Whether the name signifies the taking up of burdens or the acceptance of privileges is a disputed point.
This policy was accompanied by a gradual decay of civic feeling and municipal enterprise, which showed itself mainly in the unwillingness of the townsmen to become candidates for local magistracies, or to take up the burdens entailed in membership of the municipal senate.
Both classes were liable to civic burdens, but the incolae had none of the privileges of citizenship except a limited right of voting.
praefectura, p. 233) that jurisdiction was entrusted in every municipium to praefecti juri dicundo sent out from Rome to represent the Praetor Urbanus.2 The conferment of municipality can therefore hardly have been regarded as other than an imposing of burdens, even in the case of those cities which retained control of their own affairs.
The wealthy citizen seems always to have had to bear heavy financial burdens, and to have enjoyed in return a dignity and an actual political preponderance which made the general character of municipal constitutions distinctly timocratic.
" The ever-increasing financial burdens," the Note went on, " strike at the root of public prosperity.
In 1810 the Northern Netherlands by decree of Napoleon were incorporated in the French empire, and had to bear the burdens of conscription and of a crushing weight of taxation.
Bismarck did not wish to lay heavier burdens on the capitalists, and it was not till a later period that they were carried out.
the sweets of popularity without the actual burdens of government succeeded for the time.
the champions of national defence and those who demanded a lightening of the burdens of taxation.
Moreover, despite her immense wealth (in the province of Little Poland alone she owned at this time 26 towns, 83 landed estates and 772 villages), the Church claimed exemption from all public burdens, from all political responsibilities, although her prelates continued to exercise an altogether disproportionate political influence.
unnecessary burdens on the public right.
Already the emperor was beginning to feel weary of the heavy burdens which the government of so many realms had imposed upon him, and in 1549 he presented Philip to the states of the Netherlands, that they might take the oath of allegiance to him, and Philip swore to maintain all ancient rights, privileges and customs. The abdication of Charles V.
The tariff for unlimited use has to be made very high to cover the cost of the additional burdens thrown upon the service, and it only works economically to the individual subscriber who has an exceptionally large number of calls originating from his instrument.
The state (law of the 15th of April 1896) imposed this condition in order to determine exactly the aims of the societies, and, while allowing them to give help to their sick, old or feeble members, or aid the families of deceased members, to forbid them to pay old-age pensions, lest they assumed burdens beyond their financial strength.
The people simply expected deliverance from their miseries and burdens by the intervention of Yahweh, because He had chosen Israel for His people.
of France, but after declaring war on France in August 1294 he did nothing to assist his ally~ At home he relieved the cities of some of their burdens and upheld them in the quarrel about the Pfahlburger; and he sought to isolate Albert of Habsburg, who was treating with Philip of France.
of the While taxes and other burdens were increasing the power of the king to protect them was decreasing; with or without the forms of law they were plundered by every other class in the community; their traditional privileges were withdrawn and, as in the case of the knights, their position had suffered owing to the introduction of Roman law into Germany.
He did much too for the economic development of Prussia, especially for agriculture; he established colonies, peopling them with immigrants, extended the canal system, drained and diked the great marshes of the Oderbruch, turning them into rich pasturage, encouraged the planting of fruit trees and of root crops; and, though in accordance with his ideas of discipline he maintained serfdom, he did much to lighten the burdens of the peasants.
Not the least of these burdens were the personal and irregular drafts of some of the executives upon the treasury and revenue officers, particularly the custom-house of this port, upon which the republic depended for the major part of its revenue.
Loaded with all the burdens of government, Yahya, brought the most distinguished abilities to the exercise of his office.
Abuses were remedied, the provincials protected from oppression, and the burdens of taxation lightened.
The spirit which culminated in the treason of Benedict Arnold was a serious addition to his burdens; for what Arnold did others were almost ready to do.
It was in every way fitting, however, that he who had been the mainspring of the war from the beginning, and had borne far more than his share of its burdens and discouragements, should end it with the campaign of Yorktown, conceived by himself, and the surrender of Cornwallis (October 1781).
By such means Catherine made herself very popular in the upper ranks of society, but as a woman and a usurper who did little or nothing to lighten the burdens of the people she failed to gain the loyalty and devotion of the masses.
They consisted mainly in exemption from public burdens, both as regarded person and pocket, and in immunity from lay jurisdiction.
No amount of skill in the manipulation of figures, no ingenuity in shifting fiscal burdens, could prevent the addition of forty-one millions to the national debt, or could countervail the appalling mismanagement at the seat of war.
Considerable difficulty has arisen as to the scope of the terms " impositions," " charges," " duties," " outgoings," " burdens."
The conduct of the Hungarian nobles in the past, indeed, somewhat justified this estimate, for the fall of the ancient monarchy was entirely due to their persistent disregard of authority, to their refusal to bear their share of the public burdens.
they grow older the lads are seen beginning to carry burdens,.
The finest cattle are of the humped variety, the bulls of the Baggara being trained to the saddle and to carry burdens.
White of Tennessee (a vigorous opponent of Andrew Jackson in Tennessee politics) for president, and said: "I go for all sharing the privileges of the government who assist in bearing its burdens.
They asked for a renewal of their ancient rights of fishing and hunting freely, for a speedier method of obtaining justice, and for the removal of new and heavy burdens.
The last demanded that the peasants should be freed from the payment to the state, which represented the purchase price for the remission of feudal burdens.
A great financial reform was now effected by Mahommed Pasha, who readjusted the burdens imposed on the different communities of Egypt in accordance with their means.
The money needed for these, for his wars, and for buying off the barbarians who threatened the frontiers, had to be obtained by increasing the burdens of the people.
There are provincial horse-breeding stations, where pony stallions, from 10 to 12 hands high, are bred for carrying burdens.
(1788-90) heaped fresh burdens on his already heavily laden shoulders, and he suffered from the intrigues of his numerous jealous rivals, including the empress's latest favourite, A.
The incidents recorded in the charters characterize folkland as subject to ordinary fiscal burdens and to limitations in respect of testamentary succession.
burdens increased they began to agitate for reforms. In 1892 (the year in which the railway from Cape Town reached the Rand), the National Union was founded at Johannesburg by ex-Cape Colonists of the Imperial progressive party.
Strict and severe as he was with his soldiers, he was particularly considerate to the people generally, and made their burdens as light as possible.
The pretext of the rupture was the attempt of the knights to crush the Prussian diet, which, bearing as it did most of the burdens, claimed fairly enough a proportionate share in the government of the Prussian provinces.
His consort, Elizabeth of Austria, "the mother of the Jagiellos," bore him six sons and seven daughters, and by her affection and good counsel materially relieved the constant anxieties and grievous burdens of his long and arduous reign.
Anyhow, the taeog class of half-free peasants stands by the side of the smaller tribesmen as subjected to heavier burdens in the way of taxation and services in kind.
On the other hand, the growth of the Muscovite state with its fiscal and governmental requirements involved a watchful repartition of burdens among the population and led ultimately to a system of collective liability in which the farms were considered chiefly as the sources of taxable income.
He looked askance at all projects for the emancipation of the serfs, but, as one of the largest landowners of Denmark, he did much service to agriculture by lightening the burdens of the countrymen and introducing technical and scientific improvements which greatly increased production.
It is the very lightness of taxation in recent years which has suggested the possibility of comparing the relative burdens of different classes, which would have seemed quite hopeless with a high taxation and an immense variety of high taxes.
With the consent of "a general assembly of the chief representatives of the people" he commuted the burdensome land tax for a fixed money payment; he protected all castes in the celebration of their religious ceremonies; and he forbade any compulsion of natives to carry burdens against their will.
Daer-ceiles were also exposed to casual burdens, like that of lodging and feeding soldiers when in their district.
is only notable control as affording one instance out of many of the tendency of a single class to shift burdens off its own shoulders.
They did not deny that fasting might be a good thing, nor did they maintain that the church or the authority might not ordain fasts, though they deprecated the imposition of needless burdens on the conscience.
While the Assembly was considering a declaration which might calm revolt, the v i comte de Noailles and the duc d'Aiguillon moved that it should proclaim equality of taxation and the suppression of feudal burdens.
The two areas thus became an international settlement, and the subjects of all three nationalities - the only powers then interested - acquired the same privileges and became liable to the same burdens.
(5) The Protestant pastors were to be paid by the state and to be freed from certain burdens, their position being made practically equal to that of the Roman Catholic clergy.
This hostility, which amounted to a real vendetta, was based, not so much upon the foreign policy of its victim, his negotiation of the Armistice terms and the decisive influence which he exercised in securing the acceptance of the Treaty of Versailles; as upon his financial policy both as Finance Minister in 1919 and as the Democratic Catholic supporter and, it is said, the political adviser of the Catholic Chancellor of the Reich, Dr. Wirth, in the preparation in the summer of 1921 of a fresh scheme of taxation designed to impose new burdens upon capital and upon the prosperous landed interest.
At the Restoration the Irish parliament granted an hereditary revenue to the king, an excise for the maintenance of the army, a subsidy of tonnage and poundage for the navy, and a tax on hearths in lieu of feudal burdens.
In his later years Philip added to all his other burdens a costly intervention in France to support the league and resist the succession of Henry IV.
These additional burdens rendered it necessary that taxation and the budget should be thoroughly reorganized.
The incoming workers returning pollen-laden from the fields, carried away by the prevailing excitement, do not stop to unload their burdens in the old home, but join the enthusiastic emigrants, tumbling over each other pell-mell in the outrush; among them the queen of the colony will in due course have taken her place, bound like her children for a new home.
The importance of the distinction arose in connexion with the rule of assessment adopted for various parochial burdens, and the nature of the rights of the minister and corresponding obligations of the parishioners.
Further, the Keeper can continue to enter burdens in the title sheet even if they have been extinguished by feudal abolition.
amend legislation to reduce burdens.
He appears to have found the simplest antidote to the burdens of age; he simply ignores them.
bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another.
We must bear one another's burdens, resisting the selfish temptations that continually beset us.
The drought economy has been particularly harsh on women, imposing multiple burdens on them.
Ofcom must also: Remove regulatory burdens were possible.
This may place unnecessary burdens on the public right.
We will be seeking ways of stripping away bureaucratic burdens on staff.
It would also place undue burdens on the smaller members.
Taxation Our tax specialists provide guidance which enables clients to minimize exposure to unnecessary tax burdens.
This will remove fluke burdens and reduce contamination of pastures with fluke eggs.
inequitable tax burdens, or the high level of taxes.
This Bill will give us powers to amend legislation to reduce burdens.
probative burdens will be reduced to evidential burdens?
Tumor burdens in mice were completely eradicated and survival was significantly prolonged.
In either case the burdens of exploitation could and did provoke protest.
relieved of some unnecessary administrative burdens.
And because they hear of others having experiences which they know not, they carry heavy burdens of disappointment and self reproach.
They set taskmasters over us in order to oppress us with our burdens.
Larger worm burdens can cause a range of problems including ill thrift, diarrhea, colic and death.
I was sent to bear tidings, not burdens.
unreasonable additional burdens on industry " .
These consisted partly in the general respect and esteem paid to a proxenus, and partly in many more substantial honours conferred by special decree of the state whose representative he was, such as freedom from taxation and public burdens, the right of acquiring property in Attica, admission to the senate and popular assemblies, and perhaps even full citizenship. Public hospitium seems also to have existed among the Italian races; but the circumstances of their history prevented it from becoming so important as in Greece.
The maximum density of population which a given region can support is very difficult to determine; it depends partly on the race and standard of culture of the people, partly on the nature and origin of the resources on which they depend, partly on the artificial burdens imposed and very largely on the climate.
Moreover, such a system of regulation almost necessarily carries with it a guarantee of monopoly to the various companies concerned, and not infrequently large gifts in the form of subsidies, for without such aid private capital will not submit to the special burdens involved.
He also frequently employed his soldiers in collecting the taxes from the estates of those magnates who refused to contribute to the public burdens, in protecting the towns from the depredations of the robber barons, or in convoying the caravans of the merchants.
The lower estates murmured at the imposition of fresh burdens; and Charles had need of all his adroitness to persuade them that his demands were reasonable and necessary.
Later, Bute roused further hostility by his cider tax, an ill-advised measure producing only 75,00o a year, imposing special burdens upon the farmers and landed interest in the cider counties, and extremely unpopular because extending the detested system of taxation by excise, regarded as an infringement of the popular liberties.
In respect to finance this authority was strikingly manifested in the burdens imposed on wealthy citizens by the requirements of the " liturgies " (Xarovpyiat), which consisted in the provision of a chorus for theatrical performances, or defraying the expenses of the public games, or, finally, the equipment of a ship, " the trierarchy," which was economically and politically the most important.
At first the new-comers to the Rand had submitted to the economic and political burdens to which they were subjected, but as they grew in numbers and found their 1 Mr Merriman (b.
Later came the alluvial silting-up. Slowly, but surely, the deltas of the tributary streams advanced into the lake, floods deposited their burdens of detritus in the deeper places, the lake shallowed and shrank and in its turn yielded to the winding river of an alluvial strath, covered with peat, reeds and alders, and still liable to floods.
At the same time, however, he insisted (as he did from first to last) on the enormous importance to the country, to the character of its people no less than to its material welfare, of agricultural contentment and prosperity; and he also obtained As a more general recognition of the fact that "the land" had borne fiscal burdens under the old regime which were unfair and unendurable under the new.
His domestic policy was severely equitable, and aimed at relieving the public burdens by limiting the privileges of foreign traders and abolishing a great many useless and expensive court offices.
By having readily available support networks in place, the classroom teacher would be relieved of some unnecessary administrative burdens.
They aim to get " effective legislation without imposing unreasonable additional burdens on industry ".
Many consumers, however, don't fully realize all the sources of income and expenditures they truly have, nor how tracking them can help ease financial burdens.
Ingesting turmeric for psoriasis may produce more positive results once any dietary burdens and trigger factors are removed from the equation.
This can be very attractive when financial burdens take their toll - a reasonably priced gift set still offers consumers the opportunity to give a luxurious present without going over their desired budget.
These savings are possible because the contractor has been relieved of the marketing and sales burdens that are often passed on to the homeowner."
With additional care and resources at their fingertips, many of the previous burdens of living independently, or with a lower level of care, will no longer be an issue.
One researcher in Australia stated that the stresses on families with children diagnosed with moderate or severe AD are greater than the burdens on families with children with type 1 diabetes.
The emotional burdens of hair loss plague one's self esteem and attack their personal level of attractiveness.
However, you must refinance at the right time, or those benefits could become hefty burdens.
First-time home buyers also have special mortgages allowed by the United States government, a type of federal aid for first time home buyers that helps individuals overcome the burdens and issues unique to their situation.
When you're going it alone, financial burdens may make it more difficult for you.
Dealing not only with the financial burdens of the family, the solo parent may also have to deal with the emotional aspects of loss, due to death, divorce or separation.
Is it really possible to have lived before, and for the soul to still carry at least some of those burdens into your current incarnation?
One of the biggest burdens on a working parent's household budget is the cost of child care.
When the fat burns and releases ketones it burdens the kidneys even more.
Will is a twelve-year-old boy, who lives with his mother and shoulders burdens too heavy for a boy his age to have to cope with.
In Argentina these burdens bear heavily upon the labouring classes, and in years of depression they send away by thousands immigrants unable to meet the high costs of living, For the year 1900 the total expenditures of the national government, 14 provincial governments, and 16 principal cities, were estimated to have been $208,811,925 paper, which is equivalent to $91,877,247 gold, or (at $5.04 per pound stg.) to £18,229,612, ios.
The return of a large part of the armed forces from Italy and Germany, where they had lived on the liberated inhabitants, also threw new burdens on the Republic; and it was clear that French money alone would not suffice to fit out an armada.
Exactions at the expense of Hanover and Naples helped to lighten the burdens of French finance; Napoleon's sale of Louisiana to the United States early in 1803 for 60,000,000 francs brought further relief to the French treasury; and by pressing hard on his ally, Spain, he compelled her to exchange the armed help which he had a right to claim, for an annual subsidy of 2,880,000.
Leases frequently contain a covenant by the lessee to bear and pay rates, taxes, assessments and other " impositions " or " charges," or " duties " or " outgoings," or " burdens " (except property tax) imposed upon the demised premises during the term.
Education, trade, religious toleration, the emancipation of the agricultural population from feudal burdens - all had her approval up to a certain point.
Seeing the rapid increase of the financial burdens of the state, a commission of experts, British, French and Austrian, was charged, (1860) with setting the affairs in order, and with their assistance Fuad Pasha drew up the budget accompanying his celebrated report to the sultan in 1862.
Already the nations are groaning under the burdens of militarism, and are for ever diverting energies that might be employed in the furtherance of useful productive work to purposes of an opposite character.
Noblemen dwelling within the walls of the towns were especially exempted from all civic burdens, while every burgess who bought an extra-mural estate was made to pay double for the privilege.'
Finally, a great crusade was resolved upon, to defray the expenses of which it was determined that the clergy should lay aside one-twentieththe pope and the cardinals one-tenth - of their revenues for the next three years; while the crusaders were to be held free of all burdens during the period of their absence.
The system of the catasto, which led to abuses, was abolished, and a progressive income-tax (decima scalata) was introduced with the object of lightening the burdens of the poor, who were as a rule Medicean, at the expense of the rich; but as it was frequently increased the whole community came to be oppressed by it in the end.
His right to exact military, financial and judicial duties for the state he had used to force men to become his dependants, and then he had stood between them and the state, freeing them from burdens which he threw with increased weight upon those who still stood outside his personal protection.
The municipal finance has on the whole been sound, and notwithstanding the extra burdens assumed on the incorporation of the suburbs, the equilibrium of the communal budget was maintained up to the fall of the Liberal administration.
Frederick William's accession to the throne (August 17, 1786) was, indeed, followed by a series of measures for lightening the burdens of the people, reforming the oppressive French system of tax-collecting introduced by Frederick, and encouraging trade by the diminution of customs dues and the making of roads and canals.
In terms of a treaty concluded in 1867 for ten years, renewed in 1877 for a similar period, and continued in 1887 with the proviso that it should be terminable on two years' notice, the finances and the entire government of Waldeck-Pyrmont are managed by Prussia, the little country having found itself unable to support unassisted the military and other burdens involved by its share in the North German Confederation of 1867-187 r and subsequently as a constituent state of the German empire.
But her armaments were not then adequate to give effect to a strong-handed policy, so that for some years thereafter the government had both to impose heavy burdens on the people and to pursue a foreign policy of marking time, and endured the fiercest criticism on both counts, for the idea of war with Russia was as popular as the taxes necessary to that object were detested.
These measures Nerva supplemented by others which aimed at lightening the financial burdens on the declining industry of Italy.
But though the treasury was thus temporarily replenished and the army increased, the gentry who had been so generous at the expense of their richer neighbours would hear of no additional burdens being laid on themselves, and the king only obtained what he wanted by sacrificing his principles to his necessities, and helping the szlachta to pull down the magnates.
The budget presented to the Reichstag by Prince B 610w, which laid new burdens upon the landed and capitalist classes, was fiercely opposed bytheAgrarians, and led to the break-up of the Liberal-Conservative bloc on whose support the chancellor had relied since the elections of 1906.
Owing to the excellence of the municipal system there has been a tendency to devolve thereon, in whole or in part, certain financial burdens on the plea of decentralization.
But commercial treaties, and such state treaties as impose burdens on the state, or parts of the state, or involve a change of territory, require the parliamentary assent of both states.
The new Egyptian army was so far improved that it gained successes over the forces of the Mahdi; the burden of the national debt was lightened by a successful conversion; the corve was abolished; 1 the land tax was reduced 30% in the poorest provinces, and in spite of this and other measures for lightening the public burdens, the budgetary surplus constantly increased; the quasi-judicial special commissions for brigandage, which were at once barbarous and inefficient, were abolished; the native tribunals were improved, and Mr (afterwards Sir John) Scott, an Indian judge of great experience and sound judgment, was appointed judicial adviser to the khedive.
But when these families had expelled the Tarquins, and formed themselves into an exclusive aristocracy of privilege, the inconsistency between partial privilege and full burdens came to be strongly felt by the plebeians.
Each century saw heavier burdens imposed on the actual workers and on their employers, while expenditure was chiefly devoted to unproductive purposes.
In the first place, it is true that according to ancient practice he proclaimed a general seisachtheia, or shaking off of burdens: he cancelled all the debts made on the security of the land or the person of the debtor.
In all these rebellions the religious difficulty figured largely, though the increasing fiscal burdens were undoubtedly grievous and the peasants had their particular grievances besides.
The eleven Riksdags held by Gustavus Adolphus were almost exclusively occupied in finding ways and means for supporting the ever-increasing burdens of the Polish and German wars.
The peasant proprietors, who, under the name of the " Landtmanna" party,' formed a compact majority in the Second Chamber, pursued a consistent policy of class interests in the matter of the taxes and burdens that had, as they urged, so long oppressed the Swedish peasantry; and consequently when a bill was introduced for superseding the old system of army organization by general compulsory service, they demanded as a condition of its acceptance that the military burdens should be more evenly distributed in the country, and that the taxes, which they regarded as a burden under which they had wrongfully groaned for centuries, should be abolished.
Kossuth, indeed, was not content with advocating those reforms - the abolition of entail, the abolition of feudal burdens, taxation of the nobles - which were demanded by all the Liberals.
This change was largely due to the heavy financial burdens which the Roman government laid on the municipal senates.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.