventral flexure and exogastric shell.
c, Free edge of the shell.
(Lankester.) c, Muscular bundles forming the root of the foot, and adherent to the shell.
The muscular columns (c) attaching the foot to the shell form a ring incomplete in front, external to which is the free mantleskirt.
- A, Section in a plane vertical to the surface of the neck of Patella through a, the rudimentary ctenidium (Lankester's organ), and b, the olfactory epithelium (osphradium); c, the olfactory (osphradial) ganglion.
c'e, Cerebral commissure.
C, C, Cerebral ganglia.
h, The mantle-skirt reflected over the sides branchia the mouth-bearing cylinder is in C, Head, the letter placed near the right eye.
C, The same, fully everted.
The introvert is not a simple one with complete range both in eversion and introversion, but is arrested in introversion by the fibrous bands at c, and similarly in eversion by the fibrous bands at b.
H 6 c ' '?
c x c ' 'Il" a r-v n c ?
The heart c lying in the pericardium is seen in close proximity to the renal organ, and consists of a single auricle receiving blood from the gill, and of a single ventricle which pumps it through the body by an anterior and posterior aorta.
C, Cerebral ganglion.
i, Under surface of the mantle c, Cephalic eye.
of this is seen the metapodium c, Right eye.
C, Side view of the trochosphere with commencing formation of the foot.
- P l e u r o c e r i d a e.
C, D, Two views of the shell of Cardiopoda.
v, Pleural and pedal ganglion c, Eye.
34.-Female Janthina, with egg-float (a) attached to the foot; b, egg-capsules; c, ctenidium (gill-plume); d, cephalic tentacles.
C, Diblastula of an Opisthobranch (Polycera) with elongated blastopore oi.
9 C FIG.
38, C, but may be better understood by a glance at the figures of the allied genus Umbrella (fig.
far from the genital pore a glandular c, Spermatheca.
spherical body (the spermatheca c) open- d, Its duct.
c, The dorsal"cerata."
C, Doris (Actinocyclus) tuberculatus (Cuv.), seen from the pedal surface.
C, Buccal ganglion.
c, Nerve to generative organs.
e C' FIG.
C, C, Pteropodial lobes of the foot.
(From Owen.) C, C, The wing-like lobes of the foot.
c, The pteropodial lobes of the foot.
(From Keferstein, after Pfeiffer.) C, Testacella haliotidea.
(From Keferstein.) a, Shell in A, B, C, shell-sac (closed) in D; b, orifice leading into the subpallial chamber (lung).
56, C) the shell-plate never attains a large size, though naked.
c. Cels., ed.
(c) Administration, Finance, Education.
(c) Funerary, e.g.
(9) Public works, such as paved and stepped roadways, bridges, systems of drainage, &c.
I, C, ca, st) bearing a distinct inner and outer lobe (lacinia and galea, fig.
1, C, pa).
1, C, sm, m - jointed on to the submentum, while the galeae, laciniae and palps remain distinct.
In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.
Ia, frons; b, clypeus (the pointed labrum beneath it); II, mandible; III, first maxilla; (a, base; b, sheath; c, piercer), III', inner view of sheath; IV, second maxillae forming rostrum (b, mentum; c, ligula).
c, Coxa of fore-leg.
9, C) in connexion with large nerve-cells.
B, Section through compound eye (after Miall and Denny); C, organs of smell in cockchafer; (after Kraepelin); D, a, b, sensory pits on cercopods of golden-eye fly; c, sensory pit on palp of stone-fly (after Packard); E, sensory hair (after Miall and Denny); F, ear of long-horned grasshopper; a, Front shin showing outer opening and air-tube; b, section (after Graber); G, ear of locust from within (after Graber).
12, c) and a proventriculus or " gizzard," whose function is to strain the foodsubstances before they pass on into the tubular stomach, which has no chitinous lining.
c, Crop (the gizzard below it).
- a, Bed-bug (Cimex lectularius, Linn.); newly hatched young from beneath; b, from above; d, egg, magnified 25 times; c, foot with claws; e, serrate spine, more highly magnified.